The dangers of autism in children

&nbsp.&nbsp.Autism is a group disease that children easily get. Many children are diagnosed with autism every year, so every parent should pay attention to the health of the child and take preventive measures in peacetime. If a child has autism and is not treated in time, which is not good for the child’s future growth, what harm will the child’s autism have? &nbsp.&nbsp. The hazards of children with autism are as follows:&nbsp.&nbsp. One, affect language function: children suffering from autism, will affect language function, take the language development of autistic children as an example, Normal children 2~3 years old is the best time to learn oral language, because at this time the perfection of the children’s nervous system and the development of their cognitive level begin to enter a new stage of development, that is, they begin to break through non-communicative speech, also called self Central speech. &nbsp.&nbsp. And this period is precisely the onset period of children with autism. If children in this period have the ability to “speak”, we will find that this child will later have a lot of “parrots”, “echoes”, and “unanswered questions”. “And “recording playback” and other language phenomena. &nbsp.&nbsp. Second, affect nerve function: children are affected by autism, which has a great impact on nerve function. Studies have shown that once the disease of autism occurs, the child’s neurological function will be stagnated. If it is found in a timely manner and early intervention of educational rehabilitation is carried out, then the neurological function recovery will be good, showing little difference from normal children. &nbsp.&nbsp. There are two main hazards that may exist in children with autism. One is to affect the language communication ability in the future, and the other is to affect the brain development, which has a great impact on future life. If you find that your child has autism, he must be sent to the hospital for treatment in time to strive for an early return to society.

How to better promote the language development of infants and young children?

(1) Enrich the family language environment. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The baby’s language is acquired through learning in life, so enriching the family language environment can better benefit the baby’s language development. Therefore, in the process of getting along with the baby, parents and surrogate caregivers talk to the baby more and treat him as a sensible child, and the baby will gradually understand what the adult says. (2) Parents and surrogate caregivers should have a good mood and maintain a happy family atmosphere. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. I often encounter mothers’ postpartum anxiety and are not in a good mood. Observe carefully, the baby’s pronunciation is relatively less at this time, and it is not easy to make a laugh. On the contrary, parents and surrogate parents are in a better mood. Every day, they are happy and expressive to interact and communicate with their babies. The babies will become more active, have more pronunciation, and are easy to laugh. (3) Adults should respond and praise in time for the baby’s pronunciation. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. When the baby is pronounced, the adult must respond to him in time, then the baby will feel that the pronunciation is more meaningful and become more fond of pronunciation. For the baby in the stage of learning to speak, when the baby unconsciously utters the “dad” sound, then the father responds in time and tells the baby: “I am the father, and the baby will call “Dad” again. “This way the baby will gradually ” The word “Dad” is associated with the person Dad and gradually becomes a conscious name. On the contrary, if the adult does not respond in time, the baby may not make this sound for a period of time. (4) Delayed gratification. Parents express the baby’s thoughts in short language and guide the baby to actively express his needs. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. When the baby has a need, it is actually a good opportunity to communicate with others and learn languages. If the adult understands the baby’s meaning and directly meets the baby’s needs, he will miss a learning opportunity. Also because the baby is satisfied quickly, there is no need to use words to express his needs, so that the baby’s language development lags behind the children of the same age. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. We adults can do this, for example: when the baby wants to drink water, the baby may point to the water cup on the table and make an “um” sound. At this time, adults can use short language to express the baby’s thoughts. Do you want to drink water? The baby drinks water. Gradually, children can associate the action of drinking water with language. When teaching children language, be sure to exaggerate their expressions, speak slowly, and have a clearer mouth. (5) Tell your baby more stories and sing nursery rhymes. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The baby may like to listen to only one story and only one nursery rhyme recently. This is normal behavior. He is learning repeatedly, every time he listens, every time The understanding will be deeper. If you are proficient in listening, you can increase the difficulty, let the baby pick up the last word of the nursery rhyme, and gradually learn a sentence or two, or even the entire nursery rhyme. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.

The Law of Infant Language Development

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Language is one of the main signs that distinguish between humans and other animals. It is a tool for humans to communicate and communicate with each other, as well as a tool for expressing individual thoughts. If infants and young children can master part of the language, they will get an effective cognitive tool that can increase their understanding of the outside world through communication and interaction with adults. Humans can also use language to better store and disseminate knowledge. 1. The physiological basis of infant language development (1) Central nervous system: research in brain science has found that there is a specific language regulation and control center in the brain, including auditory comprehension, language expression, and even reading and writing. . If the brain’s language regulation and control center is damaged, corresponding language barriers will appear. (2) Language auditory system: The auditory perception of sound is the basis of language learning, so people with hearing impairments will also have language development obstacles. We have seen many deaf-mute people before, but in fact, many deaf-mute people understand and understand language There is no problem with the organs of pronunciation, but the hearing impairment affects their comprehension and imitation learning, causing problems with language development. Now we attach great importance to the early screening of hearing, and effective interventions (such as wearing hearing aids for babies) are given to the babies in the early stage when problems are found, so that babies can hear sounds, imitate learning, and promote language development. Special learning methods can also be used to ensure that the language development of deaf children is not affected. (3) Speech organs: The initial maturity of the speech organs is an important physiological basis for infant language development. The airflow of the respiratory organs is the driving force for sound; the development of the larynx, vocal cords, epiglottis cartilage and diaphragm also affect the infant’s language development The quality of the process and pronunciation; the oral cavity, nasal cavity, and pharyngeal cavity are the “resonance cavity” of sound. If it is narrow, it will affect and limit the pronunciation; the baby with congenital cleft lip and palate will also be affected. It is also believed that the baby’s teething, the movement of the lips and tongue, and the saliva secretion in the mouth will also affect the pronunciation. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate these physical development problems when finding language barriers in infants and young children. 2. What factors are involved in the development of human language? (1) Language development is affected by innate factors:&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Regardless of the cultural differences in language structures around the world, children reach all stages of language development at roughly the same age (Language development milestone), and this is unique to humans. Because even the most advanced animal apes, after years of training, they can only learn simple sign language and other symbolic expressions, up to the level of human children between 2 and 2.5 years old. This also shows that human language development has the influence of innate factors. (2) Language is acquired through learning:&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Children will imitate the sound they hear, and when they pronounce correctly and use grammar, they will be strengthened, imitated and strengthened by adults It plays an important role in early language development, so it is very important for parents to talk to the baby anytime and anywhere during the parenting process. Research now believes that how much a parent talks to a baby is related to the baby’s vocabulary and IQ. (3) Language development is related to the level of cognitive development:&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Language originates from cognition, and cognition is the foundation of language development. With the development of cognition, children’s sentences become more and more complicated. For babies with language lagging behind, we must first judge whether it is because of insufficient cognitive understanding of the baby. If you want to promote your baby’s language development, you must first ensure that your child’s cognitive understanding reaches a certain level. Of course, language development can also promote cognitive development. (4) Language is developed in interaction:&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Language is a communication tool, which can only be improved continuously in a social environment and through interaction with people around you The baby’s language development level. In this interaction, children are not only listening, but also expressing and participating. Therefore, children who participate more in partner activities can also promote language development. 3.

Develop children’s abilities during sensitive periods

Many psychologists have done research in this area when the child is at what age and what kind of ability should parents focus on training. For example, they found that newborn babies feel the fastest to develop; children from 6 months to 2 years of age develop the fastest movements; children from 3 to 6 years of age develop the fastest language and imagination skills. If you pay attention to strengthening education in this area when the child’s ability develops most rapidly, it will promote the child’s intelligence and personality to develop more rapidly. Children tend to learn certain skills at certain stages of early development and learning. Scientists call these certain periods “sensitive periods.” However, the specific abilities referred to here are not the only ones that should be developed. Children’s development should be comprehensive, and don’t lose sight of the other. Newborn to 1-year-old babies are in a sensitive period of sensory and motor development, which is a stage of rapid development of the nervous system. Especially when babies are 6 to 12 months old, it is not only a rapid stage of psychological development, but also a budding period of emotion. At this time, most of the children are still unable to walk and talk, but the sense organs are already available, and they can gradually practice developing large movements such as turning over, climbing, standing, walking, and grasping objects with hand and eye coordination. It is best for parents to seize this opportunity to cultivate their children’s sensory and motor abilities. The children’s sensations such as sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch will all develop due to this stimulus. For example, hanging colorful paintings, balloons, toys, and active and sound objects on the bedside will play a very good role in the development of children’s perception. Especially when the child is full of exploration desire, as long as it is not dangerous or infringes on others, the needs of the child should be met as much as possible. Let the child see the beautiful nature more and listen to the sweet music, the baby will be active and happy because of this, and it will also lay a good foundation for the child’s intellectual development. In addition, infancy requires meticulous care and caressing. When the baby is caressed, he can feel the mother’s love for him through the comfortable feeling of the skin, which can make the baby feel safe and trust people. This is the foundation of the child’s lifelong self-confidence. . Children aged 1 to 3 years are in a sensitive period of movement development. The children move from toddlers to walking, running, jumping, etc., which is the most active and active period. Parents should allow their children to exercise adequately so that their body movements are correct and proficient, which also lays the foundation for the development of motor skills throughout their lives. In addition to the training of large muscles, attention should also be paid to training children’s hand-eye coordination and fine hand movements, encouraging children to use both hands together, which can promote the balanced development of the left and right brains. With the development of motor functions, children’s vision becomes wider and wider, and the things they see become more and more abundant, which undoubtedly promotes the development of intelligence. This period is also the most rapid stage of children’s oral language development, with natural language sensitivity. If the child is unable to speak until the age of 2 years, he should take the child to the hospital to check for hearing or intellectual impairment. At the age of 2 to 4, a child needs an orderly environment to help him understand things and become familiar with the environment. Once his familiar environment changes, it will make him at a loss. The requirement for order is an obvious characteristic of this age group. The order sensitivity of young children is often manifested in the requirements for order, living habits, and possessions. Adults should provide children with an orderly environment. As the child gradually establishes an inner order from the environment, intelligence will also develop. Children aged 3 to 6 are the best period for the development of language ability, memory ability, and imagination ability. Children learn simple handwork and art in kindergarten, such as drawing lines, drawing circles, folding squares, and building blocks. The development of hand movements enables children to contact and recognize the nature of many objects and the differences between things, such as shape, weight, Temperature, size, etc. This age group is the best period for the development of curiosity, and the development of children’s imagination is especially important at this stage. Practicing painting, listening to stories, playing games and other activities are of great benefit to the development of children’s imagination, so parents should encourage their children to do more activities in this area. After the age of 3, with the increase of children’s practical activities, the ability of independent activities is strengthened. Children are required to have a faster development of their verbal expression skills and be able to tell others what they have seen and heard, their experiences and intentions. . At this time, parents should take the initiative to provide the child with the opportunity to “act”, let him speak a paragraph coherently, tell a story, recite a poem, and pay attention to “talk” with the child in adult language, and teach him more vocabulary, especially

The road to recovery for an 8-year-old boy with autism

&nbsp.Chi Ya Psychological Counseling Company&nbsp.&nbsp.Dai Chengen&nbsp.KWZ: Boy, from Liaoning, brought by his parents to Chi Ya Psychological Counseling Company for help in February 2019. The child was born in late March 2011, when the age was one month and 8 years old. 1. Basic information of the seeker Family introduction: When the child was three years old in 2014, he found that he could not communicate with others. He was diagnosed with atypical autism in Shenyang Shengjing Hospital when he was 4 years old in March 2015. In July 2016, he was diagnosed with mental retardation in the Sixth Hospital of Beijing Medical University. In September 2017, he was diagnosed with mental retardation in Beijing Angel Children’s Hospital. I used to have rehabilitation training in institutions affiliated to Liaoning Friendship Hospital for one and a half years. After training at a rehabilitation institution in Beijing for more than half a year, the situation improved, and later went home to kindergarten. I couldn’t integrate well into the same age group, and the motivation of the two integrations was all shattered by the actual effect. Finally, I found Chi Ya psychological consulting company and received the treatment of resuscitation therapy. The consultant observes: 1. There is simple language, unclear words, and communication difficulties. For example, if a bird is on a tree, or there is a bird on the tree, he will not express it, but says: bird on the tree, butterfly on the ground. 2. Hyperactivity and not following instructions. 3. Twitching, hand shaking and other common behaviors of autistic children. 4. Always grin, and make strange noises along with the downward movement of the chin. 5. Compulsive behavior. In the subsequent consultation process, it was discovered that the child still had some precocious puberty, including being particularly interested in the nylon stockings worn by girls, staring at it or touching it. 2. Poor language skills for assessment and diagnosis, not very obedient to instructions, lack of awareness of rules, twitching of profanity, shaking hands and making strange noises, stereotyped behavior, consistent with the characteristics of children with autism spectrum. Diagnosed as autism spectrum disorder-mental retardation, accompanied by tic disorder. 3. Pathological analysis and treatment Hypothesis Autism is also called autism. Children with apathy, language barriers, narrow interests, and stereotyped behaviors are mainly caused by delayed mental development and retardation. All diseases in life are rooted in the five internal organs. By regulating the five internal organs, brain function can be improved, and children’s desire, emotion, language and thinking can be opened. On this basis, implementing four-step behavioral training technology and organically combining psychological treatment can achieve the effect of rich language, normal communication, forming awareness of rules, and effective integration into society. 4. Treatment goals 1. Short-term goals: to regulate the body, improve language skills, and develop good living habits, including sleep, eating, and ways to get along with relatives. 2. Mid-term goals: cultivate abstract thinking, develop awareness of rules, cultivate and improve dynamic intelligence, and enhance children’s self-confidence. 3. Long-term goal: integrate into the social group, study and live in ordinary schools like normal children, and integrate well into society. 5. Treatment methods and techniques TCM resuscitation therapy + four-step behavior training techniques. 6. Rehabilitation strategy The overall rehabilitation strategy is: 1. Do not require too strict at the beginning, so as not to increase the psychological burden and cause fear. To relieve obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 2. In the use of treatment methods, the general principle is that the child is comfortable and the parents accept it. 3. With resuscitation therapy as the main line, the focus is to open the orifice of language. Language is the tool of thinking. When the orifice of language is opened, the orifice of thinking will be opened easily. Language is the easiest external manifestation for parents to experience. With the opening of the language knowledge, the confidence of parents will increase. 7. Curriculum 1. A training course is arranged every morning and afternoon, because this child is too old, this setting is to hurry up. 2. The large class is about one hour, including exercises between classes, in the morning. 3. Sensory integration training for 50 minutes in the afternoon. 4. Massage for 30 minutes in the afternoon. Do it yourself at home for children with transcranial magnetism. 5. Rhythm is performed in the afternoon for 10-20 minutes. 8. The treatment process began on February 20, 2019, which is the 16th day of the first lunar month. In addition to the above courses every day, the body is also arranged to adjust the body, resuscitate mainly, and assist training. The purpose of resuscitation therapy is to regulate the five internal organs, improve brain function, promote the development of the central nervous system, and lay the material foundation for resuscitation. The initial focus is to open the orifice of desire and language. 2019.2.25: The mother reported that since the child took the medicine for resuscitation therapy, he sleeps very well every day. He used to sleep less and only went to bed late every day and didn’t take a nap. Now I take a nap every day until nearly 2 o’clock, and go to bed at 9:00 in the evening

Non-invasive stimulation of the vagus nerve through ears to improve foreign language performance

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Zhang Hua’s Note: The combination of Chinese learning fever + audiology + neuroscience technology has contributed to the development of non-invasive stimulators for improving foreign language learning. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. New research conducted by neuroscientists at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) found that a simple earplug-like device developed by the University of California, San Francisco “subtly stimulates the brain The key nerve can significantly improve the wearer’s learning ability. The voice of a new language.” &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. According to the researchers, the device can also facilitate other types of learning in many broad applications. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Mandarin is considered one of the most difficult languages ​​for native English speakers to learn, partly because the language, like many other languages ​​in the world, utilizes unique changes in pitch (called “tone” ) To change the meaning of the originally pronounced words. the same. In this new study, published this week in the journal Natural Science (npj), the researchers used precise timing and non-invasive stimulation of the vagus nerve, which significantly improved the ability of native English speakers to distinguish the tones of Mandarin. ability. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. More importantly, vagus nerve stimulation allows study participants to pick up some four Mandarin tones more quickly. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.”shows that non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation can make language learning easier, which potentially opens the door to improving cognitive performance in a wide range of fields”&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp .&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.—Pern’s SoundBrainLab principal researcher and postdoctoral researcher Dr. Fernando Llanos&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.University of California, San Francisco, Weir Institute of Neuroscience Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery Matthew Leonard (Matthew Leonard) said: “This is one of the first proofs that non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation can enhance complex cognitive skills such as language learning in healthy people.”&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp .&nbsp.&nbsp.Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS)&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Researchers used a non-invasive technique called transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), in which the outer ear A small stimulator is placed in the middle, which can stimulate one of the nearby nerves by stimulating the vagus nerve with insignificant electrical pulses. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. A small stimulator placed in the outer ear can stimulate the vagus nerve with insignificant electrical pulses to stimulate a branch near the nerve. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.In their study, the researchers recruited 36 native English-speaking adults and trained them to use a set of tasks developed by the Natural Brain Lab. Take language as an example to identify the four intonations in Mandarin to study the neurobiology of language learning. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Participants who received the imperceptible tVNS corresponding to two kinds of Mandarin, which usually make it easier for English speakers to distinguish, showing rapid learning to distinguish these tones progress. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.By the end of the training, these participants had an average improvement of 13% in tone classification and reached peak performance speed

Why do some babies have slow language development and what to do?

Language is a unique talent of our human beings. From the first day of birth, babies begin to gradually accept the influence of the surrounding environment, and their language functions gradually grow. From the beginning, they can only pronounce single syllables such as “ma, ba”. By gradually speaking some vocabulary, and then gradually speaking some intermittent sentences, by the age of 3, basic babies can already express themselves in sentences. Language function is a process in which babies learn, and they are not innate. Some babies have not learned to speak when they reach the age of 2 or 3, parents will be anxious. How can they be considered as language delay? What about language delay? The growth and development speed of each baby is different. Some babies may be early, and some babies may be late. However, if the baby has the following conditions, we must start to be alert to whether the baby has language development delay: 1. In the baby half When I was 10 years old, I only cried, didn’t respond to the sounds of people around me, and couldn’t make more continuous eye contact with people around me. 2. When the baby is one year old, he cannot utter a single syllable, nor can he understand some simple instructions. 3. When the baby is two years old, he cannot produce consonants, that is, sounds that are obstructed when the airflow passes through the mouth, such as four, crawling, and vomiting. 4. When the baby is three years old, he can only repeat the words of the people around him more mechanically, and cannot speak complete sentences. The things he wants are mostly expressed through actions rather than words. In medicine, the language development delay mentioned above usually means that some babies have more difficulties in language learning and development than their peers. The reasons for language development delay are more complicated. If parents don’t pay attention to it, or don’t take appropriate measures to help their baby, their language ability will widen the gap with children of the same age, and it will also affect the baby’s mental health. So parents have to seize a good time for treatment. With the development of modern medicine, most of the babies with language retardation can go through formal language rehabilitation treatment and can communicate with others later. Apart from going to a regular hospital and receiving professional treatment, what else can our parents do to help babies train their language skills? 1. Training attention: Use toys with sounds to attract the baby’s attention, and guide the baby to look at each other and even make eye contact with the parents in the process of looking for toys. 2. Selection training: Understanding is the prerequisite for expression. The baby’s brain must store certain knowledge content and understand it before learning to express. Therefore, we can use selective training, such as identifying animals, fruit charts, etc. Let the baby do the selection training of understanding. 3. Pronunciation training: It is also possible to train the baby’s pronunciation through animals, fruit picture cards, etc., that is, when parents teach their babies to understand and choose, they can read the pictures out loud and exaggeratedly, which can guide the baby to imitate the parents’ pronunciation and get training . 4. Training the vocal organs: training the baby’s vocal organs to improve its strength and flexibility is also the basis for assisting the baby’s language ability training. Our parents can apply sugar water on the baby’s upper lip and let the baby practice tongue licking. Let the baby lick the lollipop from different directions to practice tongue rotation, and increase the strength of the lips by letting the baby do more kisses. Finally, and the most important point is that parents must encourage their babies to express their requirements in words, rather than expressing them through actions and crying. Only by encouraging them, understanding them, and guiding them patiently can they better help them get out. The dilemma of language barriers.

[Does learning minor languages ​​require talent? 】

What is the case broadcast of my freshman year? In the eyes of the parents, it is a starting point for the son’s beautiful future; in the eyes of the teacher, it is a turning point for students to stay away from the ordeal of the college entrance examination; in my eyes, it is another kind of painful opening. I am learning Arabic, and facing a completely unfamiliar language, the difficulties and challenges are far greater than I imagined. Arabic is known as the second most difficult language to learn in the world (the first one is said to be Chinese), with a total of 28 letters, each with 12 pronunciations and 12 writing styles. Calculate 28×12= for yourself? Its pronunciation is so strange, some like hiccups, some like vomiting. In class for a week, students in other languages ​​have already learned basic greetings and greetings, but our classmates have learned a “hello”, not even “goodbye”. According to regulations, students in the Department of Foreign Languages ​​must take a second foreign language, such as French, German, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, etc. I have not heard of anyone taking Arabic as an elective. A classmate of the Japanese Department of our school had the courage to apply for Arabic. After listening to a phonetic lesson, he walked away. When he stepped out of the classroom door, he left us with a classic quotation: “What a man said? !” At the end of one semester, I dropped two subjects. This semester I used the kind of energy I had in my third year of high school, burned the sundial, and read it at night. Who knows that it is still in this tragic situation in the end. The worst thing was the oral class. The Egyptian bearded foreign teacher only gave me 35 points. I asked him for the theory. He actually said in Chinese: “Bo, this is the biggest discount for you!” It is said that learning a foreign language also requires a certain amount. Talent. The girls in our class didn’t see how hard they worked. They went shopping on Sundays, but they were all 80 or 90 minutes. Some boys are also, like “Yakshi” (he is from Xinjiang), the deputy head of the Department of Arts and Culture of our department, who is very keen on various school performances, and will sing on stage when he catches the opportunity (he is really good at singing “East Wind Broken” is better than Jay Chou), but every time I get a high score in the exam, it is strange. The counselor has talked to me and prepared me to repeat the grade or drop out. He also said: “Don’t be too sad, we have this happening every year.” Oh my god, can I be sad? Case comments The minor language major has become a hot spot for students with good foreign language scores, but do you know? There are many names of minor languages, and there are many differences. Some languages ​​have special pronunciation. If you learn English well, you may not be able to learn well in minor languages. Because you start to learn English in elementary school, and most of the minor languages ​​do not start until you enter the university. By this time, the best time to learn a foreign language has passed. Some people say that God makes people speak different languages ​​in order to prevent communication between people. In addition, due to nationality, region, customs, history and other reasons, it is also difficult for Chinese to learn different languages, such as Arabic, which is recognized as one of the most difficult languages ​​in the world. There is a popular saying among foreign language schools in Beijing: “Three minutes of Korean, three hours of English, three days of French, three months of Japanese, three years of German, and three hundred years of Arabic.” , This can be seen. Selected from “Ticketing Skills for College Entrance Examination Volunteers”

How to prevent and control the development of vitiligo

   Vitiligo disease has many causes. The mental quality of patients with vitiligo will greatly affect the patient’s condition, and severe symptoms can also make the patient’s symptoms worse. Although mental stress cannot unilaterally cause vitiligo, it is an important factor that induces, aggravates and promotes the occurrence and development of vitiligo. This is because mental stress can cause the body’s immune function disorders, so people with the basis for inducing this disease may suffer from vitiligo. So, how to avoid the spread of vitiligo symptoms in life?    1. Pay attention to transfer. Vitiligo can sometimes make people feel unhappy, and often unhappy may worsen the symptoms. At this time, patients need to shift their attention to other areas. Coordinated work, humorous language, appropriate jokes, and a very harmonious environment with colleagues have positive significance for the development and treatment of the disease.   2. Release emotions. When vitiligo occurs, the patient will increase more psychological pressure, allowing the patient to frankly express their opinions, unfair things, in order to eliminate unhappiness and achieve the goal of relaxing nerve function.   3. Language enlightenment. When patients encounter unhappy things, they need to be resolved in time to avoid further aggravation of symptoms. Language is a powerful tool that affects people’s emotional experience and performance. It can cause or suppress emotional responses through language. Vitiligo is not an incurable disease. You can use these words to control and regulate the patient’s emotions.   4. Thinking adjustment. Patients who understand vitiligo should know that their emotional state affects their condition. Generally speaking, if patients with vitiligo can clearly realize the root cause of mood swings, then they can regulate their emotions more effectively.   In order to prevent the symptoms of vitiligo from worsening, patients need to control their mental state. When you are unhappy, you can divert your attention and communicate with friends. When vitiligo attacks, you need to have a correct attitude, and don’t be too aggressive when encountering things.

How much do you know about the 6 stages of children’s language development?

Language is a high-level neural activity unique to humans, used to express mental processes such as thinking and ideas, and is closely related to intellectual development, and is a sign of children’s overall development. The basic conditions for language development include normal speech organs, hearing, and brain language centers. Language communication with the surrounding people is an essential condition for language development. Language development must go through the three stages of pronunciation, understanding, and expression. Generally, newborn babies can already cry and babble, and gradually they can understand and understand the words of the people around them, and then learn to speak. Words are spoken first, then sentences can be formed, and then various modified words and methods are used to change from simple sentences to complex sentences. Language development can be divided into 6 periods. The preparation period (0 to 1 year old) is mainly for practicing pronunciation, also known as the “first sound period.” The earliest way of expressing different emotions by crying; three to six months of age, “mama”, “dada”, “papa” and other sounds will be made. The pronunciation of this babbling language reaches its peak at 8 months; 7-8 At the age of three months, they will call “Dad” and “Mom”. At this time, normal children gradually learn to change the volume and pitch. 2 The first phase of language development (12 to 18 months) single-character sentences is the characteristic of this phase, and a 1-year-old child can speak 2 to 3 words on average. 3 In the second phase of language development (the address period), pronouns such as “you” and “I” are used, and body language is more frequent. 4 The third stage of language development will be expressed in words, which may not be clear, sometimes there will be stuttering, and it will be normal by about 3 years old. Can communicate in simple sentences. 5 The fourth phase of language development (good questioning period) is the biggest feature of this phase is to ask “why” and “what”. 6Complete phase This phase of language development is complete and can be expressed clearly.

“Sign language training” in infancy is the real early education

Guide: When doing the development assessment of children’s ASQ (Ages&amp.StagesQuestionnaires Age and Stage Development Questionnaire), parents are often given science. For 1 year and a half before, or even two years old, many babies cannot express themselves well. In fact, their The heart is anxious, and sometimes it is frustrated and loses temper even if it cannot be understood. Imagine that little babies gradually began to have their own ideas, but could not communicate them. At this stage, they can look like a little dumb. In addition, language communication is not only “speaking”, but the body language-“sign language” (sign language), can be an effective tool for infants to communicate with adults at this stage, which is worth learning for every family One thing. Infant sign language has also become a very mainstream way of infant language training in the United States. Some families only use a few sign languages, but still find them useful. Most families master 20-50 sign languages, and some families continue to learn more sign languages. Therefore, it is highly recommended that babies at this stage learn “sign language”, which can effectively compensate for this “dumb” period of language transition, and is also a truly meaningful form of early education in infants and toddlers. Why do baby signs are needed for the catalog? When can I start training for baby sign language? Does sign language practice affect my child’s speech? How to train sign language everyday? One Why do you need baby sign language? A large number of studies have shown that the most critical period of language learning is within a short period of time. The lack of contact with language (oral or other) during this critical period will have a devastating and permanent impact. Gleason (2000) reports that babies begin to communicate intentionally before the age of one, usually at 9 or 10 months, they realize for the first time that they can vocalize or make gestures and expect their The caregiver responded. After this developmental stage, most infants’ language development will be surprisingly improved. An article published by The American Speech-Language Hearing Association in 2002 gave a detailed discussion on how language ability affects children’s basic communication and cognitive skills (Schick, J. de Villiers, P. de Villiers, & Hoffmeister, 2002 ), its conclusion is that children with language difficulties are not only affected in learning ability, but also more likely to have an impact on children’s self-esteem and behavior problems. An effective way for children to communicate. This may help alleviate the frustration that children between 8 months and 2 years old cannot express well – when children begin to know what they want, need, and feel, but not necessarily express themselves Language ability. In other words, baby sign language can help babies to express their ideas better in 8 or 9 months, which means that the communication gap that lasts for several months is closed. Several other studies have shown that children who learn sign language as infants tend to perform better on standardized tests, have higher IQs, and outperform their peers in various social and academic fields (Waldman, 2001). 2. When can I start training for baby sign language Marilyn Daniels, associate professor of speech communication at Pennsylvania State University, who is also the author of a book that promotes learning of sign language for children with normal hearing, says: “Sign language can encourage communication, at least in most children Six months before the formation of basic words, … this not only increased the contact and interaction between parents and babies, but also helped reduce the main source of temper and stress of infants and young children.” Many children who are exposed to sign language at 7 months “will compare gestures at 8 months”, and by 9 months some babies can grasp up to 75 gestures (Brady, 2000). Therefore, many babies can consciously learn simple sign language training from 7 to 8 months. When parents communicate with their babies earlier, they can use simple sign language at the same time. 3. Does practicing sign language affect children’s speaking? Some people often have such worries, let

How can patients with vitiligo usually adjust their psychology?

We often hear that patients with vitiligo need to maintain a good state of mind, and psychotherapy is often used in the treatment of vitiligo. However, patients should slowly adjust themselves psychologically while accepting professional management advice from the hospital. How should patients with vitiligo adjust themselves? 1. The release method. Speak frankly out of opinion, unfair and outrageous things, to dispel unpleasantness or to punch a few punches in front of sandbags or head idols, so as to achieve the purpose of relaxing nerve function. 2. Language regulation method. Language is a powerful tool to affect people’s emotional experience and performance. Language can cause or suppress emotional reactions. Vitiligo is not an incurable disease, but a treatable disease. You can use positive language to control and regulate emotions. 3. Behavior transfer method. Turn emotions into the power of action, that is, transform the low emotions into the power to engage in science, culture, learning, work, art including calligraphy, painting, and sports. 4. Self-control method. Carry out Tai Chi sports activities, use self-regulation to control emotions, and use psychological processes to affect physiological processes, so as to achieve the effect of relaxation and quietness, so as to relieve bad emotions such as tension and anxiety. 5. Pay attention to the transfer method. Transfer attention from negative emotions to other aspects, coordinated work, humorous language, appropriate jokes, and a very harmonious environment with colleagues. Finally, I hope that the above therapy will be useful to everyone, I wish you all a speedy recovery!

Parkinson’s disease language barrier needs to overcome psychological problems

  Patients with Parkinson’s disease have a lot of inconveniences in their daily lives due to muscle stiffness and movement disorders. They need more care and attention from their families. Patients often become more and more reluctant to speak because of language barriers, and the more they do not speak, the more the language function deteriorates. Long-term lack of language communication with family members, coupled with the lack of expression of Parkinson’s disease patients, often causes emotional barriers and barriers between patients and relatives. Therefore, patients must often perform language functional training.  Six important tips to help patients with Parkinson’s disease improve conversational skills.  Try to listen to the “bass”    The most typical language and sound problems in patients with Parkinson’s disease are low volume and difficulty in finding words (decrease in cognitive language function). In addition to the low volume, sometimes there is a change in tone, but the patient may not realize it. If the patient is reminded of the bright spot, he may be unhappy, thinking that he has reached the level of yelling.  Patients have problems with finding words, reduced attention, and memory loss due to a decline in cognitive language ability. These problems with vocalization exist at the same time, which pose a great challenge to the patient’s speech. Over time, it is inevitable that the social interaction will be far away. There is no “one size fits all” solution for language therapy, and individualization is required. Clinicians need to be familiar with current scientific evidence and make treatment recommendations based on specific problems. At the same time, they also need to consider patient choices, feelings, and confidence in treatment options. For example, both tai chi and bowling can help improve balance, but patients may not be interested in practicing tai chi, but are interested in bowling. At this time, individual measures are required. The treatment plan should consider the strength of family support. After all, due to limitations such as cost and activity, family practice accounts for a large proportion.  Don’t give up on “difficult” patients   Some patients need to have advanced awareness when making plans because of the rapid development of the disease. Some patients have decreased muscle function and may gradually lose their normal eating function. In these cases, treatment must be active and cautious to avoid injury.  Can choose to carry out group exercises.   Patients go to a language therapist to see a doctor, which often takes time and effort. If the patient wishes to maintain the continuous improvement of the existing language function, they can maintain a certain degree of continuous practice at home. For example, several people working together in small groups will help improve their language skills while also creating a relaxed atmosphere.  Try to overcome psychological problems.   Some patients with Parkinson’s disease who have obvious mask faces will have psychological problems when trying to communicate. Under normal circumstances, people speak faster, and the outside world will continue to interrupt. If the patient’s thinking is slow and can’t keep up with the rhythm, he will subconsciously talk less or not, and should try to overcome such psychological problems.  Using new technology to help patients  Some applications and devices can help patients practice, and at the same time can monitor the implementation of treatment programs. Some applications can be used for home exercises, such as improving the patient’s speech volume or standardizing the speed of speech. In addition, there are some online online courses that provide speech therapy. These new methods can be fully utilized.

The importance of music intervention for children with autism

&nbsp.&nbsp. Autism is a common developmental disorder. Symptoms include abnormal language skills, abnormal communication skills, narrow interests, and stubborn behavior patterns. Language disorder is the most typical disorder and core symptom of autistic patients. Children with autism have obvious lags and obstacles in language development, from being unable to communicate to having sufficient language knowledge, but there are fundamental obstacles when using these language knowledge to speak or enter the discourse context. According to statistics, 30% to 50% of autistic patients lack basic language functions, and most autistic patients have language barriers that focus on language communication defects. &nbsp.&nbsp. The lack of language makes the communication between autistic patients and society missing an important part, because it is impossible to communicate smoothly and understand each other, it is difficult for each individual to live independently in society. Language barriers make autistic children face great threats not only in development but even in survival. Language is a key factor threatening the development of children with autism, and it is also the core and key area of ​​rehabilitation for children with autism. &nbsp.Although children with autism have obvious defects in language development, their ability to respond to music is still developing very well, and they generally like to sing or listen to music. Music itself has many similarities in language. Music is often defined as a sensory language. It is the art of the soul. It conveys wisdom and emotional experience through sound. It is a special way of communication. &nbsp.&nbsp. A large number of studies have proved that music intervention can effectively improve the language barrier of autistic children. Listening to music can help children with autism stabilize their mood and improve their mood. Music intervention can not only improve the language and social response behavior of autistic children, but also significantly improve their language communication ability. &nbsp. In the process of music intervention for autistic patients, music is not used independently, but often needs to be combined with movements or other activities. For example, when singing, the body will beat rhythmically, or when singing, you will be required to applaud or even play drums. The combination of body movements and music can help children focus, while rough movements and detailed movements are gradually developed and improved. &nbsp.&nbsp. When using music to interfere with autism, it is best to use colorful music activities as the main way to make children feel happy in these fun music activities. The choice of music and the content of activities need to be adjusted from time to time according to the state of the child to avoid negative stereotypes, such as blind imitation. &nbsp.&nbsp. The purpose of music intervention is to help children solve language and emotional expression problems. In this process, the improvement of music level is not the most important, but if family members can actively cooperate and participate in children’s music intervention activities, it will have a more positive impact on the effectiveness of the intervention.

What are the risk factors for children’s expressive language delay?

#Show your housekeeping science 1, poverty 2, low education level of parents 3, low birth weight or premature birth 4, family history of language delay, language impairment or language-based learning disabilities (eg, dyslexia) 5, Mother’s depression 6. Boys If your baby’s language development is delayed, for comparison, it is possible that these six risk factors are not there. Pediatrics are slow to speak, and clinicians should be cautious about the following rationalized explanations for the language delay of young children. 1. He is a boy, and the boy speaks later than the girl. 2. The family members have multiple languages ​​or dialects, which causes the children to confuse the language. 3. The noble speaks slowly and does not speak anything if they understand everything. 4. Speak with acquaintances, strangers, kindergarten teachers do not speak at all. Although this kind of speech makes sense, it seems reasonable to explain, and may also be verified by real life, but we must pay attention to other reasons that lead to the problem of language development.

Language, medicine, scalpel, the doctor’s three magic weapons

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Doctors have three magic weapons, language communication, drug treatment and surgical treatment. The doctor also has three maxims, healed occasionally, often helped, and always comforted. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. It is precisely because of the occasional cure, so language communication is the first need. Of course, this language communication is based on the communication of medical science foundation and principles. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Where medicines are divided into nine, so medicine should be used based on the necessary principles. There are no indications for use. There is no indication for use. It is not necessary to use it. It still needs to be broken on the basis of effective communication between health care. The curse of seeing a doctor and taking medicine. Never take medicine as a meal. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. When it comes to surgery, there is only one sentence, don’t do surgery for surgery, don’t do surgery for so-called filial piety, sometimes it’s difficult, there is no comparability and standards, there are 1,000 kinds for 1,000 people Different, only you fully weigh the pros and cons. The knife is as careful as it is prudent. &nbsp.&nbsp. Like the abyss, like walking on thin ice, trembling. This is the old saying Xiaoya’s best description of medical treatment.

Boundary dynamics in intimacy…

When there is a conflict in the intimate relationship, one side has many demands to chase, while the other side shows back, avoids, and wants to escape. We often see scenes where the wife is chattering and the husband is indifferent. It seems that the wife is strong and does not give people a chance to breathe, but the husband is helpless. Or the wife persuaded patiently, while the husband ignored it. We always want to try to make one side stop nagging, or let the other side try to listen, but it seems difficult to do so. Our physiological structure is in primitive society. When people face danger, attack and other scenarios, there will be three reactions-fighting, running, and stiffness. If I think I can beat him, then I will fight; if I think I can’t beat, eager to survive, then I will run away; If I feel powerless and have lost hope, then I will be there, blocking all information to avoid The body feels intense pain. Fighting, running, and stiffness are the coping patterns that people have accumulated in development. The nervous system that people have developed over thousands of years has firmly remembered this series of response patterns. Studies have shown that people’s autonomic nervous system has a faster response than the cognitive system. What does it mean? When there is a source of stimulus in the outside world, the autonomic nerve responds quickly, and its response speed is 1/100,000th of a second. The cognitive system, the brain, takes 0.01 seconds to realize the existence of pain. For example, when a tiger suddenly appears, you will run away before you think about it. At this time, the autonomic nervous system is playing a role. Therefore, our body is very smart, when the crisis comes, the brain is often too late to respond, and the autonomic nervous system can help us quickly escape. In modern society, the danger of being chased by tigers is not often encountered, but when we encounter pressure, danger or external stimuli, the autonomic nervous system will still react in the first place to help us protect ourselves. When the other party is asking us, our instinctive reaction is: He asked me to do that because I did not do well. These requirements seem to be an attack. Everyone has a tendency to protect themselves, and we will feel attacked when we criticize and deny others. When an attack occurs, we will react in the same way as our ancestors. When I think I can quarrel with each other, we will increase the volume and speed up the speech, like fighting; if I think the other party is too Strong, I may be silent, run away, or be persuaded by him; if I feel unable to communicate, maybe I will be silent and indifferent. When the emotion is in an agitated state, our autonomic nervous system is dominant. At this time, our cognitive system is unable to work and is in a state of cognitive dissonance. At this time, no matter how much truth is said, the other party seems to be inaudible. . Our inner interpretation of the couple in the quarrel, often one party will complain desperately, nagging, aggressive, or annoying. From the nagging side’s point of view, he kept expressing himself, but couldn’t see the other party’s response. The more he couldn’t see the other party’s response, the more I had to use a louder voice and more repetition to let him hear. The other party’s lack of response and avoidance often makes him feel strong anger, and deep inside is a deep sadness. His words seem so unimportant to the other party, and he seems to have no value. The evading party often feels the other party’s strong dissatisfaction with oneself, seeing the other party’s excited emotions makes them afraid, insecure and wants to escape. If he expresses himself, he may enter a more violent quarrel, which is often undesirable. In this chase and escape, the feelings of the two sides are repeated continuously. The more they repeat, the deeper they feel. The more they are used to dealing with the conflict between the two sides in this way. Changing a way of communication When people communicate, there are two kinds of information, one is non-verbal information, and the other is verbal information. Non-verbal information is learned by people in advance, and linguistic information is learned by people acquired. Acquired skills all require the participation of cognitive functions and require a certain amount of time, and non-verbal information can be processed more quickly. Therefore, when communicating and communicating, people will always notice the non-verbal information before understanding the linguistic information. Be good at using non-verbal information when communicating to make the other party feel safe. Non-verbal messages that make the other person feel safe have comprehensible eyes, gentle tone, and accepted body movements, etc., which will make the other person feel accepted.

Don’t let this “verbal violence” become an invisible killer that hurts children

“Xunzi • Honor and Disgrace” said: “Speak with others, warm than cloth; hurt people with words, deeper than spears.” The meaning of this sentence is to say that friendly words to others are more than cloth. Warm; speaking bitter and harsh, it hurts more than spear halberd. The scars on the body can gradually fade with the passage of time, while the language damage is accompanied by a lifetime. The UAE should use a magical experiment to prove the power of language. This experiment was not very conspicuous at first, but the results of the experiment shocked the whole world… They picked two plants in their stores that were similar in length. Put a transparent cover on the plant and put it on the campus. Give them the same fertilizer every day, water the same water, and get in and out of the sun. The only difference is: the pot on the left says “This plant is bullied”, and the green plant on the right says “This plant is praised.” How is the plant bullying? The so-called “bullying” is to conduct a “language attack” on it. They found a lot of students, recorded the sound in advance, and then looped the audio next to the plant. As for these curse words, it is also very “ruthless”, but it is our usual “language”. “You’re a waste, you’re useless!” &nbsp. “You don’t look green at all!” “You look like it’s going to rotten!” &nbsp. “You don’t like people at all, what use do you want!” “&Nbsp. Compared to this, the plant on the right is treated like a paradise.” The words “Affirmation” and “Praise” are looped around next to it every day, “I like how you look like yourself!” “I am so happy when I see you!” &nbsp. “You are really beautiful!” &nbsp. “This world Change because of you!”&nbsp.”You are awesome!”&nbsp. On the one hand is the insult of language violence, and on the other is the heart-warming praise and praise. This experiment lasted for 30 days. The final result of the experiment was that the pot on the left was treated with humiliation for 30 days and was scolded as “withered”. The plant on the right, which is praised every day, is green and gratifying. This shows: how terrible the power of language! Plants can’t stand language violence, let alone humans. “You are just a waste”, “Why didn’t you die stupidly?”, “Stupid stupid like a pig”, “Pigs are smarter than you”, “You are a waste of food, and a dirty land”… these are all It is in life that we can often hear words that some parents often talk about in the process of educating their children. Under the attack of language violence, many children choose self-harm and suicide. Language violence is terrible because it attacks the human heart, leaving a haze in the heart. This kind of pain is far more unacceptable than physical pain. Many parents are very prone to make such mistakes when educating their children, thinking that only strict requirements on children can control good children. Even if the child improves, he will not be praised. The reason for parents is simple: humility makes people progress, pride makes people backward, and fear of praising children will cause children to have pride, which is not conducive to the growth of children. Therefore, the usual attitude towards children is either to attack or to ridicule or abuse. Children who have been ridiculed and abused for a long time are prone to form two extreme personalities, one is cowardly and inferior personality, and the other is aggressive personality. Cowardly inferiority is manifested in speaking only to promises, lacking confidence, and fearing that you will not do well in everything you do. &nbsp. The aggressive personality is irritable and irritable, and the heart is full of hatred. This emotion will be transformed into strong aggressiveness, hurting yourself or others. All, there is a saying that applauding a child is exaggerated. In the process of educating our children, we should pay more attention to the merits of the children, praise more, praise the children well, understand more and encourage more. For example, because of the carelessness of the exam this time, we can tell the children this way, it doesn’t matter, as long as you can be more serious next time, you will definitely be better than this time. Such encouragement will definitely be more than simple and rude scolding of children, “Why are you so stupid?”, the effect is much better.

[Daily Notes] How should parents communicate with children with cerebral palsy?

&nbsp. Cerebral palsy children are a special group that requires parents to devote more love and care. When parents find that their children have cerebral palsy, timely treatment is essential. For the treatment of cerebral palsy in children, the main focus is on rehabilitation training and surgical operations, but more importantly, parents should take the initiative to communicate with their children, and through some usual communication, slowly restore the child’s thinking ability. So how should parents communicate with children with cerebral palsy? 1. Parents help children to overcome the dependence psychology, do not do everything for the children, do what they can to let the children do it themselves, cultivate their independent awareness, make their lives self-care, and reduce the burden on parents. 2. Communicate with children with cerebral palsy with patience, carefulness, soft tone, slow speech, simple and clear language and patience, and listen fully to try to answer the questions raised by the children. 3. More comfort and encourage children, less criticism, children have made some progress, parents should give timely praise and encouragement. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.4. Parents should properly educate and guide children with cerebral palsy. Parents need to encourage their children to overcome psychological barriers as much as possible, so that the children’s physical and mental development will develop in a healthy direction. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.5. Maintain correct posture: when the child has better torso control and eating ability, he can start language training systematically, and keep the eye height consistent with the child’s eye level during conversation, if the position is too high It will make the child’s whole body overstretched not conducive to pronunciation. Precautions for speech rehabilitation exercises for children with cerebral palsy: 1. Increase the amount of speech and activity: parents should not lose confidence because they do not get a response when talking with the child. They should take advantage of various opportunities to speak with the child; Carry out breathing and vocal training, entertaining and arousing children’s interest in training. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. 2. Encourage the child to speak: encourage the child’s enthusiasm to speak and help the child build confidence in speaking; when the child speaks, respond immediately and inspire him to express what he wants to say, never Criticize and blame the child. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. 3. Education must be persistent: language correction and training are long-term and arduous. Parents must have great patience and perseverance. Only with perseverance can we gain something, and we can lay a good role for cerebral palsy children with language disabilities. Language basics.

Children’s language development performance

A preschool child has problems related to speaking, such as late speaking, less speech, difficulty speaking, unclear speech, etc. Parents will first think of these as mouth-related problems, so help the child’s ” Mouth “speech. In fact, before children speak, they need to master a lot of pre-language skills, including the ability to communicate and recognize and play before language. For example, children and mothers look at pictures of dogs chewing bones in picture books. Listening to mothers saying that dogs like to chew bones, dogs will bark “Wang, Wang, Wang”. This kind of pre-language communication skills (common attention) for children and parents to pay attention to the same thing is not directly related to “mouth” speech, but it is an important basis for children to speak in the future. Another example is cognitive play skills such as symbolic games. For example, children use a long building block to pretend to put a phone in their ears and babble and babble. It also seems to have no direct relationship with the “mouth” speech. Skills are closely related to language development. Another very important principle in children’s language development is “listen before speaking”. Children must continuously obtain language input in communication and play, develop language understanding first, and then use language to express, so as to “speak”. It is easy for parents to focus their attention on whether the child has “opening”, and often ignores that the child needs to accept language input in communication and play before the “opening”. In other words, when playing with a child, it is not forcing the child to speak. For example, Dad and Kuankuan are playing the game of pushing a car. Kuankuan pushes the car to Dad, and every time Dad wants Kuankuan to say “push the car to me”, he pushes the car to him. If Kuan Kuan didn’t say it, Dad would split the sentence into words one by one, and force Kuan Kuan to imitate each word one by one without giving him a car. Usually, such interaction is terminated by the child’s lack of cooperation. Effective interaction requires parents to shift their attention from the child’s “opening” to the parent’s language input. In addition, children’s language expression skills are not developed from the moment of “opening”. Early childhood communication through body movements and gestures, for example, waving “goodbye”, nodding “yes”, shaking his head “no”, pointing to dad when asked “where is dad”, etc. are early language of children Expressive performance. When children have certain language comprehension skills and certain non-verbal expression skills, children have to speak, that is, the language must be output from the mouth, and also need the “exercise plan” function from the brain to the mouth muscles, and finally need It is the “exercise execution” function of the oral muscles. It is worth mentioning that even if it is found that the children’s speech is unclear because of the problem of “exercise execution” function, not all of these children need oral muscle training to treat their speech problems. Therefore, when a preschool-age child has problems related to speech, don’t just focus on the “oral” problem. Parents should take their children to a professional physician and speech-language therapist for treatment, based on the above-mentioned communication play, language understanding, language expression, and comprehensive evaluation of speech to find out the crux of the child’s “speech” problem, such as pre-verbal communication Defective play skills, poor language comprehension, language expression problems, dysfunction in the “exercise plan” between the brain and oral muscles, or problems with the “exercise execution” function of the oral muscles. These problems can exist alone or coexist. Only based on a comprehensive professional assessment can doctors and speech-language therapists make accurate and comprehensive diagnoses and formulate scientifically-based treatment plans for children