How to judge lactose intolerance?

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Lactose intolerance is a non-infectious diarrhea caused by the secretion of lactase and the inability to completely digest and decompose lactose in breast milk or milk, also known as lactase deficiency disease. In our country, it can occur in infancy, childhood and adulthood. Generally, the diagnosis can be confirmed based on its clinical manifestations and clinical auxiliary examinations.  1. Judging by clinical manifestations    symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas production, and vomiting. They usually start to occur between half an hour and two hours after drinking milk. The severity depends on the amount the patient eats or drinks. If there are no corresponding symptoms after eliminating lactose in the diet, the diagnosis can be initially confirmed.  2. Judging according to auxiliary examination   (1) Hydrogen breath test: Fasting for 12 hours before the test, and then ingesting 25g of lactose. If the patient’s breath of hydrogen or methane content is high, it means that the chance of lactose intolerance is high. This is the most accurate detection method for lactose intolerance. However, because this test may cause severe diarrhea and requires a long fasting time, it is usually not used for infants and young children;    (2) Other tests: stool acidity and alkalinity, stool reducing sugar, urine galactose, intestinal pathological sections, etc. Can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance. Patients with lactose intolerance can be treated in the following two ways:   1. General treatment: If the frequency of bowel movements does not increase significantly and does not affect growth and development, it can be temporarily observed; mild patients can reduce breast milk or formula milk intake, serious People with lactose intolerance should avoid eating lactose-containing dairy products, and choose milk replacers and lactose-free dairy products, and pay attention to ensuring nutritional intake; if symptoms improve, you can gradually increase the frequency of breastfeeding according to the child’s tolerance; 2. Drug treatment: Properly taking lactase is beneficial to the digestion and absorption of lactose, thereby alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

What to do if you drink milk and have diarrhea

Many people experience colic and diarrhea after drinking milk, which is actually caused by lactose intolerance. What is lactose intolerance: lactose, as the name implies, is the sugar in milk. Lactose is a disaccharide, which refers to a sugar composed of two monosaccharide molecules. After entering our body, lactose cannot be directly absorbed. It needs to be processed in the small intestine first, and then absorbed by the lactase/β-galactosidase enzyme on the brush border of the small intestine mucosa to hydrolyze it into monosaccharides. Therefore, the lactase secreted by the mucosa of the small intestine is the key to determine whether lactose can be fully absorbed and utilized by the body. Once the secretion of lactase is insufficient, there is no way to deal with the corresponding amount of lactose in time, causing lactose to enter the colon and be used by colon bacteria, and symptoms of lactose intolerance will appear. What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance? There are a large number of intestinal bacteria living in the colon. Lactose is just a food ingredient that some intestinal bacteria like. However, when some of these bacteria “eat” lactose, they do not eat well and often produce a lot of gas, causing people to experience discomfort such as flatulence, abdominal pain, and gas. Excessive lactose will also increase the osmotic pressure inside the intestines, prevent the absorption of water, and cause diarrhea. Can lactose intolerance make it impossible to drink milk? According to international statistics, the incidence of lactose intolerance varies significantly in different regions, with the lowest incidence in Northern Europe, slightly more Caucasians in Central Europe and the United States, and the highest incidence in Asians, such as Japan and China . In fact, people with lactose intolerance may gradually drink milk normally. ●Reduce the amount of milk you drink each time. Most people can tolerate 200-250 ml of fresh milk. You can start with 50-100ml, as long as there are no symptoms, you can gradually increase the amount. ● Drink yogurt and cheese instead. Most of the lactose in yogurt and cheese has been decomposed by lactic acid bacteria, and the remaining small amount of lactose can basically be tolerated. ●Enzyme treatment. The lactose in the milk is treated with enzymes in advance to prevent the lactose from exceeding the working capacity of the small intestine. Or take lactase exogenously before drinking milk, but it takes time for it to work and it cannot be seen immediately. ●Dilute lactose. Training the body to develop tolerance by mixing milk with other foods. For example, eat it with steamed bread, bread or cereal. It should be reminded that for people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), because the intolerance symptoms are relatively more serious, it is not recommended to bite the bullet to cultivate tolerance. You need to find a gastroenterologist first to determine a reasonable Treatment plan, then consider diet recovery. “Health Expo”

Nutrition Basics XI digestion and absorption of carbohydrates

55%-65% of human body energy is provided by carbohydrates, and its food sources are abundant. For example, cereals are used as staple food for human beings, and the consumption is large. The carbohydrate components are mainly starch polysaccharides. Vegetables and fruits are an important source of dietary fiber in carbohydrates, and fruits are also rich in fructose. The digestion process of carbohydrates starts from the oral cavity. After food enters the oral cavity, food stimulation and chewing can promote the secretion of saliva. The amylase in saliva hydrolyzes starch into short-chain polysaccharides and maltose. After food enters the stomach, saliva amylase is inactivated by the action of stomach acid. All kinds of foods in the stomach are mixed with gastric juice through gastric peristalsis to form chyme. The chyme enters the small intestine, along with the pancreatic amylase secreted by the pancreas. In the small intestine, the starch continues to be broken down into disaccharides, such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose. . The maltase, sucrase, and lactase on the brush border of the small intestinal mucosa cells further break down the corresponding disaccharide into the form of glucose in the monosaccharide, and enter the small intestinal mucosa cells through active transportation, and transport it to the liver with the blood circulation for the next step. Metabolized, or transported to other organs to be used directly. Fructose is a type of monosaccharide, mainly present in fruits and honey. It is passively absorbed in the intestine and enters the liver. After the liver is converted into glucose, it is used by the body. Lactose is a type of disaccharide, which is mainly present in dairy products, but some people are congenitally lacking or unable to secrete lactase, or the level of lactase continues to decline with age, so that lactose is not broken down and absorbed in the small intestine When it enters the large intestine, it produces acid and gas under the action of intestinal bacteria, increasing the intestinal osmotic pressure, causing gastrointestinal discomfort, flatulence, cramps, and diarrhea. This is called lactose intolerance. Such people can choose fermented milk Instead of products such as yogurt.

Because of this, I have n’t figured out how much calcium has been delayed for so many years.

Which food is the most calcium supplement? Naturally, it ’s milk, and two boxes can easily fill more than half of the calcium requirement throughout the day. But my friends often complained to me that they were allergic to milk and had diarrhea after drinking milk, so they dared not drink milk. Teacher Gu wants to say that you are probably not allergic to milk, but tolerant to milk. Why do you say that? This article will give you a systematic explanation. 1. The cause of different milk allergies is that the undigested protein in the milk is directly absorbed into the blood, “irritating” the body, and the immune system “attacks” the protein for self-protection, which causes various symptoms. Milk intolerance refers to intolerance to lactose in milk. The specific reason is the lack of lactase or lack of lactase activity in the body. The indigestible lactose enters the large intestine and is fermented by bacteria to produce acid and gas, which in turn causes various symptoms. 2. Symptoms are different. Milk allergies can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, itchy nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose and other respiratory symptoms, lip and tongue swelling, skin flushing, eczema and other skin symptoms. May be shocked or even fatal. [1] The symptoms of lactose intolerance are much lighter, but only cause abdominal distension, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. 3. High incidence of different ages The highest incidence of infants and young children with milk allergies up to 1 year old will improve with age. 75% of children by age 3 and 90% of children by age 6 will not be allergic. [1] Lactose intolerance increases with age, this is because lactase activity decreases with age. A survey of 1168 children aged 3-13 years showed that the incidence of lactase deficiency among children aged 3-5 years was 38%, and that among children aged 7-13 years was 88%. [2] In addition, Asian yellow races are more susceptible to lactose intolerance, which may be related to Asians drinking less milk, less milk consumption does not require so much lactase work, lactase will become less or less active, that is used into Scrapped. The survey shows that the incidence of lactase deficiency is 75% to 100%,> 30%, and 12% among whites in Asia, Europe, and the United States; the incidence of lactase deficiency in children aged 3-13 in China is 87.5%, of which lactose is not The incidence of tolerance was 30.5%. [2] Four diagnostic methods are different. Diagnosis of milk allergy requires food challenge test [3]. Diagnosis of lactose intolerance is often done hydrogen breath test, but if there is no hydrogen-producing bacteria in the large intestine, this test will produce false negative results , That is obviously lactose intolerance but not detected, this situation requires another methane breath test. V. Solutions If children with milk protein allergies drink formula milk powder, they should choose deep hydrolysis formula or amino acid formula under the guidance of a doctor. Do not drink milk directly after weaning, it is best not to drink goat milk, because allergic to milk protein is also susceptible to goat milk protein allergy. In addition, if you buy food, you have to choose if there are no dairy products in the ingredients. If there is a prompt “May bring milk during processing” around the ingredients list, you can’t buy it. It can be seen that milk protein allergies need to be avoided when eating and drinking milk to avoid causing symptoms. Lactose intolerance solutions are much easier, including the following four. 1. A small amount of multiple times, less need of lactase for each drink of cereals, and cereals can delay the time of lactose passing through the small intestine, and lactase can function more fully. Improve lactose intolerance. However, if a 250 ml 1 pack of milk is consumed multiple times, for example, 50 ml each time, then the score can only be completed 5 times, which is really inconvenient for us who are fast-paced. 2. Yogurt fermentation bacteria can ferment part of the lactose in milk into lactic acid, so the lactose content of yogurt is low, the test data shows that the lactose content in yogurt is 2.58 ~ 3.75 mg / 100 g [4], which is about 40% less than pure milk About, so friends with lactose intolerance can try it, but it may not work, after all, the lactose content in yogurt is still quite a lot. In addition, most commercially available yoghurts add 6% to 7% of sugar [5]. If you use such yoghurt to completely replace pure milk, drinking 300 grams a day will probably consume 18-21 grams of sugar, so you must choose yoghurt carefully. No sugar yogurt. 3. Cheese Cheese and yogurt have reduced lactose content after fermentation, but they also contain lactose like yogurt. In addition, the sodium content of cheese is often very high. Some commercial cheeses have a sodium content of up to 1600 mg / 100 g. Taking 30 g (equivalent to 300 g of pure milk), the sodium intake is equivalent to 1.2 g of salt, which has reached the daily salt.

Is there a difference between drinking milk on an empty stomach and drinking milk after a meal?

Is there a difference between drinking milk on an empty stomach and drinking milk after a meal? Because water accounts for a large proportion of milk, drinking more milk on an empty stomach dilutes the gastric juice, which is not conducive to the digestion and absorption of food. In addition, the intestinal motility is fast when fasting, milk passes through the gastrointestinal tract quickly, and the retention time is very short. Its nutrients are often too late to be absorbed, so it rushes into the large intestine. The protein in milk needs to be digested by the stomach and small intestine to be decomposed into amino acids to be absorbed in the small intestine, and the stomach is emptied quickly when drinking milk on an empty stomach, and the protein is discharged into the large intestine before the protein is absorbed, which not only causes a waste of nutrition, but also protein Corruption in the large intestine becomes a toxic substance. Some people think that the reason why you can’t drink milk on an empty stomach is because drinking milk on an empty stomach can cause gastrointestinal discomfort and cause diarrhea. This view seems reasonable, but there are also problems, because it is often not because you drink a glass of milk on an empty stomach, but because you “lactose intolerance.” Milk generally contains lactose, and lactase secreted by the human body will decompose lactose. If some people lack lactase, lactose will not be easily digested after drinking milk, which will cause problems such as bloating, diarrhea, and fart. If a person lacks dairy products during the growth process, it is easy to reduce the ability to digest lactose, and then gradually appear “lactose intolerance” phenomenon. Therefore, whether you can drink milk on an empty stomach is completely different from person to person. If you usually drink milk on an empty stomach without any discomfort, you can drink it at will, but if you feel unwell, it is recommended to drink a small amount, slowly adapt to it, or choose not to drink Lactose milk. For example, yogurt, which contains almost no lactose, is more suitable for consumption by these people.