Don’t pay attention to the influence of tubal effusion on the success rate of IVF

  In life, there are many causes of hydrosalpinx in women, and the serious consequence of this situation is infertility. Therefore, many people hope to realize their reproductive needs through IVF technology. So, have you ever wondered whether tubal effusion will affect the success rate of IVF? What are the hazards?   What is tubal effusion?   Oviduct effusion refers to the formation of internal fallopian tubes due to the infiltration of white blood cells after the fallopian tube is infected by pathogens. Membrane swelling, interstitial edema, exudation, fallopian tube mucosal epithelium fall off, if the acute phase inflammation of the fallopian tube is not promptly and effectively treated, empyema will form.  Hazards of tubal effusion:   1. Hydrosalpinx is often caused by infections, and most of them are ascending infections. Past infections may cause damage to the endometrium, leaving a permanent impact on the acceptability of embryo implantation.  2. On the other hand, under the B-ultrasound monitoring of vaginal egg retrieval process, mistakenly traverses the oviduct and accumulates water, which directly contaminates the egg cell and affects the fertilization of the egg cell and the development of the fertilized egg.   3. Fallopian tube effusion will change the environment of the endometrium, which will interfere with the contact between the embryo and the endometrium.  4. The microorganisms, debris and toxic substances contained in the hydrosalpinx affect embryo implantation. Inflammatory media can also produce toxic side effects on the embryo, reduce the embryo implantation rate and pregnancy rate, and increase the abortion rate.   5. The presence of hydrosalpinx will oppress the blood vessels of the ovary and affect the development of follicles.   Will tubal effusion affect the success rate of test tube?    Strictly speaking, tubal effusion will reduce the success rate of IVF.   So when a female friend chooses to do IVF, if the fallopian tube effusion is serious, it is best to solve the problem first, and then consider whether the test tube or natural conception. If it is not serious, the doctor will deal with it according to the doctor’s advice.  How to treat tubal effusion?   Hydrosalpinx is a salpingitis caused by pathogen infection. Failure to get timely and effective treatment will result in tubal empyema, which is gradually absorbed.   The main inspection methods are: ultrasonography, laparoscopy, salpingogram.  Ultrasonic examination:   Ultrasonic examination is the use of ultrasound to check, usually in the acute phase of tubal inflammation, hydrosalpinx is more obvious on ultrasound. Inflammation of the fallopian tube causes the umbrella end to be blocked, and the exudate of the inflammation accumulates in the lumen of the fallopian tube to make the ultrasound visible.   There are abnormal echoes on one or both sides of the uterus, and the fallopian tubes are thickened, and some are like sausages, with hypoechoic or punctate echoes in the lumen, indicating that hydrosalpinx has occurred.   Laparoscopy:    Laparoscopy is a method to directly diagnose hydrosalpinx. Under laparoscopy, you can see the fimbria and nearby adhesions to determine the function of the fallopian tubes.   But because laparoscopy is an invasive examination and the cost is relatively expensive, it is often not the first choice, and it is usually used for treatment after the diagnosis of angiography.   Fallopian tube radiography: The principle of    radiography is similar to that of a camera. First, stretch the hose into the fallopian tube and then take a photo. The outside instrument can clearly see the inside of the fallopian tube. The doctor can judge whether the fallopian tube is abnormal and the degree of abnormality based on the image, and then prescribe the right medicine.   In the process of IVF, every step affects the final result. Therefore, every issue that affects the success of IVF must be paid attention to so as not to fall short.

How to treat hydrosalpinx?

Hydrosalpinx is a common type of chronic inflammation of the oviduct. After salpingitis, the fimbriae of the fallopian tube is blocked by adhesions, the secretion of mucosal cells is accumulated in the lumen, or the isthmus and fimbriae adhesions occur due to inflammation of the fallopian tubes, and the fallopian tubes are formed after obstruction Empyema, when the pus cells in the tube cavity are absorbed, the serous fluid continues to seep out from the tube wall to fill the tube cavity, which can form hydrosalpinx. The stagnant water is brown or colorless, but even if it is colorless, it contains inflammatory factors harmful to the embryo. The cause of hydrosalpinx hydrosalpinx is mainly the consequence of chronic inflammation of the pelvic cavity. Or pelvic infections caused by pelvic surgery, tubal ectopic pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy), severe endometriosis, etc., are also hydrosalpinx An important factor in formation.  The hazards of hydrosalpinx on fertility  1, infertility  If hydrosalpinx occurs, sperm and egg cannot meet, and pregnancy cannot be achieved. 2. Under normal circumstances, the fallopian tube transports the fertilized egg to the uterine cavity through the swing of the cilia and the peristalsis of the smooth muscle of the fallopian tube. However, when the hydrosalpinx, the fertilized egg cannot reach the uterine cavity and stay in the fallopian tube to grow, forming an ectopic pregnancy. .  3. Increase the chance of miscarriage   Toxic substances from stagnant water can produce toxins on embryos entering the uterine cavity, affect embryo development, reduce embryo implantation and pregnancy rates, and increase miscarriage rates. How to check for hydrosalpinx 1. Ultrasound examination When the hydrosalpinx reaches a certain level, it can be manifested under ultrasound, but ultrasound can only indicate that there is a dark area of ​​fluid and cannot ultimately confirm whether there is hydrosalpinx. If there is a hydrosalpinx A medical history of a water-fumigation ostomy, a long strip of fluid near the ovary found by B-ultrasound can be diagnosed as a recurrence of hydrosalpinx.  2, salpingogram    tubal angiography is a simple and reliable method in the current examination methods for hydrosalpinx.  3, laparoscopic    laparoscopy can directly and clearly diagnose hydrosalpinx. Under laparoscopy, you can see the adhesion of the umbrella tip and surroundings to determine the function of the fallopian tube, and it is mostly used in treatment after angiography. How to treat hydrosalpinx?    When hydrosalpinx is wrapped with inflammatory effusion, because the fallopian tube is connected to the uterine cavity, these effusions may have some washing effect on the uterine cavity, and the inflammation in these inflammatory effusions Factors or some microorganisms will destroy the environment of the endometrium, which will seriously affect the next embryo implantation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform mechanical embolization, ligation or excision from the root of the fallopian tube, that is, fallopian tube occlusion under X-ray or laparoscopic truncation of the fallopian tube to reduce the impact of fluid accumulation on the uterine cavity and improve the success rate of transplantation.

Which one should I choose for gastric cancer surgery, laparotomy, minimally invasive, total stomach, laparoscopic surgery?

Surgery is the most critical part of the treatment of gastric cancer, and it is also the treatment that most patients with gastric cancer expect. However, some doctors will tell patients that “tomorrow’s surgery will remove the entire stomach”, and some doctors will say that “this operation does not require surgery and can be minimally invasive.” What are the surgical treatments for gastric cancer? How should I choose? There are three choices from the scope of surgical resection 1. Total gastrectomy Total gastrectomy, as the name implies, refers to surgery to remove the entire stomach and then reconstruct the digestive tract. Tumor surgery can’t just remove the tumor, it must also cut a part of the normal stomach, leave a “surplus side”, and clean the lymph nodes around the stomach, so as to ensure that the tumor is completely removed. If the tumor is located in the lower part of the stomach, we can cut off the tumor and save the upper part, but if the tumor is in the upper part of the stomach, it is not easy to handle. When the tumor is confined to the lower part of the stomach, the cancer cells will generally stay underneath relatively honestly and will not rush everywhere. Even if lymph node metastasis occurs, it will not exceed the distal range. Distal gastrectomy combined with regional lymph node dissection Will suffice. However, when the tumor is located in the upper middle part of the stomach, the cancer cells may not only metastasize to the lymph nodes around the upper part of the stomach, but also to the lymph nodes around the lower part of the stomach. Therefore, if the upper part of the stomach is simply removed, the lymph nodes will inevitably be missed. This At that time, a total gastrectomy is needed. When the tumor is located in the middle of the stomach, in order to ensure a sufficient resection range, the position of the resection margin is generally higher. Too little remaining gastric tissue is of little significance. To ensure the quality of the operation, total gastrectomy is inevitable. In addition, if only the upper part of the stomach is removed and the remnant gastroesophageal anastomosis is directly performed to reconstruct the digestive tract, the possibility of severe postoperative reflux will be greatly increased, which will cause very serious pain to the patient. 2. Distal gastrectomy refers to the removal of 2/3/-3/4 of the lower part of the stomach, thereby preserving part of the stomach tissue. If the tumor is confined to the lower part of the stomach, try to preserve the upper part of the stomach without performing a total gastrectomy. In addition to retaining part of the gastric volume, it also retains part of the secretory function of the stomach to a certain extent, which is of great significance to the improvement of food digestion and absorption and anemia after gastric surgery. Of course, distal gastrectomy requires that the tumor must be located in the lower middle part of the stomach, and sufficient safe margin distance must be ensured while preserving gastric tissue. 3. Proximal gastrectomy Many patients are afraid of total gastrectomy. Can the upper part of the stomach not undergo total gastrectomy and retain a part of the stomach? The answer is feasible! However, the conditions are more demanding, and certain conditions must be met to consider a proximal gastrectomy with partial gastric tissue preservation. Compared with radical total gastrectomy, the biggest problem of proximal gastrectomy is that it may cause residual cancer at the surgical margin and incomplete lymph node dissection due to insufficient resection. In addition, it may be very serious because of direct anastomosis of the esophageal remnant stomach. Of postoperative reflux. In order to avoid the above-mentioned problems, the most important thing is to strictly limit the indications of surgery, and only certain patients can undergo proximal gastrectomy. There are three kinds of surgical methods to choose 1. Traditional laparotomy is still the most widely used surgical method for gastric cancer. The operation is divided into radical surgery and non-radical surgery. Radical surgery should completely remove the primary lesion and thoroughly clean the regional lymph nodes, mainly including standard surgery, modified surgery, and expansion surgery; non-radical surgery mainly includes palliative surgery and tumor reduction surgery. 2. Laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery has more important advantages than other open surgery, such as less intraoperative bleeding, light postoperative pain, faster recovery, early recovery of intestinal function, and shorter hospital stays. So should all patients choose laparoscopic surgery to completely abandon open surgery? the answer is negative. Laparoscopic surgery has its own limitations. Compared with open surgery, laparoscopic surgery is much more difficult to operate. The requirements for the surgeon are relatively high, and the risk of surgical complications is relatively higher. In addition, laparoscopic surgery also has certain limitations in lymph node dissection and radical tumor resection. For patients with late stage tumors, laparoscopic surgery may not be the best choice. According to related studies in Japan and South Korea, laparoscopic surgery is recommended for patients with stage 1 tumors. For patients with stage 2 or more, laparoscopic surgery is more uncertain. Another laparoscopic hand

What items need to be checked for ovarian cysts?

 What are the items to be checked for ovarian cysts? Ovarian cysts are a very common disease, which has genetic causes and has a lot to do with the living environment and endocrine. Ovarian cysts are more harmful to patients. For better treatment, some checks are needed at this time to check the specific conditions. Next, let’s take a look at the specific items of ovarian cyst inspection.   1. Ultrasound examination: ovarian cysts need ultrasound examination. Ultrasound examination is the easiest method. Through ultrasound examination, the condition of the affected ovaries can be clearly seen. You will see that the ovaries on the affected side are enlarged, and you will feel pain when you touch them.  2. Laparoscopy: Laparoscopy is also an item that needs to be checked for ovarian cysts. Through the laparoscope, the specific conditions of the cyst can be seen very intuitively, and the entire pelvic and abdominal cavity can be seen. This is convenient for multiple biopsy in suspicious places and absorption of abdominal fluid for cytological examination, which is of great significance for the diagnosis of ovarian tumors and the monitoring after surgery. However, if the cyst is large or there are adhesions, this check is not recommended.  3. Radiological examination: ovarian cysts also need MRI and CT scan. This can check whether the cyst is benign or malignant, whether it has metastasized, and whether it has caused intestinal obstruction. It can also show the metastasis of the liver, lung, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes.   4. Other tests: If the ovarian cyst is malignant, it can produce and release antigens, enzymes, hormones and other substances. These substances can be tested repeatedly using immunology, biochemistry, etc., through the patient’s serum. Need to check antigen markers, hormone markers, enzyme markers.  Ovarian cyst examination items generally have the several kinds introduced above, through these examinations, it is of positive significance for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. During the examination, you must tell the doctor your specific situation in time, and actively cooperate with the doctor’s examination, so as to help the treatment and allow the patient to recover as soon as possible.

What is the harm of kidney cyst? Can drugs be controlled?

There are many types of renal cysts, which can be roughly divided into simple renal cysts, multiple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, and cystic renal carcinoma, among which simple renal cysts are the most common type. However, these renal cysts cannot be completely treated with drugs, that is, simple drugs cannot eat the cysts. If the cysts have related complications or cystic kidney cancer can be treated with drugs after surgery, but this Treatment is only to control the condition. The following mainly introduces simple renal cysts. This simple renal cyst is very common. Half of people over 50 will have renal cysts. What is a simple renal cyst and why is it called simple? Simple renal cyst (simple cyst) Simple renal cyst is the most common type of renal cyst. The reason why it is simple is relative to its complexity. The polycystic kidney and cystic kidney cancer mentioned above are not simple renal cysts. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disease. Two kidneys are covered with cysts, just like a bunch of grapes. Cystic renal cancer is a type of renal cancer that grows cystic. The condition seen under CT or ultrasound is different from that of simple cysts. Imaging often shows separation, calcification, enhancement, and bleeding. Excluding these factors, those simple renal cysts are simple renal cysts. Polycystic kidney, both kidneys are full of cysts, just like grape bunches, they are obviously different from simple renal cysts. Is the complex renal cyst of the left kidney scary to appear as a simple renal cyst? Will there be any serious consequences? Simple renal cyst is not terrible, it is a very common benign disease. In a simple renal cyst, there is a cyst fluid inside and a thin cyst wall outside. The specific cause of cyst formation is currently unknown, but it is a benign disease and generally has no serious consequences. Occasionally, a cyst may rupture and cause bleeding or infection, or if it is not regularly complicated, the cyst will grow up and cause compression. These complications are not a big problem as long as they are discovered and treated in time. What kind of simple renal cyst needs treatment? Regarding the treatment of simple renal cysts, the limit is generally 5 cm. Observation and follow-up for patients under 5cm; treatment for patients over 5cm. The left kidney cyst is relatively large. How to treat simple renal cyst with surgery? Does taking medicine work? As mentioned in the opening article, taking medicine for renal cysts is useless. There are two main methods for the treatment of renal cysts: Laparoscopic surgery: a part of the renal cyst wall is cut off through a laparoscope, the cyst fluid is sucked out, and then the cyst wall is treated. Certain electric cautery. This kind of operation destroys the structure of the cyst wall, the treatment effect is good, and there is basically no recurrence in the original position after operation. In laparoscopic surgery, the ultrasound-guided puncture and fluid extraction is performed through several operating holes: Under the guidance of ultrasound, a puncture needle is used to puncture the kidney cyst, extract the cyst fluid, and penetrate into the absolute alcohol to heat the cyst wall. This kind of operation is relatively simple and convenient, but the cyst wall is not completely destroyed, and there is a certain recurrence rate. Under ultrasound guidance, the two treatment methods of renal cyst puncture and fluid extraction have their own advantages. Laparoscopic surgery is relatively expensive and more traumatic, but it is not easy to recur after treatment; puncture fluid is less invasive and inexpensive, but the recurrence rate is lower than that of the abdominal cavity. The mirror should be high. The specific choice of treatment depends on the specific situation. One of the reasons why kidney cysts do not work when taking medicine is that we do not know the specific mechanism of kidney cyst formation, and it is caused by the structure of the cyst. When we open the cyst wall during the operation, the cyst wall we see is smooth, like a Like the synovial membrane, this structure has very few blood vessels and poor absorption capacity. Even when taking medicine, it is difficult for medicine to enter this place. Therefore, if the cyst needs treatment, surgery is the best choice. Medication will not work. Treatment of other types of renal cysts. Multiple cysts: Laparoscopy is recommended, because some cysts in multiple cysts are not conducive to puncture. If the problem cannot be solved at one time, then puncture is of little significance. It is not as good as laparoscopy to solve the problem at one time. Similarly, taking medicine for multiple cysts does not work. Cystic renal cancer: Regardless of the size of the cyst, as long as the cyst is suspected of being cancer, it should be treated with elective surgery. Drug adjuvant treatments may be used after surgery, such as chemotherapy and targeted drugs. Polycystic kidney disease: Polycystic kidney disease cannot be cured. Only larger cysts can be treated regularly. You can choose laparoscopy or puncture. The drug treatment for polycystic kidney disease is mainly some antihypertensive drugs, which are used to control blood pressure. If infection is combined, antibiotics are also needed, but for

When does a simple renal cyst need treatment, how to treat it, and does medication work?

Physical examination is now more and more common. Many people will find some minor problems during physical examination. However, due to lack of understanding of the disease, it will cause unnecessary panic. Simple renal cyst is one of them. A 21-year-old guy sent me a message a few days ago that he found a kidney cyst with a diameter of 12mm during his physical examination. He was very nervous. He asked me how to treat it. He said that he got such a disease when he was only 21 years old. The main reason for this guy’s nervousness was that he didn’t know enough about simple renal cysts. He thought it was a serious disease, but it is not the case. Today I will talk about simple renal cysts. What is a simple renal cyst and why is it called simple? Simple renal cyst is the most common type of renal cyst. The reason why it is called simple is relative to other complicated renal cysts. Some other non-simple renal cysts, such as polycystic kidney disease, multiple renal cysts, and cystic kidney cancer, etc., such as this polycystic kidney disease, it is a genetic disease, this kind of cyst grows slowly, and it is Two kidneys, like a bunch of grapes, the polycystic kidney is not a simple cyst. There are also cystic kidney cancers or some suspected cystic cancers on CT. These cysts are different from simple cysts when seen on CT or ultrasound. They often have separation, calcification, enhancement, and bleeding. Excluding these factors, those simple renal cysts are simple renal cysts. Is simple renal cyst scary? Will there be any serious consequences? Simple renal cysts are not terrible and very common. About half of people over 50 have kidney cysts. A simple renal cyst is a cyst fluid inside and a thin cyst wall outside. It is not clear why a cyst is formed, but it is a benign disease and generally has no serious consequences. It is also rare if there is a cyst rupture, such as bleeding or infection, or if it is not regularly complicated, the growth of the cyst causes compression. Although there are these risks, it is not a big problem as long as it is discovered in time. What kind of simple renal cyst needs treatment? Regarding the treatment of simple renal cysts, just remember one limit, that is, 5cm. Observation and follow-up for patients under 5cm; treatment for patients over 5cm. Tip: This is for simple renal cysts. If it is a complex cyst, surgery should be selected, and there is no 5cm limit; if it is a polycyst, the treatment method should be selected according to the specific situation. How to treat simple renal cysts? Does taking medicine work? There are two main methods for the treatment of simple renal cysts: laparoscopic surgery, a part of the wall of the renal cyst is removed through laparoscopy, which destroys the structure of the cyst and achieves the purpose of treatment. Under ultrasound guidance, puncture and draw fluid, through ultrasound guidance, puncture the kidney cyst with a puncture needle, extract the cyst fluid, and inject the absolute alcohol to heat the cyst wall to achieve the purpose of treatment. Which of these two methods is better? These two treatments have their own advantages and disadvantages. Laparoscopy is relatively expensive and more traumatic, but it is not easy to relapse after treatment; while puncture fluid is less invasive and inexpensive, but the probability of relapse is higher than that of laparoscopy. The specific choice of treatment depends on the specific situation. Does kidney cyst work with medicine? I am often asked this question, but taking medicine doesn’t work. When we opened the cyst wall during the operation, the cyst wall we saw was smooth, like a layer of synovial membrane. There are few blood vessels on this structure, and it is difficult for medicine to enter this place, and the structure itself is not Easy to absorb sac fluid. Therefore, if the cyst needs treatment, surgery is the best choice. Medication will not work.

How to check for hydrosalpinx?

How to check for hydrosalpinx? Hydrosalpinx is a kind of female disease, which can cause sperm to fail to pass through the fallopian tube and the sperm and egg can not be combined, which leads to infertility. Many female friends go to check the doctor and tell that it is tubal effusion Infertility caused by water. I’m very confused and don’t know what to do. Then, how to check for hydrosalpinx? Once hydrosalpinx is found, you must receive treatment in time, because if the condition is serious, women will not be able to conceive a baby. With the development of medical technology, there are many inspection methods for hydrosalpinx, mainly including tubal angiography, tubal laparoscopic diagnosis, ultrasound inspection, etc. At present, laparoscopy is the most frequently used inspection method.  Salpingography is an extremely simple and reliable method among the current examination methods for hydrosalpinx. The x-ray showed that the fallopian tube was visualized throughout the whole process and the fimbriae had been enlarged. After 20 minutes, the delayed film showed residual shadow of the fallopian tubes on both sides, and there was no contrast agent diffusion in the pelvic cavity.   Laparoscopy is also very effective for diagnosis. Laparoscopy of the fallopian tube can directly and clearly diagnose hydrosalpinx. Under the laparoscope, the adhesion of the fimbria and the surrounding can be seen, and the function of the fallopian tube can be judged. Laparoscopy technology is very accurate in diagnosis, and it is currently the advanced diagnostic technology in gynecological examination.   Ultrasound can also be used for inspection. In some cases, tubal effusion can be revealed on ultrasound, mostly in the acute phase of tubal inflammation. Inflammation of the fallopian tube leads to the clogging of the umbrella end, and the exudate of the inflammation accumulates in the lumen of the fallopian tube to make the ultrasound show.   The treatment method after hydrosalpinx, I believe everyone has read the above to have their own understanding, hydrosalpinx can choose the appropriate treatment according to the situation. Traditional Chinese medicine can be used when the condition is mild. If the condition is more serious, you need to go to a professional hospital for examination and treatment, and listen to the doctor’s advice, so that the condition can get better faster.

Can polycystic ovary be cured? How does polycystic ovary cause?

   Adherence to treatment can be good, but there are many problems to be aware of in life. Polycystic is found in many women. However, polycystic disease can also recur, so it is necessary to have a good lifestyle.   1. Drug therapy: it can counteract the effects of androgens and promote ovulation of the ovaries. The drugs used are mainly oral contraceptives, which can also adjust the menstrual cycle.  2. General treatment: It means that the patient should actively exercise to reduce the intake of high-fat and high-sugar foods and reduce weight. This can promote the decline of androgen levels, which is beneficial to the restoration of ovulation. It is generally taken for about 3 to 6 months, and the laparoscopic surgery can be stopped after the hormone test is normal.  3. Laparoscopic surgery: If the above two methods are not effective, you need to consider laparoscopic surgery. Under laparoscopic surgery, the patient’s polycystic ovary is directly “punched” to reduce androgen levels, thereby achieving the purpose of treatment.  Can polycystic ovary be cured?   1, the onset of polycystic ovary syndrome is mainly a chronic disease caused by endocrine disorders and abnormal metabolic function. This disease is very harmful to women’s health. Women still need to know more about the symptoms of this disease. Understand the hazards and treatment methods of polycystic ovary syndrome, so that when the disease appears, there will be enough attention and active treatment.  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome has a high incidence in obese women. The main symptoms of this disease are irregular menstruation, strong body hair, weight gain and female infertility. Many women don’t pay much attention to polycystic ovary syndrome and feel that the disease has no effect, even if they are fat, it does not matter. actually not.  Can polycystic ovary be cured? How can polycystic ovary be caused by   1, rationally arrange diet. Women pay attention to adjusting their diets in daily life with traditional Chinese medicine, and rationally mix various nutrients to achieve a comprehensive and balanced nutrition. Avoid spicy, irritating, greasy, fatty and sweet foods. It is advisable to have a light diet and eat more vegetables and fruits. Women who need to lose weight should pay attention to scientific diet and avoid blindly taking weight-loss drugs.   2. Pay attention to the combination of work and rest. Women need to actively exercise their bodies to enhance their physical fitness, which is also helpful for successful conception. But pay attention to exercise properly and try to avoid strenuous exercise.   3. Reasonably regulate emotions. Women should learn to stabilize their emotions, pay attention to self-adjustment, maintain optimism, feel comfortable, and avoid anger, depression, excessive tension and long-term anxiety. You can adjust your mood by listening to soothing music and doing gentle exercises.  4. If you have no plans to become pregnant, you should actively take contraceptive measures. You can use contraceptives or contraceptives for contraception. Those who do not have a childbirth requirement can go to the hospital for ligation. Be careful not to take contraceptives for a long time. Effective means can prevent multiple abortions from harming the reproductive system.

Cheng Yahui shares the causes and examination methods of blocked fallopian tubes

Blocked fallopian tubes are responsible for the important tasks of transporting sperm, picking up eggs, and transporting fertilized eggs back to the uterine cavity during the natural process of gestation, so everyone calls it the “channel of life”. What are the reasons for the blockage of the fallopian tubes? Let’s learn more about it. . What are the causes of blocked fallopian tubes? Inflammation and infection. When the hostess suffers from cervicitis, vaginitis, ovarian disease, endometritis, tuberculosis, etc., if it is not treated in time, pathogenic bacteria will be infected. After infection, the function of the fallopian tube will be affected. Will be severely affected.  Surgery infection  The hostess will inevitably have to perform some uterine cavity operations, such as looping, removing the loop, etc. If the operation is unfavorable, inflammation may also occur.   Many couples do not take proper measures when they are in the same room, and instead use abortion as a contraceptive method. As everyone knows, the abortion will not only cause damage to the hostess’s endometrium, but also greatly increase the chance of uterine infection with salpingitis.  Bad lifestyle    having sex during menstruation, not paying attention to personal hygiene, not paying attention to rest after childbirth, etc., may also cause germ infections and affect the normal work of the fallopian tubes.   The fallopian tube is blocked, and a special inspection must be done to see which part is wrong.   The commonly used examination methods are:   1, salpingography    tubal angiography is a common method for diagnosing tubal infertility.  Through the tubal contrast examination, you can understand the hostess’s uterine cavity and fallopian tube shape, blockage, whether there is hydrosalpinx, etc., and can also determine whether there is pelvic adhesions based on the pelvic diffusion of the contrast agent. At the same time of inspection, slight adhesions can be dredged.  2, Laparoscopy or surgery   Laparoscopy is suitable for the diagnosis of tubal obstruction, hydrops or considering the possibility of adhesion around the fallopian tube after a salpingogram.   After the diagnosis is confirmed by laparoscopy, laparoscopic surgery can also be used to solve the above problems. In addition, it is also possible to directly locate and treat the lesions of combined diseases such as uterine fibroids, polycystic ovary, ovarian cysts, and endometriosis.

Can only a large knife be used for intrahepatic bile duct stones?

The patient repeatedly had symptoms of bile duct inflammation such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice, and a MRI examination revealed stones in the common bile duct, stones in the left intrahepatic bile duct, and hepatic duct dilatation. This usually requires surgical treatment to remove part of the liver that has been diseased, together with the stones inside. This kind of liver cutting used to require an open scalpel and a large scalpel. The abdomen can be completed with a nearly 30 cm incision. The recovery time after surgery is long and the recovery is slow. At present, with the development of laparoscopic minimally invasive technology, this liver cut can also be performed under minimally invasive, as long as a few holes are made in the abdomen, the entire operation can be completed. Patients can generally open their diet and get out of bed after 6 hours. Therefore, at present, most surgical operations can be performed by laparoscopy, and the efficacy is not much different from traditional laparotomy, and the recovery of patients after surgery is significantly shortened.

How to treat polycystic ovary

  I believe that female friends all know that polycystic ovary is a disease that affects women’s pregnancy. If you want to get pregnant quickly, you must undergo appropriate diagnosis and treatment. How to treat it to get pregnant quickly? Let’s understand the method of treating polycystic ovary.  Polycystic ovary is the fastest way to conceive   The treatment of polycystic ovary is different according to whether there are fertility requirements, and today only the treatment methods that have fertility needs are discussed.  01. Administration of ovulation-inducing drugs    is currently recommended as the first-line treatment of letrozole instead of clomiphene citrate. Metformin has also been used to promote ovulation, mainly for women who have failed lifestyle interventions and have glucose intolerance.  02. Laparoscopic surgery    such as wedge resection of the ovary, is currently less used. In addition, laparoscopic ovarian laser cauterization may be effective in some patients with PCOS.   In vitro fertilization: If weight loss, drug-induced ovulation, and/or laparoscopic ovarian laser electrocautery are unsuccessful, in vitro fertilization can be performed. Patients with polycystic ovary should pay attention to some matters in their lives. 1) Pay attention to diet adjustment. When it comes to polycystic ovary, what to pay attention to. This is a very important part of polycystic ovary patients. The diet of patients should be light. Avoid spicy and stimulating diets. 2) Actively adjust the mood. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome should relax their mood while paying attention to diet, build confidence in treatment, and patient treatment. Only in this way will the body become more and more balanced, and the control of polycystic ovarian disease will be more controlled. helpful.   3) Pay attention to rest    Usually pay more attention to rest, do not be too tired, let alone stay up late.   4) Moderate physical exercise    exercise can lose weight, can enhance physical fitness, and can also relax.

The fastest method for conception of polycystic ovary

  I believe that female friends all know that polycystic ovary is a disease that affects women’s pregnancy. If you want to get pregnant quickly, you must undergo appropriate diagnosis and treatment. How to treat it to get pregnant quickly? Let’s understand the method of treating polycystic ovary.  Polycystic ovary is the fastest way to conceive   The treatment of polycystic ovary is different according to whether there are fertility requirements, and today only the treatment methods that have fertility needs are discussed.  01. Administration of ovulation-inducing drugs    is currently recommended as the first-line treatment of letrozole instead of clomiphene citrate. Metformin has also been used to promote ovulation, mainly for women who have failed lifestyle interventions and have glucose intolerance.  02. Laparoscopic surgery    such as wedge resection of the ovary, is currently less used. In addition, laparoscopic ovarian laser cauterization may be effective in some patients with PCOS.   In vitro fertilization: If weight loss, drug-induced ovulation, and/or laparoscopic ovarian laser electrocautery are unsuccessful, in vitro fertilization can be performed. Patients with polycystic ovary should pay attention to some matters in their lives. 1) Pay attention to diet adjustment. When it comes to polycystic ovary, what to pay attention to. This is a very important part of polycystic ovary patients. The diet of patients should be light. Avoid spicy and stimulating diets. 2) Actively adjust the mood. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome should relax their mood while paying attention to diet, build confidence in treatment, and patient treatment. Only in this way will the body become more and more balanced, and the control of polycystic ovarian disease will be more controlled. helpful.   3) Pay attention to rest    Usually pay more attention to rest, do not be too tired, let alone stay up late.   4) Moderate physical exercise    exercise can lose weight, can enhance physical fitness, and can also relax.

Why do endoscopic surgeons particularly favor this part of the navel?

The navel is a magical place of the human body. During the fetal period, all the nutrition of the mother enters the fetus through the umbilical cord. After birth, the umbilical cord will be cut, and the remaining bit will gradually fall off, forming a navel after growing up. The navel occupies an important position in the aesthetics of the human body because it is at the golden section of the human body. Therefore, girls have to wear navel clothes in summer, and many people will make decorations on the navel. Well, a bit off topic. Why do doctors in endoscopic surgery like the navel so much? Because the navel is a natural place that God has left for people to perform laparoscopy. The navel is not like other parts of the abdominal wall. The muscle is divided into multiple layers, but it is directly healed into one layer. Therefore, it is particularly conducive to puncture, enter the abdominal cavity quickly and safely, inflate the abdominal cavity, and start laparoscopic surgery. At the same time, there are some folds in the navel. After the suture is completed, basically no operation can be seen. The picture below is an incision of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, you can see that the navel is basically invisible. In order to achieve minimally invasive and beautiful appearance for patients, laparoscopic surgery doctors will also do some single-hole laparoscopic surgery. At this time, the navel is more useful. Through a small incision in the navel and a special device, you can enter the laparoscopic lens and two surgical instruments to complete the operation. After stitching, basically nothing could be seen. The following picture shows the single-hole laparoscopic weight loss surgery performed by Professor Zhang Nengwei of our Beijing Shijitan Hospital Weight Loss Center. Both weight loss and beauty are drastic. Therefore, the navel is a good friend of the endoscopic surgeon. Through the navel, many minimally invasive surgery can be performed, so it is favored by the endoscopic surgeons.

Causes and treatment of ovarian infertility

  Ovarian infertility is an ovarian disease caused by a variety of factors, such as congenital ovarian or naive ovaries, premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary and so on. Various causes cause ovarian lesions and ovulation disorders, leading to infertility. Causes of ovarian infertility    First, ovarian function regulation   The function of the ovary is affected by the function of the hypothalamus pituitary and cerebral cortex. If the above-mentioned parts are dysfunctional, it can affect the function of the ovary and cause the ovarian function to malfunction. Such as excessive anxiety and sorrow, mental stress, malnutrition, systemic diseases, etc. can lead to hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian gonadal axis dysfunction and inhibit ovulation, resulting in infertility.  Second, ovarian lesions  Undeveloped ovaries, ovarian hypoplasia, ovarian tumors, ovarian cysts, and ovarian lesions caused by various systemic, acute or chronic diseases or infectious diseases affect pregnancy. 3. Ovarian hormone secretion Ovarian hormone secretion is related to and affects other secretion glands in the body. When other endocrine glands in the body such as thyroid gland and adrenal dysfunction and metabolic diseases such as diabetes can also affect the normal function of the ovary, so that the ovary Abnormal hormone secretion, ovulation or corpus luteum formation occurs abnormally, which affects conception or embryo development.  How to treat ovarian infertility?   Polycystic ovary syndrome: It can be treated with drugs. At present, the most commonly used is laparoscopic polycystic ovary punching. The operation under laparoscopic surgery is simple, the pelvic adhesions are less, and the recovery is fast. Ovarian endometriosis: It can be treated with drugs or conservative surgery. With the normal ovarian tissue preserved, the visible lesions are removed as much as possible, or the smaller lesions can be electrocauterized under the laparoscope, and the pelvic cavity is lifted at the same time. Mild adhesion inside. Ovaritis: divided into tuberculous and non-substantial ovarian parenchymal inflammation, peripheral inflammation, anti-inflammatory treatment is the main method for inflammation, and for fibrous adhesions around, you can consider laparotomy or laparoscopic adhesion decomposition, tuberculosis Antituberculosis treatment is required.  Ovarian tumors: Ovarian cysts can cause persistent anovulation. During treatment, in addition to ovarian tumors that have a tendency to malignant transformation, normal ovarian tissue should be kept as much as possible when the tumor is removed.

How to treat chocolate ovarian cysts?

  Chocolate cysts are “lumps” but not “tumors”. It is a disease of endometriosis. The ectopic endometrium is also affected by sex hormones, shedding and bleeding repeatedly with the menstrual cycle. If the lesion occurs on the ovary, there is local bleeding every menstrual period, which enlarges the ovary and forms a cyst containing old blood, This old blood is brown and sticky like a chocolate, so it is also called “chocolate cyst”. Such cysts can gradually increase, sometimes rupturing during or after menstruation, but malignancy rarely occurs. How to treat chocolate ovarian cysts?    mainly uses drugs and surgery to treat chocolate ovarian cysts. Drug treatments include pseudopregnancy therapy and pseudo-menopausal therapy, but can only relieve symptoms and control the development of the disease. Generally, the cyst is less than 5CM, and the clinical symptoms are not obvious. Considering drug treatment, laparoscopic surgery is required for ovarian cysts over 5CM.  Traditional laparotomy ovarian cyst resection generally removes the midline abdominal incision into the abdomen in order to complete the removal of the cyst. The incision is generally about 15cm, there will be obvious pain after operation, and the recovery of gastrointestinal function is slow, you can leave after 7-10 days in hospital. The advantages of laparoscopic minimally invasive technique for the treatment of chocolate cysts:    1. Small damage and fast recovery: Such a surgical method is safer and more reliable than traditional surgical methods, and because the operation requires only three small puncture holes, right Both the abdominal wall and the pelvic cavity were minimally injured. The patient could get out of bed the day after the operation and eat the next day. Generally, he could be discharged about 3 days after the operation. 2. Visual surgery, safer: Compared with medical treatment, the surgical treatment is more thorough and safer. The unique high-tech “display” in the “laparoscopic treatment of ovarian cysts” system, You can look directly at the diseased tissue. Under the supervision and guidance of the “display screen”, the doctor performs the operation more delicate and safer.  Chocolate ovarian cyst patients should pay attention to the following matters:    1. If you have been diagnosed with endometriosis and ovarian chocolate cysts greater than 7 cm, you must pay attention to maintaining emotional stability during menstruation or mid-menstruation to avoid excessive fatigue. Once the tension in the capsule cavity suddenly rises, the capsule wall ruptures and an acute abdomen is formed.   2. Adjust your emotions at any time, maintain an optimistic and cheerful attitude, and make the body’s immune system function normally.   3. People with a history of chocolate cysts should pay attention to regular B-ultrasound re-examination in order to detect the recurrence of cysts in time, and use drug treatment when they are small.

More than 90% of kidney tumors are malignant? Beware of terrible kidney cancer

Kidney tumors are one of the common tumors in the urinary system, second only to bladder tumors. The vast majority of primary renal tumors are malignant and cause significant damage to the kidneys, requiring timely treatment. 1. The etiology of kidney tumors is still unclear. The risk factors related to their occurrence include: 1. Smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of kidney tumors and is related to the amount of smoking. This correlation may decrease after 25 years of smoking cessation; Occupation: practitioners of cadmium exposure have a higher prevalence of kidney tumors. Coke oven workers, printers and workers engaged in petrochemical work have a relatively high prevalence of kidney tumors; & nbsp. & Nbsp.3.Urban and rural and cultural and economic conditions: There are data confirming that the incidence of kidney tumors among urban residents is higher than that of rural residents ; & Nbsp. & Nbsp.4. Hormones and drugs: the use of chemicals, especially hormones, can increase the prevalence of kidney tumors, and the prevalence of kidney tumors in patients with hypertension after taking diuretics; & nbsp. & Nbsp.5. Others Factors: Renal insufficiency, and patients with long-term dialysis are prone to kidney cancer. In addition, obesity, diabetes, blood transfusion history, radiation, drinking, food and other factors may be related to the incidence of renal tumors. 2. Routine items of auxiliary laboratory tests include blood routine, urine routine, blood biochemical and blood tumor markers inspection. Imaging examination 1. Chest X-ray film: a routine examination item for the patient. Take frontal and lateral chest radiographs to determine the presence or absence of lung nodules or lung metastases and other chest lesions; 2. B-ultrasound examination: B-ultrasound examination is the most commonly used examination method for the diagnosis of kidney tumors, which is noninvasive, accurate and Relatively cheap features; 3. CT: CT is the most important imaging method for kidney tumors, with high density and spatial resolution, and the detection rate of kidney tumors is very high, close to 100%; 4. MRI: In the diagnosis of malignant renal tumors, MRI is of great value to the scope of renal tumors and to determine whether they are primary tumors. In addition, MRI can clarify the spread and metastasis of renal tumors, which is of great significance for tumor staging; 5. Intravenous pyelography: a means to diagnose the cause of hematuria. However, it has poor sensitivity and specificity for renal parenchymal tumors. Patients with iodine allergy, severe liver and kidney, and cardiovascular disease should be prohibited from performing this test; 6. Renal arteriography: there are limitations in diagnosing renal tumors. The presence or absence of new blood vessels may be helpful in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. 3. There is no symptom in the early stage of clinical manifestation, which can only be found after physical examination. Typical symptoms are hematuria, pain and lumps. Interstitial painless hematuria occurs when the tumor penetrates into the renal pelvis and calyces; renal colic can occur when tumors or blood clots pass through the ureter; lungs and bones are most common when metastasized at a distance. Systemic symptoms include fever, high blood pressure, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anemia, abnormal liver function, and hormone changes. 4. Treatment 1. Surgical treatment: radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy with nephron preservation; including open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery; 2. Radiation therapy: an important method to relieve the symptoms of metastatic patients; 3. Hormonal therapy: There are a large number of uncontrolled trials of progesterone, androgen and anti-estrogen preparations in the literature, and the response rate is 0-33%; 4. Chemotherapy: renal cell carcinoma belongs to the least Sensitive epithelial tumors; 5. Biochemical response modifiers: (1), interleukin-2 (IL-2) is used as a preparation for patients with advanced renal cancer; (2), interferon: assist in patients with high risk of recurrence Medication treatment. 6. According to the nature, location and size of kidney tumors, choose different laparoscopic surgical methods: laparoscopic nephrectomy; laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, and laparoscopic renal tumor enucleation Surgery. Advantages: small damage (a small hole of about 1cm), less bleeding, beautiful appearance, and short hospital stay; the key is that the effect after laparoscopic surgery is the same as that of traditional open surgery.

Is tubal effusion still pregnant after laparoscopic surgery?

Even tubal effusion, even after laparoscopic surgery, the chance of pregnancy will be lower than normal women. Of course, this is only to say lower, not to say that there must be no way to get pregnant. Fallopian tube laparoscopic laparoscopic surgery can be performed by fallopian tube ostomy, or laparoscopic salpingectomy. The presence of fluid in the fallopian tube means that there is adhesion in the umbrella end of the fallopian tube, so the secretion cannot be discharged normally and accumulates in the fallopian tube to form a fluid. This adhesion may be related to pelvic adhesions, but most of them are related to inflammation of the fallopian tubes. Through laparoscopic umbrella end ostomy, the adhesion of the umbrella end can be opened to make the fallopian tube unobstructed. In this case, the sperm and egg have a chance to meet through the fallopian tube after the stoma to form a fertilized egg. However, as mentioned above, most of the fallopian tube effusion is related to inflammation. Inflammation will not only damage the end of the fallopian tube umbrella. Even if the fallopian tube umbrella is open after the stoma, the egg collection function of the fallopian tube umbrella will be damaged. Under normal circumstances, the ovary discharges the egg and is picked up by the fallopian tube umbrella. After entering the fallopian tube, it waits to meet the sperm. When the fallopian umbrella’s “pick up” function is destroyed, it will also cause a decrease in the chance of conception. Moreover, inflammation also affects the ciliary tissue in the fallopian tube, affects the movement of eggs and the movement of fertilized eggs, which not only leads to a decrease in the probability of fertilization, but also may lead to an increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Moreover, the fallopian tube ostomy surgery is generally the best period of pregnancy after six months. If there is no pregnancy at this time, the possibility of adhesions to the fallopian tube increases again, and the chance of pregnancy is significantly reduced. If the fallopian tube effusion has undergone laparoscopic salpingectomy, it can only choose the IVF technique of assisted reproduction, and it is impossible to get pregnant naturally, so the chance of conception will also decrease. In general, pregnancy as soon as possible within six months after the fallopian tube effusion surgery, if there is no pregnancy, the chance of subsequent natural pregnancy is significantly reduced.

What are the treatment methods of Shi Nu?

Shi Nu is a type of female disease that is not very common, but once she suffers from Shi Nu, it is extremely harmful to the health and fertility of female friends. When this condition occurs, it is generally early, and many female patients are discovered by parents. Many stone female patients do not know what to do? 1. The emergence of a new generation of perineal mucosa instead of vagina stone female patients makes the patients suffer from the unimaginable pain of ordinary people. With the continuous development of medical technology today, it can also be easily treated by surgery. The principle of congenital no-vaginal treatment is to rebuild the vagina. Surgical treatment is mainly to separate the urethra from the bladder to the rectum to form an artificial cavity, and use different methods to find an appropriate cavity wound covering to reconstruct the vagina. There are a variety of methods, that is, use different cavity lining materials for bladder and rectum space creation. With the development of minimally invasive endoscopic technology, artificial vagina tends to be less invasive, beautiful, and closer to natural vagina, to meet the needs of patients Physical and psychological needs. Existing laparoscopic intestinal vaginoplasty, laparoscopic amniotic vaginoplasty, laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty, vestibular mucosal extension, etc. The new generation of perineal mucosal vaginoplasty is currently one of the more advanced surgical options One. 2. The free skin grafting method takes the skin flap at the perineum or thigh to cover the artificial acupuncture points. It takes a long time to use a hard vaginal mold to expand the artificial vagina after surgery to prevent the contraction of the artificial cavity of the grafted skin graft and increase the patient’s pain. Moreover, the skin It is not a mucous membrane, the tissue characteristics are too different, and the man cannot adapt. 3. The use of labial flap to cover the artificial acupuncture points conforms to the tissue characteristics of the mucous membrane and can be intercourse, but it destroys the normal vulvar shape, and the man can see at a glance that it will affect the psychology. 4. The sigmoid colon can replace the vagina to achieve both function and shape, and can maintain a good sex life. The traditional surgery is performed by opening the abdomen. It is necessary to cut an opening of about 15-20 cm in the middle of the lower abdomen. Take 20cm from the sigmoid colon, close the top and put it in an artificial acupuncture channel. The operation risk and trauma are greater. The scar on the abdominal wall affects the appearance. The “vaginal” secretions have a bad smell. In addition, due to the thin muscles of the sigmoid colon, the “vagina” looses after sex, affecting sexual pleasure. 5. Oral mucosal transplantation and vaginal reconstruction In order to further improve the quality of life of the stone women, I am committed to improving and improving the surgical method throughout my life. Vaginal molding under the double membrane method-biological patch vaginal molding-oral mucosa transplantation vaginal reconstruction-button suspension vaginal reduction. Oral mucosal transplantation and vaginal reconstruction, taking part of Shi Nu’s own oral mucosa and applying it in the newly created vagina, it will grow well in 14 days. It has achieved the ideal of recreating a vagina close to normal with minimal cost. Compared with laparoscopic corner vaginal reduction, postoperative care is simple, the bleeding time is short, and sexual intercourse can be performed 30 days after surgery. More suitable for those with deep vaginal recesses or eager to get married. It is an upgraded version of corner vaginal surgery. The above is the relevant introduction to “What are the treatment methods of Shi Nu?”, Top pressure method, free skin graft, pelvic peritoneum, oral mucosa transplantation vaginal reconstruction, sigmoid colon vagina are all a kind of treatment for Shi Nu, hope Female friends have attracted attention and found relevant symptoms to participate in treatment in time, restore normal physiological functions as soon as possible, and get a good pregnancy as soon as possible.

What should I do to check for endometriosis?

Analysis of clinical data in China shows that among 290 million women of childbearing age, the incidence of endometriosis is 10% to 15%. And patients with endometriosis will have symptoms such as dysmenorrhea, abnormal menstruation, infertility, pain during sexual intercourse. So how does endometriosis affect fertility, let us understand. What are the methods to diagnose endometriosis? 1. Laparoscopy Laparoscopy is currently the main method of diagnosing endometriosis. The so-called laparoscopy means that you can directly peep into the pelvis through the laparoscope, you can directly see the lesion part, the scope and severity of the lesion, and can be staged according to the inspection, which is convenient for treatment. Methods. 2. Biopsy means that patients with endometriosis such as cervical, vaginal, abdominal wall scars, etc. should take biopsy from local lesions for pathological examination. 3. X-ray examination is feasible. Separate pelvic inflation angiography and hysterosalpingo-lipodol imaging can help diagnose pelvic endometriosis. Note: Many people do not know much about the cause and pathology of this disease. It is similar to many other diseases. Generally, patients and non-specialists are not alert to this disease. * If you want to know whether you have endometriosis, you should go to a regular reproductive specialist hospital for professional examination. How does endometriosis affect fertility? 1. Mechanical factors The ectopic endometrium on the surface of the ovarian fallopian tube causes the connective tissue hyperplasia around it to cause adhesion, affect the peristalsis of the fallopian tube, and pick up the egg at the umbrella end, and even cause the closure of the fallopian tube mouth. 2. The endocrine factor ectopic endometrium can produce more prostaglandins, and the local concentration is relatively high, which makes the fallopian tube’s egg collection function and peristalsis dysregulation, affects its egg collection and the delivery of sperm and eggs; it can also hinder follicle development, Inhibit ovulation, or synchronize the development of the fertilized egg with the decidual changes of the endometrium, which prevents the implantation of the fertilized egg. 3. Immune factors are autoimmune reactions, ectopic endometrial hemorrhage induces tissue fibrosis and increased lymphocytes and phagocytic cells, and anti-endometrial antibodies produced by lymphocytes. This autoimmunity causes endometrial biochemical metabolism and Impaired physiological functions, interfere with the implantation of early fertilized eggs, or cause infertility due to phagocytosis of sperm and eggs and interference with the division of egg cells.

What are the items to check for infertility?

What are the items to be checked for infertility? The incidence of infertility has been very obvious in recent years. This phenomenon not only occurs in elderly couples, but also in young couples. Striking, and for infertile couples, if you want to have a baby, you need to find out the reason before you can get further treatment to help pregnancy. However, what do I need to do when I go to the hospital to check for infertility? What are the items to be checked for infertility? Infertility means that couples of childbearing age have a normal and regular life for at least 1 year, without taking any Contraceptive measures without pregnancy, due to male factors caused by female infertility, called male infertility. There are many reasons for infertility, and both husband and wife need to see the doctor at the same time. For the woman, first of all, a full-body examination and gynecological examination should be carried out to determine whether there are systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, tumor, inflammation, and deformity. The auxiliary examination is divided into the following categories: 1. General examination: blood routine, urine routine, liver and kidney function, blood sugar, infectious diseases, leucorrhea routine, gynecological ultrasound, TCT, etc. 2. Endocrine-related examinations: six items of reproductive hormones (determination of basic reproductive hormone levels on day 2-4 of menstrual blood), and thyroid function. 3. Ovarian function test: To evaluate ovarian function and the presence or absence of ovulation through the examination of reproductive hormone, basal body temperature, and ultrasonic monitoring of follicle development. 4. Tubal patency check: The main method of inspection is to rely on ultrasound or X-ray fallopian tube angiography. 5. Immunological examination: monitoring patients with normal ovulation and fallopian tubes, and patients with recurrent miscarriage, it is recommended to perform immunological examination to determine whether there is immune infertility. 6. Genetic factors: For patients with recurrent miscarriage, primary amenorrhea, and reproductive system malformations, it is recommended to improve the chromosomal examination. 7. Hysteroscopy: patients with recurrent miscarriage and ultrasound repeatedly suggesting endometrial abnormalities (such as intrauterine adhesions, endometrial polyps, etc.), it is recommended to perform hysteroscopy and surgical treatment if necessary. 8. Laparoscopy: in patients with hydrosalpinx, tubal obstruction, or imaging studies suggesting endometriosis and ovarian cysts, laparoscopy is feasible to determine whether there are adhesions in the laparoscope and whether there is any disease in the reproductive system , Can be treated simultaneously with surgery, if necessary, combined with hysteroscopy. For the man, the first thing to do is routine semen examination, which can also check DFI (sperm DNA fragmentation test). If multiple semen routines suggest severe oligospermia or elevated DFI, it is recommended to improve the chromosome, AZF, and reproduction Hormones, thyroid function and andrology ultrasound examination. What are the items to be checked for infertility? Although there are many items for infertility tests, as long as they go to a more experienced reproductive hospital to receive the corresponding tests, the doctor can pass a few tests for the patient in a targeted manner To find out the corresponding infertility factors, help couples to develop a suitable fertility treatment plan.