Treatment of secondary epilepsy

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Which method should be used to treat secondary epilepsy? Epilepsy is a clinically very complex disease. This disease can be divided into primary epilepsy and secondary epilepsy. The harm caused by epilepsy is very serious, which will cause great harm to our health and life. Therefore, we must actively treat this disease. Only in this way can we restore our health as soon as possible. body. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. So which method should be used for the treatment of secondary epilepsy? There are many latest treatments for primary epilepsy. Here are a few for you: 1. Diet therapy: diet therapy for adults Epilepsy mainly refers to ketogenic diet therapy. This epilepsy treatment method is to treat epilepsy by choosing a dietary formula with a high proportion of fat and a low proportion of protein and carbohydrates, so that the body can produce ketone bodies to simulate the body’s response to hunger. Which method should be used to treat secondary epilepsy? For epilepsy that is difficult to control by drugs, trial ketogenic diet therapy can be considered. Family members must be strictly in a qualified epilepsy hospital and strictly implement a diet plan to treat epilepsy. Because it requires certain technical monitoring and has certain risks, patients and their families should not implement them without authorization.   2. Surgical treatment: Surgery for the treatment of adult epilepsy is to safely remove the brain tissue that causes adult seizures. After the epileptic area is removed, no postoperative seizures can be achieved. The prerequisite for successful operation is the determination of the epileptic area, which requires a very professional evaluation team and neurosurgery team to work together to complete. At the same time, the risk of surgical treatment of epilepsy is high, and it is generally not recommended.   3. Drug treatment: Which method should be used to treat secondary epilepsy? Drug treatment of epilepsy is the most basic treatment method, and it is also the most common way of treating epilepsy in clinic. Most patients can be effectively controlled by medication. Moreover, the advent of many first-line antiepileptic drugs has increased clinicians’ choice of drugs.   4. Etiology treatment: For the treatment of epilepsy, the cause of epilepsy should be treated first. If the epilepsy is caused by meningitis, anti-inflammatory treatment should be performed first. For example, epilepsy caused by brain parasites must be treated with pioneer insects. There are also brain tumors that cause epilepsy, and surgery must be performed to remove the tumor. The question about which method to use for the treatment of secondary epilepsy is explained here. I hope to help you. As a disease that will cause us to suffer great harm every time, we must not ignore it The harm of this disease, when we find the symptoms of epilepsy, we should choose the right method to treat it as soon as possible. Only in this way can our condition be controlled in time and let us get rid of the damage of the disease as soon as possible.

How is uremia formed?

After many people have kidney disease, they become uremia indistinctly. It is even unclear when the kidney started to be “injured”. Uremia is not a single-onset disease, it is the end stage of the development of chronic kidney disease, that is, the state of kidney failure. So where does chronic kidney disease come from? Chronic kidney disease is mainly divided into two categories, one is primary kidney disease, and the other is secondary kidney disease. 1. Primary nephropathy Primary nephropathy refers to a disease that originates inside the kidney, such as glomerulitis, pyelonephritis, occult nephritis, and kidney stones. If it does not recover after more than 3 months, and the relevant examination indicators are always abnormal, or the effective glomerular filtration rate is less than 60%, it can be regarded as “chronic kidney disease”. 2. Secondary kidney disease is caused by other diseases. The secondary kidney disease, such as high blood pressure, is like pressing a mountain on the kidney. It is likely to cause excessive blood vessel pressure, protein leakage, and structural effects on the filter. The destruction eventually leads to hardening of the kidneys. Another example is diabetic nephropathy, which has become the second leading cause of uremia. Excess blood sugar will produce a large amount of glycosylation end products, which are deposited in the kidneys, block the renal tubules and blood vessels, cause various inflammatory reactions or microvascular lesions, and eventually “stretch” the glomeruli. In addition, gout, lupus erythematosus, and hyperlipidemia are all high-risk factors. If it cannot be cured or contained effectively, it can easily develop into uremia.

How is the cause of secondary epilepsy

How is the cause of secondary epilepsy? Epilepsy is a diffuse condition that can cause the brain nerves to not work properly. The epilepsy is very sudden. There are no symptoms under general conditions. Shandong Province looks at the outpatient clinic of epilepsy. It is quite large, and it will seriously cause the patient to lose the ability to work in food, clothing, housing and transportation. The following people will detail the reasons for the epilepsy caused by adolescents and children. Shandong Province looks forward to being alert. Epilepsy is more difficult to treat in clinical medicine, and it will very long after the patient, or even a lifetime.  How is the cause of secondary epilepsy? 1. The causes of secondary epilepsy are more complicated. Many central or systemic diseases are caused by epilepsy: what can be found to establish the original disease is called secondary epilepsy or disease epilepsy. It is also a patient who has experienced various Various investigations can not find the reason, epilepsy as a disease condition, this is called secondary epilepsy or refractory epilepsy.   2. What diseases can cause epilepsy: such as brain diseases: encephalitis, myocarditis, brain metastases, inflammatory granuloma, intracranial tumors, cleft cyst, demyelinating diseases, cerebellar atrophy, etc. In addition to this head disease, some brain contusions can also cause epilepsy. Non-head diseases: low blood sugar, hypokalemia, cardiac arrest, cardiac hyperthermia convulsions, drug poisoning, etc. can cause epilepsy. It is the key disease causing epilepsy.

What is atopic dermatitis?

What is atopic dermatitis? Atopic dermatitis, also known as genetic allergic dermatitis, indicates that the genetic tendency of allergic reactions to food and inhaled substances affects family members who can present any combined symptoms of eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergy to foreign proteins, and elevated serum IgE , Eosinophilia increased. If one of the parents suffers from atopic dermatitis, then more than half of the children have allergic symptoms before the age of two. Atopic dermatitis is divided into three stages, infancy (1 month to 2 years old) childhood (2 to 10 years old) and adulthood (12 to 23 years old). 60% of cases of specific dermatitis occur in the first year of life, usually in the second or third month after birth, and some in the second or third week of life. The rash mainly occurs on the cheeks, forehead, and scalp, and can individually develop to the trunk and limbs. The place where the rash occurs is often the place where the child can grasp and rub. Mainly manifested as changes in the face, scalp, neck, trunk erythema, papules, papular herpes, blisters, exudate, etc., secondary infections can appear pustules. Most infantile specific dermatitis can heal itself within 2 years of age, and about 10% enter childhood. Childhood lesions, reduced exudation, and itching are a constant feature, so most rash changes are secondary to itching. Scratching leads to lichenification and secondary infection of the skin lesions, mainly manifested as chronic dermatitis damage such as elbow fossa, popliteal fossa, ankle, back of the foot, dryness behind the ears, hypertrophic leather, as it often occurs on the curved side of the limbs, It is also known as the Four Winds; if atopic dermatitis develops after 2 years of age, it often has a long course, is difficult to treat, and migrates to adulthood. Adults show dry, hypertrophic mossy skin lesions, and the performance in adolescents is the same as childhood, with the elbow fossa, popliteal fossa, and neck as the weight; the distribution of skin lesions in older adult patients is usually not obvious, and common skin Dry, chronic hand eczema, itching, and moss, often reacting to heat or tension. As you age, your condition will ease. In addition to the appearance of eczema, a horizontal linear fold on the edge of the lower eyelid is a sign of specific physique. Dry skin, ichthyosis, palmprint disease, keratosis pilaris, pale around the mouth, nose, and eyes, positive for white scratches, and white pityriasis are also often characteristic. The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is inseparable from genetic and environmental factors. Clinically, it is often found that there is allergic rhinitis or asthma in patients or their immediate family members. It is difficult to carry out etiological treatment, but it is still very important to reduce the motivating factors. If you want to avoid any external irritation, keep your skin hydrated, wear loose cotton fabric, and do not wash your skin with soap or disinfectant, some cases may be related to special food allergies. Therefore, you need to limit the intake of allergic foods and use less irritating foods. , Keep away from allergens such as pollen and dust mites, and pay attention to prevent secondary skin infections. Some medical measures can also be taken when necessary.

【Notes before diagnosis】Classification of trigeminal neuralgia and examinations required for diagnosis and treatment

   Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common cranial nerve disease in clinic. It is mainly manifested by the recurrent paroxysmal severe pain in the trigeminal nerve distribution area, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients.   1. For patients with trigeminal neuralgia, what clinical features are highly suggestive of secondary possibility?   has no clinical features and is highly sensitive to definite secondary trigeminal neuralgia.   Generally speaking, patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia are usually younger, and there is a lack of sensory innervation of the trigeminal nerve and pain involving both sides. However, patients without the above characteristics cannot rule out the possibility of secondary. Therefore, patients with trigeminal neuralgia should undergo MRI as soon as possible (strong recommendation).   Therefore, there are no clinical features that can rule out secondary trigeminal neuralgia (low-level evidence). MRI should be performed on patients with trigeminal neuralgia (strong recommendation).   2. For patients with facial pain, what tests are necessary to diagnose secondary trigeminal neuralgia? What tests help to distinguish between primary trigeminal neuralgia and other neuropathic facial pain?  MRI is the first choice for the diagnosis of secondary trigeminal neuralgia. If there are contraindications to MRI, examination of the trigeminal nerve reflex helps distinguish between primary and secondary trigeminal neuralgia. At the same time, for patients with other types of neuropathic facial pain, trigeminal nerve reflexes and evoked potentials are also required to clarify the damage to the trigeminal nerve afferent pathway.   Therefore, if there are contraindications to MRI, a trigeminal reflex should be examined to distinguish between primary and secondary trigeminal neuralgia (strong recommendation).  For patients with trigeminal neuralgia, abnormal trigeminal evoked potentials are often highly suggestive of secondary possibility. However, given that there is considerable overlap between this indicator in patients with primary and secondary trigeminal neuralgia, its clinical significance is not significant. Evoked potential testing should not be used to diagnose secondary trigeminal neuralgia (strong recommendation).   For patients with other types of neuropathic facial pain, trigeminal nerve reflexes and evoked potentials need to be examined to clarify the damage to the trigeminal nerve afferent pathway.   3. What role does neurovascular contact (NVC) play in the pathogenesis of primary trigeminal neuralgia?  Trigeminal neuralgia is related to any form of NVC on the affected side, and is highly related to NVC with morphological changes on the affected side. NVC without morphological changes is a common variant of normal neuroanatomy, so patients with facial pain cannot diagnose or rule out trigeminal neuralgia based on the presence or absence of NVC. A recent prospective study showed that patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia are more likely to benefit from microvascular decompression than idiopathic patients. However, at the same time, a considerable number of patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia can also obtain pain relief after microvascular decompression. In this way, NVC without morphological changes also plays a role in the onset of patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia, so they are not actually so-called “idiopathic.” In the pathogenesis of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia and a small part of classic trigeminal neuralgia, some other unknown causes may also play a role.  Final recommendations  Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia is moderately correlated with NVC without morphological changes, and classic trigeminal neuralgia is highly correlated with NVC with morphological changes (high-level evidence).   Therefore, trigeminal neuralgia should not be diagnosed based on the presence of NVC. However, it helps determine whether and when patients can undergo microvascular decompression.   4. For patients with trigeminal neuralgia, what imaging examination should be performed to confirm the existence of NVC and exclude other causes that can cause trigeminal neuralgia?   Conventional MRI can be used to rule out secondary intracranial lesions such as multiple sclerosis and tumors, but it is not enough to confirm or rule out the presence of NVC. High-resolution 3DT2 sequences (including drive balance sequence, DRIVE; structural interference steady-state sequence, CISS; steady-state precession balance sequence, FIESTA) can clearly show good contrast between cerebrospinal fluid (high signal) and neurovascular (low signal) , Can be used for high-quality cisternography. The disadvantage is the poor signal contrast between arterial veins, vascular nerves, and brain parenchyma.   3DTOF-MRA can clearly show arteries with high signal, which is in good contrast with the low signal of cerebrospinal fluid.

Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein

Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Primary epilepsy refers to the absence of organic manifestations of the brain, where to treat epilepsy, or the performance of metabolic diseases. As this epilepsy, the cause of its onset cannot be found. Seizures are easily affected by external stimuli. The incidence of epilepsy is increasing every year. Many people are unfortunately suffering from this disease. Where to treat epilepsy is good, there are many causes of epilepsy, which are actually in daily life It can be avoided in life. Let’s learn about epilepsy caused by viral encephalitis today. It is also possible to find no cause. A type of epilepsy belongs to primary epilepsy. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? What are the symptoms of early seizures? Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early epileptic seizures 1. Headache-type epilepsy: manifested as a sudden onset headache, the frontal part of the headache is more common, followed by the temporal region and the orbital part, pulsating headache is common, and there are also pain and tingling The pain is usually severe and lasts for a few minutes. The attack is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fatigue, blurred vision, and drowsiness. It is like a normal person during the interval between attacks. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? The symptoms of early seizures are two. Complex partial seizures, also known as psychomotor seizures, can cause consciousness disorders, and the consciousness of epilepsy patients is lost. Various auras, automatisms, abnormal movements, love to attack people, language disorders, autonomic symptoms, etc. The general duration is less than 15 minutes, and there is often confusion after the attack. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early seizures 3. In the middle of the epileptic seizures, the patient will have the following symptoms such as sudden loss of consciousness, fall to the ground, muscle contraction of the whole body, head backwards, strong flexion of both upper limbs until treatment of epilepsy is good, both lower limbs Stretching and stiffness, the mouth is first opened and then closed, at this time the lips, tongue and cheeks may be bitten. As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, the air in the lungs is forced out, and at the same time, a sharp throat spasm and throat stenosis is called a seizure. The pupils are dilated and blood pressure rises. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early seizures 4. Some physical symptoms and prodromal symptoms will occur in simple seizures, such as head, trunk and limbs, transient pain, numbness, cold and heat, acupuncture and touch inductance, etc. When it comes to flashes, colored lights, and spots, you will hear buzzing and rasping sounds. Where can you treat epilepsy? You can smell unpleasant smells. You can feel sour, bitter, and salty tastes. Some of the above-mentioned dizziness, sinking, and floating feelings are also introductions about epilepsy. I believe that most patients with epilepsy have a deeper understanding of the common sense of epilepsy. Since epilepsy is a common chronic disease, daily life The risk of epilepsy is relatively high, and inadvertent epilepsy needs timely treatment. If you want more authoritative treatment, our hospital will provide you with a full range of treatments and strive to make you recover soon. Your health is our greatest hope for medical staff.

Don’t panic, your osteoporosis will save

  Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease (metabolic bone disease) in which trabecular bone mass is low and the fine structure of bone tissue is destroyed, resulting in increased bone fragility and prone to fracture. Osteoporosis is divided into primary and secondary. Primary osteoporosis is a degenerative disease that occurs with age, including postmenopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis; secondary Osteoporosis Osteoporosis caused by other diseases or drugs and other factors. Rheumatism hormone-induced osteoporosis is a common secondary osteoporosis.  The clinical manifestations of osteoporosis include bone pain, shortened body and fracture.  Is osteoporosis preventable?   The answer is of course yes. Measures to prevent osteoporosis include nutrition, exercise and light. Many foods are rich in calcium, we can eat enough calcium through the diet, such as shrimp skin, eggs, milk, beans, meat and so on. Patients with osteoporosis should exercise properly, such as walking, but to avoid the exercise of increased joint weight. Light can promote the synthesis of vitamin D and promote calcium absorption. Therefore, you can prevent osteoporosis by sunbathing for 20 minutes a day. However, for patients with lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis who are allergic to light, avoid light.  What should I do after osteoporosis?  The treatment of osteoporosis includes pain relief, delaying bone loss and preventing fractures. The treatment principles and methods include general measures, basic drug treatment and anti-osteoporosis drug treatment. General interventions include minimizing the amount of hormones, changing the dosage form or route of administration, or switching to other immunosuppressive agents; ensuring nutrition and adequate dietary calcium intake; proper weight-bearing physical activity, quitting smoking, and avoiding alcoholism. Basic drug treatments include calcium and vitamin D preparations. Anti-osteoporosis treatments include bisphosphonates and calcitonins.  In addition to conventional treatment, there are also some special treatment measures. For example, the special Chinese patent medicine Shenggu Capsule has the effects of Tongluo analgesia, nourishing the liver and kidney, and strengthening the bones. It is effective for various types of bone erosion, femoral head necrosis, fracture healing, bone The effects of osteoporosis are better.  Alternating magnetic therapy can regulate the magnetic field of the body and regulate the imbalance of yin and yang. Intermediate frequency pulse therapy is the use of pulsed radio waves to move traditional Chinese medicine from the skin acupoints to the depths. For patients with different diseases and symptoms, different traditional Chinese medicines are used to select different acupoints to achieve different therapeutic effects; meanwhile, intermediate frequency pulse therapy also has electroacupuncture and heat The effect of treatment directly stimulates local acupuncture points to relieve meridians and collaterals, improve blood circulation, reduce swelling and relieve pain.  Arterial perfusion is for patients with vasospasm, blood circulation disorders resulting in reduced bone blood supply and nutritional deficiencies. Using arterial infusion can dredge blood vessels, improve blood circulation, and improve bone metabolism.

【Disease Science】 The scientific treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is clearly classified

Trigeminal neuralgia is tending to be younger, and the prevalence of the population is rising, which seriously affects the quality of life, work and socialization of patients. The treatment of trigeminal neuralgia currently mainly includes medical treatment, gamma knife, half-moon balloon compression, microvascular decompression surgery, coupled with the difference in medical technology between different regions, many patients have not been able to obtain scientific and effective treatment. Trigeminal neuralgia can be divided into primary and secondary. The etiology and pathogenesis of primary trigeminal neuralgia are still unclear. Most believe that the lesion is in the trigeminal nerve and its sensory nerve roots. It may also be caused by factors such as blood vessel compression and bone deformity in the rock bone. Sexual oppression, traction and nutritional metabolism disorders. Secondary trigeminal neuralgia, also known as symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia, is often one of the clinical symptoms of a disease. It is caused by tumors, inflammation, trauma, and lesions of trigeminal nerve branches in the cerebellar pontine angle and its adjacent parts. Trigeminal neuralgia is divided into primary trigeminal neuralgia and secondary trigeminal neuralgia according to the cause. According to the symptoms of pain, it can be divided into typical trigeminal neuralgia and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. 1. Classification of causes Primary trigeminal neuralgia: is also called idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Clinically, trigeminal neuralgia with no exact cause can be called & quot.primary trigeminal neuralgia & quot., Which is the most common clinically. type. Manifested as recurrent short-term severe pain in the distribution area of ​​the trigeminal nerve, which was shock-like, knife-like and tear-like pain, and suddenly stopped. Each pain lasts from a few seconds to tens of seconds, and the intermittent period is completely normal. Pain attacks are often induced by the movement of the face, such as talking, chewing, brushing, and washing the face, or touching an area of ​​the face (such as the upper lip, nose, upper orbital hole, infraorbital hole, and oral gums). These sensitive areas are called & quot; .Trigger point & quot. To avoid attacks, patients often dare not eat, wash their faces, face haggard, and emotional depression. Severe seizures may be accompanied by convulsions of the same side muscles, facial flushing, tearing and salivation, also known as painful convulsions. More common in patients over 40 years old. Secondary trigeminal neuralgia:, also known as symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia, refers to trigeminal neuralgia caused by secondary damage to the trigeminal nerve caused by various organic lesions inside and outside the skull. Most common in patients under 40 years of age. The difference from primary trigeminal neuralgia is that secondary trigeminal neuralgia pain usually has a longer onset time, or it is persistent pain and exacerbation. There is no “quote” trigger point. Physical examination showed decreased, disappeared or allergic sensations in the inner region of the trigeminal nerve, and some patients developed corneal reflexes, masticatory muscle weakness and atrophy. CT, MRI examination can confirm the diagnosis. 2. Symptom classification Typical trigeminal neuralgia: refers to trigeminal neuralgia that meets the following characteristics: (1) Pain is paroxysmal recurrent; (2) has a clear interval and the interval is completely normal; (3) has & quot. Trigger point & quot; and clearly induced action; (4) Trigeminal nerve function is normal. Primary trigeminal neuralgia is mostly typical trigeminal neuralgia. Atypical trigeminal neuralgia: refers to the trigeminal neuralgia that meets the following characteristics: (1) The pain time is prolonged or even persistent pain, but there may be paroxysmal aggravation; (2) No & quot. Trigger point & quot. Phenomenon; (3 ) There are signs of trigeminal nerve dysfunction, such as facial numbness, hypoesthesia, corneal reflexes, masticatory muscle weakness and atrophy. Secondary trigeminal neuralgia is mostly atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Typical trigeminal neuralgia-Microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery is currently the preferred surgical treatment for primary trigeminal neuralgia. According to the consensus of Chinese experts in the diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, MVD surgery is currently considered to be a clinical treatment of trigeminal nerve The preferred surgical method for pain resistance is to use surgical methods to separate the blood vessels that press the trigeminal nerve and the adhesion between the nerve roots, and pad with Teflon of appropriate size for decompression purposes. MVD is to relieve the trigeminal nerve compression from the etiology to treat pain. It can retain the function of the nerve and protect the function of the trigeminal nerve intact. This surgical method has small surgical trauma, short operation time, fast postoperative recovery, and few postoperative complications. And high cure rate, prognosis is not easy to recover

Hu Guisheng: How to treat platelet elevation caused by methylprednisolone in children with nephrotic syndrome?

Hu Guisheng’s assistant WeChat: dd326751 had a 6-year-old boy who suddenly had a sore throat and swollen body. Three days later, he was accompanied by a severe cough, so he took the child to the hospital to check the blood routine and diagnosed primary nephrotic syndrome. After admission, the patient was given cephalosporin three generations of antibiotics for intravenous anti-infective treatment for 3 days. After the sore throat symptoms disappeared, he was given oral prednisone 50 mg. After 5 days, he was found to have elevated liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 48U / L, and normal coagulation , Replaced with methylprednisolone tablets 40mg orally. During monitoring urine routine, blood routine, blood biochemical, platelets rose to 655×10 * 9 / L. Primary nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disease with a high incidence in childhood. The pathological type of most children is minimally diseased and has a high sensitivity to hormones. Methylprednisolone is one of the commonly used hormones in clinic. Its shock treatment for children with cord-sensitive primary nephrotic syndrome has achieved satisfactory clinical efficacy, and its clinical application is also more and more widely, but adverse reactions occur frequently during the application process. In order to improve the clinician ’s application of methylprednisolone After the realization of adverse reactions. Methylprednisolone is one of the most commonly used hormones in the clinic. Common side effects include fluid and electrolyte disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, gastrointestinal damage, skin diseases, metabolic disorders, endocrine and nervous system diseases, eye damage, immunity System disturbances, etc., in which the abnormal increase in secondary platelets is not common. & nbsp. Thrombocytosis is the abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the blood, which can be divided into two categories according to their causes: One is primary thrombocytosis (PT), which means that there is no clear cause. Myelodysplastic diseases characterized by abnormal cell proliferation, with or without bleeding symptoms, are more common in adults; the second is secondary thrombocythemia (ST), which refers to acute and chronic secondary to infection, trauma, tumor, etc. Increased platelets in diseases or special physiological conditions are more common in children; after removal of the cause, platelets can return to normal levels. & nbsp. After repeated application of methylprednisolone, the blood routine examination showed abnormal increase in PLT. After oral administration of dipyridamole tablets, PLT continued to increase. Consider the possible secondary caused by methylprednisolone tablets. The cause and mechanism of thrombocytosis is not clear, and the consideration may be related to the following factors: 1. Inhibit the mononuclear-macrophage system to phagocytose and destroy antibody-containing platelets to prolong the survival time of these platelets; 2. Inhibition Platelet antibody synthesis reduces platelet destruction; 3. Stimulates bone marrow hematopoiesis and platelet release to the periphery, etc. & nbsp. Secondary thrombocythemia in children is mild to moderately elevated platelets, usually without bleeding or thrombosis, and generally does not require treatment. “In this case, the clinician after the remission of nephrotic syndrome (methylprednisolone application) 5 months) Reduce the dose in time to withdrawal (with methylprednisolone for 5 months), and the platelets gradually recover after withdrawal. & Nbsp.In summary, the incidence of secondary thrombocytosis in children is higher than that in adults, It is generally believed that it is caused by the excessive production of platelets, and its clinical manifestations are often overlooked because of asymptomatic. The majority of secondary thrombocytosis has a good prognosis, and can generally return to normal with the improvement of the original disease. For children with nephrotic syndrome accompanied by elevated platelets, clinicians should pay attention to changes in their coagulation function to prevent the occurrence of hypercoagulable states and thromboembolism.

The spermatic cord on the surface of the male scrotum protrudes. What is this disease?

Varicocele is a vascular disease, which can be divided into primary and secondary according to the cause. Refers to the abnormal expansion, elongation and tortuosity of the sphenoid venous plexus, which can cause pain and discomfort and progressive testicular dysfunction. It is one of the common causes of male infertility. Common on the side, accounting for 77% to 92%, or bilateral incidence, about 7% to 22%, rare single on the right side, accounting for about 1%, the reasons are as follows: disease problems, please click here to consult online 1 vein Increased intravascular pressure, because the left spermatic cord vein travels long and enters the left renal vein at a right angle 2 “Nutcracker” phenomenon (NCS), the superior mesenteric artery and aorta compress the left renal vein, affecting the return of the left spermatic cord vein Causes reflux, the phenomenon of “Nutcracker” 3 The weak connective tissue around the internal spermatic vein and the lack of venous valves are commonly seen in the left side of the primary varicocele. The related factors are the lack or function of the spermatic vein valve Unhealthy causes blood reflux. The spermatic cord wall and surrounding connective tissue are weak, or dysplasia of the cremaster muscle is caused by anatomical factors. The causes and diseases of secondary varicocele caused by upright posture affecting spermatic cord venous return include: left renal vein or vena cava tumor thrombosis, renal tumor, intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal tumor, left renal vein or vena cava tumor thrombosis , Renal tumors, pelvic tumors, huge hydronephrosis, ectopic blood vessels compressing upward spermatic cord veins and other secondary varicocele clinical manifestations are swelling of the scrotum in the standing position, local persistent or intermittent scrotal swelling pain, hidden pain And dull pain, can radiate to the lower abdomen, groin area or back waist, symptoms increase after fatigue or standing for a long time and walking, the symptoms reduce or disappear after lying down. In general, the male urogenital system of varicocele is common Diseases, more common in young adults, the incidence rate accounts for 10% to 15% of the normal male population, accounting for 19% to 41% of male infertility, mostly due to its related scrotal pain and discomfort, infertility and testicular atrophy, etc. Concerned & nbsp.Similar conditions require consultation, please click here to see from the clinical consultation, the prevalence of varicocele in the general male population is 10% to 15%, accounting for 30% of primary male infertility ~ 40%, 69% ~ 81% in secondary infertility. The probability of first-degree relatives with varicocele patients increased significantly: 21.1% of fathers and 36.2% brothers may have varicocele. For mild varicocele, conservative treatment can be chosen clinically, mainly in two One aspect is to use scrotal straps, and the second is to avoid strenuous activities and increase abdominal pressure as much as possible; for patients with severe symptoms, you can use low-ligation surgery to avoid recurrence

How to judge whether it is “true red” if it is found to have increased red blood cells? Shi Shurong explained

People often check the blood routine and find that the red blood cells and hemoglobin are too high. After learning online, it is found that it is very similar to a blood disease-polycythemia vera. This disease has many hazards. How to judge whether it is “true red”? Why does Shi Shurong’s micro-signal xueyeke999 show erythrocytosis? Is the red blood cells and hemoglobin higher than “real red”? Experts reminded that the most important thing to check for erythrocytosis is to carefully distinguish whether it is secondary erythrocytosis or primary? First, see if there is dehydration during blood collection. If there is obvious dehydration and the blood is concentrated, the red blood cell count will increase relatively. For example, you usually drink less water, and do blood routine just after strenuous exercise. This may happen. Second, to see whether the factors of secondary erythrocytosis are generally common in chronic chronic hypoxic diseases caused by chronic severe lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc., due to chronic hypoxia, compensatory erythrocytosis ; There are still people living in high altitude areas for a long time, due to high altitude hypoxia can cause secondary erythrocytes. Heart disease, renal vascular disease, severe snoring, etc. can cause secondary erythrocytosis due to hypoxia, while adrenal tumors, kidney tumors, and other tumors all cause secondary erythropoiesis due to excessive secretion of erythropoietin . Third, polycythemia vera due to abnormal gene of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, especially the presence of JAK-2V617F gene mutation, unregulated excessive production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, resulting in a significant increase in peripheral blood red blood cells. Often greater than 165g / L, mostly white blood cells and thrombocytosis. The inspection revealed the above-mentioned conditions, and further examination of bone marrow and JAK-2V617F gene mutations is required. This is a disease of malignant tumor nature and requires active treatment. Patients with polycythemia vera are often accompanied by bloody appearance, like the red face after drinking alcohol, and the face of severe cases is like the color of purple eggplant. Clinically, true red is more common in the middle-aged and elderly population, and the disease is not a benign disease, therefore, once diagnosed, active treatment is required. In summary, we remind everyone that the examination found that the red blood cells increased and the hemoglobin was too high. First of all, it is necessary to distinguish whether the condition is secondary or primary. After the condition is clarified, the patient’s physical manifestations, test results, etc. are combined to make a reasonable diagnosis. Welcome to pay attention to the WeChat public account of the True Red Patient Association: zkxy120

Poor skin, maybe related to secondary cleansing!

Some mushrooms may be relatively new to secondary cleaning. The following is the second cleaning of science. In fact, many mushrooms like to pour lotion on cotton pads after wiping their faces. This practice is what we often call secondary cleaning. Why do you need secondary cleaning? Secondary cleaning is because some people are pursuing cleanliness. They think that there are many chemical ingredients in the tap water that wash the face, which also stimulates the skin. In addition, makeup remover and cleansing products can not completely remove dirt and sebum on the skin, you need to use toner and cotton pad to wipe again. In fact, at the beginning, all toners are designed to neutralize the residual soap on the face during the cleaning process, because most of the cleaning products at that time were soap-based and the pH was very high (that is, “alkaline” of). The role of secondary cleansing 1. After cleansing, use toner to perform secondary cleansing to remove residual cleansing products, and effectively balance the skin’s PH value, dissolve skin oil to add moisture to the stratum corneum. 2. The secondary cleaning can remove the residual makeup and dirt on the face. Generally, toners with cleansing effects contain alcohol or acid components, and alcohol-based products have a skin astringent effect. 3. It can take away the aging keratin when wiped with a cotton pad. The addition of acidic ingredients in many cleaning products can help soften keratin, which is more conducive to the absorption of subsequent care products. I would like to ask, if you use a cotton pad to wipe your face every day? Can you bear your cheeks? You know, the skin changes every 28 days, so there is so much keratin on the face! Every day, wipe the face with a cotton pad, the direct result is-the skin barrier of the face is damaged, the cuticle becomes thinner! So, is secondary cleaning necessary for everyone? The answer is obvious, not everyone is suitable for secondary cleaning. So what kind of people is suitable for secondary cleaning? For unsuitable people, for dry skin, secondary cleaning is not necessary! Because the dry paper cuticle is not thin or thick, it can be said to be moderate! Wipe the skin frequently with a cotton pad and it will easily become sensitive muscles! Needless to say, very sensitive skin cannot be cleaned twice. The damaged skin barrier needs to be repaired, and it is shameless to wipe it with a cotton pad! Suitable for people with oily skin, it is especially suitable for secondary cleaning. The cuticle itself is thicker! Excessive oil secretion in summer is more likely to clog pores! Regularly do the second cleaning to better unclog the pores! For combination skin, it is also more suitable for secondary cleansing, why compare! Because the second cleaning is only suitable for the T area. It is not recommended for dry areas on the cheeks. For acne-prone skin, the toner and cotton pads pat against the pores from the bottom to the top. Such a secondary cleansing is necessary. & nbsp. After the second cleansing, the skin will become soft and elastic, and the subsequent ingredients will be easier to penetrate. Excess cuticles and grease will be wiped clean. For sensitive skin, the second cleansing should also pay attention to ingredients and techniques. If you can’t do the following, don’t clean it again, just pat it with your hands, don’t rub it. Be cautious about the ingredients in the make-up water and say goodbye to the more irritating ingredients (such as alcohol, witch hazel ingredients). The second cleaning routine is the correct way to use it. Use a lotion to wet the cotton pad from the center of the forehead to the sides , Nose from top to bottom, circle clockwise around the mouth, cheek from bottom to top, first press gently, then move gently. In addition to the secondary cleansing effect, the moisturizing cotton pads have a wet compress! I believe a lot of mushroom cold will also choose wet compress when the skin is dry! After infiltrating the cotton pad with lotion as shown in the figure below, apply it to both cheeks in the T area. In order to achieve the role of replenishing moisture to the skin. For that wet compress, Xiaojun suggested that the best time is 5 minutes. In addition to sensitive muscles, anyone is suitable for wet compresses! However, the frequency of wet compresses should not be too high, after all, everything is absolutely counter-productive! Excessive wet compress lotion will also burden the skin, resulting in excessive skin hydration, causing a series of undesirable skin conditions: decreased resistance and easy sensitivity. Everything is about one degree. Regardless of whether it is a secondary cleansing or wet compress, it should be adequate. Everyone’s skin condition is different, so be sure to try to find a cleaning method that suits your skin condition.

35 years old with high blood pressure, how long can I live? A detailed analysis by a cardiovascular expert, you can rest assured when you see it

High blood pressure was discovered at the age of 35. If it is primary hypertension, this age is relatively young. Since high blood pressure will seriously affect the functions of important organs such as heart, eyes, brain, kidney, etc., it has a very high lethal and disabling rate, and the life expectancy will be longer at the age of 35, so in order to ensure the quality of life in the future, As long as possible to extend life, it is necessary to strictly control blood pressure. To rule out the occurrence of secondary hypertension at this age, you first need to rule out secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is often caused by other diseases of the body, such as renal hypertension caused by chronic kidney disease, endocrine diseases such as primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, hypercortisolism, etc. These diseases may cause Abnormally increased blood pressure, systolic blood pressure can even be as high as 200mmHg or more, and commonly used antihypertensive drugs have poor effects on it, prone to target organ damage and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents, so once it is found that active treatment of primary disease is needed. How many years can 35-year-old hypertension live? If secondary hypertension is excluded, it means that the hypertension is primary. First, the related risk factors that cause primary hypertension are divided into variable factors and unchangeable factors. The variable factors include smoking, alcoholism, obesity, staying up late, lack of exercise, high salt and fat diet, and drug effects. Including family history, age, gender. Controlling blood pressure starts with correcting bad lifestyle habits, such as low-salt and low-fat diet, smoking cessation and alcohol restriction, weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding staying up late. If the blood pressure is still higher than 140 / 90mmHg for 3-6 months of lifestyle intervention, you can Use antihypertensive drugs. In addition to controlling blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs can protect target organs from damage and maintain normal organ function. In addition, don’t forget to monitor your blood pressure regularly. For self-monitoring, you can use an international standard scheme certified upper arm home blood pressure monitor, which is calibrated at least once a year. When initially using antihypertensive drugs or adjusting drugs, it is recommended to measure blood pressure once in the morning and night, 2-3 times each time, and take the average value. After the blood pressure is stabilized, the blood pressure can be measured 1-2 days a week. Morning and evening blood pressure should be controlled below 140 / 90mmHg. As long as the blood pressure is strictly controlled and the target organs are well protected, then even if it is currently 35 years old and the life expectancy is 85 years old, it is completely unnecessary to live to 85 years old. According to this calculation, it can live at least 50 years. Finally, it needs to be reminded that some people find high blood pressure without any discomfort and let it go. This is extremely dangerous. Since young people may not have complications in the short term, but after a long time, the irreversible damage to the target organ gradually increases The emergence will seriously affect the quality of life and life expectancy, so even asymptomatic hypertension requires active intervention. (Part of the picture source network in the article, the copyright belongs to the original author, thank you for the picture author, if you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me, I will delete it.)

What are the hazards of secondary epilepsy?

Except for a small number of patients with primary epilepsy, most of them are secondary epilepsy patients. Speaking of secondary epilepsy, everyone is familiar with it, mostly because of acquired habits, brain diseases or trauma and other causes of great harm to the human body. Many patients in the clinic are unaware of the dangers of the disease, which leads to repeated attacks and delays the disease for many years. Once the epilepsy disease affects all aspects of the patient’s life, it is most important to go to the regular epilepsy hospital for professional treatment in a timely manner. So, what are the hazards of secondary epilepsy? Hazard 1: Endanger the life safety of patients regardless of the cause of epilepsy. During the disease process, if the timely and correct treatment is not performed, the patient will have an adverse effect on the mind due to the sudden power generation of the brain. Emotional depression or symptoms of wanting to die are happening; or because of the characteristics of epilepsy, the patient will often be at risk. Hazard 2: Brain function damage Because epileptic seizures are caused by abnormal over discharge of brain neurons, the most direct damage to the disease is the human brain, and the central nervous system that is the most dominant body’s action response is the most The key part. Different degrees of damage to brain function will bring many inconveniences to the patient’s body, such as uncontrolled emotions, uncontrolled behavior or mental decline. What deserves our attention is the children with epilepsy, and it is also the most worrying of all the patient groups. Hazard 3: Mental disorders For people suffering from epilepsy, in addition to the psychological stimulation and impact of the disease on the patient, the social incomprehension and their own panic about the disease often make the patient fall into a bad mood. Under the double impact of disease and environment, the patient will have epilepsy mental disorder, which will not only increase the difficulty of treating the disease, but also cause various accidents. Although secondary epilepsy disease will bring a lot of harm to patients, epilepsy is not an incurable disease, as long as the patient can be fully recovered by regular professional treatment as soon as possible. This requires patients and their families to correctly understand the epilepsy disease, eliminate the misunderstanding of epilepsy disease, and do a good family maintenance to actively treat the primary disease is critical to the patient’s recovery.

What happens if one child is normal and the second child is not pregnant

Many people think that it is impossible to have infertility after having a child, but it is not. It is still possible to suffer from infertility after giving birth. Secondary infertility refers to the situation in which a woman has a normal sex life and has previously been pregnant (with a history of fertility and pregnancy), but now has not taken any contraceptive measures but failed to conceive. The causes of secondary infertility are those 1. Artificial abortion, medical abortion: abortion, drug abortion is the culprit leading to secondary infertility, with the increase in the number and frequency of abortions, female patients with secondary infertility It is also increasing. Abortion has become one of the main causes of secondary infertility. The psychological pain caused by secondary infertility is no less than the pain caused by abortion surgery. Abortion may damage the endometrium, resulting in amenorrhea or low menstrual flow, and may also cause endometritis, which prevents the fertilized egg from implanting and causes secondary infertility. Abortion can also cause accessory inflammation that can cause the fallopian tube to become impassable, water accumulation, etc. , Which causes secondary infertility. 2. Immune infertility: People with a history of pregnancy and abortion are prone to produce anti-sperm antibodies and anti-endometrial antibodies and cause immune infertility. 3. Ovarian dysfunction: Some patients with secondary infertility are older and have poor ovarian function, irregular menstruation, follicular dysplasia and ovulation disorder. Abortion can also affect ovarian function. 4. Sexually transmitted diseases: Many sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma, etc. cervical erosion, cervical canal inflammation will retrograde infection to form endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis, these inflammations will change the internal environment of the pelvic cavity And function thus affects the delivery and implantation of fertilized eggs. 5. Amenorrhea: when excessive suction or curettage, the endometrium basal layer is damaged, or scraped with a curette spoon, the endometrium base layer is scraped off, so that the endometrium can not be regenerated, resulting in long-term amenorrhea, or no operation Bacterial operation is not strict, uterine cavity infection after abortion causes uterine cavity adhesion and amenorrhea. Tips: Infertility for women is not only due to irregular menstruation, but also because of the above reasons. For example, women should not lose weight excessively, and should not be aborted many times. Normally, you should do contraception. I believe you already have A certain understanding.

Secondary funnel chest

【Summary】 Two clear reasons can cause funnel chest, one is surgery, the other is trauma, this deformity is not the original, and the acquired disease, it is secondary funnel chest. Such a deformity is suitable for treatment with Wang surgery, and NUSS surgery is not recommended. & nbsp. Funnel chest is a common chest deformity in chest wall surgery. It usually occurs in neonates or young children, and becomes obvious during adolescence. Because the pathogenesis is unknown, many people treat it as a primary or congenital malformation. However, this understanding is not comprehensive, because in clinical, we often encounter funnel chest caused by a clear cause. This deformity is acquired and is a secondary funnel. & nbsp. There are two main causes of secondary funnel chest we encounter, one is trauma and the other is surgery. The injured part of the trauma patient is located in the sternum and surrounding structures, and it is deformed because it is not fixed in time. There are two cases of surgery resulting in funnel chest, one is the removal of the lung lobes, and the other is the repair of the diaphragm. The formation mechanism mainly comes from the pulling of external force, and the local weakness of the chest wall has laid a structural foundation for the formation of the funnel chest. & nbsp. The appearance of the secondary funnel chest is no different from that of the primary funnel chest. Because trauma or surgery can form adhesions at the bottom of the depression, it is best to use Wang surgery for orthopedics, not suitable for NUSS surgery. & nbsp. (Wang Wenlin, Director of Chest Wall Surgery, Second People ’s Hospital of Guangdong Province, WeChat: wangwenlinzhuren. Public number “Expert of Thoracic Surgery”: wangwenlinyishi)

These 4 signs appear in the body, pregnancy may be in vain

The great writer Su Xun of the Song Dynasty recorded in the “Discrimination on Adultery”: & quot. By this analogy, we can infer the development trend of things from a few signs. This is also what we often say “see the book”. In fact, this theory is also applicable in the medical field. If these four signs appear in the body of a female friend, it may be that you are infertile. 1. Irregular menstruation Irregular menstruation and infertility are closely related. If women have regular menstruation, ovulation is generally considered normal. Of course, the endocrine environment, the body and other important diseases such as hyperthyroidism or other bodies can also affect Women’s menstruation. In general, a woman’s menstruation is closely related to her fertility and ovulation. If the menstruation is not normal, you should seek medical advice to adjust it. 2. Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is a common symptom in gynecological diseases. Amenorrhea can be divided into two types, one is primary amenorrhea and the other is secondary amenorrhea. Both primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea are fatal for pregnancy. No menstruation means no ovulation, and pregnancy without ovulation is nonsense. 3. Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea is divided into primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea. Generally speaking, primary dysmenorrhea will not cause infertility. Secondary dysmenorrhea is one of the common signs of infertility. Most of the causes of secondary dysmenorrhea are caused by endometriosis, and some of them have tumors. Endometriosis can cause genital destruction, blockage of the fallopian tubes, and the function of the ovaries. It can also affect ovulation, etc., resulting in infertility. 4. Breast milk during non-lactation period, breast milk overflow after squeezing or natural conditions, which is largely related to diseases such as prolactinoma, hypothalamic insufficiency, pituitary tumor, chronic renal failure and other diseases. In addition, some antihypertensive drugs and birth control pills may also cause galactorrhea. Suggestion: The above reasons can directly lead to female infertility, so if symptoms appear, go to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible. If these signs appear in the body of the female friend during pregnancy, the pregnancy is in vain. It is best to go to the hospital for detailed examination and treatment, and then come back to the pregnancy after the body recovers.

Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein

Can protein be injected in secondary epilepsy? Primary epilepsy refers to the absence of organic manifestations of the brain, where to treat epilepsy, or the performance of metabolic diseases. As this epilepsy, the cause of its onset cannot be found. Seizures are easily affected by external stimuli. It is said that the incidence of epilepsy is increasing every year. Many people are unfortunately suffering from this disease. Where to treat epilepsy is good, there are many reasons for this disease, these reasons In fact, it can be avoided in daily life. Let ’s learn about epilepsy caused by viral encephalitis today. It is also possible to find out no cause. The type of epilepsy belongs to primary epilepsy. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? What are the symptoms of early seizures? Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early epileptic seizures 1. Headache-type epilepsy: manifested as a sudden onset headache, the frontal part of the headache is more common, followed by the temporal region and the orbital part, pulsating headache is common, and there are also pain and tingling The pain is usually severe and lasts for a few minutes. The attack is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fatigue, blurred vision, and drowsiness. It is like a normal person during the interval between attacks. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early seizures are manifested as two. Complex partial seizures, also known as psychomotor seizures, will cause disturbance of consciousness, and the consciousness of patients with epilepsy is lost. Various auras, automatisms, abnormal movements, aggressiveness, language disorders, autonomic symptoms, etc. The general duration is less than 15 minutes, and there is often confusion after the attack. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early seizures 3. In the middle of the epileptic seizures, the patient will have the following symptoms such as sudden loss of consciousness, fall to the ground, muscle contraction of the whole body, head backwards, strong flexion of both upper limbs until where to treat epilepsy, lower limb Stretching and stiffness, the mouth is opened first and then closed. At this time, lips, tongue and cheeks may be bitten. As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, the air in the lungs is forced out, and at the same time, the sharp throat spasm and throat stenosis are called sharp. The pupils are dilated and blood pressure rises. Can secondary epilepsy be injected with protein? Symptoms of early seizures 4. Simple partial seizures will have some somatic symptoms and prodromal symptoms, such as head, trunk and limbs, transient pain, numbness, cold and heat, acupuncture and touch inductance, etc., visually When it comes to flashes, colored lights, and spots, you will hear buzzing and rasping sounds. Where can you treat epilepsy? You can smell unpleasant smells. You can feel sour, bitter, salty, etc. Some dizziness, sinking, floating feeling. The above introduction is also an introduction to epilepsy. Xiaobian believes that most epilepsy patients have a deeper understanding of the common knowledge of epilepsy. Since epilepsy is a common chronic disease, the probability of suffering from epilepsy in daily life Larger, inadvertent epilepsy needs timely treatment. If you want more authoritative treatment, our hospital will provide you with a full range of treatments and strive to make you recover soon. Your health is our greatest hope for medical staff.

The labia minora surgery is not done, when can the second repair be performed?

Many women after the operation of the labia minora hypertrophy, the anxiety value will reach the peak on the third and fourth days because the labia minora is at the peak of swelling at this time, the appearance is far from expected, and many patients may even suspect that they have failed the operation, thus Losing trust and turning to other doctors for help, there are also many patients who are eager to perform a second operation in order to achieve the desired results, which is actually unreasonable. I would like to remind everyone: before the local swelling of the labia minora, do not perform a second operation! Even if it is really necessary to perform secondary correction, it must be done after ensuring complete swelling. Otherwise, a skilled surgeon can hardly make accurate judgments. Once there is too much labia tissue removed during the operation, it is difficult to Make up!

Female friends should pay attention to infertility diseases behind dysmenorrhea

Pale face, cold hands and feet or even cold sweat Then she must have come to “big aunt”! Being dysmenorrhea ing. . Thought dysmenorrhea is normal? NO! Behind it is the crisis that makes female friends infertile! 1. What is dysmenorrhea? Why is it dysmenorrhea? Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological symptoms, before and after “big aunt” or “big aunt” During the period, pain in the lower abdomen, swelling, accompanied by backache or other discomfort, severe symptoms will also affect the quality of life. It is divided into two kinds of primary and secondary. The primary is dysmenorrhea caused by the absence of organic lesions in the pelvic organs. The cause of such dysmenorrhea is caused by uterine ischemia caused by spastic contraction of the uterus. Generally, the pain will be relieved two or three days after menstruation. And need to be vigilant is secondary dysmenorrhea. 2. Secondary dysmenorrhea secondary dysmenorrhea is often caused by some internal organs lesions. Common causes include endometriosis, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and uterine malformations. These inflammations are basically the inflammation of female reproductive organs. If female friends do not pay enough attention and do not take active treatment, it will affect pregnancy. Secondary dysmenorrhea can also cause endocrine disorders in female friends, which can cause menstrual disorders. Menstrual disorders can affect ovulation. Without normal ovulation, pregnancy can become very difficult. 3. How to diagnose secondary dysmenorrhea If female friends often have symptoms of dysmenorrhea, you should consider going to a professional hospital for examination. Listen to the doctor’s professional advice, check the ultrasound and blood items, and see if it is due to dysmenorrhea caused by uterine lesions. If it is endometriosis and other diseases, it will cause infertility of female friends!