What are the specific causes of scoliosis?

Scoliosis is essentially a symptomatic description. It can find the scoliosis or kyphosis through X-rays. There are many reasons for scoliosis. For example, we can divide scoliosis into idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, neurofibromatosis scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. . Idiopathic scoliosis refers to a type of scoliosis that only develops during adolescence. These children may have normal spine before puberty, but after puberty, scoliosis begins. The etiology of this type of scoliosis is not yet clear, and it may be related to heredity. The other most common type is congenital scoliosis. Congenital scoliosis refers to the abnormal development of the vertebral body of the child at birth, for example, the half vertebral body, the formation of bone bridges, and incomplete insufficiency. Because it exists from birth, it is called congenital scoliosis. In fact, although it has a certain heredity, it is usually related to the environmental factors of the mother during pregnancy. There is also a neurofibromatosis scoliosis, a scoliosis caused by neurofibromatosis, or a scoliosis caused by neuromuscular problems such as polio. Therefore, the causes of scoliosis are various, and we need specific case-by-case analysis.

Does adult spinal deformity need treatment? Will it affect life?

In fact, this question should be answered in two situations. The first case is mild to moderate spinal deformity, and the second case is severe spinal deformity. For mild to moderate spinal deformity, because the bone growth and development has stopped in adulthood, the progress of his deformity is very slow, and it will not affect cardiopulmonary function. Therefore, in this case, no special treatment is needed, and only physical exercise needs to be strengthened. For the second case, which is severe spinal deformity (which means that the Cobb angle is greater than fifty degrees), it must be actively treated if this is the case. For this type of scoliosis that is greater than fifty degrees or more, even after the bone growth and development stops, the scoliosis will slowly increase, and to a certain extent, it will affect the patient’s cardiopulmonary function, and this cardiopulmonary function The impact of this will cause the loss of patient labor and shorten the lifespan. Patients often tell me that I am now in my twenties or thirties, and my scoliosis has been around for many years. Doesn’t it require treatment? This concept is wrong. Because when it reaches the age of 50 or 60, his lung function may be like that of a person in the age of 80 or 90, then this situation will seriously affect his life span.

Experts teach you the daily maintenance rules of cervical spondylosis

    The prevention and treatment of cervical spondylosis is inseparable from daily maintenance and care, so how to achieve correct maintenance and care is very important. What should you pay attention to in general?    1. In terms of mentality, maintain an optimistic spirit, establish the thought of struggling against disease, cooperate with doctors to reduce relapses. And read books about cervical spondylosis and master related knowledge. 2. In daily exercise, it is necessary to strengthen the neck and shoulder muscles. During work or after work, do the flexion, extension and rotation of the head and upper limbs, which can relieve fatigue, but also make the muscles develop and toughness. Enhancement, which is beneficial to the stability of the cervical spine and enhances the ability of the neck and shoulders to adapt to sudden changes in the neck. Prevent flashing and bruising when working or walking. 3. In terms of daily habits, long-term desk workers should pay attention to correcting the posture of the head, neck, shoulders, and back. Do not shrug your head, talk positively while reading, and keep your spine upright. You should change the head position regularly. Exercise neck and shoulder muscles on time. To avoid the bad habit of high pillow sleep, high pillow flexes the head forward, increases the stress of the lower cervical spine, and may accelerate cervical degeneration. Keep your neck and shoulders warm, avoid weight-bearing heads and necks, avoid excessive fatigue, and do not doze off while driving. The habit of sleeping posture is also very important. A good sleeping posture should not only maintain the physiological curvature of the entire spine, but also make the patient feel comfortable, in order to relax the muscles of the whole body and easily restore fatigue to adjust the physiological state of the joint. According to the requirements of this good posture, the chest and waist should be maintained with natural curvature, and the hips and knees should be flexed. At this time, the muscles of the whole body can be relaxed. In this way, it is best to lie on the side or supine, and not prone.   4. In terms of the selection of daily appliances, from the perspective of cervical spondylosis prevention, it is better to choose a bed that is conducive to the stability of the disease and the balance of the spine. Therefore, it is better to choose a Simmons mattress with elasticity on the bed. It can adjust with the physiological curve of the spine. The pillow is the main tool to maintain the normal position of the head and neck. This “normal” position refers to maintaining the physiological curve of the head and neck segment itself. This weight curve not only ensures the balance of the external muscles of the cervical spine, but also maintains the physiological anatomy of the spinal canal. Therefore, an ideal pillow should meet the physiological curvature requirements of the cervical spine, with a soft texture and good air permeability. The shape of the ingot is low in the middle and high in both ends. Because this shape can use the concave part in the middle to maintain the physiological curvature of the cervical spine, it can also play a relative braking and fixing role on the head and neck, which can reduce the abnormal movement of the head and neck during sleep. The prevention and treatment of cervical spondylosis is a long-term process. I hope that the majority of patients must adhere to treatment and pay attention to maintenance in daily life.

Taking a nap in the office, the posture is generally wrong

Many office workers are used to lying on the table after lunch or lying on the sofa to sleep in the morning. I feel that this can best relieve the fatigue caused by the busy morning. Sleeping can better start the afternoon work. But in fact, you think that it is not appropriate to sleep in a relaxed way. These sleeping methods can not only completely relieve your fatigue, but will bring a lot of harm to the body, including the spine. For example, use your own arm as a pillow, sleep with your head tilted on the left and right sides, or put your forehead on your arm to sleep. These positions will cause the cervical and lumbar vertebrae to flex excessively, which greatly exceeds their normal physiological curvature. Maintaining these unhealthy postures for a long time can make the muscles of the cervical spine and lumbar spine tense, causing pain in the neck, back, and waist. Severely, it can also cause cervical disc or lumbar disc herniation, causing disc herniation. In addition, often sleeping on the table with your arms on your arms for a long time, it is also easy to cause blood supply and oxygen shortage in the brain, and even cause cerebral infarction. For blood to reach the brain, it must pass through the blood vessels of the cervical spine. When the cervical vertebrae are squeezed due to excessive bending, the intervertebral foramen narrows, which causes the blood circulation of the blood vessels in the intervertebral foramen to be insufficient to supply the brain with enough blood. This will lead to symptoms such as dizziness and fatigue in the brain due to ischemia and hypoxia, especially those who are already unhealthy in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and are prone to sudden cerebral infarction. There are also some office workers who like to lie on the sofa and go to bed in the morning. This posture seems comfortable, but in fact it does not hurt the spine. The sofa is usually soft. When people lie on it, the normal physiological curvature of the cervical spine, thoracic spine and lumbar spine will change. Especially when the head pillow is sleeping on the sofa arm, the cervical spine will maintain an excessively forward bending position for a long time. It can cause cervical spine strain, hinder the blood supply of the cervical vertebral artery, and prone to headaches, nausea and other symptoms. In addition, we know that under normal circumstances, people always turn over to change their posture when sleeping. From the perspective of health care spine, this unconscious turning movement helps correct the slightly dislocated facet joints and reduces the pressure on the lumbar intervertebral disc caused by sitting for a long time. However, the sofa is too soft, and the space is small. It is difficult for people to sleep on it as if they are stuck in it. It is difficult to turn around at will, so that the waist and legs are fixed in a stiff state, which is not conducive to correcting those with slight misalignment. Spine facet joints, on the contrary, will increase the degree of misalignment of these facet joints, and it is easy to cause spinal lesions over time. This shows that the practice of office workers lying on the table and lying on the sofa to sleep in the morning is undesirable. In fact, siesta is not the only way to relieve fatigue. If you are not particularly sleepy, it is best to walk out of the office and walk around, not only breathing fresh air, but also effectively reducing the fatigue of the spine. If you want to take a nap because of overwork, it is best to lean on a chair with a backrest and a small cushion on the neck as a pillow, just take a nap. But do not sleep too long, 30 minutes is enough, because too long sleep time is more prone to fatigue, but affects the efficiency of the afternoon work.

Choose a good chair so that the guilt of sedentary injury is no longer so great

For office workers who have to work at their desks for a long time every day, choosing a chair that suits them is essential to protect the spine. Some people choose a chair without a backrest when they have a small office space. Some people like to adjust the computer chair to the shortest and feel comfortable sitting like this. Some people don’t like hard chairs, so they must sit softly. …Is this right? Let’s look at the chair without a backrest first. This kind of chair has no backrest, and people sitting on the waist and back are suspended, which greatly increases the load on the lumbar spine. For example, an adult weighing 70 kilograms will bear approximately 100 kilograms of the third lumbar spine when standing, but if sitting on a chair without a backrest, the third lumbar spine will carry up to 150 kilograms. This shows that a chair without a backrest is most unsuitable for office workers. Sitting on this chair for a long time is more harmful to the lumbar spine and can easily induce various lumbar spine diseases. The height of a chair that is too low differs too much from the height of a table. Sitting on such a chair for a long time facing the computer will cause the person’s upper body to tilt back involuntarily. When operating the computer, the arm will be raised and the shoulders will contract inward. This will easily cause cervical spine, arm and shoulder joints to be affected. Neck and shoulder pain, muscular cramps, and even dizziness, dizziness and other symptoms. So, how tall is the chair? The standard here is that after you sit up, your thighs are parallel to the ground, your knees are bent about 90°, and your feet can be steadily stepped on the ground. The neck is on the same vertical line, such a chair height can increase the stability of the body and reduce the degree of spine involvement. In addition, the height of the backrest is also certain. The backrest is used to support the back of the human body, so its height should be under the shoulders and conform to the curvature of the human spine curve. It should be slightly tilted backwards so that people can sit while sitting Keep the curve of the spine. What needs to be emphasized is that even if you choose a chair that suits you very well, the sitting posture is flawless, and try not to sit for a long time. Because the pressure on the spine when sitting is much higher than when standing and lying down. Therefore, it is recommended that you change your posture and move your body after sitting for 30 minutes, such as stretching your upper limbs, shrugging your shoulders, moving your neck, etc., to relieve pressure on the spine.

Director Liao Bo of Tangdu Hospital was invited to participate in the development of OLIF clinical application guidelines

In order to clarify the characteristics of OLIF surgical technique (lumbar oblique lateral interbody fusion) and its advantages and disadvantages in the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease, and to explore how to better standardize the development of OLIF technology, the Chinese Medical Association Orthopedics Branch outside the spine The scientific team worked with 40 well-known experts in spine surgery nationwide to discuss and formulate “Clinical Application Guidelines for Lateral Lumbar Intervertebral Fusion”, which was published in the Chinese Journal of Orthopedics, Volume 40, Issue 8, in April 2020. As the only invited expert in Shaanxi Province, Director Liao Bo of the Department of Orthopedics of Tangdu Hospital participated in the development of the guidelines.  OLIF technology is an internationally popular lumbar spine micro-innovation technology. Since it was introduced to mainland China in 2014, it has been widely carried out nationwide. Its indications are extensive, including: degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, discogenic low back pain, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar segment instability, adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar spine surgery, and degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Compared with traditional and minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery, OLIF surgery does not destroy the posterior structure of the lumbar spine and has a small impact on the stability of the spine. Through indirect decompression, nerve compression is relieved and interference with the spinal canal is reduced. Operation, high safety of operation. Large Cage and sufficient bone graft, high fusion rate of intervertebral. Less postoperative incision pain and low back pain complications, short operation time, less bleeding, good postoperative efficacy and fast recovery , Greatly shortening the patient’s hospitalization time and recovery time, greatly improving patient satisfaction. However, there are still many controversial and standardized problems in the clinical application of OLIF technology, including surgical indications, preoperative evaluation, surgical approach, fusion device placement, pure OLIF technology application without internal fixation and intraoperative neuroelectricity Physiological monitoring, etc. Therefore, the purpose of this guideline is to provide reliable clinical evidence for the clinical application of OLIF technology, reduce or avoid inappropriate and unstandardized diagnosis and treatment in the clinic, and thus increase the value of OLIF surgery in clinical application. As the earliest unit to develop OLIF technology in Shaanxi Province, Tangdu Hospital’s Spine Surgery, under the leadership of Director Liao Bo, has successfully carried out more than 200 cases of this technology so far, and has achieved good clinical efficacy and has been highly evaluated by patients. Committed to the promotion and application of this technology, he has been invited to participate in various academic conferences at home and abroad, and regularly organized OLIF technical learning classes to communicate and discuss with all experts and scholars. It has had a certain influence in Shaanxi. Director Liao Bo was invited to participate in the development of this technical guideline, which not only affirmed the achievements of spine surgery OLIF technology in the Tangdu Hospital for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases, but also showed that the spine surgery OLIF technology in the Tangdu Hospital has attracted the recognition and attention of experts. If you don’t step forward for thousands of miles, Tangdu Spine Surgery will continue to move forward

The alarm bell of the bowheads-cervical spondylosis!

With the popularization of modern electronic products in people’s work and life, the low-headed people are a group that can be seen everywhere. The incidence of neck and shoulder pain and cervical spondylosis has also greatly increased. How to use and maintain the cervical spine scientifically is a small Zhang Our essential health care knowledge, so we come to talk about the ins and outs of cervical spondylosis and maintenance knowledge. 01. What is the cervical spine? The cervical spine is an important anatomical structure connecting the head to the body (thoracic spine). It must have sufficient stability to support the weight of the head, and sufficient flexibility to meet the functions of various organs of the head. demand. The human cervical spine is provided with 7 vertebral bodies and 5 intervertebral discs as well as joint capsules and ligament structures to provide mechanical stability. At the same time, many muscles of different size and length of the neck provide dynamic stability for the cervical spine. The loss or loss of function of the above-mentioned structure can cause the loss of cervical spine function, which makes people feel neck and shoulder pain, numbness, pain, and weakness in the upper limbs. Seriously, it can cause weakness and even paralysis of the limbs. Therefore, the health care and treatment of the cervical spine also need to start from the maintenance and repair of the above structure. Here we come to talk about the definition, diagnosis and treatment of cervical spondylosis and common sense of preventive health care. I hope you can use the cervical spine reasonably, maintain it properly, and maintain your cervical spine properly. 02. What is cervical spondylosis? Cervical spondylosis refers to the corresponding symptoms and signs of spinal cord, nerve and blood vessel damage caused by the degenerative changes of the cervical intervertebral disc and its secondary intervertebral joint degeneration. Cervical spondylopathy can be divided into five types: nerve root type, spinal cord type, sympathetic nerve type, vertebral artery type and mixed type. Among them, the most common clinical is cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, accounting for about 50-60% of all cervical spondylosis. The second is cervical spondylotic myelopathy, accounting for about 10-15%. As for sympathetic nerve type and vertebral artery type, it is extremely rare, and diagnosis is more difficult. It is also one of the diseases that non-spine surgeons are prone to overdiagnose. In other words, cervical spondylosis is less likely to cause dizziness, and requires the professional diagnosis of a spine surgeon. Do not wear a cervical spondylosis cap whenever you have a headache or dizziness, especially those who work and play for a long time. Crowd of mobile phones. 03. The predisposing factors of cervical spondylosis The basic cause of cervical spondylosis is the aging of the body. When the intervertebral disc tissue is aging, the central nucleus pulposus tissue is dehydrated, hardened, and the structure is loose. At the same time, the disc fibrous ring (fibrous sac surrounding the nucleus pulposus tissue) is weak, which will cause degeneration of the intervertebral disc under physiological or superphysiological load. The tissue protrudes from the weak fibrous annulus, compressing the nerve root or spinal cord, resulting in cervical spondylosis. Another common situation is cervical spondylosis that causes cervical spondylosis. Cervical spondylosis is a compensatory hyperplastic reaction after the human body senses the instability of the cervical spine. The so-called stability overwhelms everything is a common law in nature. While bone spurs bring stability to the cervical spine, sometimes it will oppress the adjacent nerve root and/or spinal cord and cause corresponding discomfort, which can cause cervical spondylosis. Studies have shown that as the degree of cervical flexion increases, the weight (compressive stress) of the cervical intervertebral disc will increase greatly. When our cervical spine is upright, the weight of the cervical spine is the weight of the head (about 6 pounds 4 two, if the head is large, please find a way to weigh yourself) Weight), the weight is increased to 2 times when flexed at 15 degrees, increased to 3 times when flexed at 30 degrees, nearly 4 times when flexed at 45 degrees, and more than 4 times when flexed at 60 degrees, reaching 27 kg! The increase in the degree of forward flexion of the cervical spine, in addition to the sharp increase in the compression stress of the cervical intervertebral disc, the tension on the muscles of the posterior neck also increases significantly, which can cause fatigue (strain) and even damage to the muscles and soft tissues of the posterior neck, muscle strength Decline, thereby accelerating the aging of cervical intervertebral disc. Therefore, accountants, writers, drivers, computer operators and other people who need to work at their desks for a long period of time are the high incidence groups of cervical spondylosis. Of course, in addition to the acquired human factors, some congenital cervical structural abnormalities or diseases that affect ligament strength and muscle strength are one of the high incidence factors of cervical spondylosis. 04. When should I see a doctor? Parents with the following typical manifestations need to consult a spine surgery specialist in time: 1. Typical manifestations of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: the pain radiates from the neck to one of the upper limbs, forearms, or hands Specific parts. In most cases, the numbness associated with the fingers and the weakness of the upper limbs, forearms, or hands correspond to specific muscles. If the above symptoms can be relieved by lifting on the shoulder, the diagnosis is more clear. What needs to be emphasized here is that unilateral symptoms are dominant, and radiculopathy is rarely presented as symmetrical bilateral symptoms. 2,

Ankylosing spondylitis is prone to osteoporosis

The symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis are chronic myelitis, osteoporosis, and fractures. The accumulation of new bone hyperplasia is called ligament osteophyte, which occurs when the spine ligaments merge with the vertebral body. Because of the improper routine imaging of patients and the difficulty of obtaining living tissue, the mechanism of these processes is not completely clear, but the development of high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT has now enabled detailed visualization of bone microarchitecture. To explore whether this new technology can help elucidate progressive bone abnormalities in patients with AS, Klingberg and colleagues compared the 69 male Swedish patients who initially participated in a larger osteoporosis trial with 68 healthy people from Olmstead, Minnesota CT results of healthy people in the town. The average age of the patients was 49 years, and the average duration of illness was 23 years. Accompanying the lumbar spine trabecular bone BMD decline, AS patients also showed symptoms of bone microarchitecture changes, such as trabecular bone and cortical thinning. The implication is that osteoporosis in patients with AS is a broad process that includes the spine and trabecular bone at the distal end of the bone. In contrast, fractures at the spine and pathological bone formation are local problems, mainly related to bone compaction, which are revealed by further imaging and analysis. The researchers compared the high-resolution CT of 8 patients with vertebral fractures and 16 patients without fractures as controls. They found that the BMD and thickness of the trabecular bone and cortex were lower than the distal radius of the fracture group. However, the most significant difference between patients with fractures and controls without AS fractures is the cortical thickness of the radius (P=0.003) and tibia (P=0.016), and the cortex of the radius (P=0.001) and tibia (P=0.013) Cross-sectional area. In addition, in multiple regression analysis, only the reduction of the cross-sectional area of ​​the tibia was related to fracture (B=0.063, P=0.008) and odds ratio of 0.939 (95%CI0.897-0.984). Klingberg’s team then analyzed the link between excess spinal bone formation and BMD, and found that 39 patients had radiographs showing ligamentous osteophytes. Multiple regression analysis found that after adjusting for age, ligament osteophytes were associated with a decrease in lumbar trabecular bone BMD (B=-0.058, P&lt.0.001), an odds ratio of 0.943 (95% CI 0.917-0.970) and an increase in cortical lumbar BMD ( B=0.019, P=0.016), and the odds ratio of 1.019 (95%CI1.004-1.035). The finding that the BMD of the trabecular bone in the lumbar spine is decreased but the cortical BMD is increased “is speculatively indicative of pathological new bone formation in the vertebral cortex”, the researchers explained. However, the formation of new bone in the spine is not related to the similar process of peripheral bone. Of course, this is related to the thickness and density of the peripheral trabecular bone. They elaborated, “This finding supports the fact that bone hyperplasia is a local bone anabolism response to inflammation, mechanical stress, or micro-damage, but it is not the concept of AS’s systemic process.”

Causes of low back pain

The tissues of the waist and back are skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, ligaments, ribs and vertebrae, spinal membrane and spinal cord from the outside to the inside. Lesions in any of the above tissues can cause low back pain, and spinal diseases (including vertebrae, ligaments, intervertebral discs, etc.) most commonly cause low back pain. Visceral diseases can also cause low back pain, but radioactive low back pain caused by lesions of adjacent organs (such as pleura, lung, kidney, pancreas, rectum, prostate, uterus, etc.) is more common. There are many diseases that cause low back pain, and the following four types of diseases are common. 1) Spine diseases   Among them, ankylosing spondylitis, proliferative spondylitis, tuberculous spondylitis, spinal trauma and disc herniation are the most common. In young and middle-aged people, low back pain occurs. In addition to injury, ankylosing spondylitis, spinal tuberculosis, and young spondyloarthritis should be considered first; middle-aged and elderly people have low back pain. The common causes are proliferative spondylitis, spinal osteoporosis or Spinal metastases, etc. In patients with lumbar disc herniation, spinal tuberculosis, or spinal tumors compressing the nerve roots, radioactive pain can often occur along the sciatic nerve segment of one or both lower limbs. Pain can be caused by coughing, sneezing, or increasing the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid Exacerbated. For elderly patients, it is necessary to pay attention to the pain caused by bone metastasis caused by tumors such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and kidney cancer. When female patients have lumbosacral pain, pelvic inflammatory disease and uterine prolapse should be considered. 2) Paravertebral soft tissue diseases   waist muscle strain and muscle fibrosis are the most common. For people engaged in certain types of work, the special postures adopted can cause low back pain, such as long-term bending and squatting work or heavy pressure on the waist and violent waist rotation during work. Acute lumbar muscle strain usually has a clear history of trauma. Chronic lumbar muscle strain can be a sequelae caused by incomplete treatment after acute lumbar sprain. It is characterized by chronic intermittent or persistent sore muscles around the lumbar muscle. . The pain is not severe, but it can last for months or even years. One of the most important characteristics of lumbar muscle fibritis is that, except for acute cases, low back pain can be significantly reduced after activity. 3) Spinal nerve roots are stimulated   spinal cord compression, acute myelitis, and lumbosacral radiculitis are more common. The main features of spinal cord compression syndrome are nerve root pain, sensory and motor conduction disturbances; the main feature of acute myelitis is paraplegia, if the lesion occurs in the thoracic or lumbar segment, low back pain can occur early in the onset, and individual cases can There is severe back pain, accompanied by weakness and numbness of both lower limbs, and complete or incomplete paraplegia and dysuria can quickly occur within 1 to 2 days. In addition, if papules and small blisters appear on the corresponding skin of the painful site, they must be considered as shingles; but it should be noted that some patients do not have obvious herpes on the skin at the beginning of the disease, and pain is the only clinical manifestation . 4) Visceral diseases   Diseases of the chest, abdomen, retroperitoneum and pelvic organs can cause low back pain, but low back pain is more common in kidney, pancreas, and pelvic diseases. (1) Kidney disease: such as pyelonephritis, kidney stones, hydronephrosis, and sagging kidney. (2) Pancreatic diseases: such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, etc. (3) Ulcer disease: such as duodenal ulcer. (4) Pelvic organ diseases: gynecological diseases such as severe uterine dorsiflexion, chronic appendicitis, dysmenorrhea, cervical cancer, etc.; men should pay attention to the existence of chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, etc. In summary, low back pain should not be ignored. In the event of low back pain, which has not been relieved after rest or topical medication, a doctor must be consulted in time.

Lumbar disc herniation is critical after healing, remember 5 points to note!

The precautions for patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation during treatment and after curing are critical. If it is difficult to heal without attention, then let’s take a look at the matters that need to be paid attention to after healing. 1. Pay attention to bed rest and rest on hard board bed. Because when resting in the supine position, the pressure on the intervertebral disc of the human body is reduced by about 50% compared to the pressure when we are standing. In this case, bed rest in early patients and patients with acute attacks can reduce the compression in the intervertebral disc and make the nucleus pulposus prominent The internal tension is reduced, thereby reducing the compression of the protruding nucleus pulposus on the nerve root and the dural sac, which is conducive to the repair of the damaged fibrous ring. The pressure on the spine is reduced, then the symptoms will be relieved, and even the ability to work can be restored. 2. Avoid sudden bending and sitting for a long time to correct the bad posture in daily work and life, avoid inappropriate force, and prevent fatigue of the waist muscles. Try to avoid such a posture of sitting for a long time. White-collar people need to change their posture frequently To reduce the weight on your spine. Avoid long-term bending or sudden bending. People who usually work with weights should exercise properly, especially the muscles of the lower back, which can improve the coordination and strength of activities and prevent acute sprains and chronic strains of the lower back. To do flexion and extension exercises intermittently, movements should be coordinated and consistent, to avoid sudden movements without mental preparation. Something has fallen on the ground. How can I pick it up without bending over? I can squat down with my legs and then pick up the objects that fell on the ground, so that I can avoid bending down. 3. People who have intervertebral disc protrusion need to pay attention to control their weight in daily life. The increase in weight will increase the weight of the spine. For health, you must control your weight and control your weight at Within a reasonable range, this is conducive to your own health. In addition, when participating in physical exercise, pay attention to avoid sudden waist twisting exercise, diet should be modest, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, reasonable diet structure, not partial eclipse. 4. The most important point to avoid weight-bearing is that people with lumbar disc herniation should avoid weight-bearing exercise or carrying heavy objects in daily life. If weight-bearing will only increase your symptoms, it will not benefit your disease recovery. It is recommended that you do not do these exercises for your health. Usually, if you feel sore waist, you should rest in bed or wear waist to protect your spine. 5. Avoid cold and humid as much as possible. When the climate changes, especially when the temperature is lowered, pay attention to the warmth of the waist and legs to avoid the stimulation of cold water. The little attention and accumulation at ordinary times allows us to have a good work and rest, so that we can lay a firm foundation for a good body! Tips: Some patients also have soft tissue strains such as lumbar muscle strain, low back muscle fascia inflammation and other symptoms and signs. After the sciatica is resolved, the patient’s attention is shifted to the pain caused by the strain. Soft tissue can be treated by drugs and local closure pain. The patient should also note that some other diseases such as spinal tumors and hip diseases are very similar to lumbar disc herniation. It happens that your imaging examination also has disc herniation, causing misdiagnosis and wrong treatment. It rarely happens, but it is often heard. If the symptoms do not disappear after the disc operation, you must go to the hospital to see it, and you cannot let it go.

Ankylosing spondylitis AS imaging performance, an important role in the diagnosis of AS!

Ankylosing spondylitis is an aggressive inflammation and ossification of the lumbar, neck, and thoracic spine joints, ligaments, and surrounding tissues. It is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. The process of onset begins with the violation of the sacroiliac joint, and then the lesions gradually involve the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, and cervical spine, with blurred facet joints, disappearance of fusion, destruction of vertebral osteoporosis, ossification of ligaments, and eventually spine stiffness or kyphosis. Imaging examination can truly and accurately reflect the location of the disease and the progress of different stages. It has been used clinically as the main examination method and diagnosis basis of AS. Especially after the clinical application of CT and ECT, the important role of imaging examination in the diagnosis of AS has been further determined. The imaging findings of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) warmly indicate that ankylosing spondylitis is an autoimmune disease. Its ultimate feature is a series of lesions such as ankylosing spine, or bony ankylosing of the hip joint, or ankylosing spine deformity. Characteristic spinal joint diseases are more common in young men. If ankylosing spondylitis occurs, it will bring back pain, limited mobility, morning stiffness and other symptoms to the patient, which will have a serious impact on daily life. Because the cause and pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis are still unclear, there is currently no specific medicine or surgical method to cure or prevent ankylosing spondylitis, so the key lies in early diagnosis and early treatment, and adopt comprehensive measures for treatment, including educating patients and Family members, physical therapy, physiotherapy, medicine, and surgical treatment to control the development of inflammation, reduce or alleviate symptoms, maintain normal posture and optimal functional position, and prevent deformities.

Is the pelvis crooked? The culprit of low back pain and leg pain is here

Feeling deep and shallow when walking, swinging left and right; swinging the center of gravity on one leg involuntarily when standing; always like to see Erjiro legs while sitting? Are you talking about these points? These “habits” in daily life will actually affect the position of our pelvis. The pelvis connects the spine and the lower limbs, both structurally and functionally, and plays a vital role. When our pelvis is not in the right position, it often involves the spine and lower limbs, which eventually leads to persistent low back pain and discomfort in the hips, knees and ankles of the lower limbs. Today, let’s take a look at the position of our pelvis. The anatomy of the pelvis is a pelvic skeleton that connects the spine and lower limbs. It consists of the sacrum, the coccyx (the two lowest bones of the spine), and the left and right hip bones (the hip bones are composed of the ilium, pubis, and ischium). The pelvis is carried up and down to accommodate and protect our pelvic organs, support the spine and transmit the strength of the lower limbs. And coordinate with the surrounding muscles to complete the exercise. In the forward and backward tilt of the pelvis, there are mainly the participation of the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, hamstring, iliopsoas and abdominal muscles. In the roll and rotation of the pelvis, the abdominal muscles and lumbar square muscles are mainly involved. The long-term wrong posture makes the muscle groups around the pelvis in an unbalanced state, and it is easy to produce discomfort and pain over time. What will happen if the position of the pelvis is not right? 1. The effect on the spine When the pelvis leans forward, the muscles and fascia of the waist and back are in a state of stiffness and tension for a long time, causing lumbago for a long time. When the pelvis rotates, the position of the sacrum and iliac bones may also change relatively, causing disorder of the sacroiliac joints and causing discomfort in the lumbosacral region. When the pelvis rolls, the strength of the muscles on both sides of the spine is unbalanced, which can easily lead to scoliosis. In turn, scoliosis can also affect pelvic roll. 2. The impact on the lower limbs The nature of the pseudo-long legs is that the pelvis rotates on both sides, and the muscle strength of the iliac psoas and gluteus maximus is unbalanced. In this case, although the actual length of the legs is the same, the performance is It is one high and one low, one long and one short. Many partners with unilateral lower extremity hip, knee and ankle injuries will form a pain avoidance posture to protect the affected side when walking, pressing the center of gravity on the good leg for a long time, not only the muscle atrophy of the injured leg, but the position of the pelvis Changes also slowly appeared. At this time, the phenomenon of false long and short legs often appeared, and even the hips, knees and ankles of the last good legs also appeared discomfort. Simply judge whether your pelvis is right or not. First, we first find the bony landmarks, the anterior superior iliac spine (the most protruding position on the front side of the body that is reached by the fingers of the hands on the hips). 1. The pelvis tilts back and forth (1) The anterior superior iliac spine and pubic bone are in a line, which shows that there is no problem with the position of the pelvis. (2) Standing against the wall. Under normal circumstances, the distance between the back waist and the wall is about one palm. If the palm cannot be inserted into the palm, or if it can be inserted into more than one fist, it indicates that there is a risk. 2. The pelvis rolls in the standing position or the supine position and relaxes with both hands on your hips. If there is a difference in the position of the anterior superior iliac spine on both sides, there may be a roll. 3. The pelvic rotation is relaxed in the supine position, with both hands on your hips. If there is a difference in height between the anterior superior iliac spine on both sides or the back waist position feels that the area of ​​contact between the two sides and the bed is different, it may indicate that there is pelvic rotation. Of course, in actual problems, most people may have several problems at the same time, such as pelvic forward tilt with unilateral rotation. If you find that your pelvis is not correct and you have discomfort in the lower back or lower extremities, it is best to find a professional to evaluate and solve your problems. Cultivate good habits and correct pelvic irregularities. Tricks When you are standing in daily life, always put your weight on one leg, and when you sit, you will stretch your legs for a long time. These inadvertent habits are easy to cause the wrong position of our pelvis. In addition, we also need to balance the muscle strength around the pelvis. You can do the following exercises: stretch the iliopsoas muscle to pull the waist square muscles to strengthen the core strength and strengthen the pelvic control. Finally, I hope everyone can get rid of the interference of the pelvis. , “Return” in time.

Why does pelvic rotation cause long and short legs and yin-yang feet?

Why does pelvic rotation cause long and short legs and yin and yang feet? The pelvis is composed of the sacrum and bilateral hip bones (iliac bone, ischium, and pubic bone), and is the base of the body’s central axis. When a person stands, the weight is passed down the spine, through the 5th lumbar vertebrae to the sacrum, the sacroiliac joint is divided into the left and right iliac bones to reach the hip joint, and then through the lower limbs to the ground. If in a sitting position, the sacroiliac joint is spread to the iliac bones, pubic bones, and ischium on both sides. When the human body moves, the lumbosacral joint and the sacroiliac joint become the hub of the connection between the spine and the lower limbs, and are the main links of gravity distribution. When a person walks, the pelvis rotates and twists as the left and right lower limbs move to coordinate the body to make it more flexible and labor-saving. Pelvic rotation refers to the rotation of one or both iliac bones on the longitudinal axis relative to the spine to the left (clockwise) or to the right (counterclockwise). In order to seek balance, the human body makes the spine appear opposite to the pelvic twist. In severe cases, there will be abnormal postures of the hips and hips, and the waist and chest. Mostly due to the imbalance of the soft tissues on both sides of the muscles and ligaments, the joints are displaced. Causes of pelvic rotation: male trauma is the main cause, mostly due to contusion on one side of the hip or heavy pelvic impact injury when slipping. Secondly, the disease occurs due to chronic strain, long-term bed rest, and weak constitution, long posture or mild trauma. Women have a higher incidence than men. In addition to the above reasons, women have loose pelvic ligaments after menopause, pregnancy, and childbirth. They are caused by mild sprains (such as ankle sprains), or by prolonged sitting and lying postures. Pelvic rotation syndrome. Why does pelvic rotation cause yin-yang feet and long and short legs? What are yin and yang feet? When the patient is lying on the bed, the lower limbs are naturally straightened and slightly separated, and the feet are relaxed, showing one side of the external rotation (called the male foot), which is caused by the posterior rotation of the ilium causing the hip joint to move backward, and the other side is relatively internal (called Yin feet) is caused by the forward rotation of the iliac bones causing the hip joint to move forward (according to the traditional Chinese medicine positioning method, the inside is yin and the outside is yang). What are long and short legs? The patient lies on his back, his legs are straight and close together, and the midpoint between the two ankles is in line with the midpoint of the umbilicus and the nose. It is caused by the misalignment of the sacrum in the “clockwise” or “counterclockwise” direction, causing the sacroiliac joint to be displaced up and down, or the “side-swing misalignment” of the lumbosacral joint, which causes the lumbar axis and the sacral axis to bend sideways. Scoliosis can also cause “long and short feet”, so further examination of the “lumbar triangle” and “sacral triangle” should be done. &nbsp.

New surgical navigation improves the success rate of spine surgery

April 5th: The latest research by American medical staff shows that a new type of surgical navigation technology can help improve the success rate of spinal reconstruction surgery and reduce related complications.  Spine reconstruction surgery treats severe spinal diseases or spinal degeneration by implanting stents or replacing artificial intervertebral discs. At present, this operation mainly uses X-ray to observe the spine image and guide the doctor to operate. Since this traditional technique can only provide a two-dimensional picture, it is not easy to accurately locate, so as long as a little deviation occurs, it may lead to misalignment of surgical instruments, additional surgery is required, and complications may be induced.  Los Angeles Sidas-Sinai Medical Center surgeons conducted a series of studies using a “high-speed CT imaging” technique to guide spinal surgery. This technology uses a mobile CT scanner to observe the spine image, transmits the three-dimensional image to the computer, and finally displays it on the monitor above the surgeon’s head. Doctors can track the position of surgical instruments in real time from the monitor to perform spinal reconstruction or other complex spinal surgery. The researchers pointed out that compared with the traditional technology, the new technology provides stereo images, which can help the surgeon better avoid key parts such as nerves and blood vessels, place the surgical instruments in the correct position, reduce or even avoid postoperative complications and pain symptoms, Reduce the need for follow-up surgery. Dr. Terence King of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center said: “This technology is a leap in spinal reconstruction, and we are looking forward to its future development.” The researchers also pointed out that the new technology can be applied to other In the minimally invasive surgery related to the spine, such as tumor removal. This research has been published in the latest issue of Neurosurgery Focus.

Must lumbar disc herniation be checked?

The inspection data is the scientific basis and the premise of diagnosis and treatment. Many times the same symptom is likely to be caused by a variety of diseases. If you don’t do the examination, you can only judge based on experience. For doctors, it is tantamount to blind people touching the elephant. For patients, once the treatment direction is wrong, use more treatment methods. , It is just the same. A patient encountered in the previous outpatient clinic was severely lame when visiting the outpatient clinic and had limited walking. After seeing his latest cervical thoracic and lumbar spine MRI, CT and full-length spine X-rays, there was no problem. The cause was not the spine. After contacting multiple departments for joint consultation, the patient eventually went to the neurology department. In fact, such patients can see from his experience that his condition does not belong to the treatment of spinal surgery, but the feeling and experience need to be confirmed by scientific examination. If the examination is not based on experience, the doctor may wave his hand, and the patient needs to perform unnecessary surgery that does not produce a therapeutic effect. In many cases, patients are advised to do a comprehensive examination, in fact, in order to find the cause and carry out relevant treatment for the cause. The patient seeks medical treatment to solve the problem, but the premise of solving the problem is to know and find the problem, just like mine clearance, you know you want to mine, but you don’t know where the mine is, you must first clear the location of the mine through some scientific and effective means, and start ,The consequences could be disastrous. The doctor advises the patient to do the examination, too.

How to prevent the deterioration of lumbar disc herniation?

Lumbar disc herniation is not a malignant disease and there is no deterioration. We are mainly concerned about the protrusion and the aggravation of symptoms. The prevention of lumbar disc herniation needs to start from all aspects of life. Maintaining good habits for a long time is the key. 1. Choose the right bed The choice of bed has a direct impact on the physiological curvature of the human spine. The bed to be used by patients with disc herniation should not be too soft or too hard. It is not advisable to sleep directly on the bed board. It should be about five centimeters on the bed board. The thickness of the mattress is mainly soft and hard. Resting on the rigid board bed, the head, shoulders and hips become the main pressure load bearing points, which is not only conducive to maintaining the physiological curvature of the spine, but also greatly reduces the pressure load on the intervertebral disc, making the spine ligaments and articular processes The joint capsule and the bones around the spine are fully relaxed and rested, which has a certain effect on preventing lumbar disc herniation and recovery. 2. Correct the bad posture. The patient who sits for a long time should pay attention to the correct sitting posture. The porter who bends over a lot of work should try to avoid getting up suddenly. It should squat down and bear the weight, and slowly stand up to reduce the damage to the spine and the risk of morbidity. After daily large-scale purchases, try to avoid one-handed heavy objects. 3. Pay attention to the degeneration and aging of the lumbar intervertebral disc. Part of the reason comes from lack of exercise. Scientific exercise can promote recovery. In fact, exercise does not necessarily require specific exercise in specific places. Walking, climbing stairs, and dancing are simple and effective exercise methods. Taking some time every day for reasonable and moderate exercise to maintain good physical fitness can effectively prevent And ease the exacerbation of lumbar disc herniation. Whether it is prevention or treatment, for degenerative diseases such as lumbar disc herniation, it takes a long time to accumulate and requires patients to be patient to face the disease.

On June 1st Children’s Day, pay attention to children’s spine health and stand up the backbone of the future!

Childhood is the happiest time in life, innocent, free and happy. Seeing this world is full of sunshine, charm, curiosity drives every step forward, free flying in the ocean of life. The arrival of Children’s Day is to make children cheer and joy. Here, I wish children a happy holiday! Children’s Day is a children’s festival, and it is also calling on everyone to pay more attention to the various problems faced by children in childhood. Of course, as doctors, what we care most about is how to make children grow up healthily. At the two sessions this year, the Central Committee of the Agrarian Labor Party plans to submit a proposal on the prevention and control of scoliosis of children and adolescents as soon as possible. The proposal points out that scoliosis has become the third “killer” of children and adolescent health in China after obesity and myopia As soon as this proposal came out, the children’s spine health problems were paid more attention. According to the survey, as many as 8% of children found spine health problems, which means that 8 out of 100 children have spine problems. Children are like saplings that thrive, and the spine is the trunk of the sapling. If there is a problem with the trunk of the sapling, it will inevitably affect the growth and development of the sapling. “In outpatient clinics, parents often come to see their children with their children, telling me that the child has neck and back pain, the two shoulders of the child are not the same height, some hunchbacks, etc., all kinds of spine problems, which makes parents “We are in a state of anxiety, but we are at a loss!” Director Liao Bo of the Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Military Medical University pointed out: “When these symptoms appear, it means that the child’s spine is unhealthy and needs timely and scientific treatment. The children are in During the period of growth and development, spinal health is easily affected by some bad habits, so active prevention is also key. “According to the data of the children’s spine screening survey, children aged 3-14 years old who are prone to fatigue account for 14.15%. Those with irregular postures accounted for 3.41%, those with irregular writing postures accounted for 22.93%, and those with irregular postures accounted for 13.66%. These bad habits may affect the spine development of children. If the child’s spine does not develop normally, there are high and low shoulders, hunchbacks, and scoliosis, which not only affects the child’s height and body shape, and causes harm to the body, but also affects the child’s mental health at a deeper level and brings mentality to the child Burden, inferiority, loneliness, and alienation. The abnormality of the spine structure may also cause compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots, resulting in pain in the neck and waist of the child, numbness of the limbs, and the most severe cases may be paralyzed, which will affect the child’s life. There are also spinal deformities, just like the trunk is crooked, and the growth of branches and leaves will also be affected. If a spinal deformity occurs, the adjacent organs around the spine will also be implicated, which can seriously cause cardiopulmonary compression and affect cardiopulmonary function. If the treatment is not corrected for a long time, the cardiopulmonary function will be damaged for a long time, which may even affect the child’s life span and endanger the child’s life. These common spinal problems of children are often formed over time. Due to the slow onset of spine disease, long course of disease, and early symptoms are not obvious, it is easy to cause parents to ignore, so active prevention is essential to protect the child’s spine health Link. 1. Cultivate children’s correct learning and living habits 1. When studying, you must have highly suitable desks and chairs, and you must sit correctly, sit upright when writing and reading, and change your posture and rest appropriately. 2. Do not overweight the school bag, it is best to choose a backpack. 3. Control the time children play on mobile phones and computers. It is a very bad habit to bow down to play mobile phones and addicted to computer games. Maintaining a posture in the spine for a long time can easily cause muscle fatigue and cause spine diseases over time. Second, strengthen physical exercise, enhance children’s physical learning pressure and do not reduce children’s exercise time, proper exercise can not only relieve muscle fatigue, but also enhance muscle strength and promote bone development, improve coordination and control ability, and it is easier to maintain good To maintain the stability of the spine. 3. Supplement sufficient nutrition Children are in the vigorous period of growth and development. They consume a lot of energy every day, and they need a reasonable diet and adequate and balanced nutrition. Eat together with vegetables, fruits, meat, beans, milk, etc., to provide children with the protein and calcium needed for growth and development

Do you know the etiology and clinical symptoms of tethered cord syndrome?

Various congenital developmental abnormalities of the spinal cord and the end of the spine can cause tethered spinal cord tethers, such as recessive spina bifida, meningeal bulging, spinal meningeal bulging, spinal cord end tension, lumbosacral spinal lipoma, congenital Cysts and latent sinus. In addition to the aforementioned various congenital factors, adhesions after lumbosacral meningocele can also lead to re-tethering of the spinal cord. It is generally believed that the tethered spinal cord causes blood circulation disorders at the end of the spinal cord, resulting in corresponding neurological symptoms. [Clinical manifestations] The clinical manifestations of tethered cord syndrome (tethered cord syndrome) are similar to spina bifida, mainly in the following aspects: Lumbar sacral skin changes Lumbar sacral skin protrusion or depression, may be accompanied by secretion Objects or infections. Hairy. Large bumps … These indicate the presence of recessive spina bifida, latent sinus, bulging meninges, etc., and may be associated with tethered spinal cord. Mobility disorders of the lower extremities is characterized by abnormal walking, weak lower extremity, deformation and pain, and can also be combined with scoliosis. Sensory disorders of the lower limbs manifested as abnormal and painful sensations in the lower limbs, perineum, and lower back. Function deficiencies are common manifestations of urinary retention, difficulty urinating, urinary incontinence, frequent urination, less than normal volume each time, etc. constipation, constipation, or incontinence.

Cervical and lumbar spine diseases are really complicated, and slight structural changes can cause obvious symptoms.

The cervical spine and lumbar spine film have nothing to change but the symptoms are complicated but why? The cervical spine is the narrowest part of the human body. The neurovascular and spinal cords around the cervical spine are abundant. Therefore, the symptoms of the cervical spine are the most complicated compared to other spine truncations. Therefore, the adjustment of the cervical spine must be cautious. People do not understand me a very common action. Will my cervical spondylosis be serious? In fact, many doctors have no personal experience and are very confused about this problem. Diagnosing patients with cervical spondylosis is still limited to the obvious changes in medical imaging. Tell you that your cervical spine nerve or spinal cord and vertebral artery have been compressed, more cases When the cervical spine loosening structure is unstable, it is difficult to see from the medical film that the nerve spinal cord or vertebral artery is blocked, but if the subtle image changes and symptoms are combined with the symptoms, it can be inferred that the problem lies in the test. In some cases, the judgment of the process may determine the cervical spine It ’s okay, but the clues provided by various patients can determine the cause of the symptoms, and even the patient will reflect the cause of the dynamic spinal compression symptoms. Some changes in the spine make the cervical spine extremely sensitive, and unreasonable behavior can produce local cervical spine. Stress changes can also cause excessive stress changes to the nerves and vertebral arteries and cause symptoms. The cervical spine and lumbar spine film have nothing to change but the symptoms are complicated but why? The cervical spine is the narrowest part of the human body. The neurovascular and spinal cords around the cervical spine are abundant. Therefore, the symptoms of the cervical spine are the most complicated compared to other spine truncations. Therefore, the adjustment of the cervical spine must be cautious. People do not understand me a very common action. Will my cervical spondylosis be serious? In fact, many doctors have no personal experience and are very confused about this problem. Diagnosing patients with cervical spondylosis is still limited to the obvious changes in medical imaging. Tell you that your cervical spine nerve or spinal cord and vertebral artery have been compressed, more cases When the cervical spine loosening structure is unstable, it is difficult to see from the medical film that the nerve spinal cord or vertebral artery is blocked, but if the subtle image changes and symptoms are combined with the symptoms, it can be inferred that the problem lies in the test. In some cases, the judgment of the process may determine the cervical spine It ’s okay, but the clues provided by various patients can determine the cause of the symptoms, and even the patient will reflect the cause of the dynamic spinal compression symptoms. Some changes in the spine make the cervical spine extremely sensitive, and unreasonable behavior can produce local cervical spine. Stress changes can also cause excessive stress changes to the nerves and vertebral arteries and cause symptoms.

The situation of adolescent scoliosis is not optimistic. Should parents pay attention to its prevention and treatment?

Many parents found that the child had uneven shoulders on one side and a high side on the other side when the child was bathed again. This is the case when the child stood upright. As a result, the doctor said it was scoliosis after going to the hospital for examination. Scoliosis is a segment of the spine that is permanently deviated from the center line of the body. Simply put, the originally vertical spine has been bent, and it has a “C” shape or an “S” shape. At present, scoliosis It has become a common and frequently-occurring disease that harms young people in China. According to statistics, the incidence of scoliosis in Chinese adolescents is as high as 20%. The overall ratio of men and women is about 1: 3. The curvature of 10-20 ° is the most common curvature of scoliosis, accounting for about 90% of all patients. The curvature is greater than 20 °. Approximately 9.3%, and less than 2% of those greater than 40 °. From the above data, it can be seen that the situation of adolescent scoliosis is not optimistic, and it needs to be paid attention by parents. Scoliosis not only affects the appearance of the child, but also affects the growth and development of the child. Can cause cardiopulmonary failure, paralysis and even death. Therefore, parents should pay attention to cultivating children’s good learning and living habits to prevent the occurrence of scoliosis. How to prevent the occurrence of scoliosis in adolescents? 1. Good learning methods Correct reading and writing postures and highly suitable tables and chairs The correct posture refers to the distance of the body from the table with a punch, the eye from the book one foot away, the body sitting upright, The book is placed on the right side of the body (suitable for people who write with the right hand). This habit needs to be developed, which is good for bones and body. The correct height of the table and chairs should be able to maintain two basic verticals when sitting : First, when both feet are flat on the ground, the thighs and calves can be substantially perpendicular. The second is that when both arms hang down naturally, the upper arm and the lower arm are basically perpendicular. This allows people to maintain correct writing posture. 2. Appropriate schoolbag weight and backpack mode Overweight backpack and wrong backpack mode may cause back injury and muscle fatigue of teenagers. Too heavy a child’s backpack will cause back, side, forward, or twisting of the spine. At the same time, the muscles may be fatigued due to extreme tension, and the neck, shoulders and back may be easily injured. Therefore, it is recommended to control the weight of the backpack to less than 10% of the weight of the backpacker. It is also important to place the items in the school bag reasonably. The heaviest items should be placed closest to the back. It is recommended that the child should take the backpack on the shoulders as much as possible. 3. Reasonable dietary habits Reasonable dieting means that the nutrition provided by three meals a day must meet the needs of human growth, development and various physiological and physical activities. Adolescents are the peak period of growth and development, so adolescents should properly supplement calcium. Fourth, scientific physical exercise The content of physical exercise should be diversified to comprehensively enhance the strength of the muscles on both sides of the spine and before and after. In addition to good physical education classes and radio exercises, every day should adhere to about 1 hour of physical exercise. As much as possible to participate in activities such as single parallel bars, jump boxes, balance beams, etc., has a good effect on preventing spine curvature. If you suspect that your child has scoliosis, parents can try these simple screening methods at home! 1. See if the shoulders are the same height 2. Whether the shoulder blades are protruding on one side 3. Whether the lower ends of the shoulder blades are the same height 4. Both sides of the back Whether the ascent is asymmetric 5. Whether the bilateral waist is asymmetric. 6. Use the middle finger and index finger to sandwich the spinal process to see if it is a straight line. After screening, if one of the children is found to be abnormal, it means that there is a possibility of scoliosis, and you need to go to the hospital for further examination. If the examination reveals that the child is suffering from scoliosis, how to treat it clinically? First, non-surgical treatment: mainly includes physical therapy and brace therapy. 1. Physical therapy is referred to as “physiotherapy” for the purpose of improving the function of organs and tissues, enhancing physical function, reducing the adverse effects of disease on patients, and thus improving the quality of life. There are common sports therapy close to life, as well as electrotherapy and manual therapy. Sports therapy is mainly to enhance the muscle strength of the convex side of the spine, adjust the balance of the spine biomechanics, correct scoliosis, improve endurance and respiratory function. Mainly include: posture exercise, corrective gymnastics, respiratory gymnastics, etc. The specific treatment plan needs to be formulated according to the patient’s own situation. At present, various foreign studies on exercise therapy have proved the effectiveness of exercise therapy, and this is a “non-invasive” treatment method