Cerebral palsy is divided into many types, one of which is common clinically is spastic cerebral palsy. Usually, patients with this type of cerebral palsy will have movement disorders and have walking posture problems. Then why is this? Spastic cerebral palsy currently accounts for a large proportion To 3/4 of all types of cerebral palsy, about 80%, a typical feature of spastic cerebral palsy is that the patient will have muscle spasms on the limbs. Therefore, we often see “cramps” in the feet or legs of patients with spastic cerebral palsy. Such cramps are generally caused by the patient’s hypertension. Muscles pull each other, and mutual repulsion is done because of the existence of muscle tension. When the patient’s muscle tension decreases or there is no muscle tension, the muscles will lose all their strength. Children will have soft paralysis, loss of limb muscle strength, and excessive muscle tension will cause muscle spasm, which will affect normal limb movement. We will see patients walking with stiff limbs. Patients with spastic cerebral palsy usually have the following characteristics: 1. When the patient walks, he will show particularly high muscle tone. For example, the patient often walks with the heel not touching the ground. It is because the muscle tension is too high, which leads to the contracture of the Achilles tendon of the patient, so it shows the symptoms of cerebral palsy seen above. 2. The probability of limb paralysis in patients with spastic cerebral palsy will increase. Unilateral limb paralysis, bilateral spread, and limb paralysis may occur. Among them, when paralysis of the upper limbs occurs, the patient’s finger joints are stiff and show a “claw” shape. 3. Poor motor self-control ability. In severe cases, they can’t grasp things with their hands, can’t walk with their feet, and some can’t even turn over, sit up, stand, and chew and swallow normally. Can’t squat, can’t open your legs when you pee, these are all caused by increased muscle tone. At present, the treatment of this type of cerebral palsy is mainly based on rehabilitation training, and appropriate surgical interventions are carried out according to the patient’s different physical conditions. Children with cerebral palsy must adopt a comprehensive treatment method to make it possible for the patient to recover. What needs to be reminded is that surgery only provides the basis for rehabilitation training. To achieve the purpose of functional improvement, timely, effective and standardized rehabilitation training must be passed. After rehabilitation training, the muscle strength is fully improved, so that the standing posture and walking gait can be effectively improved. The scope of adaptation of FSPR surgery is as follows: 1. Spastic cerebral palsy or mixed cerebral palsy dominated by spasticity. 2. Normal or nearly normal intelligence. 3. The age is over two and a half years, and the development is relatively normal. 4. The limbs have certain athletic ability.
Shaking hands, stiff body, slow and procrastinating gait… Seeing these symptoms, what disease do you think of? This is the most typical symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disease of the nervous system that is common in middle-aged and elderly people. It usually starts after 60 years of age. Among the elderly population over 60 years old in my country, the incidence of Parkinson’s disease is 1.7% for men and 1.6% for women. The etiology of Parkinson’s disease, in addition to factors such as population aging and family genetics, may also have a great relationship with environmental pollution. Exposure to chemicals (heavy metal manganese, etc.), herbicides, pesticides, and house decoration pollution may be new causes. the reason. 30%-40% of Parkinson’s patients do not have symptoms of hand tremor in the early stage. They are just slow movements, inflexible hands and feet, stiff limbs, and lack of facial expressions. They are often referred to as “Alzheimer’s disease.” However, Parkinson’s disease is very different from Alzheimer’s. The main symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are mental decline and memory loss; but the intelligence and memory of Parkinson’s patients are mostly close to normal, and the more obvious symptoms are muscle stiffness, tremors, and Slow action, or accompanied by depression, etc. Special reminder: If older people experience slower movement or pain, even if there is no obvious tremor, don’t mistake it for normal aging. Early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease may have appeared. If the elderly have a sudden change in temperament, such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, memory loss, loss of smell, etc., it is best to go to the neurology department to rule out Parkinson’s disease and achieve early detection, early treatment, and early benefit. Is tremor Parkinson’s disease? Parkinson’s disease, also known as “paralysis tremens”, so is the patient with tremor manifested as Parkinson’s disease? Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disease of the nervous system common in middle-aged and elderly people. It usually starts after 60 years of age. The main manifestation is slow movement. Most patients experience tremor of limbs or other parts of the body at the same time, and the body loses flexibility and becomes stiff. Some people think that they have Parkinson’s disease once they have limb tremor, but this is often not the case. Many diseases will have tremor symptoms, which requires careful observation and the use of professional knowledge to distinguish. Briefly introduce several common diseases with tremor symptoms. 1. Tremors not accompanied by slow movement Some people’s limbs do not tremor under normal circumstances, but when holding things, such as holding food with chopsticks or drinking water from a cup, the limbs tremble. This is called action tremor in medicine. Slow movement, rigidity, etc., the most likely diagnosis is essential tremor. What are the other characteristics of essential tremor? It is mainly manifested as action tremor, which is more obvious when holding small objects or doing fine movements. Most patients have symptoms on both sides at the same time, sometimes accompanied by head tremor. Symptoms can last for many years without progression, and most families have similar symptoms. Two methods can help in the diagnosis. One is a drinking test. Symptoms improve after drinking to indicate the disease. The other is an arolol test. Symptoms improve after taking the drug to indicate the disease. The latter should be performed under the guidance of a doctor. 2. Tremors that are accompanied by palpitation and weakness. Some people have small tremors on both sides of the limbs. The frequency is fast, accompanied by fast heart rate, fatigue and weakness. At this time, it is necessary to consider whether they have hyperthyroidism. Patients with hyperthyroidism may have more Eating hungry, weight loss, sweating and fear of heat and other symptoms. If this happens, seek medical treatment in time, do blood thyroid hormone level test, and perform thyroid B-ultrasound to confirm the diagnosis. 3. Tremors after taking medicine. Some people have tremors due to taking medicines. There are several types of these medicines. 1. Antihypertensive drugs containing reserpine; 2. Drugs for treating dizziness; 3. Drugs for treating mental symptoms; 4. , Drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, if tremor occurs after taking the drug, you should consult your doctor if it is related to the drug. 4. Tremors in children and adolescents Some children and adolescents also have tremors. In addition to the diseases mentioned above, some genetic diseases should be considered, such as hepatolenticular degeneration, Huntington’s disease, neuroacanthrocytosis, Dopa-responsive dystonia, etc. Some genetic diseases, such as early detection and early treatment, will also have very good results. Therefore, the early diagnosis of childhood tremor is more important. V. Tremors of Parkinson’s disease Several types of non-Parkinson’s disease tremors have been introduced. Then what are the characteristics of Parkinson’s disease tremors? 1, still
For tremor-type Parkinson’s disease, if the elderly have tremors in their hands and feet, they will often attract the attention of family members and take them to a doctor. The disease can be promptly and effectively treated. For patients with rigid Parkinson’s, the disease is often delayed. It is mainly due to the stiffness of the limbs that outsiders cannot see and are often ignored. Generally speaking, in the early stages of the disease, patients will feel that their limbs are not flexible, do not like sports, and the neck and shoulder muscles are sore. It is often considered to be a manifestation of aging. Some patients even go to the orthopedics clinic due to stiffness and soreness of the neck muscles, but have not been improved after long treatment. Therefore, if the elderly have the following symptoms, they need to go to the neurology department to confirm their condition as soon as possible. 1. The limbs and body have lost their flexibility, muscle tension is high, and they become very rigid. 2. In the early stage, it started from one limb. At the beginning, I felt that a certain limb was not flexible and had a sense of stiffness, and it gradually increased, and there was slow movement, and it was even difficult to do some daily movements. 3, neck, shoulder, arm or leg pain. 4. If you pick up the patient’s arms or legs to help him move his joints, you will obviously feel that his limbs are stiff and it is difficult to move his joints, just like folding a lead pipe back and forth. Parkinson’s disease patients with lower limb stiffness are often accompanied by paroxysmal spasms. Patients may have toe-like extensions during night sleep or when they wake up, and may be accompanied by toe cramps and pain when walking. Patients with low back pain are often accompanied by a flexed back-like standing posture. When the patient stands up or lies down, the pain can be quickly relieved; the seated back is often more obvious, accompanied by increased pain, which reflects the body posture and muscle stiffness. The main cause of pain can also be neck and shoulder pain, headache, and arm soreness. In the treatment of pain caused by muscle stiffness in Parkinson’s disease, antipyretic analgesics such as aspirin are often ineffective; while levodopa is used to improve motor symptoms, the pain of most patients is often relieved as muscle tone decreases. However, in the later period of medication, a small number of patients will experience spasmodic pain in the lower limbs, especially the toes, at the peak of levodopa’s effect. In this case, reducing the single dose of levodopa and increasing the number of administrations, or increasing dopamine receptor agonists, generally have a good effect. In severe cases, you can consider local injection of botulinum toxin into the spasm to control symptoms. . Parkinson’s disease is a chronic progressive disease. The current treatments can only improve the symptoms, but cannot prevent the development of the disease, let alone cure it. Therefore, overall management and individualized comprehensive treatment are very important. Choose different drugs according to the condition, cooperate with rehabilitation and psychological treatment, cooperate with surgery if necessary, and perform regular assessment and adjustment. Patients can maintain their functions, reduce disabilities, and improve their quality of life.
Difficulty swallowing, abnormal posture, slurred speech… Cerebral palsy is often mistaken for calcium deficiency and poor physical fitness. Wait, wait and see… Many children with cerebral palsy have been delayed like this. Children with cerebral palsy are a burden that parents can hardly give up. Cerebral palsy treatment often falls into various misunderstandings… In a recent questionnaire survey, we found that over 60% of children with cerebral palsy do not understand the treatment of the disease. The effect is that cerebral palsy is an incurable disease and a laissez-faire attitude is adopted. 32% of children were given up for treatment due to poor family affordability. The long recovery time and high cost of children with cerebral palsy and low incomes in some families are all reasons for forcing families to give up treatment for children with cerebral palsy. Some parents think that even after active treatment, it is unrealistic for children with cerebral palsy to enter society and live completely independently. They may not be able to live without a certain degree of support and help throughout their lives. Because the parents have negative emotions about the children’s future ability of daily living, education and employment, interpersonal communication, marriage and childbirth. Therefore, 14% of parents of children choose to give up treatment. What is cerebral palsy? What are the clinical symptoms? Cerebral palsy is a limb disorder caused by brain injury. Although it is a kind of cerebral palsy, the main problem caused is movement disorder on the limbs. Therefore, in the treatment of cerebral palsy Among them, how to relieve limb movement disorders is the key to the treatment of cerebral palsy, and it is also the most important thing for doctors and patients’ parents to face. Common clinical symptoms: 1. The common symptoms of cerebral palsy are generally that the toes face down when holding, and the toes are standing, like a ballet with two feet, and some even cross, like a scissors. 2. Easy to startle, easy to cry, disturbed sleep, etc. may be common symptoms of cerebral palsy. 3. The limbs are stiff when wearing clothes, the upper limbs are difficult to enter the cuffs, the thighs are difficult to separate when changing diapers, and the limbs are stiff when the hands are held in the bath. 4. Can’t laugh, look up, clenched fingers, and won’t open for 2-3 months. 5. The symptoms of cerebral palsy are also difficult to feed, weak to suck, difficult to swallow, or easy to choke or spit up. 6. The baby’s mouth cannot be closed well, and the crying is weak or screaming. In July and April, I will not turn over, and I will not sit for 8 months, or even grasp, or put my hands to my mouth. In addition, the intellectual development is also lagging behind normal children of the same age. 8. Weakness, softness or tightness in limbs. Professor Chang Chongwang said: The key to the treatment of cerebral palsy is early detection, early intervention, and early treatment. Early treatment of children is effective. At present, the clinical treatment for children with cerebral palsy is rehabilitation training + surgery + rehabilitation training. The treatment advocates first through rehabilitation training to help patients avoid further aggravation of the deformity and create conditions for surgery. For patients of the appropriate age, FSPR surgery (mainly for spasticity or mixed cerebral palsy with spasticity) can effectively relieve the phenomenon of limb spasticity. If the patient’s deformity has not been relieved after the operation, most of them require orthopedic surgery. Finally, it is necessary to perform targeted rehabilitation training according to the doctor’s plan to consolidate the effect of the operation and help the patient recover as much as possible. There is no hesitation in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Early treatment can help the children relieve the troubles caused by cerebral palsy. Parents must rationally choose professional and regular treatment for their children to help children return to normal lives and integrate into society as soon as possible. family.
Clinically, pediatric epilepsy is often classified into generalized seizures and partial seizures according to the state of consciousness and EEG at the time of seizure. The latter is divided into simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures. 1. General seizures 1. Tonic-clonic seizures, also known as grand seizures, from time to time the child suddenly loses consciousness, falls to the ground, apneas, complexion, blue lips, dilated pupils, rigid limbs, hands clenched fists, and then turns into battle Episodic convulsions (rhythmic shaking of limbs), foaming at the mouth, attacks usually last several minutes, rarely more than 5 minutes. 2, tonic seizures: the performance is basically the same as the major seizures, but without limb shaking. 3, clonic seizures: there is no prior limb straightening and hardening process during the seizure, which is directly manifested as the rhythmic jitter of the limbs, and the rest is severe. 4. Myoclonic seizures: The child shows sudden, powerful, and rapid twitching of a certain muscle or muscle group, some of which are localized, and some can cause one or both limbs to twitch, and the thing in the hand falls out during twitching Or throw it out. When the trunk muscles are affected, the performance is sudden and frequent nodding, bending or leaning back, and suddenly falling when standing. 5. Minor episodes of absence: manifested as sudden interruption of activity, staring or looking upwards, may be accompanied by slight blinking or smacking, holding the object to the ground, but does not fall, does not twitch, lasts about 2-15 seconds, consciousness after the attack Recovery soon. 6. Atonic seizure: It is manifested as a sudden loss of whole body or local muscle tension leading to falling on the ground or upper limb drooping, head drooping. 2. Partial seizures: There may be simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures. : Manifestations of local limbs (one limb or one limb), one face (corner of mouth, eyelids, etc.) convulsions, strabismus, may be accompanied by head and trunk twists, clear consciousness, lasting for several seconds or minutes to relieve, some patients may have A brief limb weakness on the attack side. 2) Sensory seizures: it is manifested as abnormal feelings such as acupuncture and numbness in one or both limbs. It can also be manifested as abnormal vision (visual hallucinations, changes in visual shape), abnormal hearing (auditory hallucinations), and abnormal smell ( Phantom smell), abnormal taste and dizziness and other special sensory abnormalities. 3) Psychotic seizures: such as various amnesias (déjà vu, old things such as new, etc.), recognition disorders (such as dreams, unreality), emotional abnormalities (such as episodic euphoria, fear, depression, etc.). 4) Complex partial seizures: often accompanied by varying degrees of consciousness disturbance, and may be accompanied by physical and facial automatism (such as groping, smacking, running, etc.). 3. Unclear classification: such as neonatal seizures, febrile seizures, reflex epilepsy 1) neonatal seizures: can be manifested as rowing movements, suction movements, slight shaking or sudden softness of the limbs, or only It manifests as a change in complexion (redness or cyanosis). 2) Febrile seizures: It is more common in children aged 6-5 years old, closely related to body temperature and fever (mostly body temperature is above 38.5 degrees), eyes look straight or hanged, limbs hard with or without shaking, facial cyanosis, consciousness Unclear, there may be teething, spitting and urinary incontinence, which lasts for several seconds to several minutes to relieve (less than 10 minutes or more). One heat course has more than 1-2 attacks (complex type may have multiple attacks and abnormal movements of the limbs are asymmetrical). 3) Reflex epilepsy: It can be induced by special light stimulation, sound stimulation, pattern stimulation and physical stimulation.
The most typical symptoms of spastic cerebral palsy are abnormal muscle tension, stiffness and inconvenience of limbs. The most traditional treatment of cerebral palsy is cerebral palsy rehabilitation training. The biggest advantage of cerebral palsy rehabilitation is its high safety factor. The biggest disadvantage is that once it is interrupted, the effect will be better. Repeatedly. Another point is that due to spastic cerebral palsy, physical activity is restricted, and it cannot effectively cooperate with cerebral palsy rehabilitation training. Children with spastic cerebral palsy have abnormal muscle tension and posture. So, how to effectively relieve the phenomenon of limb spasticity? The purpose of cerebral palsy treatment is to carry out minimally invasive surgical treatment at the same time as continuous cerebral palsy rehabilitation training. We are emphasizing the importance of surgery At the same time, it is not for everyone to ignore cerebral palsy rehabilitation training. It is unscientific and unobjective to emphasize the importance of any kind of means. For cerebral palsy treatment, the best option is surgery plus cerebral palsy rehabilitation. The best operation for patients with spastic cerebral palsy is FSPR (functionally selective posterior root separation). Through the operation, the muscle tension of the patient is fully adjusted to make the muscle tension of the spastic muscles as close as possible to the normal state. And it can solve the pain of the patient’s muscle spasm in a long-term, stable and thorough way, and provide the precondition for the maximum recovery of its motor function. At the same time, postoperative cerebral palsy rehabilitation training should be adhered to. One is to consolidate the therapeutic effect of the operation, the other is to improve the child’s motor function and correct the child’s long-standing wrong posture. The doctor emphasized that the ultimate goal of cerebral palsy treatment can be achieved only when the two treatments cooperate with each other. Finally, let me talk about one more point. FSPR only selectively blocks some of the posterior nerve root fibers without affecting the anterior nerve roots and motor functions that innervate muscle movement. It is currently the best operation for the treatment of patients with spastic cerebral palsy.
Ms. Wang is 40 years old this year. She is the owner of a clothing store. When she closed the store at night, she suddenly felt dizzy. She thought it was the cause of sedentary sitting. She wanted to lock the door quickly and take two steps to move around, but she bowed her head and held the lock. At that time, her legs and feet became weak and weak, and found that she could not stand up. Her staff hurried forward to check when she saw it. When she saw something wrong, she called 120 and was taken to the nearest hospital. After CT examination, it was found that Ms. Wang’s brain had hemorrhage. After the doctor rescued her, her vital signs were temporarily stable, but she eventually passed away 2 months later due to excessive bleeding. It is understood that a year ago, Ms. Wang was diagnosed with hyperlipidemia during a physical examination. At that time, the doctor advised her to eat less high-sugar foods. At first, Ms. Wang knew to exercise restraint. Later, she became more and more casual. Make sweet and sour pork loin, fried sugar cake and eat, completely forget the doctor’s words. The doctor sighed with tears: Don’t put too much candies in the kitchen. Ms. Wang was in her prime of life, but unfortunately passed away due to cerebral hemorrhage. The doctors and nurses monitored her condition day and night, and devoted great heart and brain power, but in the end she did not save her. , The doctor tearfully advised: Don’t put too much sugar in the kitchen! The condiment that causes vascular dysfunction is white sugar. White sugar is a high-calorie food. Regular consumption can cause obesity, and the sugar is particularly easily absorbed by the body. Excessive consumption will convert the excess sugar in the body into fat, leading to an increase in blood lipid content. High, induce hyperlipidemia. In addition, if you take in a lot of sugar in a short period of time, your body’s nutrition will become unbalanced. If you lack exercise, it is particularly prone to vascular arteriosclerosis and increase the chance of cerebral hemorrhage. The appearance of these three symptoms in the body suggests that cerebral vascular sclerosis may induce cerebral hemorrhage. 1. Headache. The blood lipid content in the blood is too high, and it is easy to develop into atherosclerosis and headache symptoms. After a headache appears, it often manifests in the back of our head and temples, and the pain shown is pulsating. If you find that you have frequent headaches recently or your blood lipid content may have exceeded the standard, you should go to the hospital for neurology. Do related checks to prevent cerebral hemorrhage in advance. If you have a severe headache, you should be more alert to the possibility of cerebral hemorrhage, because when a cerebral hemorrhage occurs, the pressure in the brain increases sharply, stimulating the nerves and causing severe pain. The most important thing is to call 120 at the first time to go to the emergency department of the hospital. 2. Limb numbness The numbness of the limbs also needs to be paid attention to, especially when the numbness persists and cannot subside after rest, you need to be alert to the possibility of cerebral hemorrhage. After numbness of the limbs, it will seriously affect our ability to move, and we can’t even take care of ourselves in life. This symptom is more serious. Once found, we need to call 120 to the hospital as soon as possible. Limb numbness is also related to poor blood circulation. Insufficient blood supply and blood supply can cause numbness of the limbs. Common numbness sites are the remote feet and fingers. 3. If vomiting and vomiting occur at the same time as headache or limb numbness, you need to be alert to the possibility of cerebral hemorrhage. When cerebral hemorrhage occurs, the intracranial pressure will also increase, which stimulates the vomiting center of our body and causes vomiting. To prevent vascular arteriosclerosis and cerebral hemorrhage, you should know 3 things to know and benefit early. 1. Drink plenty of water. Water is actually one of the most neglected nutrients in the human body. Many people neglect to drink plenty of water. This is actually It is easy to induce many diseases. This is especially true for vascular maintenance and prevention and treatment of vascular atherosclerosis. Drinking water often has many benefits to the human body. First, it can replenish water, and secondly, it can also promote blood circulation and dilute blood viscosity. 2. Eat more vegetables Vegetables are light foods, regular consumption can reduce the proportion of fat intake, and have great benefits in preventing and treating atherosclerosis. Vegetables that are good for blood vessels: onions, garlic, carrots, asparagus, etc. Vegetables are rich in dietary fiber, which has many benefits to the human body, especially blood vessels. If you insist on eating, it can also reduce blood lipids and prevent blood stickiness and vascular atherosclerosis. 3. Patients with arteriosclerosis during moderate exercise can choose light exercise to help blood vessel health. Light exercise: walking, tai chi, jogging, etc. Light exercise can help you feel good, and it can also promote blood circulation, reduce lipids and garbage in the blood, help thin the blood viscosity, and reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases to a certain extent. In short, the prevention of vascular atherosclerosis and cerebral hemorrhage is actually similar to the prevention of other diseases. In two aspects, the first aspect requires regular medical examinations with specialists in the hospital to see if there is any relevant
The extremities are the common onset sites of vitiligo. Because the extremities are often exposed, especially after the appearance of white spots on the hands, the daily communication of the patient will be affected to a certain extent. Therefore, everyone hopes that the extremities of vitiligo can be cured as soon as possible. So, how should vitiligo that occur on the limbs be treated? When everyone finds that vitiligo-like white spots appear on the limbs, they must first go to a regular hospital for diagnosis. If it is vitiligo, perform a systematic examination as soon as possible to learn more about the cause of the disease, the degree of disease development, etc., and cooperate with the doctor to develop a treatment method suitable for your disease, and follow the doctor’s advice for treatment. Do not delay the death, or self-administer medications and other inappropriate treatment behaviors. Vitiligo is a chronic disease, and it takes a certain time for the skin melanocyte function of the affected area to recover. The patient must have enough patience, adhere to the treatment, and must not give up the treatment or arbitrarily because there is no obvious treatment effect in the short term. Change the treatment plan and medicine, so that the previous treatment is wasted, and it may also lead to the deterioration of the leukoplakia stage. Because the limbs are easily exposed body parts, the appearance of vitiligo will bring different levels of psychological burden to patients. Patients not only have to bear the pressure of treatment, but also need to face some troubles caused by the disease, so it is easy to have negative emotions . I hope that patients can pay attention to adjusting their mental state and keep their mood happy and relaxed, which is also helpful for treatment. The pathogenesis of vitiligo is relatively complicated. I hope everyone can choose a regular hospital correctly, take scientific and symptomatic treatment measures to control the development of the disease, actively cooperate with the treatment, and correctly restore health as soon as possible.
38-year-old Mr. Zheng has a sudden cerebral infarction. 38-year-old Mr. Zheng has sudden dizziness and discomfort, with a feeling of head dizziness, accompanied by tinnitus in the left ear, no headache, no slurred speech and drinking water, no numbness and numbness of the lateral limbs. Weakness, ignoring dark vision or double vision, no palpitation, chest tightness, and chest pain, and it is completely improved after about 10 minutes. Symptoms recurred after 10 minutes, accompanied by numbness and weakness of the left upper and lower limbs, which can be completely relieved after rest, without special treatment, and the symptoms repeated. The above symptoms recurred after the patient took a bath 2 hours ago. The symptoms were worse than before and did not get better after resting. So he came to our hospital for treatment. There were no hemorrhages on the emergency head CT and no obvious abnormalities in the electrocardiogram. Mr. Zheng has a history of tobacco and alcohol and a history of hypertension. After the examination, Mr. Zheng was diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction. Fortunately, it was discovered in time. The neurology department gave him thrombolytic therapy to relieve the danger. However, Mr. Zheng still left the sequelae of inconvenience in his left leg, which must be paid attention to in future life. Regulate the body, develop good habits, quit smoking and drinking, and control blood pressure. The so-called cerebral infarction is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease, accounting for about 70% of all acute cerebrovascular diseases, and it is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients, but in recent years it has often occurred in young people around 30 years old. The onset of cerebral infarction, patients with mild cases are generally conscious; severe cases may cause confusion, dizziness, blindness, numbness of limbs, central high fever, coma, stress ulcers, etc.; especially severe cases may be complicated by brain herniation, and even life-threatening ! The doctor reminded: There are 3 abnormalities in the body, which may be blocked blood vessels, and you need to be alert to cerebral infarction: 1. Sufficient sleep, still sleepy, dizziness, dizziness, tinnitus, memory loss, insomnia and dreams are signs before the onset of cerebral infarction! If you have enough time to sleep, but still feel sleepy and often yawn, this may be caused by excessive triglycerides in the body, causing blood vessels to block, resulting in thick blood and slow blood flow, which will cause the red blood cells to transport oxygen to take a long time to reach various organs. , Especially when the brain is severely hypoxic, you may not be able to sleep. 2. Unilateral limb weakness, which can be accompanied by chills at the extremities and blockage of blood vessels in the brain. The central headquarters as a limb activity is paralyzed, and the limbs appear unwilling to call. The prominent manifestation is unilateral limb weakness, which may be accompanied by numbness. Blockage of blood vessels can cause partial hypoxia in the body. The hands and feet are the end of our body, which can be said to be the peripheral tissues of the human body. If the blood vessels are good, hands and feet should be known first, so always pay attention to whether the hands and feet are cold, pale skin, numb limbs, etc. Happening. 3. Difficulty in seeing and hearing, the corners of the mouth are skewed. When you wake up early, the blood circulation speed can’t keep up with the physical activities after you wake up. The brain is prone to hypoxia, visual and hearing impairments. The central nervous system of the brain cannot control the facial muscles. , The situation of ambiguity. In the morning, once the above-mentioned three types of signs appear, you need to be highly alert to the possibility of cerebral infarction, call 120 as soon as possible, and send to a nearby hospital with thrombolytic conditions for diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible. The doctor reminds: daily adhere to 3 things: smooth blood vessels, stay away from cerebral infarction 1, stop smoking and limit alcohol, stay away from bad habits. Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cerebral infarction. The harmful substances of cigarettes directly damage the vascular endothelium and induce vascular atherosclerosis. Sclerosis occurs and progresses, which eventually leads to thrombosis and induces cerebral infarction. It is also very important to control drinking. Excessive drinking can easily lead to hyperlipidemia, which is the core factor of vascular atherosclerosis. 2. A balanced diet, exercise to prevent cerebral infarction, a healthy diet is very important. Particular attention should be paid to low-salt, low-fat, and low-sugar diets. Stay away from the three highs to avoid high-risk factors for cerebral infarction. 3. Regular checkups, monitoring of blood vessels and regular physical examinations, to know your blood pressure, blood lipids and blood sugar and other indicators. Once an abnormality is found, it is necessary to intervene under the guidance of a specialist, take medication if necessary, and return for regular visits. (Some of the pictures in the article originate from the network, and the copyright belongs to the original author. I would like to express my gratitude to the author of the picture. If you find any infringement of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)
Malformations in patients with cerebral palsy are not uncommon, and most of them are analyzed in spastic cerebral palsy and aeostatic cerebral palsy. Because patients with this type of cerebral palsy have poor control of their limbs, the autism is caused by neurological problems that cause involuntary autism symptoms. The spasticity is caused by muscle tension problems, which leads to abnormal movements. In the two cases of cerebral palsy, the patients are most likely to develop limb deformities. One reason for the occurrence of limb deformities is the higher muscle tension on the muscles, and the other reason is the deformed limbs of the patient. The combination of the two will cause the appearance of deformity symptoms. At present, common limb deformities are pointed feet, valgus feet, and varus feet. These are the three most common limb deformities. It is generally found that children have abnormalities when walking, such as walking with pointed feet, and children with unstable gait. At this time, mothers must pay special attention, because this is generally a precursor to the appearance of children’s limb deformities. How should mothers prevent it? First of all, you must be clear about the child’s specific situation, and you must go to a professional medical structure to check and confirm the diagnosis. Then if the diagnosis of cerebral palsy is diagnosed, the first step is to do a good job in the rehabilitation of the child, because at this time, it is most important to control the continued development of the patient’s deformity. In general, the early appearance of pointed feet is due to increased muscle tension leading to contracture of the Achilles tendon. At this time, the child can undergo FSPR surgery at the right time to reduce muscle tension and restore the Achilles tendon. Finally, if bone abnormalities have really occurred, it is recommended that the child undergo orthopedic surgery as soon as possible. Only the fastest treatment can make the child’s body return to normal as soon as possible. Once it is discovered that the baby is growing up with the above abnormal conditions, parents must be vigilant and go to a regular hospital for examination in time. Because if children with cerebral palsy can get early diagnosis and treatment, such as early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment 6 months or 9 months after birth, most of them can get the ideal treatment effect, and the various limb functions of the children can be obtained. Greatly improved, self-care ability in life is restored. If the treatment is delayed, it may develop into mental retardation, epilepsy and other diseases, which will increase the difficulty of treatment. Although the lesions of children with cerebral palsy occur in the brain, they generally affect the limbs. Therefore, once the diagnosis is confirmed, surgery and rehabilitation should be performed as soon as possible. It should be noted that the rehabilitation of cerebral palsy is a long-term systematic project. The operation should be performed at an appropriate time on the basis of rehabilitation training. The operation must be closely integrated with rehabilitation training. In other words, in addition to targeted surgical treatment of cerebral palsy, rehabilitation training is also an indispensable task, and early rehabilitation is also very important. Internationally, the rehabilitation effect is best when the birth is 6 months. The scientific principle of cerebral palsy treatment that we emphasize is the combination of surgery and rehabilitation, which must be kept in mind. After many years of clinical treatment summary, the treatment of children with cerebral palsy must be achieved through comprehensive rehabilitation and multidisciplinary intervention, and an individualized treatment plan should be developed for each child. For children with cerebral palsy, simple rehabilitation training often fails to achieve satisfactory results. It is necessary to perform surgical operations to remove the primary root cause, and then perform rehabilitation exercise training on this basis to better help the rehabilitation process and achieve the best therapeutic effect. That is, to take rehabilitation training-surgery-orthopedic treatment-rehabilitation training for such children with cerebral palsy. These children with cerebral palsy can obtain different degrees of functional improvement through surgical treatment: for example, children with spastic cerebral palsy (including children with mixed cerebral palsy with mainly spasticity) can receive FSPR (functional selective spinal nerve root separation) , Through the treatment of the posterior root of the spinal nerve, the muscle tension is fully adjusted to make the muscle tension of the spastic muscle as close to the normal state as possible, which provides a prerequisite for the maximum recovery of motor function.
How does the abnormal walking posture of children with spastic cerebral palsy arise? Why are there walking problems? Next, Professor Chang Chongwang will give you a talk. Spastic cerebral palsy currently accounts for a large proportion, accounting for 3/4 of all types of cerebral palsy, about 80%. A typical feature of spastic cerebral palsy is that the patient will have muscle spasms on the limbs. Therefore, we often see “cramps” in the feet or legs of patients with spastic cerebral palsy. Such cramps are generally caused by the patient’s hypertension. Muscles pull each other, and mutual repulsion is done because of the existence of muscle tension. When the patient’s muscle tension is reduced or there is no muscle tension, the muscles will lose all their strength. Children will have soft paralysis, loss of limb muscle strength, and excessive muscle tension will cause muscle spasm, which will affect normal limb movement. We will see patients walking with stiff limbs. Patients with spastic cerebral palsy usually have the following characteristics: 1. When the patient walks, he will show particularly high muscle tone. For example, the patient often walks with the heel not touching the ground. It is because the muscle tension is too high, which leads to the contracture of the Achilles tendon in the patient, so it shows the symptoms of cerebral palsy seen above. 2. The probability of limb paralysis in patients with spastic cerebral palsy will increase. Unilateral limb paralysis, bilateral spread, and upper limb paralysis may occur. When paralysis of the upper limbs occurs, the patient’s finger joints will be stiff and show a “claw” shape. They will not be able to make fists and it will be difficult to grasp things. 3. Poor motor self-control ability. In severe cases, they cannot grasp things with their hands, cannot walk with their feet, and some cannot even turn over, sit up, stand, or chew and swallow normally. Can’t squat, can’t open your legs when peeing, these are all caused by increased muscle tone. The treatment of patients with cerebral palsy must adopt a multidisciplinary approach to enable patients to take care of themselves.
Encephalitis is a serious disease. Due to its complicated causes, it is very difficult to cure completely. Therefore, in many clinical cases, many patients with encephalitis have different severity levels after treatment. Sequelae. According to Chinese medical data, most of the causes of encephalitis are viruses and bacteria that infect various organs of the human body. Therefore, the sequelae of encephalitis are mostly caused by obstacles in the patient’s body organs, which may be obstacles in the brain or obstacles in the movement of the limbs. Specifically, there are the following sequelae. First, the more common symptoms of patients with encephalitis are fever, nausea and other symptoms, most of which are caused by viruses. As a result, some people have a high fever that does not go away for a long time, which is likely to cause later headaches, sleepiness, and so on. Some severe patients suffer from convulsions and inconvenience in body movement. Second, one type of encephalitis is caused by the virus transmitted by mosquitoes. Therefore, the rate of disability after this disease is very high, and the mortality rate after relapse is also high. &Nbsp. Third, because encephalitis can cause temporary disorders of brain function, the patient is likely to suffer from epilepsy, which is manifested by the sudden loss of consciousness, falls, limb twitching, and nonsense.  . In general, the treatment of encephalitis is not timely or accurate, and the sequelae of hydrocephalus, inconvenience of limb movement, epilepsy, etc. are unacceptable, so don’t underestimate this type of disease. Treatment and postoperative recovery.
What is the manifestation of neonatal epilepsy? Neonatal epilepsy is not obvious at the time of seizure and is easy to be ignored. The hospital reminds parents to pay attention to the child’s usual symptoms, so as not to delay the treatment of the disease. Neonatal seizures are mostly symptomatic (secondary), and are common in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, birth injury, intracranial hemorrhage, central nervous system infection, brain developmental abnormalities, and innate metabolic abnormalities. There are very few primary cases, sequelae are prone to remain, and the mortality rate is high. The incidence rate is about 1.4% of live births. Within 10 days of birth, the incidence of convulsions is more than 0.2% to 0.8%, and the birth weight is less than 1500 grams. Among newborns, its incidence is 25.5%. Only a few neonatal seizures belong to a specific epilepsy syndrome. At present, there is no special classification for neonatal seizures. Here we briefly introduce 5 common seizures to help parents find the disease in time and seek medical treatment in time. What is the status of neonatal seizures? The clinical manifestations of neonatal seizures are generally amorphous and variable. The duration varies. Depending on the original disease, there may be fever or low body temperature, cyanosis, and disturbance of consciousness. Full fontanelle, jaundice and other symptoms and signs. Neonatal seizures lasting more than 30 minutes are called status neonatal seizures. What are the obvious symptoms of neonatal epilepsy? (1) Minor seizures, also known as “minor seizures”, are more common than other types. They are mainly manifested on the head and face, with no limb stiffness or clonus, slight movements during seizures, and weak convulsions. And limitations. It can be manifested as apnea, deviated or turned eyeballs, facial muscle twitching, eyelid twitching, lip tremor, sucking and swallowing movements, dilated pupils, sometimes accompanied by abnormal crying or drooling, or only autonomic symptoms. It can be accompanied by body treadmill, stepping, swimming and other movements at the same time. (2) Multifocal (migratory) clonic convulsions. These convulsions are migratory and have no fixed sequence. During the seizure, the clonic movement is rapidly transferred from one limb to another, or from this Turning to the other side, the prolonged focal clonic movement is limited to one limb or the upper and lower limbs on the same side before the start of other parts. (3) Focal clonic convulsions. This convulsions start on one limb or one face, and can extend to other parts on the same side. It is generally unconscious. The electroencephalogram during the attack can be checked near the central sulcus. Limited high-amplitude sharp waves to one side, and may extend to the adjacent area or the opposite side of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Slight localized seizures are sometimes unrecognizable, such as slight tremor or rigidity of one limb or finger (toe), strange movements of the limbs, such as the pendulum-like movements of the upper limbs, the pedal-like movements of the lower limbs, etc. (四)Tonic seizures manifested as stretching and stiffness of the whole body, accompanied by apnea, squinting eyes, and a few cases of generalized rigidity. This type is more common in premature infants, often suggesting organic brain damage. (五)Myoclonic convulsions This type is rare in clinical practice. It often suggests diffuse brain damage, which is manifested by simultaneous rapid traction of the upper limbs and (or) lower limbs, and the EEG often has no special morphological abnormalities. How to care for children with epilepsy in the family? 1. The course of epilepsy is long and requires long-term medication. 2. Reasonably arrange the life and study of sick children, ensure adequate rest, do not eat too much, and do not drink too much water to avoid lack of sleep and mood swings. Pay attention to the safety of sick children. It is forbidden to swim and climb alone to prevent falling from bed or falling.
“Lumbar disc herniation” refers to a series of changes due to degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc, rupture of the annulus fibrosus, and herniated nucleus pulposus. If the protruding nucleus pulposus compresses nerve roots, cauda equina, or produces inflammatory irritation, and shows a series of clinical symptoms and signs, it is called “lumbar disc herniation”, commonly known as “lumbar process”. So which symptoms appear that need to be suspected of having lumbar disc herniation? The most typical symptom of lumbar disc herniation is back pain, accompanied by loose pain in one limb. Pain in one limb usually refers to sciatic nerve pain. This pain spreads from the buttocks to the back of the thigh, the outside of the thigh, the outside or back of the calf, and some people even reach the back of the foot and the sole of the foot. This kind of radioactive pain will become worse when you cough or sneeze, walk or move. If these symptoms occur, you need to consider whether it is a lumbar disc herniation. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to sports and strengthen the functional exercise of the back muscles.
What is the manifestation of neonatal epilepsy? Neonatal epilepsy is not obvious at the time of seizure and is easy to be ignored. The hospital reminds parents to pay attention to the child’s usual symptoms to avoid delaying the treatment of the disease. Neonatal seizures are mostly symptomatic (secondary), and are common in ischemic hypoxic encephalopathy, birth injury, intracranial hemorrhage, central nervous system infection, brain developmental abnormalities, and innate metabolic abnormalities. There are very few primary cases, sequelae are prone to remain, and the mortality rate is high. Its incidence is about 1.4% of live births. Within 10 days of birth, the incidence of convulsions is more than 0.2% to 0.8%, and the birth weight is less than 1500 grams. Among newborns, its incidence is 25.5%. Only a few neonatal seizures belong to specific epilepsy syndrome. At present, there is no special classification for neonatal seizures. Here we briefly introduce 5 common seizures to help parents find the disease in time and seek medical treatment in time. What is the status of neonatal seizures? The clinical manifestations of neonatal seizures are generally amorphous and variable. The duration varies. Depending on the original disease, there may be fever or low body temperature, cyanosis, and disturbance of consciousness. Full fontanelle, jaundice and other symptoms and signs. Neonatal seizures lasting more than 30 minutes are called status neonatal seizures. What are the obvious symptoms of neonatal epilepsy? (1) Minor seizures, also known as “minor seizures”, are more common than other types. They are mainly manifested on the head and face, with no limb stiffness or clonus, slight movements during seizures, and weak convulsions. And limitations. It can be manifested as apnea, deviated or turned eyeballs, facial muscle twitching, eyelid twitching, lip tremor, sucking and swallowing movements, dilated pupils, sometimes accompanied by abnormal crying or drooling, or only autonomic symptoms. It can be accompanied by body treadmill, stepping, swimming and other movements at the same time. (2) Multifocal (migrating) clonic convulsions. These convulsions are migratory and have no fixed sequence. During the seizure, the clonic movement is rapidly transferred from one limb to another, or from this Turning to the other side, the prolonged focal clonic movement is limited to one limb or the upper and lower limbs on the same side before the start of other parts. (3) Focal clonic convulsions. This convulsion starts on one limb or one face, and can extend to other parts of the same side. It is generally unconscious. The electroencephalogram during the attack can be checked near the central sulcus. Limited high-amplitude sharp waves to one side, and may extend to the adjacent area or the opposite side of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Slight localized seizures are sometimes unrecognizable, such as slight tremor or rigidity of one limb or finger (toe), peculiar movements of the limbs, such as the pendulum-like movements of the upper limbs and pedal-like movements of the lower limbs. (四)Tonic seizures is manifested as stretching and stiffness of the whole body, accompanied by apnea, squinting eyes, and a few have generalized tonic attacks. This type is more common in premature infants, often suggesting organic brain damage. (五)Myoclonic convulsions This type is rare in clinical practice, often suggesting diffuse brain damage, which is manifested by simultaneous rapid stretching of the upper limbs and (or) lower limbs, and the EEG often has no special morphological abnormalities. How to care for children with epilepsy in the family? 1. The course of epilepsy is long and requires long-term medication. 2. Reasonably arrange the life and study of sick children, ensure adequate rest, do not eat too much, drink too much water, and avoid lack of sleep and mood swings. Pay attention to the safety of sick children. It is forbidden to swim and climb alone to prevent falling from bed or falling.
1. Symptoms of rheumatic epilepsy: face blue, purple, stiff neck, sudden faint, unconsciousness, eyes looking up, limb stiffness, convulsions and spitting. Before the attack, there are signs of dizziness, headache, nausea, and limb numbness. 2. Symptoms of epileptic seizures: sudden fainting, loss of consciousness, rigid limbs, convulsions, most of them scream before seizures. The light ones are delirious, sluggish, and have purposeless behavior. 3. Symptoms of phlegm-type epilepsy: sudden fall to the ground, unconsciousness, phlegm in the throat, spitting or drooling at the corners of the mouth, blue complexion, blue lips, twitching hands and feet, body stiffness, accompanied by abnormal calls sound. 4. Symptoms of epilepsy: What are the symptoms of early epilepsy? Blue complexion, fullness of the stomach, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dirty stool or constipation. During the attack, the eyes became straight, the limbs twitched, and the severe cases fainted and spit in the mouth. 5. Symptoms of epilepsy: usually pale or dull complexion, often dizzy, sore back, weak legs, or weakness, tinnitus, insomnia, and listlessness. Sudden fainting, loss of eyesight, tremor or twitching of limbs, incontinence of urine and feces during the attack, or dementia with no behavior consciousness.
Cerebral palsy puts a heavy psychological and financial burden on many families, and its treatment is a long process. In reality, too many children with cerebral palsy have not found the right treatment method, which not only wastes money, but also unfortunately misses the best time for treatment and suffers from the serious consequences of lifelong disability, and some even cannot take care of themselves. The correct treatment method makes the treatment of cerebral palsy more effective. Recently, the treatment experience of two patients in the outpatient clinic of Professor Sun Chengyan has confirmed this view. Case 1: 21-year-old Mr. Fang from Hangzhou, Zhejiang, underwent lower limb orthopedics in an outside hospital nine years ago. His symptoms gradually recurred over time. At present, the hands are not flexibly grasping objects, and they cannot stand alone. They have horseshoes, inversions, and pointed feet. They are spastic tetraplegia, which is the most serious form of cerebral palsy. Life can only depend on family care. Case 2 Ms. Zhu, 25 years old in Tianshui, Gansu, was performed FSPR surgery + second-stage orthopedics by Professor Sun Chengyan 7 years ago. Later, due to her poor family, she did not insist on rehabilitation training, which became a great regret. Although Miss Zhu’s walking posture is relatively ugly, she basically returns to society. Now he is married and has a sweet love. One of the two patients relies on a wheelchair to travel and cannot take care of themselves; the other can lead a normal life. The difference lies in whether they receive the correct cerebral palsy treatment in time! If Mr. Fang chooses the right treatment plan for his condition at the beginning, it will not cause the serious consequences of having to use a wheelchair now. In the follow-up, Mr. Fang will pass systematic and standardized treatment to help him and realize his goal of taking care of himself in life. I believe this is a qualitative leap for the improvement of his quality of life in the future. Fortunately, Miss Zhu chose the correct treatment method from the very beginning. Of course, if she can persist in the perioperative rehabilitation training, she can achieve better treatment results, which are close to normal. The ancients believed that fighting requires time, place, and harmony, and neither is indispensable. If you compare cerebral palsy to an enemy, you must firmly grasp these three elements if you want to defeat this enemy. Time—Choose the right time for treatment. If the child has deformity, stiffness, inflexible movement, and no improvement after treatment in a regular rehabilitation institution for more than half a year, then surgery should be considered. Generally speaking, the best time for surgery in children with cerebral palsy: 2 and a half to 6 years old. At this time, the plasticity of the brain is strongest, and the expectation of receiving treatment is also the best. With age, the spasm of the muscles of patients with cerebral palsy is difficult to synchronize with the growth of bones, and various progressive deformities will form. However, children over 6 years of age and adults with cerebral palsy are not people outside the scope of treatment. These patients can also achieve good therapeutic effects through treatment. However, the longer the time affected by the disease, the more effort the patient needs to spend on treatment and rehabilitation. Geographical location-choosing the right treatment method The ideal treatment method for patients with spastic cerebral palsy is to give priority to relieve limb spasm and reduce muscle tension through FSPR surgery; secondly, undergo muscle tension adjustment surgery to correct deformed limbs, and finally supplemented with rehabilitation training , Strengthen the motor function of the limbs. However, in reality, some patients with cerebral palsy have serious limb deformities, poor muscle strength and balance ability, and do not meet the requirements of FSPR surgery. Due to the joint contracture deformities that have occurred, the rehabilitation cycle is long, and the training bottleneck cannot be broken for a long time. For the treatment of such patients with cerebral palsy, corrective treatment of lower limb deformities can be performed first, and postoperative intensive rehabilitation training can meet the FSPR surgical standard; then the spasticity of the limbs can be relieved in time, supplemented by limb function training, and stable treatment effects can also be obtained. Renhe-Choosing the right hospital and doctors for cerebral palsy treatment requires the participation of multiple disciplines in order to achieve good results. Therefore, when choosing a treatment method, you should not only consider rehabilitation or surgical treatment, but choose comprehensive treatment . Correspondingly, when choosing a hospital, it is necessary to choose an institution that can provide good comprehensive treatment. It is very important for surgeons to grasp the indications for surgery. Choosing experienced and skilled doctors can more accurately grasp the operation and ensure the effect of the operation. Grasp the “time”, “right location” and “human harmony” of cerebral palsy treatment and avoid detours in treatment. Except for a very small number of patients with severe cerebral palsy, most patients will have their symptoms improved to varying degrees after reasonable treatment and rehabilitation, and even some patients can be close to normal levels.
1. Symptoms of epilepsy: blue face, purple hair, stiff neck, sudden fainting, unconsciousness, eyes looking up, stiff limbs, twitching and vomiting. Before the attack, there were signs of dizziness, headache, nausea, and limb numbness. 2. Symptoms of epilepsy: sudden fainting, loss of consciousness, stiffness of body, convulsions, most of them screamed before the attack. The lighter are unconscious, dull, and have no purpose. 3. Symptoms of phlegm-type epilepsy: sudden fall to the ground during the seizure, unconsciousness, sputum in the throat, spitting in the mouth, salivation or drooling in the mouth, blushing of the face, bruising of the lips, twitching of the hands and feet, stiffness of the body, accompanied by abnormal calls sound. 4. Symptoms of eclampsia: What are the symptoms of early epilepsy? Blue face, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dirty stool or constipation. During the attack, his eyes were straight and his limbs twitched. In severe cases, he fainted and his mouth spit. 5. Symptoms of epilepsy of eclampsia: plain face is pale or dull, often dizzy, soft waist and legs, or limb weakness, tinnitus, insomnia, mental depression. Sudden faint, seizure of both eyes, trembling or twitching of limbs, incontinence of urine or urine, or infatuation, no behavior consciousness.
Vitiligo is easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. In addition to its complicated causes, it is also related to its diverse types. Vitiligo has a very big impact on patients, especially in appearance and body and mind. Some people who do not understand will feel that the skin disease is painless and itchy, and it does not have much impact when they are affected. In fact, some patients because of this Symptoms of depression appear in all skin diseases. So what kind of vitiligo should be understood before treating leukoplakia? 1. Scattered vitiligo is diffusive, and the leukoplakia will be scattered in multiple parts of the body with a certain symmetry. The total area of the leukoplakia does not exceed 100% of the body area fifty. Second, the generalized type of vitiligo skin lesions cover multiple parts of the patient, the area exceeds 50% of the surface area of the human body, and the leukoplakia is connected into a large piece, the shape is irregular, often because of limited type or sporadic vitiligo treatment is not timely As a result, the condition is more serious. Three, localized type localized type vitiligo leukoplakia is limited to one place, the area is small, the number is small, any part of the body may appear. Exposure can cause burning pain, erythema and blisters, and rarely disappear spontaneously. Most cases will gradually increase and expand, and may even spread to the whole body. After the disease, it is easy to cause homogenous reactions. IV. Acrolimus Acrolimus vitiligo initially occurs on human extremities, such as face, fingers, toes, etc. Most of them are symmetrically distributed, and some are arranged along the nerve stage. In addition to skin damage, some mucous membranes can also be involved. This kind of white spot is located in the position where the human body is exposed and has a large amount of activity, and the absorption of the drug effect is relatively weak, and the recovery of the disease is slow. 5. Hair follicle type vitiligo refers to vitiligo that grows on the hair site and the white spots have whitening symptoms, but not all hairs of the patient’s white spots have discolored, and the hair in a white spot can also be part or All turn white. The whitening of the hair at the leukoplakia indicates that the condition of vitiligo is aggravating, that is, vitiligo is in the advanced stage. If you have vitiligo, you should go to the hospital immediately to avoid further development of the condition. Although early vitiligo is painless and itchy, if the disease continues to develop, not only will the area of the leukoplakia expand, but also some complications.
What is the performance of neonatal seizures? Neonatal epilepsy is not obvious at the time of the attack and it is easy to be ignored. The hospital reminds parents to pay attention to the children’s usual symptoms to avoid delaying the treatment of the disease. Newborn convulsions are mostly symptomatic (secondary), common in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, birth injury, intracranial hemorrhage, central nervous system infection, brain development malformation, congenital metabolic abnormalities, etc. There are very few primary cases, easy to have sequelae, and the mortality rate is high. Its incidence rate is about 1.4% of live births. Within 10 days of birth, the incidence of convulsions is more than 0.2% to 0.8%, and the birth weight is less than 1500 grams. Among newborns, the incidence is 25.5%. Only a small number of neonatal convulsions belong to a specific epilepsy syndrome. At present, there is no special classification for neonatal seizures. Here we briefly introduce 5 common seizure manifestations to help parents discover the disease in time and seek medical treatment in time. What is the status of neonatal convulsions? The clinical manifestations of neonatal convulsions are generally amorphous and variable seizures, the duration of which varies, depending on the primary disease, there is fever or hypothermia, cyanosis, disturbance of consciousness, anterior Fontanelles, jaundice and other symptoms and signs. Neonatal seizures last for more than 30 minutes and are called neonatal seizures. What are the obvious symptoms of neonatal epilepsy? (1) Minor seizures, also known as ".mild seizures"., are more common than other types, mainly with head and face manifestations, without limb stiffness or clonic seizures, slight movement during seizures, and weak convulsions And limitations. It can be manifested as apnea, skewed or rolled up eyeballs, facial muscle twitching, eyelid twitching, lip tremor, sucking and swallowing, dilated pupils, sometimes accompanied by abnormal crying or drooling, or only autonomic symptoms, also It can be accompanied by limbs such as treadmill, striding, swimming and other actions. (2) Multifocal (walking) clonic convulsions This convulsion is roaming, without a fixed sequence, and the clonic movements in the seizure quickly transfer from this limb to another limb, or from this Turning from side to side, long-term focal clonic movements are limited to one limb or the upper and lower limbs on the same side before the start of other parts. (C) Focal clonic convulsions This convulsion starts from a unilateral limb or one side of the face and can be extended to other parts on the same side. It is generally unconscious. The EEG trace during the attack can be checked near the central sulcus A high-amplitude sharp wave is limited to one side, and may extend to the adjacent area of the same hemisphere or the opposite side. Slight localized seizures are sometimes unrecognizable, such as slight tremor or stiffness on one limb or finger (toe), peculiar movements of the limb, such as pendulum-like movements of the upper limbs, pedal-like movements of both lower limbs, etc. (4) Ankylosing convulsions manifested as stretching and stiffness of the whole body, with apnea, and upward strabismus of the eyes, and a small number of generalized tonic attacks. This type is more common in premature babies, often suggesting organic brain damage. (5) Myoclonic convulsions This type is clinically rare and often prompts diffuse brain damage, which is manifested by the simultaneous rapid stretching of the upper extremities and (or) lower extremities, and the EEG often has no special morphological abnormalities. How to care for children with sheep epilepsy in the family? 2. Reasonably arrange the sick child’s life and study, ensure adequate rest, over-eating, do not drink too much water, avoid lack of sleep and mood swings. Pay attention to the safety of sick children. It is forbidden to swim and climb alone to prevent falling into bed or falling.