Why is the result of the semen examination different every time?

Routine analysis of semen has a high reference value for clinicians to judge the condition. Some infertile patients often compare the results when undergoing repeated semen examinations and find that the results are different each time, and sometimes the changes are huge, so they are very confused. &nbsp. There are many reasons for semen changes, mainly including the following:&nbsp.①The time interval of ejaculation. In some patients, the semen collection interval or abstinence time is always different when analyzing semen, and the number of abstinence days before the semen test has a certain effect on the quality of semen, especially for sperm density analysis. The shorter the interval, the lower the sperm density in the semen of the test. &nbsp.The longer the interval between ejaculation, the increase in sperm density is not significant, but it may decrease sperm motility. Therefore, it is generally recommended to abstain from sex for 3 to 5 days before receiving the examination. ②Fetching location. The characteristics of semen need to be observed immediately after the semen is expelled. Therefore, the ideal location for semen collection should be near the laboratory, requiring “on-the-spot testing”. &nbsp. Some patients are not used to changing the place of sex activities, and choose to be in their own homes or hotels. At this time, it is not guaranteed to be sent for inspection as soon as possible. Semen will inevitably overflow during the transportation process. Excessive or low ambient temperature may affect the results of the examination. influences. ③The method of taking the essence. The most ideal way to get the semen is to fly by plane and send all the semen discharged at one time for examination, and nothing should be missed. But I have indeed met men who can’t masturbate, although such people are rare. At this time, they can only take other methods to obtain semen, such as intercourse interruption method or condom method. &nbsp. But these two methods have shortcomings. The former is not easy to collect all the semen, and it is easy to be contaminated by female vaginal secretions and affect the test results; the latter can be due to the spermicide contained in the untreated condom It affects the results of the examination, and it is easy to leave some semen in the condom. ④ Transport of specimens. The ambient temperature also has a certain impact on the results of semen examinations, especially in the cold winter, so the semen obtained should be placed in the arms, kept at about 200C, and sent for examination as soon as possible. ⑤There will be significant differences in testing the same semen in different laboratories and different experimenters. Someone divides the same semen into many parts and sends them to many laboratories. The results are tested by different experimenters. The results are not consistent. Among them, the difference in sperm density analysis is 100 million. In addition, there are obvious physiological fluctuations in the semen production of the human body, so it is reasonable for the semen test results to fluctuate. It is generally required that patients who visit for the first time should undergo 2 to 3 consecutive semen analyses, with an interval of 1 to 2 weeks, to ensure the accuracy of the test results. &nbsp. Men should not undergo semen examinations when they have fever, many other diseases, alcoholism, and overwork. Generally, after excluding the above-mentioned influencing factors, two or three consecutive semen analysis performed by the same experimenter in the same laboratory will significantly reduce the deviation of the results, which can basically reflect the true condition of my semen. &nbsp. If there are still continuous and obvious changes at this time, it should be considered that some treatment measures improve semen quality, or some unfavorable factors damage semen quality.

Platelets are the most inconspicuous in the blood, but their role cannot be replaced. Once they fall, they are life-threatening.

Recently, an 80-year-old male patient with pneumonia was admitted to the ward. After admission, a routine blood test found that the platelets were only 35*10^9, and there were no obvious abnormalities in white blood cells and red blood cells. Carefully interrogate and examine the patient. There is no bleeding at the blood sampling site, and no clinical bleeding symptoms such as purpura, petechiae, bleeding gums, nose bleeding, blood in sputum, gastrointestinal bleeding, etc. Except for high blood pressure, there are no other chronic diseases, and no special drugs are usually taken. The blood test was reviewed the next day, and the results were still similar. The old man was very anxious and asked again and again whether he would have some blood disease. Unexplained low platelets, and not consistent with clinical symptoms and signs, what could be the reason? To be cautious, we communicated with the laboratory. They carefully observed under the Wright staining microscope and found that PLT clusters and clusters were seen at the end of the film and on both sides. According to estimates, there are actually not many platelets, and they found that there were two samples There are blood clots in the blood samples. The laboratory recommends the use of sodium citrate anticoagulation tube to draw blood for examination, and the result is normal this time. The response from the laboratory is that the patient’s actual platelets are normal, which is a false reduction of EDTA-dependent platelets. What is EDTA-dependent platelet false reduction? Blood routine is the most commonly used clinical test item, and it is also widely used in routine physical examination. Since EDTA anticoagulant does not affect the morphology of blood cells, it is recommended by the International Committee for Blood Standards (ICSH) as the anticoagulant of choice for blood cell analyzers. At present, hospitals generally use automatic blood cell analyzers for detection. 2ml of venous blood is collected and placed in an EDTA anticoagulated vacuum tube. The results are immediately acceptable, and it is easier and faster than the previous peripheral blood collection and manual counting. However, about 0.07% to 0.20% of healthy people, the special proteins in their platelets can be induced by EDTA to agglutinate. As a result, the relatively “dumb” automatic blood cell analyzer will not be able to judge these large platelets together. , So as to exclude them from platelets, the platelet count will show a false decrease. This kind of false thrombocytopenia can cause clinical misdiagnosis and mistreatment, such as unnecessary bone puncture, or the use of platelet-increasing drugs and unnecessary platelet transfusions, which increase patient suffering and medical expenses. EDTA-dependent platelet pseudo-decrease can be seen in normal people, and can also be seen in certain disease states, such as autoimmune diseases, pulmonary heart disease, cerebral infarction, sepsis, liver disease, tumors and some unknown diseases. Some scholars believe that it may be related to genetic factors such as individual genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Since it is a false reduction, it means that it is not a physiological or pathological reduction, and does not require treatment. However, accurate judgment is very important and needs to be completed by clinicians and laboratory surgeons. In short, EDTA-dependent false reduction of platelets is a phenomenon of platelet aggregation that occurs in vitro caused by EDTA anticoagulants. If you suspect that this is the case clinically, you can replace the anticoagulant and retest. If various anticoagulants such as sodium citrate and heparin are replaced, platelet aggregation occurs, and platelets need to be counted manually.

How long is the survival time of HIV in vitro

&nbsp. Anyone who has been exposed to basic biological studies knows that every living creature has its own environment to adapt to. Although viruses cannot be called creatures, they also need a certain living environment to survive. Therefore, the survival time of HIV in vitro also depends on environmental conditions. In addition, the amount of HIV in body fluids is also one of the necessary conditions for determining the length of HIV survival outside the body. &nbsp.&nbsp. Under normal circumstances, the general population rarely comes into contact with HIV outside the body, and scientific researchers in the general laboratory have more exposure, so the following is mainly based on the various in vitro survival situations in the laboratory. Other situations are supplemented by explanations. &nbsp.&nbsp.In the laboratory, under the premise that the concentration of HIV is extremely high, HIV can still survive in dried body fluids for 15 days. The specific explanation of survival here is: still in these 15 days It is infectious. Of course, HIV is a very fragile virus, so its 15-day survival conditions are not only high concentrations, but also suitable temperature and humidity environments. If you leave the laboratory environment, HIV is actually very easy to eliminate. High temperature, strong acid, weak alkali, and medical alcohol can all eliminate it. Therefore, the possibility of contracting AIDS when handling body fluids is extremely small. However, it is important to note that HIV is known to invade the human body from blood, human wounds, mucous membranes, etc. Therefore, when handling blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, be careful not to let them touch these areas. &nbsp.&nbsp.Whether in daily life or in the laboratory, when dealing with AIDS-related blood, once the blood spills out of the container, it must be cleaned immediately, and high temperature, strong acid, weak alkali, medical alcohol, etc. The substance or way to eliminate HIV. Of course, avoiding direct contact with body fluids or blood can ensure safety to a greater extent. &nbsp.&nbsp.A dry environment can reduce the drying of body fluids (containing HIV), thereby greatly reducing the activity of HIV. Scientific research has found that drying can reduce the activity of HIV to the maximum extent of 90% or even Ninety-nine, so even if the air itself cannot kill HIV, HIV exposed to the air will be “killed” within a few hours. This also proves that the survival time of HIV in vitro is not very long. So everyone can rest assured. &nbsp.&nbsp. Regardless of whether it is the laboratory personnel or the general population, one thing that has to be understood is that HIV can still survive in the residual blood of used injection needles even if it is not in the appropriate environment of the laboratory. A few days. The fact pointed out in the previous paragraph is that under dry conditions, the activity of HIV can be greatly reduced. However, we should pay attention to the fact that the blood remaining in the injection needle is not easy to dry compared to the outside world. Once there is a sharing of injection needles, the HIV remaining in the blood follows the needles that can directly enter the blood, causing infection. Therefore, repeated use of injection needles is strictly prohibited. 

What are the manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is no stranger to many friends. According to the characteristics of the disease, there are mainly two types of acute and chronic. As chronic systemic inflammation, it belongs to the category of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Hazardous characteristics with high harm and high disability rate. In order to avoid its harm, rheumatoid arthritis usually requires timely treatment, and the performance of rheumatoid arthritis is an important basis for timely medical treatment.  &Nbsp. Rheumatoid arthritis manifestation    local symptoms and systemic symptoms are more or less common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis, there are usually joint swelling, heat, pain and dysfunction. As the disease progresses, its symptoms usually spread to the whole body, and then there are fever, fatigue, poor diet, general malaise, anemia, etc., as well as the consequences of limb limitation and disability. &nbsp. Laboratory examination performance Laboratory examination performance is an important part of the performance of internal rheumatoid arthritis. In addition to immunological examination showing positive rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor, (ADF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide CCP , Anti-keratin antibodies (AKA) are diagnostic reference laboratory content. Because the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are similar to the symptoms of other diseases, it is necessary to pay attention to the means of laboratory examination.

Is the body-sculpting suit a big trick or a trap?

You should have more or less contact with the body-sculpting clothes. Girls wear more skirts to show their waists. The new mother tightens the abdomen skin after childbirth. Many underwear stores sell them. It feels like a relatively daily thing. But recently There is a video of the postpartum mother’s “skin corset” on the website, which has attracted the attention of thousands of people all over the Internet. ☞As soon as the baby is born, she hopes to recover her body quickly, but as soon as she wears a corset for a week, she has abdominal pain and urine leakage. When I went to the hospital for examination, I found that the internal organs were drooping and the inner wall of the vagina was bulging, and the culprit was caused by the corset she was wearing! ▲So what exactly is a “corset”? With just a piece of cloth, can you improve your posture and become thinner? ☞During the epidemic, everyone was staying at home, and the merchants made the corset into a magical movement with a “weight loss” as a gimmick. ☞ So fashionistas on major platforms regarded it as a standard, and insisted on punching every day. Everyone is eager to think that they have grabbed the straw of body shaping, but in fact, they are down to earth. ☞ In simple terms, the shape of the waist is the hourglass shape of the waist that slims the waist and tightens the waist. , Very tall breasts, causing visual “beauty” ▲ But when it comes to corset harm to the body, do you know? ♦Affect the digestive function of the human body. Wear it hard for a day. Once you take it off and return to liberation, it is not like tooth correction. Wearing a model will be fine. As soon as it is released, it will be restored to its original state immediately. If it is worn for a long time, the gastrointestinal function will be disordered. More people will die because of anorexia. ♦After the continuous visceral damage is put on the waist, your stomach and intestines will be squeezed to varying degrees. At the same time, the squeezer is used to obtain space, the large and small intestines, the uterus are all displaced, and the internal organs are deformed. ♦Blood circulation is blocked for a long time, which compresses blood vessels, and important organs such as the brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, etc. also continue to lack blood supply. Causes blood and nervous system blockage, venous thrombosis. ▲ Is there a way to get a beautiful and graceful posture in the short time without passing the test of fitness dieting? ▶▶DEC three S body carving ◀◀You deserve to have ☞Dissolve-RF lipolysis professional RF lipolysis instrument, break up stubborn fat cells, easy for fat extraction☞Extract-360 degree hydrodynamic liposuction 360 degree multi-layer accurate fat Extraction, high efficiency, no residue, short time, fast recovery ☞Compact-Cool Plastic S tightening tightens loose skin after liposuction, smoothes out bumps, speeds up postoperative recovery ✔Want to lose weight and fill with sucked fat Chest and buttocks, self-fat is safe and non-rejective, natural shape and real feel, it’s a double benefit ✔ Of course, liposuction also has high technical and aesthetic requirements for doctors, it is necessary to accurately grasp the location and amount of liposuction, and also take care of the body For your aesthetic design, you must choose a regular-qualified fat doctor to make you lose weight more safely! ▶▶Swiss Harbor Fatty Group◀◀Swiss Harbor has a Boshuo team founded by Dr. Sun Ruixia. ✔ Every member of Fatty Sky Group has a high level of specialty and background in military hospitals ✔ Has many years of rich clinical surgery experience ✔ After extremely rigorous screening and evaluation, specially designed for each beauty seeker to create a beautiful body and comprehensive facial anti-aging . ▶▶Exclusive GMP standard laboratory◀◀✔Exclusive GMP standard laboratory in South China, the laboratory configuration value is more than 2 million instruments ✔Several experts in the field of biology sit down ✔Independent research and development of a number of fat cell related patent technologies. Among them, the special fat technology [fat cryopreservation] and [AMC autologous fat multipotent cell regeneration] are all completed by our laboratory! ▶▶Imported high-tech plastic beauty instrument library◀◀✔Committed to introducing cutting-edge Kemei instruments in the field of fat, equipped with Eurostar 4D, Fire Phoenix, Remag 5th generation, etc. Technological strength is even more powerful. ✔ Have you ever used the girdle to meet the growing diversified needs of the majority of beauty seekers? What IQ taxes have you paid for weight loss? &nbsp.

Is there a misdiagnosis of AIDS?

It depends on which institution sent you the confirmation form. Under normal circumstances, large tertiary hospitals are only primary screening laboratories for AIDS, as well as disease prevention and control centers at the municipal or district level. Only the provincial disease prevention and control center is the laboratory for the diagnosis of AIDS. Then the result detected in the preliminary screening laboratory is not the final diagnosis. So they will not send you a confirmation test list. We will only tell you orally that there are suspected results in our laboratory. To ensure the authenticity of your experiment, we will send your blood to the provincial disease prevention and control center for a definitive diagnosis experiment. This will let you fill in the identity information in detail. Generally confirm that the experiment will be notified about 20 days after screening. During this period, you need to keep your mobile phone unblocked. After the diagnosis test is made, the CDC will further conduct experiments on the number of cd4 in your body to see if you need treatment, because AIDS carriers and AIDS patients are two other concepts. Therefore, the experimental results given to you by ordinary small clinics or other hospitals cannot confirm that you are an AIDS carrier or patient. This is clearly stipulated in the Infectious Disease Law. Therefore, you can ignore the results sent to you by the screening laboratory, but if it is the final confirmation of the results sent to you by the laboratory, there will be no misdiagnosis. If you have high-risk behavior, you will not be able to detect any antibodies during the window of AIDS within a month of exposure. After the window period, when the CD4 in our body is not attacked by HIV too much, this is called AIDS carrier. At this time, the body is not much different from a normal person and does not need treatment, but it is infectious and the test can completely detect antibodies to AIDS. When the cd4 cells in the body are scarcely attacked, there is a problem with the body’s immunity. At this time, it is called an AIDS patient and will be infected with various conditional pathogens. These conditional pathogens are usually able to The colonies or flora that coexisted peacefully with us became deadly weapons at that time. From the carrier to the patient, the time varies, some after two years, and some after more than ten years.

What’s wrong with the new Coronary Pneumonia virus kit? American CDC “directed” the pandemic

Since the beginning of the US epidemic, several state governments have complained that the detection of the new coronavirus is not enough, which has caused the epidemic to spread rapidly. On the 18th, a number of US media such as the Washington Post and CNN reported that it was actually due to contamination in the laboratory of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Working hind legs. ” According to US media reports, in late January, the US Centers for Disease Control sent the first batch of new coronavirus test kits to 26 public health laboratories across the country. However, before analyzing the samples collected from patients, 24 of the 26 laboratories using this batch of test kits actually had a “false positive” reaction, which aroused the concern of this batch of kits from all walks of life. What is a false positive reaction? In general, a positive (+) signifies that the disease or physiological changes in the body have a certain result. On the contrary, most of the negative (-) on the test or report form basically negate or exclude the possibility of a certain disease. However, due to environmental factors, operational factors, experimental methods, or patient’s own factors, etc., people who do not have positive symptoms may be tested positive. Why is there a false positive? The US media revealed that illegal operations during the assembly of the CDC laboratory resulted in contamination. As early as late January, 24 of the 26 laboratories in the United States that received the kits became unusable. Violation of the operation when assembling the kit leads to contamination. This means that regardless of whether the subject is infected or not, the test result is positive, which means that the infection is determined. How did CDC “direct” the pandemic? After detecting the first confirmed case in the United States, the CDC sent kits to 26 public health laboratories across the United States at the end of January, but it was unusable. Informed sources said that before analyzing patient samples, the kits in 24 laboratories had false positive reactions. Test samples from various locations were forced to be sent back to Atlanta laboratories for secondary verification, which led to severe stagnation of testing in multiple states. The Washington Post published an article on Saturday, citing interviews by more than 30 current (former) CDC officials and insiders, revealing that the institution ’s laboratory violated regulations while assembling kits, detecting cross-infection of components and viruses, Not available. On Friday, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pointed out in a statement that the design of the kit was no problem and that “the CDC did not follow its own operating specifications when assembling the kit.” It was not until March 9 that the real kit began to be widely used. For more than a month, there was no effective detection method, which led to its widespread community popularity.