In general, people think that they are sick and have low resistance and need to supplement nutrition, but polycythemia vera is different. True red is also known as “hyperemia”, patients not only can not over-feed, but also need a light diet to control weight. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat consultation platform: zkxk9999 So, what other foods in the daily diet are suitable for patients with polycythemia? ① Edible cactus edible method: take one cactus, peel off the thorns, wash and chop, take 1 egg, remove the shell and mix well with the cactus, fry and eat. The number of bowel movements may increase after use, but not more than 3 times a day. Efficacy: The cactus is medicinal bitter cold, can promote qi and blood circulation, clear heat and detoxify, heat stasis and blood stasis, impaired veins, and has obvious curative effect. ② Black fungus is usually common, and the method of eating is relatively simple. Efficacy: Auricularia auricula is a medicinal Gan Ping. It is rich in carbohydrates, inorganic salts, sulfur, magnesium and vitamin B. It has nourishing yin, nourishing body, promoting blood circulation and resisting cancer. It can dilute platelet aggregation and reduce blood viscosity. ③White radish White radish is rich in lignin, which can improve the activity of macrophages, engulf mutant cells, and enhance immunity in the body. Polycythemia vera itself will cause the patient’s total blood volume to increase. If the method of supplementation is taken, it is easy to counteract, increase the burden on the patient’s body, and even increase the condition. Therefore, true red patients should control their diet and actively cooperate with treatment. More patient communication help can pay attention to WeChat public account: Zhenhong
[Overview] Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a chronic intravascular hemolysis caused by acquired red blood cell membrane defects. It is often exacerbated during sleep and may be accompanied by paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and pancytopenia. Although this disease is rare, the incidence has increased in recent years. There are more in the north of my country than in the south, and more than half of them occur in young adults aged 20-40, and some are under 10 and over 70. There are more men than women. The clinical manifestations of patients in my country are different from those in Europe and the United States. The onset of the disease is slow, with anemia and bleeding as the first symptoms, and hemoglobinuria is less common. Individually with infection, thrombosis or aplastic anemia, the onset is sudden. 【Diagnosis】 (1) Medical history and symptoms (1) Medical history Question: Attention: ① Are there any history of jaundice, sudden low back pain and severe abdominal pain. ②Any history of stubborn headache, intermittent soy sauce color or meat washing watery urine. ⑵Clinical symptoms: dizziness, headache, fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations. chills, fever, low back pain, chest tightness. Hematuria or soy sauce urine. (2) Physical examination revealed anemia appearance, yellow staining of skin and sclera, mild splenomegaly or normal. (三)、Auxiliary examination 1. Blood picture: Hemoglobin decreases, presents positive or small cell low pigment anemia. Leukocytes, platelets decrease or normal. Reticulocytes increase. Spherical red blood cells increase, red blood cell fragments are easily seen, and young red blood cells are visible. 2. Bone marrow elephant: from hyperplasia obviously active to hyperplasia, ranging from hyperplasia of juvenile red blood cells. The granulocyte and megakaryocyte cell lines are normal. Reduced or absent iron in and out of cells. 3. Blood indirect erythromycin increased, serum binding globin decreased or disappeared, and plasma free hemoglobin increased. Urine hemosiderin is positive. 4. Direct anti-human globulin test and indirect anti-human globulin test were negative. 5. Acid hemolysis test, sugar water test, snake venom factor hemolysis test was positive. (四)、Differential diagnosis 1. . Hereditary spherical polycythemia: The main points of identification refer to autoimmune hemolytic anemia. 2. . Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: The main points of identification refer to autoimmune hemolytic anemia. 3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: direct anti-human globulin test positive or indirect anti-human globulin test positive. 4. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: cyanosis of hands and feet occurs after cold, and improves after warming. The cold and hot hemolysis test is positive. 【Therapeutic measures】 Iron agent: ferrous sulfate 0.32～3 times/d, or Fonacide 1 tablet once/d, orally. Folic acid & nbsp. 5 ~ 10mg 3 times / d, oral. Androgen: Stanozolol 2mg 3 times/day, orally. Or testosterone propionate 100mg 1 time/d, or nandrolone phenylpropionate 50mg 2 times/week, intramuscular injection. Glucocorticoid: Hydrocortisone 100～200mg/d, intravenous drip, 3 days later, prednisone 20～40mg/d, oral administration, treatment course 3～6 months. 6% dextran: 500～1000ml/d, intravenous infusion. For acute hemolysis or crisis of abdominal pain. Blood transfusion: Those with severe anemia should be transfused with washed red blood cells. age < 40 years old, conditional allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Polycythemia vera is not common in daily life, and many patients do not know much about the disease. They think that the high red blood cell value is true red. In fact, the characteristic of true red is not only that the red blood cells are too high, and only checking the blood routine can not confirm the true red! Director Shi Shurong’s consultation on WeChat zkxk9999 consultation: physical examination blood routinely found that red blood cells and hemoglobin are high, more than 180 hemoglobin, but my body has no symptoms at all, is it true polycythemia? Medical Answer: General blood routine examination of red blood cells and hemoglobin is abnormally high, and may be suspected of polycythemia, but whether it can be diagnosed as polycythemia vera, simple blood routine examination can not be finalized, in addition to the patient’s physical manifestations, but also with Comprehensive analysis of other relevant inspection results. So, what abnormalities do people with polycythemia have? First of all, patients with signs and symptoms are more common in the middle-aged and elderly people, often found due to headaches, limb numbness and other symptoms. Routine blood tests: mainly red blood cell count, hematocrit, increased red blood cell volume and hemoglobin, hematocrit is 60% male and 55% female patients often have an absolute increase in red blood cell volume. Therefore, these patients can not do red blood cell volume check. About 50% of patients are accompanied by increased white blood cell and platelet counts. Bone marrow elephant: Early patients with red blood cells often exhibit iron-deficient morphological features, low pigment in small cells, and late bone marrow fibrosis, which can have significant large and small unevenness and teardrop-shaped red blood cells. In advanced patients, intermediate and late granulocytes can be seen, and about 23 patients can have increased basophils. Giant blood platelets are often seen in peripheral blood smears. Bone marrow examinations are often hyperproliferative in three lines and may have reticular fibrosis. The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase level is increased in about 70% of patients, the serum VitB12 concentration is increased in 40% of patients, the serum VitB12 binding protein is increased in 70% of patients, most patients have elevated uric acid and histamine levels, and arterial PO is usually more normal People are low. Whole blood viscosity often increases. Serum EPO levels are reduced or normal low values. Patients with normal PT, aPT and normal fibrinogen platelet counts of 1000X109L may have acquired VWD similar to type II VWD), with extended bleeding time, ⅧC: normal VWF, reduced activity of co-factors of ristocetin, and large VWF. The number of aggregates is reduced or missing. Some patients have deficiency of antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C and protein S. The above is about the common symptoms of polycythemia vera, and the examination of blood and bone marrow. Finally, it is emphasized that the late stage of true red disease is very harmful to the health of patients. Therefore, once the diagnosis is confirmed, it must be actively treated without delay! For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Clinicians generally ask patients to perform blood routine tests. Blood routine is an item that checks blood and can assist doctors to diagnose disease. So by checking the blood routine, can you see whether it is a bacterial infection or a viral infection? In general, the peripheral blood leukocyte count is not high or decreased, and the lymphocyte count or percentage is increased, indicating viral infection; the WBC count and neutrophil count or percentage are increased, indicating bacterial infection. Clinically, peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) counts and neutrophil percentages in blood routines are one of the traditional screening tools to determine whether they are bacterial infections. WBC counts are also often used to assess the risk of serious illness in children with fever One of the standards. Urine routine is one of the three clinical routine tests. As a fecal examination, urine reflects the body’s metabolic status and is an important indicator for the diagnosis of many diseases. Proteinuria or urine sediment can occur early in many kidney diseases There are formed elements. Abnormal urine is often a sign of kidney or urinary tract disease. Urine routine examination content includes urine color, transparency, pH, red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, cast, protein, specific gravity and urine sugar. Therefore, two examinations, blood routine examination and urine routine examination are one of the clinical routine examination items. Routine blood tests include: white blood cell count and classification test, can make an initial diagnosis of infectious diseases, leukemia, rheumatic diseases, aplastic anemia, etc.; red blood cells, hemoglobin and average red blood cell hemoglobin concentration, average red blood cell hemoglobin content, average red blood cell volume check, Judgment can be made on anemia and its type; platelet count and platelet volume, platelet hematocrit, and large platelet ratio can be used to make a preliminary judgment on hemorrhagic diseases. Urine routine tests include: white blood cells, red blood cells, urine protein, urine specific gravity test, you can initially determine whether there is kidney disease, urinary tract infections and so on.
Abnormal proliferation of bone marrow tissue can occur under special circumstances. Generally, bone marrow tumors with abnormal proliferation of clonal erythrocytes are called polycythemia vera, abbreviated as true red. Director Shi Shurong’s micro-signal zkxk9999 true red is a chronic disease, mainly manifested in the increase in the number of red blood cells in the peripheral blood and the increase in blood viscosity. Patients are often accompanied by increased white blood cell and platelet counts, hepatosplenomegaly, or bleeding, thrombosis and other complications may occur Disease, some can progress to acute leukemia or bone marrow fibrosis. There are three points to note in the treatment of this disease: 1. Control the number of red blood cells. Commonly used interferon can also be supplemented with other oral chemotherapy drugs. 2. To control the tendency of thrombosis caused by erythropoiesis, you can take aspirin and other anticoagulant drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis. 3. If the disease is to be cured, the only way is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. When interferon is used to treat this disease, the general dose is 3 million units, which is injected subcutaneously once a day, and then gradually reduced to the long-term maintenance according to the number of red blood cells. Injecting interferon to treat true red pays attention to two points: ① At the same time, hepatoprotective drugs are added, because the drug hurts the liver; ② The first three shots generally respond when interferon is injected, showing fever, muscle and joint pain, and oral supplementation can be added in advance Pain relieves symptoms. Finally, it is emphasized that true red treatment focuses on relieving symptoms, avoiding thrombosis, inhibiting malignant cloning, delaying or reducing the occurrence of long-term complications such as myelofibrosis and leukemia, thereby improving the quality of life and prolonging survival. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Kidney is not good, can be divided into two situations, one is the “kidney deficiency” in the category of traditional Chinese medicine, but the kidney function is normal; the other is the “kidney insufficiency” in Western medicine, although the same kidney deficiency, but due to kidney function Decline, which can cause a series of changes in the body. Here may wish to combine kidney deficiency in the category of traditional Chinese medicine with poor kidney function in the category of western medicine to see which symptoms of the hands and feet need attention. Kidney is not good, what is the performance of hands and feet? 1. Weakness of hands and feet Whether it is kidney deficiency or renal insufficiency, patients can have weakness of hands and feet. From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine, the kidney is the “innate foundation” and “source of life.” Traditional Chinese medicine believes that the kidney stores essence and essence as the basic substance for the human body to maintain life activities. Kidney deficiency can lead to loss of body essence and lack of kidney essence. Life activities of all aspects of the body are affected. Therefore, dizziness, headache, waist and knee weakness, and weakness in hands and feet can occur, so Chinese medicine needs kidney and essence. In Western medicine, the kidneys can maintain the balance of water, electrolytes and acid hydrolysis in the body, and play a role in excreting metabolic waste. As long as the kidney function is normal, there will be few signs of hand and foot fatigue, but when kidney dysfunction occurs, there will be a series of complications such as electrolyte disturbance, renal anemia, and hypocalcemia, which will lead to hand and foot fatigue. 2. When the hands and feet are swollen and renal insufficiency, on the one hand, the water in the body cannot be smoothly discharged through the kidneys, causing a large amount of liquid to stay in the body, the liquid will overflow through the blood vessels to the tissue gap, causing the hands and feet to swell; on the other hand, the albumin in the body A large amount of urine is excreted through the kidneys, which is also called proteinuria. After a large amount of albumin is excreted, it will cause the body to have low protein, and the plasma colloid osmotic pressure will decrease, resulting in a pressure difference between the inside and outside of the blood vessel. This will further increase the penetration of water in the blood vessel into the tissue and increase the swelling of the hands and feet. 3. Cold hands and feet If a man has cold hands and feet, it may be a manifestation of kidney yang deficiency in Chinese medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, kidney deficiency is divided into kidney yin deficiency and kidney yang deficiency. As the saying goes, “yang deficiency is cold”, limbs are cold and cold, and cold hands and feet are typical manifestations of kidney yang deficiency. Men may also experience decreased libido, Problems such as impotence and premature ejaculation. 4. The number of erythrocytes in the body of nail whitening remains normal, and it needs to rely on the binding of erythropoietin to the surface receptors of erythroid progenitor cells to promote bone marrow differentiation of erythrocytes, and the erythropoietin in the body is mainly produced by the kidneys, and renal dysfunction It is the reduction of erythropoietin secretion, which will lead to the reduction of red blood cells. The most direct consequence is to cause renal anemia, which is manifested as whitening of lips, skin mucous membranes or nails, and the normal nail color is usually pale red. 5. Toe wear The toes are likely to be easily worn: If there is a problem with the kidney, it is easy to show that the body is weak, and the toes will be easily worn away, resulting in foot injuries. In short, no matter from the perspective of Chinese medicine or Western medicine, the kidney is one of the most important organs. When the above changes in the hands and feet occur, remember to check the kidney. It is likely that the kidney is not performing well. You need to go to the hospital to see the nephrology department. , Further examination of kidney function, including auxiliary examination of kidney morphology (ultrasound) and function (urinary routine, blood creatinine). (Part of the picture source network in the article, the copyright belongs to the original author, thank you for the picture author, if you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me, I will delete it.)
Polycythemia vera is a type of myeloproliferative disease. The disease progresses slowly and the early symptoms are not typical. However, as the disease progresses, the patient’s symptoms become more and more obvious. Common symptoms include bleeding, thrombosis and embolism, and increased histamine. These symptoms undoubtedly increase the difficulty of treatment. Director Shi Shurong’s micro-signal zkxk9999 If the clinical symptoms are prominent, the peripheral blood red blood cells are significantly increased, and the bone marrow hyperplasia is strong. Because the traditional Chinese medicines have a slower onset, it is advisable to choose Western medicines such as hydroxyurea, malilan, cephaloside or cyclophosphamide to straighten the disease. , As soon as possible to inhibit erythroid hyperplasia and reduce the occurrence of complications. Because chemotherapeutic drugs are carcinogenic and have the potential to induce leukemia, they should not be used for a long time. They should be combined with traditional Chinese medicine to minimize the use of cytotoxic drugs and shorten the duration of use. After the condition is stable, it should be based on Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. On the dialectical basis, worm-breaking products such as leeches, worms, and turtles can be added to eliminate tumors and maintain the efficacy. At the same time, heat-clearing, detoxifying and poisoning traditional Chinese medicines, such as dandelion, Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Qingdai, and Huangyaozi, are used to enhance the curative effect. For the treatment of bleeding, the stage of the disease should be distinguished. Early bleeding is mostly stasis and obstruction of blood, blood does not return to menstruation, or blood heat burns the veins, and heat presses blood. In the later period, most of the blood is out of the blood. The pathogenesis is different and the treatment is very different. When severe hypertension occurs, western medicine can be used for emergency control such as antihypertensive drugs, and Chinese medicine can be added with nourishing yin and latent yang products. In addition, the red blood cell load of this disease is high, and it is easy to be complicated with gallstones. Pingsu can be added to clear heat and gallbladder. The main causes of death of this disease are thrombosis, bleeding, conversion to leukemia, and bone marrow fibrosis. Promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis can improve blood circulation and prevent vascular endothelial damage, which can reduce the incidence of thrombosis. It can also inhibit fibrous tissue proliferation, so it may delay the development of the disease to the end stage of bone marrow fibrosis. It should be noted that the early symptoms of true red are not obvious, which makes it easy to ignore the condition, but the disease does not stay in the “chronic” stage. If effective treatment measures are not taken in time, serious complications are likely to occur and even progress to acute leukemia. Therefore, patients need to correctly understand the disease and actively treat it. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Polycythemia vera is not common in our daily life, and even because we don’t know much about this disease, it leads to neglect of the condition, especially in the early stage of the disease, because the symptoms are not obvious or atypical, and often ignore its existence . But in the later stages of the disease, its harm should not be underestimated! Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat account zkxk9999 is really red? Polycythemia vera is characterized by erythrocytosis, which is also accompanied by an increase in platelets. The middle-aged and elderly population is the main disease group. However, the initial symptoms of patients with polycythemia vera are relatively mild, and the disease progresses very slowly. It is easy to ignore the condition and even miss the best treatment opportunity. In fact, the true red condition is not as general as the initial performance. If the treatment is not timely, the following conditions are likely to occur: the onset of true polycythemia is hidden, and early symptoms after the onset of patients will appear dizziness, fatigue, headache, sweating and other symptoms. As the disease progresses, the patient suffers from hemiplegia and myocardial infarction after thrombosis. Some patients also have nosebleeds and ecchymosis on the skin and mucous membranes. Increased histamine release can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Increased blood volume can cause hepatosplenomegaly. If severe symptoms occur, the patient should go to the hospital for treatment and treatment as soon as possible, otherwise it will be life-threatening. Experts remind that polycythemia vera is a bone marrow tumor. If left untreated, as the disease progresses, some patients can be converted into bone marrow fibrosis or even acute leukemia. Therefore, once a true red patient is diagnosed, he must actively take treatment measures to control the progress of the disease in a timely manner. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Polycythemia vera (PV, referred to as “true red”) is a clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cells of unknown cause, which belongs to the category of myeloproliferative diseases. Clinically, it is characterized by a significant increase in red blood cell count and volume, with clinical symptoms caused by hyperglycemia and hyperviscosity as the main manifestation, often accompanied by splenomegaly. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat signal zkxk9999 At present, for the treatment of true red, hydroxyurea, interferon and other drugs are mostly used. The long-term application of chemotherapy drugs causes many patients to have varying degrees of side effects, which may cause further harm to the health of patients. Therefore, patients are often consulted: Can I take Chinese medicine to treat this disease? The therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on this disease is obvious. Clinically, Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat this disease include gentian, gardenia, scutellaria, Qingdai, Bupleurum, paeonol, red peony, peach kernel, guiwei, Shengdi, Achyranthes bidentata, licorice, etc. However, the dosage of each Chinese medicine should be judged according to the patient’s condition, and should not be determined by itself. At the same time, it should be flexibly added or subtracted according to the change of the condition, otherwise the effect is not good. For example, for patients with thrombocytosis or thrombosis, add leeches, earthworms, and triangular ribs; for those with hypertension, use Gastrodia, Uncaria, Prunella; for patients with hepatosplenomegaly, add Curcuma, Dionysus, Bitter Turtle; bleeding Add water buffalo horn and agrimony; grassroots, artemisia annua, etc. Experts remind that the treatment of diseases by traditional Chinese medicine should be based on the symptoms, signs, and tongue and veins of the patients, and the symptomatic prescription can be applied, and must not be abused. In summary, in the process of treating polycythemia vera, with the targeted dialectical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine, it can alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy drugs and prevent the progress of the disease! For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia, which is most commonly affected by people living on the Mediterranean coast, Africans and Asians. Thalassemia is caused by a defect in the genes that control the production of heme. Severe patients cannot produce normal hemoglobin, and their red blood cells are also small and fragile, and will soon rupture. Mild patients will have slightly fewer red blood cells than normal ones. Its symptoms include: pale skin, long-term fatigue, and shortness of breath. Thalassemia is diagnosed mainly through blood tests. Children with severe thalassemia can start blood transfusion treatment every month from a few months, but frequent blood transfusions may eventually harm the child’s internal organs such as the heart and liver, because these organs may be excessive in iron. This problem can be prevented by regular infusion of a drug called desferrioxaminc. Certain children with severe thalassemia who are receiving regular blood transfusions and injecting drugs such as desferrioxamine are generally in good condition. They can grow and develop normally, and most people can live to middle age. The mild thalassemia does not require any treatment.
Xiebeilu studio WeChat add369456 Recently, the new crown virus has not stopped, many people are worried about being infected. It also puts a lot of pressure on medical institutions. For ordinary people, if you have caught the following symptoms and are afraid of being recruited, should you do a routine blood test to avoid infection and miss the best treatment? If there are abnormal blood routines, it is best to go to the hematology department of the hospital to check with the doctor carefully. If the blood routine cannot determine the type of disease, it is best for patients to do further examination, such as bone marrow aspiration, to find out the cause, because some monocytic blood cell reduction may be caused by some more serious diseases. In the case of abnormal blood routine, the most important method is to find the cause, after the doctor clearly diagnoses, and then actively treatment. If the amount of hemoglobin in the patient’s body is reduced and symptoms of anemia appear after examination, three items of anemia should be checked, and bone marrow aspiration should be performed to determine the cause and then treatment. If there is an increase in the amount of hemoglobin, you may also have polycythemia vera, which also requires the patient to undergo a bone marrow puncture for examination. Other abnormalities such as white blood cells and platelets usually require bone marrow aspiration to confirm the diagnosis. The main indicators of blood routine include red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. If the red blood cells are low, it generally indicates anemia. If the white blood cells are abnormal, it generally indicates an infectious disease in the near future. If the number of platelets is abnormal, it generally indicates that the clotting time is abnormal. Therefore, if there is a problem with red blood cells, it is generally recommended to eat some iron-supplemented food. If there is a problem with white blood cells, you can rest, drink more water, and recheck after a while. Some items of red blood cells include hemoglobin, number of red blood cells, average red blood cell volume, average red blood cell hemoglobin amount, average red blood cell hemoglobin concentration, etc. The first two items are mainly used to determine whether the tester has anemia. According to the degree of blood red egg drop, it can be divided into mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe anemia. The latter two items can be used to determine the type of anemia. Some items of white blood cells include the number of white blood cells, the number of lymphocytes, the number of monocytes, etc. The specific white blood cell classification will also include the number of various types of granulocytes, such as neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Elevated white blood cells usually indicate that the body has an infection, specifically which type of infection should be combined with the increase in which cells to judge, such as elevated neutrophils indicate bacterial infection, and elevated lymphocytes are manifestations of viral infection, eosinophilia Elevated granulocytes indicate an allergic reaction or parasitic infection. The items of the platelet part include the number of platelets and the average platelet volume. Usually observe the number of platelets to judge the body’s coagulation function, the reduction in the number of platelets is more likely to have bleeding tendency.
Senile anemia is a common disease of the elderly. According to statistics, the prevalence of anemia in the elderly is about 30% in men and about 17% in women. In recent years, the incidence of anemia in the elderly has increased. Because the anemia of the elderly is characterized by a relatively slow and hidden occurrence, it is often covered by the symptoms of other system diseases, so it is easy to be ignored or misdiagnosed. For example, anemia and cardiovascular diseases are common diseases of the elderly, but people’s attitudes towards them are quite different: When there is panic and discomfort, many people immediately worry about their heart. The first thing that comes to mind is heart disease. This fatigue, slight dizziness, etc. are not taken seriously. I think it is not a minor illness. You can bear it. You can take some supplements at most. Some elderly people often go to the hospital and do not know which number to register, or Checking the wrong number delayed the condition. In fact, anemia is probably the “introducer” of serious diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Many elderly people are not treated in time because of anemia, which leads to angina, arrhythmia, and even neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, after anemia occurs in the elderly, due to poor compensatory ability of various tissues and organs, it can often affect other multiple organ diseases. It can be seen that the prevention and treatment of senile anemia should arouse the attention of the whole society! Department of Hematology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Zhai Zhimin The most common symptoms of anemia in the elderly: In addition to dizziness, palpitation, fatigue, shortness of breath, lower extremity edema, angina, neuropsychiatric symptoms are more prominent, such as numbness of hands and feet, decreased taste, indifference, depression, Unresponsiveness, and sometimes even irritability, fantasies, hallucinations, etc. are misdiagnosed as insanity, so if you have such symptoms, you should actively go to the hospital hematology department, pay attention to blood tests, etc., understand whether there is anemia and find the cause, early detection Timely treatment and correction of anemia not only restore the physical fitness of the elderly and improve the quality of life, but also contribute to the stability and recovery of other chronic diseases. Causes of anemia in the elderly (l) Changes and effects of the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment.  . . . . ① As the human body ages, bone marrow adipose tissue gradually increases, and hematopoietic red bone marrow decreases. ②Inadequate androgen secretion in the elderly leads to a decrease in erythropoietin, which affects the differentiation and maturation of erythroid stem cells. ③ The oxidative activity and metabolic function of various enzymes in the red blood cells of the elderly are reduced, contributing to the increased brittleness of the red blood cells and shortening the life of the red blood cells. (2) Insufficient intake of hematopoietic substances and absorption disorders. Elderly gastrointestinal dysfunction, atrophy of gastric mucosa, reduced gastric acid secretion, poor absorption of nutrients (main components include iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, etc.); gastrointestinal motility of elderly people is prone to cause constipation, if the application of drugs is inappropriate It can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction and affect the absorption of nutrients. In addition, due to excessive worry about factors such as high blood sugar, high blood fat, or religious beliefs, blindly controlling the diet, resulting in unreasonable food quantity and quality, will also affect the absorption of hematopoietic substances. (3) Immune function is reduced. The immune function of the elderly is generally reduced, which can cause abnormal cellular immunity. The normal tissues of the body are easily destroyed by its own immune active cells and autoantibodies, resulting in autoimmune anemia; secondly, due to immune decline, it is easy to cause infectious diseases and tumors. , Resulting in secondary anemia. Principles for the prevention and treatment of anemia in the elderly: First of all, we must actively find and treat primary diseases and eliminate the causes of blood loss; add iron, vitamin B2, folic acid and high-quality protein in a timely manner; perform appropriate physical exercise to increase the body’s oxygen consumption and delay the aging of hematopoietic function. Anemia diet for the elderly should be avoided: 1. High protein diet. Protein is the raw material for the synthesis of hemoglobin, and dietary supplements should be paid attention to. You can choose high-quality protein foods such as animal liver, lean meat, eggs, milk and soy products. 2. Moderate fat intake. Do not consume too much fat, otherwise it will reduce digestion and absorption and inhibit hematopoiesis. 3. Eat foods rich in iron, such as animal liver, kidney, duck gizzard, squid, jellyfish, dried shrimp, egg yolk and other animal foods, as well as sesame, kelp, black fungus, seaweed, shiitake mushrooms, soybeans, black beans, red bean curd, celery , Jujube, walnut kernel and other plant foods. Promote the use of iron pans. 4. The diet should include foods rich in vitamins, especially B vitamins and vitamin C, which have a good effect on the prevention and treatment of anemia. Such as fresh green leafy vegetables and fruits,
Red blood cells are the most common type of cells in the body (accounting for more than 95%), and one of the main physiological functions is gas transport. In 1981, the United States Siegel et al. proposed a new concept of “red cell immune system” based on the fact that red blood cells have immune adhesion and binding with immune complexes. Since then, with the continuous deepening of research on red blood cell immunity, red blood cells have found a variety of immune functions. Red blood cell immune function is an indispensable important part of the body’s immune system and body’s regulatory network; many diseases are related to abnormal red blood cell immune function. In recent years, my country has carried out research on the effect of botanical drugs on the immune function of red blood cells. The main research progress is summarized as follows: promoting hematopoietic function The normal value of human red blood cells is 3.5~6.0×1012/L. The life span of red blood cells is about 110 days. Red blood cells 2×1012/L should be updated every day. Maintaining the normal range of the number of red blood cells is the basis and premise for red blood cells to perform immunophysiological functions. Huge amounts of red blood cells are produced every day, depending on the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow. The hematopoietic function and hematopoietic function of bone marrow are related to the quality and quantity of hematopoietic stem cells, hematopoietic microenvironment and hematopoietic regulatory factors. Bate and other studies found that red blood cells can produce a variety of hematopoietic regulatory factors. Such as tumor necrosis factor inducing factor (TNFIF), natural killer cell enhancing factor (NKEF), etc.; red blood cells are also involved in the regulation of the production of various hematopoietic regulatory factors. Such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6 and so on. Chinese medicine believes that the hematopoietic function of bone marrow is closely related to the traditional Chinese medicine “spleen and kidney”. The kidney is congenital, “main bone, marrow, and essence”, “the loss of kidney essence means that the bone marrow is not full, and the deficiency of the marrow means that the blood can not be revived”; the spleen is the basis of the acquired, “Zhongjiao receives gas and juice, changes and changes Chi is blood. The spleen and stomach transport the water valley subtlely, and it must be promoted by the kidney yang temperature to dissolve the blood. In turn, the kidney is dominant in the hematopoietic process. For many years, we have used the kidney-tonifying method as the main treatment for hematopoietic failure (aplastic anemia) and achieved more than 70% efficiency. In animal experiments, it has been confirmed from many aspects that the kidney tonic plant medicine has the effect of promoting hematopoietic function, and one of its therapeutic mechanisms is related to the regulation of IL-3 secretion. Improve the immune adhesion function of red blood cells Body blood circulation can form immune complexes under physiological and pathological conditions. If circulating immune complexes increase significantly in the body, they can deposit on the walls of blood vessels, activate complement, cause an inflammatory response and damage surrounding tissues. Therefore, the timely removal of excessive immune complexes is one of the main physiological functions of the immune system.  . . . The mechanism by which immune complexes are cleared is that the complement component first binds to the complex, then binds to the complement receptor type I (CR1) of the blood cell membrane, and then is transported to the liver through the bloodstream to clear the immune complex. The process of the immune complex binding to CR1 is called immunoadhesion. Over 95% of CR1 in the body is on the red blood cell membrane. Therefore, the immune function of immune adhesion clearance immune complex is mainly performed by red blood cells. Diseases caused by immune complexes are clinically called immune complex diseases. There are currently dozens of recognized immune complex diseases. Many immune complex diseases, modern medicine has no effective treatment. Phytopharmaceuticals have shown positive effects and positive effects in the treatment of such diseases. In clinical practice, we use Yiqihuoxue plant medicines, such as Taoer VII, Red Hair VII, Astragalus, Angelica, Motherwort, etc., to treat the drug allergic cytopenia, and have achieved good results. Its therapeutic mechanism is related to the Yiqi Huoxue botanical medicine which improves the activity of erythrocyte complement receptors and improves the immune function of erythrocytes. Experimental studies have found that “Qixiancao” series of herbal medicines can reduce the damage of erythrocyte immune adhesion function caused by chemotherapy. Can improve the activity of red blood cell complement receptors. Enhancing the antioxidant capacity of red blood cells Peroxide dismutase SOD is one of the main components of the body’s antioxidant system. SOD is mainly distributed in liver and kidney, red blood cells, each red blood cell contains 257000 SOD. Therefore, red blood cells play an extremely important role in resisting oxidative damage. Botanical drugs have a positive effect on the body’s antioxidant system. In recent years, clinical and experimental research results have shown that: Taoer VII, Broom VII, Codonopsis, Atractylodes and other beneficial qi plant medicines can enhance the body’s antioxidant system and significantly increase red blood cell SOD
Senile anemia is a common disease of the elderly. According to statistics, the prevalence of anemia in elderly people is about 30% in men and about 17% in women. In recent years, the incidence of anemia in elderly people has been on the rise. Because the anemia of the elderly is characterized by a relatively slow and hidden occurrence, it is often covered up by the symptoms of other system diseases, so it is easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. For example, anemia and cardiovascular diseases are common diseases of the elderly, but people’s attitudes towards them are quite different: When there is panic and discomfort, many people immediately worry about their heart. The first thing that comes to mind is heart disease. This fatigue, slight dizziness, etc. are not taken seriously. I think it is not a minor illness. You can bear it. You can take some supplements at most. Some elderly people often go to the hospital and do not know which number to register, or Checking the wrong number delayed the condition. In fact, anemia is probably the “introducer” of serious diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Many elderly people are not treated in time because of anemia, which leads to angina, arrhythmia, and even neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, after anemia occurs in the elderly, due to poor compensatory ability of various tissues and organs, it can often affect other multiple organ diseases. It can be seen that the prevention and treatment of senile anemia should arouse the attention of the whole society! Department of Hematology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Zhai Zhimin The most common symptoms of anemia in the elderly: In addition to dizziness, palpitation, fatigue, shortness of breath, lower extremity edema, angina, neuropsychiatric symptoms are more prominent, such as numbness of hands and feet, decreased taste, indifference, depression, Unresponsiveness, and sometimes even irritability, fantasies, hallucinations, etc. are misdiagnosed as insanity, so if you have such symptoms, you should actively go to the hospital hematology department, pay attention to blood tests, etc., understand whether there is anemia and find the cause, early detection Timely treatment and correction of anemia not only restore the physical fitness of the elderly and improve the quality of life, but also contribute to the stability and recovery of other chronic diseases. Causes of anemia in the elderly (l) Changes and effects of the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment. ① As the human body ages, bone marrow adipose tissue gradually increases, and hematopoietic red bone marrow decreases. ②Inadequate androgen secretion in the elderly leads to a decrease in erythropoietin, which affects the differentiation and maturation of erythroid stem cells. ③ The oxidative activity and metabolic function of various enzymes in the red blood cells of the elderly are reduced, contributing to the increased brittleness of the red blood cells and shortening the life of the red blood cells. (2) Insufficient intake of hematopoietic substances and absorption disorders. Elderly gastrointestinal dysfunction, atrophy of gastric mucosa, reduced gastric acid secretion, poor absorption of nutrients (main components include iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, etc.); gastrointestinal motility of elderly people is prone to cause constipation, if the application of drugs is inappropriate It can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction and affect the absorption of nutrients. In addition, due to excessive worry about factors such as high blood sugar, high blood fat, or religious beliefs, blindly controlling the diet, resulting in unreasonable food quantity and quality, will also affect the absorption of hematopoietic substances. (3) Immune function is reduced. The immune function of the elderly is generally reduced, which can cause abnormal cellular immunity. The normal tissues of the body are easily destroyed by its own immune active cells and autoantibodies, resulting in autoimmune anemia; secondly, due to immune decline, it is easy to cause infectious diseases and tumors. , Resulting in secondary anemia. Principles for the prevention and treatment of anemia in the elderly: First of all, we must actively find and treat primary diseases and eliminate the causes of blood loss; add iron, vitamin B2, folic acid and high-quality protein in a timely manner; perform appropriate physical exercise to increase the body’s oxygen consumption and delay the aging of hematopoietic function. Anemia diet for the elderly should be avoided: 1. High protein diet. Protein is the raw material for the synthesis of hemoglobin, and dietary supplements should be paid attention to. You can choose high-quality protein foods such as animal liver, lean meat, eggs, milk and soy products. 2. Moderate fat intake. Do not consume too much fat, otherwise it will reduce digestion and absorption and inhibit hematopoiesis. 3. Eat foods rich in iron, such as animal liver, kidney, duck gizzard, squid, jellyfish, dried shrimp, egg yolk and other animal foods, as well as sesame, kelp, black fungus, seaweed, shiitake mushrooms, soybeans, black beans, red bean curd, celery , Jujube, walnut kernel and other plant foods. Promote the use of iron pans. 4. The diet should include foods rich in vitamins, especially B vitamins and vitamin C, which have a good effect on the prevention and treatment of anemia. Such as fresh green leafy vegetables and fruits, sesame, walnut kernels, fresh beef, lamb, egg yolk, etc. 5. Correction
Polycythemia vera, abbreviated as true red, is a chronic myeloproliferative disease. There are usually two stages of progression: ① the proliferative phase, mainly with erythrocytes; ② the later stage of erythrocytosis: manifested as pancytopenia, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly, hypersplenism, and bone marrow fibrosis. Director Shi Shurong’s micro-signal zkxk9999 hemorrhage and thrombosis are the two main hazards of true red. The clinical manifestations of the patient are: headache, weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tinnitus, dazzling, forgetfulness and other neurological symptoms; red and purple skin, accompanied by platelets When increased, there may be thrombosis and infarction. The diet of true red patients is very different from that of other patients with hematological diseases. Especially in terms of supplementation, true red patients are strictly forbidden to make supplements. Dietary requirements are lighter, and diets that meet the conditions of patients with polycythemia are common. Several kinds: ▼ Edible cactus Cactus medicinal bitter cold, can qi and blood circulation, clearing heat and detoxification, heat stasis and blood stasis, impaired veins, has obvious curative effect. The number of bowel movements may increase after use, but not more than 3 times a day. ▼ Edible black fungus Black fungus medicinal Gan Ping, rich in carbohydrates, inorganic salts, sulfur, magnesium and vitamin B, has the effect of nourishing yin and replenishing blood, promoting blood circulation and anti-cancer, can dilute platelet aggregation and reduce blood viscosity. ▼Eating raw white radish White radish is rich in lignin, which can improve the activity of macrophages, engulf mutant cells, and enhance immunity in the body. In summary, true red patients should pay attention to a light diet and not to over-feed. At the same time, we must actively treat and reduce the occurrence of complications. Clinically, chemotherapeutic drugs are often used to treat true red. Although it has a certain effect, but side effects are also inevitable. Therefore, it is recommended that patients with true red cooperate with traditional Chinese medicine for syndrome differentiation to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
The number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and total blood volume significantly exceed normal levels, all of which are significant features of polycythemia vera. With the development of the disease, patients will have complications such as reduction of whole blood cells, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly, hypersplenism, and bone marrow fibrosis. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat xueyeke999 patients with polycythemia vera who receive treatment often take medicine for a long time, even if there are no symptoms. So, what degree of treatment is really red? True red treatment goals: to avoid initial or recurrent thrombosis, control disease-related symptoms, and prevent post-PVMF and (or) acute leukemia transformation. The goal of treatment in the hypertensive period is to control HCT<45%. So, can true red patients stop the medicine? Many PV patients always feel that they will be able to eat enough medicine for a period of time. When the disease is controlled and relieved, the patient’s vigilance will drop and the medicine will be stopped by itself. In fact, the most taboo treatment for this disease is to stop the drug suddenly. After the drug is stopped, the platelet will increase rapidly, and the blood coagulation function will quickly increase. Therefore, a new thrombus may form within a month to two months after the drug is stopped. Therefore, the drug must not be stopped suddenly, and the drug must be slowly reduced under the guidance of the doctor. In the case of true red patients, the side effects are too large, they can cooperate with traditional Chinese medicine to fundamentally relieve the disease, avoid side effects, and restore health as soon as possible. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Urine is composed of different substances such as urine color, urinary cholin, and urinary urinary. These components are the products of body metabolism and form a certain proportion. Therefore, under normal circumstances, urine will maintain a certain concentration, so urine color is also relatively fixed. When urine color is abnormal, people can observe certain diseases from their urine, so to a certain extent, urine color is not only a healthy barometer but also a “signal flare” for diseases. First, the “rainbow” world in urine The color of urine is not static, it will change with the amount of drinking water, diet or disease. If you drink enough water, your urine will be light yellow; if you are a little dehydrated, your urine will darken. The yellow color in urine comes mostly from aging blood cells, which will be decomposed after undergoing a series of body metabolism, and finally come to the urethra as a pigmentation agent and eventually be excreted from the body. The less water in the bladder, the urine The darker the color, so the color of morning urine is generally darker. Second, let’s take a look at what problems the urine color shows. The color of normal urine can vary in depth due to different drinking, sweating and activity levels, generally from light yellow to deep amber. When the human body is metabolized abnormally or suffers from a certain disease, the color of urine will show a special change. 1. Yellow-brown urine: common in obstructive jaundice, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis A, arsenic, chloroform and other poisoning. 2. Red urine: You can see the urine in red with your eyes is called gross hematuria. Urine contains a lot of red blood cells. There are many causes of hematuria, common in urogenital inflammation, stones and tumors. Such as various types of nephritis, renal tuberculosis, acute cystitis, urethritis, stones and malignant tumors in the above parts. Systemic diseases such as leukemia, scarlet fever, and congestive heart failure often cause hematuria. 3. Hemoglobinuria: refers to the presence of free hemoglobin in the urine. Because there is no red blood cells or only a small amount of red blood cells in the urine, the urine is clear and red wine-like. Commonly seen in malaria, broad bean disease, blood transfusions of incompatibility, hemolytic anemia, paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and abdominal bleeding. 4. Dark red hematuria: seen in bilirubinuria, often hepatitis A. 5, milky urine: also known as chyluria, this is due to the inability to absorb chyme from the intestine, causing chyle reflux into the urine. There are congenital factors that cause chyluria, such as abnormal congenital lymphatic valve function; there are also secondary factors, such as common filariasis and urinary pyogenic infection. 3. Is female urine yellow a gynecological reminder? Normal urine color is usually light yellow, but I believe many friends have found that they often have yellow or yellowish brown urine, which is urine yellow. The gynecologist explained that the cause of urinary yellow in women may be related to diseases in addition to the common conditions caused by drinking too little water and taking medicine. For example: some women have urine yellow after the same room, and the urine has an unpleasant smell. This situation is sometimes caused by condoms. In most cases, this urine yellow is generally caused by diseases of the reproductive system. , Vaginitis and other inflammations are the most common. Therefore, if women find urinary yellow, it is best to be vigilant to see if they have gynecological diseases or other problems.
Many patients with polycythemia vera have no particular discomfort when they are diagnosed. Therefore, some patients will think that the disease has little effect, does not pay enough attention, and is not active in treatment. Director Shi Shurong WeChat xueyeke999 So, is it true that polycythemia is severe? In fact, although the onset of polycythemia vera is slow, even most patients cannot find it in time, but if there is no timely treatment in the later stage, the consequences are very serious! In general, untreated patients with polycythemia vera, once the disease progresses, the median survival period may be only 1.5 years. In this way, many patients will be heard saying: I have been suffering from this disease for more than ten years, and nothing happened. Is this statement true? Earlier we talked about untreated patients. If patients are actively treated, their survival time can be greatly extended, 15 years, 20 years, or even more! But in this process, various transformations are not excluded, including other myeloproliferative diseases (primary thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, chronic myeloid leukemia) and acute leukemia. Once transformed into acute leukemia, the effects of various treatments are poor and usually die within a few months. In addition, most patients with polycythemia vera due to the malignant proliferation of tumor cells in the body, the cause of death is more common in thrombosis, embolism complications, accounting for 30%-40%, the other is bone marrow fibrosis, acute leukemia, solid tumors, bleeding , Late bone marrow failure may occur. Polycythemia vera is more common in middle-aged and older people. For patients with abnormally increased red blood cells or related symptoms, they must pay enough attention to strive for early detection and treatment, reduce the occurrence of complications, and avoid their conversion to leukemia. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Polycythemia vera is a bone marrow proliferative tumor that originates from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and it is mainly manifested by increased whole blood volume, increased blood viscosity and splenomegaly. More common in the elderly. The treatment of true red needs to inhibit the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow, so it also needs to be controlled in the diet, not to be excessively supplemented. Director Shi Shurong’s micro-signal xueyeke999 patients with polycythemia vera should maintain a light diet, and there are three main foods that are more suitable for them in daily diet: Stasis, impaired veins, and obvious effect. The number of bowel movements may increase after use, but not more than 3 times a day. ▼ Edible black fungus Black fungus medicinal Gan Ping, rich in carbohydrates, inorganic salts, sulfur, magnesium and vitamin B, has the effect of nourishing yin and replenishing blood, promoting blood circulation and anti-cancer, can dilute platelet aggregation and reduce blood viscosity. ▼Eating raw white radish White radish is rich in lignin, which can improve the activity of macrophages, engulf mutant cells, and enhance immunity in the body. Although the progress of most true red patients is relatively slow, if the patient has not been actively treated, or if the daily diet is not adjusted in time, it may cause serious consequences. Experts reminded that the main hazards of true red are bleeding and thrombosis. Therefore, the purpose of treatment is to make the blood volume and red blood cell volume close to normal as soon as possible, inhibit the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, thereby alleviating the disease and reducing complications. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Anemia generally refers to a common clinical symptom in which the volume of red blood cells in the human peripheral blood decreases and is below the lower limit of the normal range. Due to the complexity of measuring red blood cell volume, hemoglobin concentration is often used in clinical practice. The earliest symptoms of anemia are dizziness, fatigue, and drowsiness, and the most common and prominent sign of anemia patients is pale. The severity of the symptoms of anemia patients depends on the speed of anemia, the degree of anemia and the body’s compensatory ability. Some mild anemia activities cause deeper breathing and increased heart palpitations and heart rate. The greater the anemia, the greater the amount of activity, the more obvious the symptoms. In severe anemia, even in a calm state, you may have shortness of breath or even sit and breathe. Chronic anemia, overload of the heart and insufficient oxygen supply can lead to anemia heart disease. At this time, not only heart rate changes, but also arrhythmia and heart dysfunction. Patients with anemia are also prone to abdominal fullness, decreased appetite, changes in stool patterns and traits, etc. Chronic hemolysis can be associated with biliary calculi and splenomegaly. Iron deficiency anemia can have a foreign body sensation of swallowing or xenophobia, megaloblastic anemia or pernicious anemia can also cause glossitis, tongue atrophy, beef tongue, mirror tongue and so on. Chronic anemia also affects the function of endocrine glands and the secretion of erythropoietin. There are many causes of anemia. Excessive blood loss for various reasons, bone marrow hematopoietic dysfunction, excessive red blood cell destruction and long-term lack of hematopoietic materials in the diet can all cause anemia. Through medical treatment and dietary rehabilitation, sufficient hematopoietic raw materials can be supplied to the body to promote the production of red blood eggs and red blood cells. The nutrients related to hematopoiesis include protein, iron, copper, folic acid, vitamin B12 and liver essence. Anemia patients’ diet should first choose protein-rich and iron-rich foods such as milk, animal liver, kidney, heart, lean meat, eggs, beans and fresh vegetables and fruits. These foods contain folic acid, vitamin B12 and multivitamins. Vitamins A and C can promote the absorption and utilization of iron and should be eaten more. Animal liver is extremely important for patients with pernicious anemia, so it is appropriate to eat more. Patients with anemia are often accompanied by symptoms of low stomach acid, poor appetite, indigestion, etc., so pay attention to the reasonable allocation of diet in the diet, as far as possible to make the dishes prepared by the food color, aroma, taste good, easy to digest. According to the type of food, more nutritious diets such as liver, gravy, chicken juice, beef juice and so on. Patients with poor digestion can eat soft rice, semi-liquid, or cook food into minced meat, meatballs, broth, liver soup, tofu brain, egg soup, steamed cake, vegetable soup, puree, juice and fruit Mud and other food. And should eat a small number of meals, do not eat too much at one time to avoid increasing the gastrointestinal burden and reduce appetite. At the same time, do not eat too much fat or fried food, cold or cold food should not eat more.