Hemophilia wants to restore health, what is the range of normal clotting factors?

The types of coagulation factor deficiency related to hemophilia are mainly eight factors and nine factors. According to the medical definition, the average value of eight factors and nine factors is 100%, and the normal range is between 50% and 200%. Hemophilia is classified into severe hemophilia in different degrees-the level of eight or nine factors is less than 1%. Small or inconspicuous trauma (spontaneous bleeding) can cause internal bleeding in joints, muscles, and other tissues. Bleeding also occurs during surgery or teeth extraction. Moderate hemophilia-the eight-factor level or nine-factor level is between 1% and 5%. Bleeding occurs during minor sensation injuries, surgery and teeth extraction. Mild hemophilia-8-factor level or 9-factor level is 6%-50%. Bleeding is usually caused by serious injury, surgery, or tooth extraction. Patients with mild hemophilia may not be diagnosed until adulthood when unexplained excessive bleeding occurs after the above conditions. Hemophilia wants to restore health, can it be cured? So far, although new drugs for the treatment of hemophilia have been marketed one after another, the disease cannot be cured and will last for life. However, as long as reasonable preventive treatment, active control treatment, protective care measures, etc. are done, hemophilia patients can live a normal life without affecting their life span. Learn more about “disease knowledge” or “hemophilia group communication” and other WeChat search public number: xueyb120

Which hospital is better for treating genital warts?

   In recent years, with the rapid increase in the number of patients with genital warts in our country, many citizens are concerned about their health. Condyloma acuminatum is very harmful, and it is not easy to treat. For patients, the most concern at the moment is the treatment technology of condyloma acuminata and the hospital for the treatment of condyloma acuminata. 1. The environment of the hospital The environment of the hospital also plays a role in the rehabilitation of patients. Therefore, when choosing a hospital, the patient’s friends should also consider this factor. It is best to go to the hospital with a beautiful environment and a high level of medical care. hospital.    Second, the medical level of the hospital      This is a crucial point. If the hospital’s treatment method is not good and the treatment technology is immature, this is a great hidden danger to the patient’s health. The focus of a hospital is the level of the hospital, so when choosing patients, they must look at the medical level of the hospital. According to data surveys, the recurrence rate of traditional Chinese medicine treatment is the lowest. The advent of the national pure traditional Chinese medicine patent formula has made many patients with genital warts see the light again. After treatment, the wart body can fall off by itself, leaving no scars, no pain, no side effects, and no influence on work.

Uric acid 450, frequent attacks of gout? Tell you the true relationship between uric acid and gout

Yesterday, a netizen asked such a question: uric acid 448. Gout attacks twice a month. Since the onset of gout, it has been strictly taboo. What should I do? Today, I will use this question to analyze the real relationship between high uric acid and gout. High uric acid is the main cause of gout. Everyone knows that there is a close relationship between high uric acid and gout. When the level of urate in the blood rises, it exceeds the inspection standard and also exceeds the level of blood that can dissolve urate. Ability, therefore, the supersaturated urate concentration will cause monourate crystals to precipitate out of the blood, and high uric acid will cause the urate crystals precipitated in the blood to travel throughout the body with the blood and form deposits in many places. However, if the urate deposited in the joints causes inflammatory reactions in the joints, severe pain, redness and swelling and other gout-related symptoms, it is a simple process for high uric acid to induce gout attacks. Therefore, generally speaking, the higher the uric acid level, the greater the chance of gout, but this does not mean that when the uric acid level is not high, gout will not come to your door. The level of uric acid is not too high, and gout can also occur. Many of my friends went to the hospital for examination when they had gout, only to realize that they had high uric acid. But a very common phenomenon is that when uric acid attacks, the uric acid level checked is actually not very high. For example, in the case of this friend 448, it only exceeds the upper limit of the male standard value of 420 by less than 7%, and even more, When gout attacks, check the uric acid value, even if it is within the qualified range below the upper limit, why does this happen? We will interpret it from the following 4 aspects. First of all, when gout attacks, it is the urate deposited in the bones and joints, not the urate in the blood. Therefore, for the chronic metabolic disease of hyperuric acid, the urate in the blood is The formation of joints is the root cause of gout attacks, especially when the concentration of deposited urate fluctuates sharply, inflammatory reactions in the joints are induced, and the risk of gout is higher. Therefore, when gout attacks, the blood uric acid level is not high, and it does not mean that the urate deposited in the joints will not cause gout. There is no necessary correlation between the two. Secondly, when gout attacks, the human body will produce a stress response to strengthen the excretion of uric acid in the body, so in many cases the blood uric acid level is checked during an acute gout attack, but it is lower than the blood uric acid level before the gout attack. Especially some friends who have never interfered with uric acid level, usually check uric acid five or six hundred or even six or seven hundred, but when gout attacks, the uric acid is often lower, which is why. For this reason, we also suggest that during an acute attack of gout, you can consider taking drugs such as sodium bicarbonate to alkalize your urine, and pay attention to the pH monitoring of the urine to reduce the risk of uric acid stones caused by a large amount of uric acid excretion. Some friends, in the process of lowering uric acid, take large doses of medicine, even taking two different mechanisms of uric acid lowering drugs at the same time, so that the practice of rapidly lowering blood uric acid levels may also cause the onset of gout, and in this case, When gout attacks, uric acid levels are naturally not much higher. The main reason for this situation is that the blood uric acid level drops rapidly, and the urate crystals deposited on the joints will be reconstituted. This reconstitution process is too violent, and it is more likely to cause inflammatory reactions in the joints. Attack of gout. There is another situation, which is due to personal physique and genetic factors. Different people have different uric acid levels, and the risk of causing gout varies greatly in different people. Some people have high uric acid for a lifetime and eventually form tophi, which affects kidney health. However, they have not had acute gout. In fact, it is high. The proportion of people with uric acid who actually suffer from gout is only about 10-20%. Not all patients with high uric acid will have acute gout; and some people have just exceeded the standard, and acute gout will happen soon. This difference is only It can be said that the difference between personal physique and sensitivity to urate deposition cannot be generalized. If you want to compare, you still have to compare yourself. It’s meaningless to compare with others. If someone else has uric acid 600 or 700 without gout, but you have had gout more than 400, don’t sigh that your physique is not good or the onset of acute gout is just a reminder that you should actively control uric acid. If you can do this Opportunity to control uric acid

The number of people suffering from gout is approaching 100 million! After taking these 6 detours, nearly 80% of the people…

Gout is a common disease in life, which is mainly caused by high uric acid. Due to the large but incomplete network information science, many patients cannot understand gout correctly and comprehensively. For some patients who have been sick for a long time, it is often Detours in the treatment process affected the treatment effect. So what are the detours that gout patients often take during treatment? 1. As long as the joints are not painful and the blood uric acid level is not high, there is no need to treat. Many gout patients believe that as long as there are no obvious clinical symptoms and the blood uric acid level is well controlled, there is no need for special medication. This view is very wrong, if it is high Uric acidemia cannot be effectively controlled for a long time, and it will gradually become gouty arthritis with repeated attacks, affecting the normal movement of joints, and in severe cases, it may cause joint deformities. Long-term maintenance of high levels of blood uric acid can easily lead to abnormalities in the structure and function of the body’s tissues, leading to the deposition of blood uric acid in the kidneys and causing renal failure. 2. Fear of the side effects of drugs. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uric acid-lowering drugs that can treat gout without taking medicines have certain side effects, which can damage the kidneys and liver of patients, so many patients refuse to take drugs. But in fact, as long as you follow the doctor’s advice and take a certain amount of medicine, the damage to the patient will not be particularly serious. Since the body has the ability to repair itself, minor liver damage can be repaired after taking the medicine. 3. Exercise can cure all diseases. It can not only lose weight, but also reduce blood uric acid level. Patients with gout think that as long as they exercise diligently, they will definitely relieve their symptoms. In fact, this idea is wrong. For patients with gout, inappropriate or inappropriate exercise can cause repeated attacks of gout and aggravate the condition. After strenuous exercise, a large amount of sweat is lost and urine output is reduced, which will cause a burden on the kidneys. In addition, the large amount of lactic acid in the body after exercise will inhibit the excretion of uric acid in the kidneys, causing the blood uric acid level to rise. 4. Gout is a disease caused by eating. As long as you control your diet, the occurrence of gout has a certain relationship with bad eating habits. However, only relying on diet control cannot completely solve the gout attack. Medication must be used to accelerate the metabolism of uric acid in the body. , Can alleviate the patient’s pain. Long-term diet control can reduce the production of uric acid, but not the level of blood uric acid. Therefore, if you want to control the level of blood uric acid, you must have professional and systematic treatment. 5. The uric acid level drops too fast. In the treatment of gout, many patients will be very urgent to quickly reduce the blood uric acid level to the normal range. In fact, this approach is also wrong. Sudden decrease in blood uric acid level may also lead to gout attacks, mainly because after the sudden decrease in blood uric acid, urate crystals deposited on and around the joints will quickly fall off, causing an acute attack of arthritis. 6. Hunger can also treat gout. Because gout is caused by the intake of high-purine foods, many patients think that as long as hunger can relieve symptoms, hunger therapy can reduce blood uric acid levels. In fact, people are sour when they are hungry. On the contrary, the secretion will be too much, leading to uric acid excretion disorder and prone to hyperuricemia. &nbsp. I would like to remind you that gout often has a great impact on the normal life of the patient after the onset of gout. It is necessary to have a correct and comprehensive understanding to avoid detours in treatment and quickly relieve symptoms. However, the network information is one-sided, and the professionalism of the people who release popular science knowledge cannot be 100% guaranteed. Therefore, patients with gout should be systematically and comprehensively treated by professional hospital doctors.

How high is uric acid to cause gout? Doctor reminds: these health hazards should be paid more attention

There is indeed a causal relationship between hyperuric acid and gout. Excessive uric acid levels may induce gout attacks. Gout attacks are often accompanied by the problem of hyperuric acid. However, the specific level of uric acid level is related to the probability of gout. There is no inevitable connection between them. Today we will talk to you about this topic. How much uric acid is normal? What is high uric acid? Although uric acid carries a word for urine, there is indeed uric acid excreted in our urine, but the “uric acid” we usually talk about does not refer to the “uric acid” in urine, but blood The “blood uric acid” in the. How exactly is blood uric acid produced? The blood uric acid in our body is mainly derived from the nucleotide substances produced by the metabolism of our own cells. After these substances are oxidized by xanthine oxidase in the liver, they will eventually form oxidized nucleotides, which are the ones in our body. Uric acid, and about 20% of urate, comes from purines ingested from external foods. Purine substances will also form uric acid into the blood after oxidation reaction. Uric acid in the blood is a metabolite, but it is not a useless rubbish. When uric acid maintains a normal healthy state, urate has many physiological functions such as anti-oxidation and balancing blood pressure. In order to maintain the balance of uric acid, our The body excretes excess uric acid every day. There are two main ways of excretion of uric acid. The main way is through the filtration and reabsorption mechanism of the kidneys. The excess uric acid is excreted in the urine and excreted out of the body by the intestinal flora. The fermented fermentation is finally excreted with feces. Under normal circumstances, the production and excretion of uric acid in our body will form a dynamic balance to keep the level of urate in the blood in the body relatively stable. If this balance is broken, there will be too much uric acid produced in the body, too late for excretion, or excess in the body. The excretion of uric acid is blocked, the amount of excretion is too small, or both exist at the same time, which will cause the level of urate in the blood to rise, resulting in the problem of high uric acid. For the problem of high uric acid, there are clear diagnostic criteria in medicine. Usually the judgment standard for men or postmenopausal women is higher than 420μmol/L, and if the blood uric acid level of general women is higher than 360μmol/L, it can be judged as high The reason why different groups of people have different criteria for judging uric acid is because female hormones can promote uric acid excretion. Therefore, the probability of women having high uric acid is much lower than that of men. There is also a certain criterion for judging uric acid. The difference. But whether it is 420 or 360, in fact, the formulation of these values ​​is related to the solubility of urate. Urate is a slightly soluble substance with a saturation concentration of 384μmol/L in the blood. When the level of urate in our blood exceeds this value, urate may precipitate crystals due to oversaturation, which will endanger our health. Therefore, 360 or 420 is fine. As long as the uric acid level is too high, It should arouse our active attention. How much uric acid can cause gout? There is no clear answer to this question. According to clinical statistics, the higher the level of uric acid, the higher the chance of causing acute gouty arthritis. However, it is important to understand that it is not that the uric acid is as high as a certain value, and the gout problem will definitely occur. There are many friends who have very high uric acid levels. In the end, tophi was formed, which harmed the health of the kidneys, but there was no acute gout problem. Therefore, whether gout or not can not be used as a sign to judge whether the uric acid level is high or not. High uric acid must be actively controlled. Why does high uric acid cause gout, but not necessarily it? This will start from the mechanism of high uric acid. An increase in the concentration of urate in the blood will cause urate to precipitate crystals in the blood. If these precipitated crystals form deposits in the joints and induce inflammatory reactions in the body, they will cause severe joint pain. Symptoms such as redness and swelling appear, which is an acute gout attack caused by high uric acid. High uric acid causes gout. It often requires two conditions. One is the deposition of urate in the joints, and the other is that the deposition of urate causes an acute inflammatory reaction. Some friends who have high uric acid problems have their urine The deposition of salt is slow and stable. Although the deposition of urate is also formed in joints and other tissues, it does not cause

Diabetes persists in taking medicine, why complications still occur, these 3 points deserve special attention

For many people with diabetes, they all understand the truth that elevated blood sugar itself is not really scary. What’s terrible is the risk of complications of this kind that may occur during the long-term course of diabetes. Faced with the complications of diabetes, some friends raised such questions. They have discovered diabetes problems and have actively controlled their blood sugar. The blood sugar indicators are relatively stable. Why did complications occur in the end? Is it difficult to avoid complications if blood sugar is controlled or not? Today we will discuss this issue. Can the risk of diabetes complications be strengthened by controlling blood sugar? Regarding this controversy, as early as the 1960s and 1970s, it started between the two top universities in the world. Harvard University’s point of view is that the risk of diabetes complications can be prevented by strictly controlling blood sugar, while Yale University researchers believe that the complications of diabetes are inevitable regardless of whether the blood sugar is controlled or not. Of course, it is useless to talk out of thin air. Whose point of view is more correct requires large-scale prospective and interventional clinical trial data to prove it. In this context, in 1977 of the last century, the UK carried out the UKPDS study, and in 1983, the United States funded the DCCT study. These two famous large-scale clinical studies also made this controversy clear in conclusion. I won’t say much about the specific research process. Let’s briefly talk about the main results of these two studies-UKPDS study: After an average follow-up of 10 years, it was found that for every 1% reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin, the risk of diabetic microvascular complications was reduced by 35%. . DCCT study in the United States: After 7 years of intensive blood glucose control, the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in diabetic patients was significantly reduced. In other words, through strict blood sugar control, it has a clear preventive effect on reducing the risk of diabetes complications. Diabetes complications are not uncontrollable, but can be effectively prevented. Adhere to medication, blood sugar control is relatively stable, why do complications occur? Understand and realize that strict control of blood sugar to stabilize and reach standards can help reduce the risk of diabetes complications and delay the development of diabetes complications. However, there are still some friends who insist on taking medication to control blood sugar, or diabetes complications will occur. What is the reason? The first thing I want to explain is that if we insist on taking medicine and have relatively stable blood sugar control, it does not mean that diabetes complications will not occur. If we don’t take medicine and don’t control blood sugar, the incidence and development speed of diabetes complications, Will be faster, but clear. The reason why the complications of diabetes may occur if you insist on taking the medicine, you may wish to consider the following possible reasons. 1. Diabetes was discovered too late. There are many diabetic patients. When the diabetes problem was discovered, the state of high blood sugar had actually lasted for many years, and even when related complications occurred, they found high blood sugar diabetes when they went to the hospital for treatment. problem. Since I didn’t know it before, I didn’t actively control blood sugar. The health hazards of high blood sugar to the body’s kidneys, nervous system, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular have gradually formed. At this time, the related complications are also in the process of slow progress. Of course, at this time, the blood sugar level must be actively and strictly controlled. However, the occurrence of complications is often inevitable, but the blood sugar level is actively controlled. It is also very important to help slow down the development of complications and reduce the risk of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. 2. Although I took the medicine, I didn’t really control my blood sugar. Some friends, although they have been taking the medicine, do not really understand their blood sugar control, or the blood sugar control is relatively stable, but it has not reached a reasonable level. Level. Diabetics usually require strict control of their blood sugar levels when their physical conditions are relatively good, and control the glycosylated hemoglobin to below 7.0%. This level corresponds to fasting blood sugar and postprandial blood sugar, and fasting blood sugar should be controlled to 7.0mmol/L. Below, the blood glucose level 2 hours after a meal should also be kept below 10 as much as possible to reach the target. Even after taking medicine, can we really control our blood sugar level below this level? If the blood sugar level is only controlled to be stable without strict control of the blood sugar level to reach the standard, the same high blood sugar level will still affect our health and cause various complications.

Thrombocytopenia Patients Association: Is there no bleeding to be treated?

There is no positive correlation between platelet level and the bleeding risk of thrombocytopenia (ITP), meaning: low platelet level, bleeding risk is not necessarily large. Conversely, if the platelet level is not low, the risk of bleeding is not necessarily small. This view was published in the “Chinese Journal of New Drugs and Clinical Medicine”. For bleeding problems, patients with thrombocytopenia with large numerical fluctuations need to pay special attention! If the value is within the safe level and does not exceed the threshold, it is a normal inspection fluctuation. For every increase or decrease of platelets by more than 10 units (10×10^9/L), it is considered that the platelets have increased or decreased, indicating that the platelet level has increased or decreased by a step. For bleeding patients with upper body bleeding such as tooth bleeding, nosebleeds, oral bleeds, etc., ITP patients can be relieved by cooling blood to stop bleeding, clearing away heat and detoxification, and purging fire and detoxification. In this regard, the risk of patients is better than nothing. Patients with sexual and wet bleeding are much higher! For the non-bleeding patient population, it should not be taken lightly because the platelet count is low and there is no bleeding. In many cases, there is no bleeding. Once bleeding occurs, especially internal bleeding, there is a 100% probability of harm! ! ! The treatment still needs treatment! ! ! The purpose is to increase the stable platelet value! ! ! In addition to controlling the basic bleeding risk caused by low platelets, it is also necessary to strengthen the treatment of marrow lifting plate to promote the safe, normal and stable platelet lifting. Learn more about “disease knowledge” or “thrombocytopenia patient group communication” and other WeChat search public number: xxbjs1

Will the prosthetic chest be seen at a glance?

In the past few days, many face-to-face prosthetic breast augmentation seekers have been received. Most customers will ask this question: Will the breast prosthesis be seen at a glance? How does it feel? Will it affect breastfeeding after giving birth? I have just finished the sub-high school exam and I will explain these questions in detail while there is no surgery arrangement today. 1. The more expensive the prosthesis material, the better? Common breast augmentation materials include: saline-filled prostheses, unidentified injections such as Ogilvy, and silicone gel prostheses. Among them, saline-filled prosthesis was the earliest breast augmentation material used, and it has now been eliminated; because Ogilvy and unknown injections have more complications after implantation, they are already prohibited materials. Nowadays, the most used material is silicone gel prosthesis, which can be divided into smooth silicone prosthesis and rough silicone prosthesis. Glossy prosthesis: feels Q elastic, has a smooth surface, less grip, and can move freely in the capsule. Although it can make the entire chest movement more natural, it is more likely to cause capsule contracture after surgery. Rough-faced prosthesis: the feel is the same as the smooth-faced prosthesis, and the appearance is of a hairy surface structure. It feels frosted to the touch and has a correspondingly strong grip. It can be more closely integrated with the body tissue to prevent the prosthesis from swimming in the breast Walk, shift. I personally recommend the use of a rough surface prosthesis. The Q elasticity of the two materials is not much different in the feel, but in terms of postoperative effects, the rough surface prosthesis is better and can also reduce the removal of the prosthesis after capsular contracture. Repair probability. 2. Choose round type or drop type for prosthesis? The shape of the prosthesis material mainly includes the disc type and the water drop type. The specific choice depends on various parameters such as the individual’s thorax, tissue thickness and skin elasticity. &nbsp.Disc type (top): After implantation, the breast contour is round, plump and tall, and there is a certain lifting effect, but it is relatively rigid in shape and has a strong prosthesis, such as breast augmentation done by Thai ladyboys , Pursue an immediate, round and straight effect, even without wearing underwear, the prosthesis still maintains a spherical shape. &nbsp.Water drop type (bottom): After implantation of the breast, the implant is shaped like a drop of water along the line of the body, which is closer to the real breast shape, and can naturally maintain the fullness and coordination of the breast. Anne Hathaway, known as the beautiful breast shape, has the force of the upper part of the breast downward, and the lower part of the breast naturally rises. When designing breast augmentation surgery plans for beauty seekers, I also respect this kind of physiological form. Natural breast shape. &nbsp.If you don’t want to be seen at a glance and do breast implants, and if you want to have a natural breast, I personally recommend a drop-shaped implant; but those who like to have a rounded breast and simply want to make their breasts fuller and taller , It is more appropriate to choose the disc type. 3. The bigger the prosthesis material, the better? At the beginning, the general pursuit was a European-American effect (as large as possible). In the face-to-face consultation, some beauty seekers would have a “retaliatory psychology” and felt that their previous breasts were too flat, since they want breast augmentation , It is necessary to grow as big as possible. Such an idea is unhealthy. Let’s not say whether it is suitable or not. The breasts are too big to look good in the early stage, but as the age grows, the skin begins to relax, and the breasts will sag and become unsightly. &nbsp. Nowadays, with the change of aesthetics, people have begun to pursue breast augmentation with natural form and soft hand. Asians are generally thin, so the size of the prosthesis should be 200-260ml, and the maximum size should not exceed 280ml. In addition, body shape and skin laxity will also affect the choice of prosthesis size. Therefore, choosing the shape and size of the prosthesis that suits you can avoid a strong postoperative prosthesis. &nbsp. The surgical incisions for breast augmentation with surgical incisions mainly include areola incisions, axillary incisions, and subbreast fold incisions. Because Asian bodies are prone to scars, it is almost no longer necessary to make incisions in subbreast folds. I personally use the armpit incision more often. This place is easier to operate, and it is also more concealed for beauty seekers. It is difficult to find without raising the arm. &nbsp.&nbsp. Levels of prosthesis breast augmentation will affect breastfeeding after breast augmentation, depending on the level of prosthesis implantation: under the pectoralis major, under the breast, under the biplane. (1) Under the pectoralis major muscle: It can be implanted through various incisions. This gap is a natural anatomical gap, which is easy to separate and can obtain good tissue coverage; the disadvantage is that the feel of the prosthesis will change when the muscles are exerted. Hard, unnatural contour, not suitable for people with overdeveloped pectoralis major. (2) Submammary gland: only suitable for breast tissue and

Women’s estrogen is reduced, the body will have 6 manifestations, once it occurs, it is best to adjust

For female friends, estrogen can be said to accompany women for life, and it is also an important hormone that affects women’s life. From twelve to thirteen years old, they develop into slim girls, and gradually develop female secondary sexual characteristics, forming a perfect female body. Curves, smooth and elastic skin, dark and shiny hair, etc., are closely related to the level of estrogen in women. Usually, the level of estrogen in women reaches the peak of secretion at the age of 30, and then it starts to decline. When women are over 40 years old At times, especially when entering the menopausal stage, due to the gradual decline of ovarian function, the level of estrogen in the body will further decline, and the level of estrogen in the body will decrease. What manifestations and symptoms will the female body have? Today we will talk about this topic. For female friends over 40, especially female friends between 45 and 55 years old, the decline of ovarian function is usually inevitable, and the level of estrogen in the body will be further reduced due to the decline of ovarian function, estrogen Insufficient level, it is not only as simple as the final menopause, but also brings changes and performance in many aspects of the body, let’s briefly talk about a few. Estrogen and Body In the menopausal stage, when the level of estrogen in the body decreases, women will find that they have maintained a good body, and gradually start to lose their shape, especially the belly and waist, which are particularly prone to grow flesh, even if they don’t eat too much. The long flesh that will choke, many menopausal women have the distress of increased waist circumference and out of shape. In fact, the reason why such a problem occurs is closely related to the decrease in estrogen levels in our body. Adequate estrogen levels in the body can strengthen the fat distribution in women’s bodies, allowing women to maintain a plump and beautiful body. When the estrogen level is low, this regulation will become weaker, causing more fat to accumulate in the waist. The abdomen, of course, is out of shape. Estrogen and the health of the reproductive system. Estrogen is an important hormone for the formation of female secondary sexual characteristics and maintaining female reproductive health. The reason why women enter menopause is precisely because women gradually enter the stage of loss of reproductive capacity as they age. A transitional period. The reduction of female estrogen levels will also affect the health of women’s reproductive system. In addition to the gradual loss of fertility, it will also affect women’s “sexual well-being”. Problems such as dryness of the genitourinary system and pain during sex are often It is caused by the decrease in estrogen levels in women. The reduction of estrogen and cardiovascular health estrogen levels will not only affect the endocrine function of women, but also affect the various metabolic functions of the female body. High blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are all in the case of decreased estrogen levels in women. It is easier to come to your door, and these diseases, coupled with the reduction of estrogen levels in the body, women have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease during menopause. Therefore, if women lack estrogen, they should pay more attention to regular checkups for the three high problems and risk control of cardiovascular disease. Adequacy of estrogen and skeletal estrogen is an important factor in maintaining the balance of bone metabolism in the body. The decrease in the level of estrogen in the body will accelerate the loss of calcium in women’s bones. Therefore, the decrease in the level of estrogen in women may also lead to women’s bone pain, bone density reduction, osteoporosis and easy fractures. Therefore, , Women should pay more attention to calcium and vitamin D supplementation before and during menopause. Only when there is sufficient calcium in the body can the appearance of osteoporosis be better prevented. The reduction of estrogen and autonomic estrogen levels can also cause women to have a series of autonomic disorders. Autonomic nerves are autonomic nerves that are not regulated by the central nervous system. The balance of autonomic nerves is very important for maintaining physical health. The reduction of hormone levels and the disorder of endocrine levels in the body will increase the probability of women’s autonomic nervous function disorders. Autonomic disorders will cause women to experience hot flashes, night sweats, skin abnormalities, gastrointestinal cramps, heart palpitations and other symptoms. Such a symptom may last for a long time in the female menopause stage, making people miserable. Estrogen and emotional women’s lower estrogen levels can also cause emotional changes in women. When women’s estrogen levels decrease, they are more likely to experience anxiety, depression, irritability and other bad emotions, and these emotions will further affect our sleep and physical health. Therefore,

Hemophilia population: according to the level of clotting factors, there are three different types

Clinically, hemophilia is divided into three types based on the level of FⅧ or FIX. Different levels of coagulation factors (initial examination / after treatment not included) have different divisions. Ps: The total amount of factors contained in 1ml of normal plasma is defined as a factor of 1 unit. The percentage of activity is used to express the level of the factor, that is, the level of 100% (1U/ml) is equal to the activity of the factor in 1ml of normal plasma. What type of hemophilia coagulation factor content is 1.5? Factor activity level ≥5~40% Clinical classification: Mild possible bleeding symptoms are: surgery or trauma can cause abnormal bleeding Factor activity level ≥1~&lt.5% (The answer to the topic is moderate) Clinical classification: Medium type may bleeding The symptoms are: severe bleeding after minor surgery/trauma, occasionally spontaneous blood and factor activity level: <1%-which is what we call severe hemophilia. Possible bleeding symptoms are: spontaneous bleeding of muscles or joints, hematoma, and regular preventive treatment is required. To learn more about "disease knowledge" or "exchange with hemophilia patients" and other WeChat search public number: xueyb120

【The fierce financial profession】

Case report I am a freshman at Guangdong University of Finance, and I am studying finance, the school’s ace professional. Although the school is a general college, this major is still very good, and the admission scores almost all exceed the threshold. But this is not the major I want to study, my favorite is journalism. When applying for a volunteer, my business parents all opposed me reporting on the news. They felt that the profession was useless and would not be able to make a lot of money in the future. They think that if they major in economics, even if they can’t do a big business to make a lot of money, they can still find a decent job, so that they won’t lose face when they go out and deal with people. I have also insisted, but considering that it is not easy for my parents to work hard outside, I compromised when my heart was softened. Watching my classmates study with relish every day, I can’t be interested. Every day I insist on studying high maths and English, and I feel no mood at all. My mathematics was not good at first, but I didn’t expect to make up for mathematics even after going to college. Case comment: “First-rate students study finance, second-rate students study high-tech (such as computers), and third-rate students study engineering”. This phrase is widely circulated in colleges and universities. It is a true portrayal of the current fierce enrollment of finance and economics. A Beijing media reporter summed up an experience. If you want to find the top candidates in the college entrance examination of various provinces, the best way is to stand in front of the School of Economics and Management of Tsinghua University and Guanghua School of Management of Peking University. “When you see a student come out, go forward and ask. He is not a champion in any province, his roommate must be!” The voluntary choice of the champions in the college entrance examination has become a vane. In many colleges and universities, the admission scores of finance and economics are basically in the top five of the majors of the school. The author has been studying the college entrance examination volunteers in the past few years. Every year, I receive consultations from countless candidates and parents from all over the country. Regardless of the region, no thesis or science, and no matter which batch, the candidates’ interests and hobbies, the most consulted is whether they can apply for the financial profession. Some candidates or parents even asked “How can I enter a bank, securities company, investment company after graduation” and so on. However, due to the dramatic expansion of financial and economic majors in recent years, the employment rate of graduates from some colleges and universities has shown a clear downward trend, and the initial employment rate of some colleges is even less than 40%. In addition, studying finance majors not only requires meticulous logical thinking skills, but also a good basic knowledge of mathematics. Candidates who are interested in mathematics and learn well in high school will be more comfortable studying finance and economics after entering university. Teacher Lu reminds 1. Categories of financial majors Financial majors include two major categories. The first category: Economics. Including economics, economic statistics, finance, taxation, finance, financial engineering, insurance, investment, international economics and trade, trade economics and other majors. The second category: management. Management is the general term for disciplines, and finance-related majors are mainly included in the business management categories, such as accounting, financial management, marketing, international business, auditing, and asset evaluation. In recent years, with the development of the economy and society, new faces in finance and economics have emerged one after another. For example, credit management, sports economics, network economics, marine economics and other majors were derived from the economics category, and the property management and franchise management majors were also born in the business management category. In some colleges and universities, there are many professional directions in the finance and economics major. For example, tourism management major can be divided into hotel management, exhibition economy, leisure and service, scenic spot planning, etc.; finance major can be divided into international finance, real estate finance, etc.; accounting major can be divided into financial accounting, international accounting, certified public accountant, etc. direction. 2. The level of finance and economics colleges There are a large number of finance and economics colleges and a strong lineup. There are nearly 50 public undergraduate colleges and universities. These colleges and universities are spread all over the country. Except for Ningxia, Qinghai, and Tibet, other provinces can see finance and economics colleges and universities. Roughly divided, financial institutions can be divided into the following three levels. The first level: “Guo Zihao” colleges and universities. This level of colleges and universities is directly under the Ministry of Education. It has been established for a long time and is more than forty years old. Its characteristics are: reputation, strong teachers, rich financial resources, and have a greater influence in society. Such as Central University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, etc. The second level: provincial local colleges and universities. This level of colleges and universities was mostly founded after the 1980s, or was “changed” by other similar colleges and universities. Its characteristics are: strong regionality, complex disciplines, and school locations generally in provincial capitals or coastal cities.

Which is more important, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose? Keep 4 words in mind to reduce the risk of complications

Many friends with diabetes have two values ​​of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose when measuring blood glucose. The requirements for the control of these two values ​​are also different. So in the process of blood glucose control, fasting blood glucose is more important in the end Is blood glucose important after a meal? Let’s first briefly introduce the fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose. Fasting blood glucose usually refers to the blood sugar level of 8 to 12 hours after eating, and fasting blood glucose is measured, while postprandial blood glucose usually refers to the measured blood sugar 1 to 2 hours after the meal. Level. The blood sugar level we measure at the fasting level refers to the basic blood sugar level that maintains metabolism in the body without supplementation, and the postprandial blood glucose represents the process of food metabolism conversion and utilization in the human body after eating. The specific level of blood sugar in the blood, the simple conclusion is that, generally speaking, postprandial blood sugar is higher than fasting blood sugar. For healthy people, fasting blood glucose exceeding 6.1mmol/L is considered to exceed the standard, and for the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, the upper limit is 7.8mmol/L, and for diabetic patients, abnormal blood glucose metabolism has occurred , The difficulty of controlling blood sugar will also be greatly increased. Generally speaking, if the fasting blood sugar level of diabetic patients can be controlled below 7.0, and the blood sugar level can be controlled below 10.0 within 2 hours after a meal, even if it is well controlled, for some With a long course of disease, a high risk of hypoglycemia, and elderly elderly diabetic patients, this control standard can also be combined with the actual situation and moderately further relaxed. So which of the fasting blood glucose level and the postprandial blood glucose level is more important? In fact, we should understand this issue in this way. If the problem of high blood sugar is not controlled, it will gradually affect the health of all aspects of our body, whether it is a major vascular complication of the cardiovascular system, or kidney, nervous system, etc. Microvascular complications are formed under the influence of high blood sugar, and the cause of these complications and health hazards is the persistent problem of high blood sugar, whether it is the increase in fasting blood glucose or the further increase in blood glucose after a meal. It will also have an impact on health. Therefore, in the process of blood sugar control, whether it is fasting blood glucose or postprandial blood glucose, it is worth our active attention and should be actively adjusted. Some friends said that postprandial blood glucose is more important than fasting blood glucose. For this, I think it should be understood that postprandial blood glucose is more important, mainly because of 2 points-first, compared to fasting blood glucose, people are In the process of blood sugar control, it is often easier to ignore the problem of increased blood sugar after meals. Some patients with type 2 diabetes have a fasting blood sugar test, and the blood sugar has not exceeded the diagnostic criteria for diabetes. However, if you do a glucose tolerance test, after meals The blood glucose level of 2 hours has already exceeded the standard; there are some friends who only pay attention to regularly monitoring the fasting blood glucose level during the long-term control of diabetes, but do not pay attention to the control of the increase in blood glucose after meals, which ultimately leads to various complications. Further increase in risk. Secondly, postprandial blood glucose levels are more likely to have a larger increase, and are more likely to have larger fluctuations. Postprandial blood glucose is an indicator that reflects the body’s metabolism and utilization of blood glucose after eating. For diabetic patients, there are generally cases of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion. In such cases, after eating, especially after eating After the staple food of sugar or carbohydrates, postprandial blood sugar is often more prone to soar, and if the blood sugar is greatly increased, it will not only harm the health of the body, but also easily cause the risk of acute complications of diabetes. Therefore, diabetic patients, while controlling fasting blood glucose, must also pay attention to the monitoring and control of postprandial blood glucose. In terms of postprandial blood glucose control, diet control, adherence to exercise and reasonable application of postprandial blood glucose control drugs are very important. Aspects, such as oral insulin secretagogues, for diabetes patients with good islet cell function, it is a good medicine to lower blood sugar after meals, and for those who have carbohydrate-based postprandial blood sugar increases, take acarbose to control Elevated blood glucose after a meal is also a good choice, etc. For diabetic people’s blood glucose indicators, don’t look at the temporary value or a certain value. You should comprehensively integrate the blood sugar situation, combined with fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose monitoring, and regularly check the level of glycated hemoglobin to comprehensively assess the blood sugar control of the diabetic. Pay attention to controlling postprandial blood sugar and fasting blood

Rumors in the rivers and lakes: big breasts, beautiful appearance, femininity, all rely on estrogen! correct? -Treat estrogen determination rationally

Estrogen is very important for women. So, should girls often go to the hospital for blood tests to determine estrogen? Rumors from the rivers and lakes: Large breasts, beautiful appearance, femininity, all relying on estrogen. Although some words are exaggerated, but the huge role of estrogen in women’s life is indeed irreplaceable by any hormone. ✔It controls the development and maintenance of women’s second sexual characteristics; ✔It regulates the stability of women’s internal environment; ✔Female periodic menstruation; ✔Female fertility; effect. So should we measure estrogen in real time? The determination of estrogen has little clinical significance. If you must measure it, it may eventually collapse into suspicion of life. In fact, the estrogen in non-pregnant women is mainly secreted by the ovaries. In theory, measuring estrogen levels can monitor ovarian function. 1. Why does estrogen determination have little clinical significance? A large part of the reason is because the results of estrogen measurement are not stable. The secretion of ovarian estrogen is regulated by gonadotropins (FSH and LH), and the secretion of gonadotropins shows a pulse pattern. This means that at different times, the amount of estrogen secretion varies greatly. To put it simply, the same woman who draws blood at different times on the same day may have very different estrogen values. Therefore, the clinically determined estrogen value can only reflect the amount of estrogen secreted by the ovary at a certain moment, but cannot fully reflect the function of the ovary. 2. How is the level of estrogen evaluated clinically? In most cases, comprehensive clinical performance needs to be evaluated. The main target organs of estrogen are the genitals and breasts, which are clinically evaluated based on the development of the breast and vulva and the endometrial thickness (menstrual volume). For example, it is also the primary amenorrhea: if it is a young female vulva, the breast is not developing, indicating that the body has low estrogen levels and the ovaries are not functional. If there is development of a second sex during puberty, it means that there is a certain level of estrogen in the body and the ovaries are functional. For adolescents and women of childbearing age, as long as menstruation is normal, high or low estrogen levels can not explain any problems. For women with impaired ovarian function, as long as FSH levels have risen, high or low estrogen levels are meaningless. 3. If there is a gynecological situation, what test should be more appropriate? The reason for judging amenorrhea is mainly based on the FSH level. Elevated FSH level indicates that the cause is in the ovary, and low FSH level indicates that the cause is in the hypothalamus-pituitary. Normal FSH level indicates that the cause is either HPO axis dysfunction or reproductive tract. Diagnosis of anovulation? Judging by progesterone. Monitor follicle development? Ultrasound is more meaningful. Diagnosis of female precocious puberty? According to clinical manifestations, girls have the development of second sex before the age of 8. Pituitary hormones are more important in determining the cause. In summary, estrogen is very important for women, but estrogen determination is very unimportant. Girls, save your energy and don’t die with the estrogen measurement!

Is fasting blood sugar 9-10 serious, how to adjust it? Two different situations, to clarify for you

Many friends with diabetes know that the normal level of fasting blood glucose is below 6.1mmol / L (the same for the following units), and if it exceeds 7.0, it is a problem that can be diagnosed with diabetes, and if the fasting blood glucose rises to 9 ~ 10 About, is the diabetes problem serious? It is still difficult to judge the severity of diabetes from just one blood sugar level. The fasting blood sugar level of diabetes reaches 9-10mmol / L, which is not serious. It is impossible to judge this value alone. It should be combined with the risk of complications, the development of the disease course, the implementation of relevant conditioning interventions, and the specific physical conditions. Judge the severity, but no matter whether it is serious or not, at such a blood sugar level, you should actively control blood sugar as early as possible to minimize the health risks and health hazards caused by high blood sugar. If new diabetes patients do not know that they have diabetes problems, they suddenly find that fasting blood glucose has reached the level of 9 ~ 10. First of all, it should be clear that although our blood glucose has certain fluctuations, fasting blood glucose has reached this level. There is no doubt about the diagnosis of diabetes. . For this situation, what we need to do is to control the blood glucose level as soon as possible. For such a blood glucose value, it is still not low. When fasting blood glucose reaches this level, the postprandial blood glucose value may be higher. If the high blood sugar is not controlled, it will bring more risk of complications and health hazards to the body. The course of development of type 2 diabetes often has a certain process. Take fasting blood glucose as an example. When fasting blood glucose rises, it will often experience a gradual increase. The fasting blood glucose is impaired first, and then eventually exceeds 7.0. Process, in this process, if you do not check your blood sugar in time, it is entirely possible to be ignored. Therefore, when the initial blood sugar test finds that the fasting blood sugar has reached 9 ~ 10, it often means that our blood sugar level has risen for a while. Too. Under such circumstances, it is recommended that you can do a comprehensive physical health to see if cardiovascular, renal function, retina, peripheral nervous system, feet and other target organs that are easily affected by high blood sugar have started to have complications. If there are no complications, it means that the fasting blood glucose is relatively high, and it is not too serious. It is most important to hurry up and strengthen diet conditioning and exercise in life, and at the same time choose reasonable hypoglycemic drugs, keep taking, and actively control blood sugar. If you do not control hyperglycemia as soon as possible, it is “not serious”. With the development of the course of diabetes, sooner or later it will become “severe”. Through diet, exercise, and medication, what should be the goal of regulating fasting blood glucose? Generally speaking, for newly diagnosed diabetics, it is very necessary to control this value to below 7.0. At the same time, we should also pay attention to monitoring the postprandial blood glucose control. Generally, postprandial blood glucose should be controlled within 10, and it is also recommended for this kind of In case, the level of glycated hemoglobin should be checked regularly. If the level of glycated hemoglobin is controlled stably below 7.0%, the health hazards caused by hyperglycemia can be greatly reduced, and the risk of complications can be greatly reduced. The situation in the process of diabetes blood sugar control If you are a friend who has already been diagnosed with diabetes, you usually use medication to control your blood sugar levels. In this case, fasting blood sugar is controlled to about 9-10 levels, it is not enough. For many years of diabetic patients, fasting blood glucose control to 9-10, the situation is often more complicated, sometimes because life conditioning control is not strict, diet is not controlled, exercise is not adhered to, medication is not enough, resulting in blood sugar Loss of control leads to an increase in fasting blood glucose, which exceeds the standard range; and another situation is that some friends who use insulin to control blood sugar use excessive amounts of insulin preparations, resulting in problems with hypoglycemia at night, but after getting up in the morning, The body will have a situation of modern compensatory fasting blood sugar increase (Su Mujie phenomenon). For such different situations, we must also take different measures to deal with it. For example, if you measure your blood sugar on an empty stomach in the morning at around 9-10, you may also measure a postprandial blood glucose value and glycated hemoglobin level at the same time. Compensatory

I am OGTT 1 hour high blood sugar, why should I monitor the blood sugar 2 hours after a meal?

After pregnancy, everyone needs to be screened for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks, or OGTT. You need to measure your fasting blood sugar, and take blood to measure blood sugar 1 hour and 2 hours after drinking sugar water. Any one of these three times the blood sugar level exceeds the normal level, it will be diagnosed as gestational diabetes. 01 Judgment of control effect of gestational diabetes After diagnosis of gestational diabetes, diet control and appropriate exercise are required. The control effect is based on fasting blood glucose and blood glucose level 2 hours after a meal. Some people may find it strange that if OGTT is high fasting blood glucose or high 2-hour blood glucose, regular monitoring of fasting blood glucose and blood glucose levels 2 hours after a meal should be appropriate. I obviously have elevated blood glucose at 1 hour, and fasting blood glucose and 2 hour blood glucose are normal. Why should I monitor fasting blood glucose and 2 hour postprandial blood glucose levels instead of monitoring 1 hour postprandial blood glucose? This is mainly because the focus of the diagnostic criteria and follow-up criteria are different. OGTT is a diagnostic criterion. Whether it is fasting blood glucose, 1-hour blood glucose and 2-hour blood glucose, as long as one of them does not meet the standard, it means that the glucose metabolism is abnormal. It is gestational diabetes and needs to be controlled. The follow-up standard focuses on the control effect and the relationship between blood glucose levels and near- and long-term complications. Fasting blood sugar is usually taken before breakfast every day to measure the blood sugar level. This indicator can reflect our own ability to secrete insulin, and can also let us understand the effect of blood sugar control. (Source: Ruijing Creative) 02 Why should we monitor blood glucose at 2 hours after a meal instead of 1 hour after a meal? 1. A large number of clinical studies have confirmed that the blood sugar at 2 hours after a meal has peaked. It reaches a peak and then slowly drops. Therefore, routine clinical monitoring of blood glucose 2 hours after a meal to understand the peak blood glucose level of the patient can make a reasonable evaluation of the situation of blood glucose after a meal. 2. The clinical study of the correlation between the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level and the chronic complications of diabetes shows that the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes is closely related to the chronic complications of diabetes. If the blood glucose is 7.8 to 11.1 mmol / L 2 hours after a meal, the prevalence of coronary heart disease is 9 times that of normal blood glucose, and the blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol / L 2 hours after a meal, the risk of diabetic retinopathy is significantly increased. For gestational diabetes, 2-hour blood glucose levels are also associated with increased risk of maternal and child complications. Therefore, when doing OGTT, even if the blood glucose level is only increased for 1 hour, at the time of follow-up, the fasting blood glucose and the 2 hour postprandial blood glucose level are still monitored.

Studying that air pollution can hurt your kidneys, come and see what’s going on

Dr. Wang Wei shared a research article today to remind everyone to pay attention to self-protection: it has been confirmed that the level of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air with a diameter of <2.5μm is related to the outcome of cardiovascular disease and the increased risk of death. Studies have also found that kidney disease mortality is higher in coal mining areas in the United States, reflecting that environmental exposure to particulate matter may increase kidney disease mortality. But the relationship between air pollution PM2.5 levels and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. & nbsp. Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly and others from the Clinical Epidemiology Center of the Department of Veterans Affairs of the St. Louis Healthcare System contacted the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Veterans Affairs database to establish a national long-term observation queue of 2,482,737 veterans. Observe the relationship between PM2.5 levels and the incidence of CKD and ESRD progression. The research results were published in JASN in January 2018. & nbsp. Subjects were followed up for a median time of 8.52 years. PM2.5 levels were divided into four groups: 5.0 ~ 9.1μg / m3, 9.2 ~ 11.0μg / m3, 11.1 ~ 12.6μg / m3 and 12.7 ~ 22.1μg / m3. A survival model was used to evaluate the relationship between PM2.5 levels and eGFR & lt; 60 ml / min / 1.73m3, CKD, eGFR reduction ≥30% and the risk of ESRD. The exposure level is defined at the baseline level, which is the annual average PM2.5 level in 2004, and it is updated with time as the subjects in the cohort migrate and move each year. & nbsp. & nbsp. The study found that more subjects living in the group with the highest PM2.5 level were black, more suffering from hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, eGFR was higher when entering the group, and more smokers . Areas with the highest PM2.5 levels have higher population densities. With the gradual increase of PM2.5 level, eGFR & lt; 60ml / min / 1.73m2, CKD, eGFR decreased by ≥30% and the incidence of ESRD gradually increased. & nbsp. In the analysis of baseline exposure (median value 11.8μg / m3), every 10μg / m3 increase in PM2.5 level and eGFR & lt.60ml / min / 1.73m3 risk, CKD risk, eGFR reduction ≥30% risk, The increased risk of ESRD is related. In the time change analysis, every increase of PM2.5 level of 10μg / m3 is related to eGFR & lt.60ml / min / 1.73m3, CKD, eGFR reduction ≥30% and increased risk of ESRD. The degree of hazard ratio is similar to that in baseline exposure analysis . Linear analysis showed that the level of PM2.5 was linearly correlated with the risk of renal outcome. The above results are consistent with the average baseline PM2.5 level in 2004 and the PM2.5 data collected by NASA satellites. This study confirmed that the level of PM2.5 exposure was linearly related to the risk of adverse kidney outcomes (the occurrence of CKD and eGFR reduction ≥30% and progression to ESRD). It suggests that chronic exposure to air pollutants is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and progression of kidney disease.

Why do partnerships get stuck?

& Nbsp & nbsp Author: Liu Yingya [this time around I have some loss of feeling the heart mad. A few days ago, I had trouble with my husband because of some things. Life seldom intersects, so far I have had some “Xian Yun Ye He”, I comfort myself this is also very good, save the nanny to be home. But this time there will often appear to be unable to calm down, emotionally unable to calm down, and will feel panic and anxious. I don’t know if I have depression. What now? 】 The above is a case. & nbsp. Was it because of the trouble, then there was no intersection, and then panic, anxiety? Relationship problems and dilemmas The problems and dilemmas that appear in each relationship seem to be what you are going to solve, and you are going to break away. In essence, from a deeper level, these dilemmas and problems are just to help You improve the relationship. People in the relationship must be able to face and experience this dilemma and problems in order to enhance the relationship. In this process, people need their own growth. Because of trouble, because there is no intersection, there is panic and anxiety. If this process is truly established, it is in accordance with the causal logic. That means you have panic and anxiety because you have no intersection. When there is no intersection or interruption in a stable intimate relationship, people in it will experience panic and anxiety. If it is a normal relationship or a person with normal social function, panic and anxiety will be just a feeling and feeling. This kind of feeling just reminds you of the need for relationship and the need for intimacy, but it will not become panic, anxiety, and the mood cannot be calm, and the mood cannot be calm. The normal relationship here is, for example, a relationship that can be effectively contacted and communicated. People with normal social functions such as a competent clerk or competent partner. The fear and anxiety in the dependency relationship is beyond calm and calm, which means that you have a very large proportion of dependence on this relationship, and you are not capable or aware that you can take the initiative to deal with the relationship. When people are very dependent on relationships, and even become their fulcrums, this will greatly affect your own experience of relationships and your attitudes, feelings, and ideas about relationships. Why are you so dependent? The most fundamental reason is that you have failed to meet your own needs, making it difficult for you to take responsibility and take care of yourself. & nbsp. Self-responsibility How to carry out self-responsibility and self-care? There are two main aspects. & nbsp. One is self-responsibility for survival needs, both material and spiritual. The need for survival on the material level is obvious. You can guarantee your own survival, or furthermore, you can have a certain quality of your life. Spiritual survival needs such as a sense of security, self-worth, etc., that requires you to first be able to protect your life, and have a certain self-identity, such as professional or career-level self-identity. The second is to have your own social support system, that is, a supportive relationship. More important support relationships, in addition to partner relationships, a good native family relationship is an important support system for a person, and there are other relatively benign and high-quality relationships. These support systems can help you ease, provide companionship and support when you have emotional needs-even at the psychological level, social relationships are also a channel for a person to connect, interact and communicate with the outside world. Ability to take care of yourself and help yourself in these two areas, you will be more at ease and more secure, so that you can establish an effective relationship with people, to establish a truly intersecting relationship, and also to deal with it more effectively The problem of relationship. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Are there any gains after reading? Follow me and teach you to analyze the phenomenon and confusion of marriage and love with psychology to help you understand love and marriage. & nbsp. Liu Yingya: Master of Psychology, National Class Two Psychological Counselor, Marriage and Bisexual Emotional Family Researcher, Personal Physical and Mental Growth Researcher, Lily Marriage and Love Emotion Tutor, Enterprise Staff Growth Consultant for more than ten years of psychological work, focusing on family Marriage and affection, personal physical and spiritual growth. Public number: psychological consultant Liu Yingya WeChat: psyajfz Weibo: https://weibo.com/u/1380513270/&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.