Definition of obstetrics and gynecology (32) labor process and delivery management

Total labor: from the beginning of regular contractions to the delivery of the placenta. Divided into the first stage of labor (the incubation period (not exceeding 16H) and the active stage (not exceeding 8H)), the dilation of the uterine orifice to 4 cm is generally considered as the starting point of the active stage; the second stage of labor does not exceed 3H (the labor analgesia does not exceed 4H). The third stage of labor does not exceed 0.5H. The primipara was confirmed to be in labor and the cervical canal had completely disappeared and was hospitalized as soon as possible. The main events of the first stage of labor: the regularity of contractions, dilation of the uterine orifice, decreased fetal presentation and rupture of the membranes (full-time rupture of the uterine orifice). The fetal head in the active period drops 0.86 cm per hour. There are two methods for assessing fetal head decline: the international quintile and the relationship between the lowest point of the skull and the plane of the ischial spine. Full-time fetal membrane rupture near the open. Once ruptured, pay attention to the amniotic state, listen to the fetal heart to rule out umbilical cord prolapse, and measure body temperature. Membrane rupture> 12 hours without delivery pay attention to infection. Artificial rupture of the membrane in the second stage of labor: the fetal membrane has not been broken after opening the uterine orifice. Fetal head disclosure: The fetal head is exposed when the fetal head is exposed to the vaginal opening during uterine contraction and then retracted intermittently. Fetal head crown: The fetal head no longer retracts when the double crown diameter of the fetal head crosses the pelvic outlet interval. Delivery steps and techniques: Individualized guidance for mothers to exert force, manually control the delivery speed of the fetal head and protect the perineum. Perineum lateral incision and suture: Perineum is too tight or the fetus is too large. It is estimated that perineal tears are inevitable and the mother and child’s pathological conditions urgently need to end labor. The fetal head is cut when the crown is on. Delayed umbilical cord ligation in premature babies: a delay of at least 60 seconds is conducive to the transfer of placental blood to the newborn. There are two ways of placental dissection and discharge in the third stage of labor: the placenta is peeled from the center to the periphery and the placenta is peeled from the edge, which correspond to the more common placental fetal surface and the rarer placental maternal surface. Treatment of newborns to keep warm: place on a radiation table to clean up the respiratory tract: unblock the respiratory tract and tap the soles of the feet. Processing the umbilical cord: ligate 0.5 cm above the root of the umbilical cord. Ash score: According to heart rate (0-<100->100), breathing (0-light and slow) -Bright crying), muscle tone (relaxation-slightly flexed-good activity), skin color (pale-bruising-pink), throat reversal (no action-nausea) five points were scored from 0 to 2 points. The one-minute score reflects the intrauterine situation, and the 5-minute score reflects the resuscitation effect. Criterion for neonatal asphyxia: five-minute score ≤7, effective breathing is not established; umbilical artery blood gas pH <7.15; other factors that cause low Ahri scores are excluded; there are high risk factors that cause asphyxia. Precautions after the placenta is delivered Check the placenta and fetal membranes to check the soft birth canal to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. Pay attention to the "fourth stage of labor": 2 hours after the placenta is delivered is a high-risk period for postpartum hemorrhage, which needs to be observed in the delivery room. Return to the ward after no abnormalities.

Definition of obstetrics and gynecology (31) threatened labor and labor

Definition of aura of labor: symptoms that indicate impending labor, including irregular contractions, fetal decline, and redness (a small amount of vaginal discharge). Definition of labor: regular and gradually increasing contractions, lasting more than 30 seconds, intermittently for 5-6 minutes, accompanied by the disappearance of the cervical canal, dilation of the uterine orifice, and a decrease in fetal presentation. At this time, sedatives cannot suppress labor. The BISHOP cervical scoring method judges the degree of cervical maturity and estimates the success rate of trial labor, including five aspects including uterine opening, cervix regression, cervical stiffness, cervix position and presentation position. From 0 to 3 points, the full score is 13 points, >9 All points are successful, and ≤3 points are all failures. The entire delivery process can be artificially divided into three processes: the first stage of labor is the cervical dilation period, including the incubation period for primiparous women no more than 20 hours, and the active period (when the uterine orifice opens to 4-6 cm, it enters the active period). ㎝/h; the second stage of labor is the period of delivery of the fetus, and the primipara is no more than 3 hours; the third stage of labor is the period of delivery of the placenta, which does not exceed 30 minutes.

What are the signs of labor?

As the childbirth approached, the pregnant mother started to get nervous and thought she was about to give birth if there was a slight disturbance. What kind of signs are you going to give birth? What kind of sign is a false alarm? 1. The reason for seeing red is that the fetal membrane in the uterus is separated from the uterine wall, and a small amount of bleeding is mixed with uterine mucus and flows out of the vagina. Seeing red is often manifested as a dark red blood stain on the underwear, or a small amount of light red or brown discharge. Generally speaking, expectant mothers will have labor pains 24 to 48 hours after seeing red, but everyone’s physical condition is different. Some expectant mothers will not move until a week or more after seeing red! The doctor reminded that if the bleeding is too much, like menstrual volume, or even more than menstrual volume, it may be abnormal bleeding caused by other reasons. In this case, you need to go to the hospital for examination immediately. 2. Water breaking For mothers-to-be, breaking water may have two different feelings: breaking water is more obvious: mothers-to-be will feel a warm current gushing out of the lower body suddenly, which is almost uncontrollable when urinating. Water breakage is not obvious: expectant mothers will feel liquid coming out of their lower body and their underwear has become wet, but they are not sure if the water breaks. You can change your posture at this time. If more liquid comes out, the possibility of water breakage is higher. Once the water breaks, the mother-to-be must lie down immediately and let the family send themselves to the hospital. The doctor reminds: After the water breaks, the mother-to-be must lie down quickly and raise the hips. If you continue to stand or walk around, the amniotic fluid will flow more, and the umbilical cord may flow out with the amniotic fluid, causing umbilical cord prolapse and affecting the baby Supply blood and oxygen, causing life-threatening. 3. Regular uterine contractions Generally a few days before delivery, mothers-to-be will feel that the belly becomes tight and hard, and there is a slight feeling of bulging, or even slight abdominal pain. This is the contraction of the uterus. If the contraction time of the uterus is getting shorter and shorter and more painful, the pain will be accompanied by the sensation of stool. It shows that the baby is sprinting before birth, and the expectant mother is about to give birth. When encountering this sign, expectant mothers need to be hospitalized immediately. Of course, the labor pains of a few expectant mothers are not stomach pains, but backaches. Especially for second-born mothers, if this happens, they need to go to the hospital in time. The doctor reminded: Mothers-to-be with a second or third child should pay special attention to stomach pain. When the stomach pain is slightly regular, they must be hospitalized in time for delivery, because the second child will give birth faster than the first-born mother. You need to prepare early to avoid opening the palace on the way to the hospital. Pregnant mothers can choose Shenzhen Far East Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, which is a designated tertiary specialist hospital of Shenzhen Medical Insurance. The obstetrics department is one of the key departments of the hospital. , Led a group of doctors, nutritionists and midwives with decades of clinical experience to form a strong obstetric team to escort the health of mothers and babies.

Definition of obstetrics and gynecology (26) normal delivery force

Definition: The force that forces the fetus out of the womb is called force. Including uterine contraction (uterine muscle contractility), abdominal pressure (abdominal wall muscle and diaphragm contraction) and levator ani muscle contraction. In fact, the most important thing needed to have a baby is uterine muscle contraction. Uterine contractions: The main force of labor after delivery is uterine contractions, which force the cervical canal to disappear, the uterine orifice is dilated, the fetal presentation decreases and the placenta (fetal membrane) is delivered. Uterine contractions are rhythmic (from weak crescendo (progressive phase)) for 30-40 seconds (polar phase) and then from strong declining until disappearing into the intermittent period), symmetry and polarity (contractions start from the angular direction of the two palaces The midline of the fundus of the uterus is concentrated and symmetrical, and then spreads to the lower part of the uterus for about 15 seconds to spread throughout the uterus), and the effect of abdomen reduction (after repeated contractions, muscle fibers become shorter and shorter). Abdominal pressure: the auxiliary force to deliver the fetus in the second stage of labor. This means that abdominal pressure can only be used in the second stage of labor (when the membranes have been broken when the uterine orifice is open), and not prematurely, and it is most effective to use abdominal pressure during contractions at the end of the second stage of labor. Childbirth in movies and TV shows shows this abdominal pressure. Childbirth seems to be a very painful thing, sweating profusely, working hard, exhausted, and no rest. Levator ani muscle contraction force: assist the fetus to be exposed in the pelvic cavity for internal rotation and the occipital part of the fetus is under the pubic arch to assist the fetal head to stretch and deliver.

Beware! Pre-pregnancy examination can not save

Check the safety of mother and child before pregnancy. Today, when medical knowledge is becoming more and more popular, young couples usually go to the hospital to consult a doctor when planning to have a child, and perform a health check to determine whether the physical condition of both parties is suitable for pregnancy. This is undoubtedly a big deal. Good thing. It is a pity that good deeds have not been done to completion, and some items that should not be missed have been missed, which has caused trouble or even disasters. There are no shortage of lessons learned from the past.   Missed blood pressure check  Mother and child lost their lives    When checking blood pressure, as long as you roll up your sleeves and show your arms, the doctor will do it in a minute or two. Worse, such a simple check is often “omitted” by many women intentionally or unintentionally. They don’t know that measuring blood pressure before pregnancy is of great significance to women, which is related to the safety of both pregnant mother and fetus. When some tragedies happen, the trouble of “reaching out” is omitted. A pregnant woman named Mingfang was in labor and went to a health clinic to give birth. The doctor found that she had mild edema and suspected that she was suffering from pregnancy-induced hypertension (pregnancy-induced hypertension), but her blood pressure was only 120/80 mm. The mercury column is in the normal range. Since she did not check her blood pressure before pregnancy, the doctor did not know the blood pressure value before pregnancy, and could not make comparisons, so she could not be diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension, so no further treatment was done and everything was prepared as normal delivery. The accident happened, and Mingfang suddenly appeared dangerous during the delivery: headache, then nose and mouth bleeding, and then went into a coma. Although he was rushed to a big hospital for treatment, he missed the best time for treatment, and the big hospital was unable to recover. He watched the mother and son pass away in the sorrow of the family.   However, Juanxiu, who is in a similar situation with Mingfang, is “liuyanhuaming”. Juanxiu also had headaches and lower extremity edema when she was about to give birth. The doctor measured her blood pressure, which was the same as Mingfang, at 120/80 mmHg. Fortunately, Juanxiu had measured her blood pressure before pregnancy and the value was 90/60 mm. Compared with the mercury column, the blood pressure value has risen significantly. It meets the diagnostic criteria for pregnancy-induced hypertension (equal to or greater than 130/90 mmHg, or 30/15 mmHg more than before pregnancy), so it is confirmed as pregnancy-induced hypertension. And formulated a complete set of treatment measures, and the result was a cesarean delivery, mother and child safe.   The conditions of the two cases are the same, but the fate is different between life and death. The key lies in the “stretched hands” before pregnancy. In fact, the mystery is not complicated, because women will undergo a series of physiological changes after pregnancy. Blood pressure is easily affected and fluctuates, either rises or falls. At this time, it is extremely necessary to compare with the basal blood pressure before pregnancy to confirm whether it is ill. (Such as pregnancy-induced hypertension), so that the doctor knows well and prepares for treatment in advance. It should be known that pregnancy-induced hypertension is not trivial. It is a unique disease during pregnancy. It mostly occurs at 20 weeks of gestation and two weeks after delivery. It manifests as high blood pressure, edema, proteinuria, convulsions or even coma in severe cases. It is one of the common “killers” of pregnant women. One.   At this point, you should understand that blood pressure before pregnancy is an important monitoring index, which is related to the safety of the two lives of the mother and the fetus, so the “stretching work” before pregnancy must not be omitted.

Causes of spastic cerebral palsy

According to the analysis of cerebral palsy, children with spastic cerebral palsy will not only cause inconvenience to the limbs, but also bring pain to the physical health, so parents must pay attention to this disease of children. Let them come to treatment as soon as possible, otherwise the consequences will be more serious. The so-called doctor’s parents’ heart will create more professional and reasonable treatment for patients, so that patients will be free from pain. For the causes of spastic cerebral palsy, we make the following explanations. (1) Causes of onset The causes of spastic cerebral palsy can be caused by various causes before, during and after childbirth. Prenatal means from pregnancy to childbirth, antepartum means from childbirth to baby delivery, and postpartum means from childbirth to 2.5 to 3 years after delivery. Some babies have fully developed brains, and myelination can reach 8 years old. Some scholars believe that the time of delivery should be from birth to 7 days after birth. At this stage, the baby’s body has been balanced with the external environment. The vast majority of cerebral palsy occurs during labor. From the above, we can understand that there are many reasons for spastic cerebral palsy, and everyone needs to pay attention to it at all times, and we must pay attention to it for a better life. (B) Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of spastic cerebral palsy has three stages. Prenatal brain congenital defects are often caused by the rubella or other viral infections of the mother in the first trimester and the first 3 months of pregnancy. These children often also have other congenital abnormalities, such as cataracts, congenital heart defects (ventricular septal defect), deafness and unresponsiveness. Fetal nuclear polycythemia has been a common prenatal cause in the past. Fetal prenatal hypoxia mainly stems from placental rupture, placental infarction, mother’s pneumonia or heart disease. Mother drinking and taking drugs can significantly increase the incidence of cerebral palsy. Mothers suffering from diabetes and abnormal thyroid function are also the prenatal causes of cerebral palsy. If the eldest child has cerebral palsy, it may be congenital, such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly, which is not a prenatal factor. There are many causes of spastic cerebral palsy before birth, but it is more likely to be caused and always has a part. 2. The most common cause of labor at birth is premature delivery. If the weight at birth is less than 2268g, there are more chances of cerebral palsy. Others are usually due to improper application of forceps, dystocia, or prolonged labor, resulting in trauma or hypoxia during labor. Traction of the fetal neck during childbirth can rupture the Galen’s great veins, causing hemiplegia or quadriplegia. Local trauma can cause spastic hemiplegia, such as the impact of the fetal head on the sacral cape during dystocia. Fetal hemiplegia may occur during maternal convulsions. 3. The most common causes of cerebral palsy in the postpartum period are encephalitis, meningitis, trauma, vascular accidents, and hypoxia. In the acute phase of encephalitis, motor deficits progress as the lesion progresses. In the late stage of the acute phase, motor dysfunction is caused by increased scarring in brain tissue. At present, the number of cases of cerebral palsy due to infection has decreased significantly. Head trauma is mainly caused by car accidents and child abuse, which is a major cause of postpartum cerebral palsy diseases. Children may have movement disorders due to drowning, hypoxia, and fibroblastic diseases. , Such as chorea and acromegaly. Cerebral palsy caused by trauma or accompanied by hemorrhage is usually spastic. Neurological disorders due to hypoxia and trauma continue to improve with time, and most cases are about 1 year after injury. Based on the above analysis, everyone should understand the etiology and mechanism of spastic cerebral palsy. Hope to attract everyone’s attention, let more people stay away from the hazards of disease, and have a happy life.

What should be paid attention to in life to prevent recurrence after genital warts are cured?

  Condyloma acuminata has a high clinical recurrence rate, but it does not mean that it cannot be cured. It is just a very common skin venereal disease, which can be diagnosed and treated in the dermatology department of a regular hospital. However, different hospitals have different methods, and the treatment effect is different.  To reduce the recurrence rate of condyloma acuminatum, it is recommended to proceed from the following aspects:    1. Moderate work: The so-called work includes physical work, mental work, and room life. The combination of work and rest, and moderate modest living in the bedroom, can maintain the strong physical strength of men and prevent the infestation of disease.   2. Regulate diet: overeating, hunger and hunger, and dietary preferences, these habits are not beneficial to the human body. Reasonable moderation, understanding dietary contraindications, and using supplements with caution are the scientific methods for maintaining health.   3. Pay attention to personal hygiene: wash private parts, change underwear daily, and wash individual underwear separately. Even among family members, one should have one basin per person, and towels should be used separately. 4. Resolutely put an end to sexual disorder: I believe everyone knows that the main way of transmission of condyloma acuminatum is through sexual contact infection, so whether it is prevention or early cure, it is necessary to prohibit sex, especially in the first three months of treatment, It is a critical period of treatment.

Don’t be silly and wait for the “breaking water”, these signals appear, pregnant women can go to the hospital in advance. Different

1. After the pregnant mothers entered the third trimester of pregnancy with abdominal pain and abdominal pain, the abdomen grew faster and faster, and the entire belly changed from a “melon-like” shape in the second trimester to a “watermelon-like shape” in the later stage. In the third trimester of pregnancy, in addition to peace of mind to support pregnancy, what is waiting for pregnant mothers is labor. The leaders are generally “low belly”. Under normal circumstances, the baby will enter the basin first, and at this time, the pregnant mother will feel a strong sense of lowering of the lower abdomen, but also accompanied by a more significant abdominal pain. 2. The contractions are gradually regularized and become popular. Many pregnant mothers do not understand the difference between contractions and fetal movements because they have no experience. In fact, it is very simple, and fetal movement generally does not bring pain. However, contractions will bring more significant pain to pregnant mothers, and will gradually evolve from the “irregular” and “less pain” at the beginning to the “regular” and “strong pain” conditions. At the same time, some pregnant mothers will also observe that they are “seeing red”, the blood volume has increased from a small amount at the beginning, and the color has changed from dark red to bright red. It is recommended that pregnant mothers go to the hospital early, otherwise the baby will suddenly come to report, and you will be caught by surprise. 3. For women whose breathing changes are about to give birth, the fetus usually enters the basin first, and this process means that the fetal position gradually decreases. This is still relatively easy for pregnant mothers. After all, the fetal position is reduced, and the pressure on the upper organs of the chest is less. Therefore, the breathing of pregnant mothers will be relatively smooth. 4. The change in urinary frequency is still the same. When the fetal position begins to decline, the breathing of pregnant mothers does become easier, but the pressure on the organs of the lower abdomen will also increase, especially the stomach and bladder. Therefore, during the few days when the baby is about to enter the basin, the frequent urination of pregnant mothers will become more significant, and the situation of getting up at night will also become more frequent, and a complete sleep becomes a luxury. 5. Increased secretions Some pregnant mothers may also feel that when they are close to the expected date of delivery, the secretions of pregnant mothers begin to increase, and they can notice the “sticky” condition of their lower body, which is uncomfortable. The reason for this situation is that the body mechanism finds that the baby is about to be born, so it needs to be prepared for. Make as much mucus as possible to soften the cervix to ensure that the baby can pass through the cervix more smoothly. Of course, these mucus can also lubricate the birth canal, and can also play a larger role in assisting labor. When the body presents these signals, go to the hospital first, and the doctor will recommend whether to be hospitalized according to the status of the pregnant mothers. This is the most stable method.

You should know this knowledge about natural birth and dystocia.

Vaginal births are not necessarily all births. Generally speaking, the birth delivery is vaginal delivery relative to cesarean section. What needs to be known is that vaginal births are not necessarily all births. “Normal” delivery is head delivery, and the left front pillow is the most common among head delivery. Not to mention other fetal positions (buttocks, horizontal position), there are more opportunities for dystocia. For simple delivery in the head position, you can write a thick book. The name of this book can be called “head position dystocia. “. About the birth process. Natural birth cannot be super fast, and a certain process is required. The whole process of delivery is called the total process of labor, which refers to the whole process from the beginning of regular contractions to the delivery of the fetal placenta. It is clinically divided into three labor processes. The normal birth process is such that from the beginning of regular contractions to the opening of the palace, it is the first stage of labor, called the cervical dilatation period. The second stage of labor is also known as the delivery of the fetus, from the opening of the uterus to the delivery of the fetus. The third stage of labor is also known as the delivery of the placenta, which refers to the delivery from the fetus to the placenta. The first stage of labor alone has a more detailed analysis, divided into incubation period and active period. Each period of production has a corresponding time requirement. From this, it is judged whether this labor is going smoothly, and the doctor is reminded to make an early assessment. Handle any abnormalities in time. Super fast delivery is not necessarily a good thing. The decision to turn around is often a decision made by the doctor from the perspective of the safety of the fetus and the mother during the close observation of the labor process. In the process of closely observing the birth process, if the mother is giving birth too quickly, we call it an emergency. Urgent labor due to insufficient expansion of the birth canal, prone to soft birth canal injury, postpartum hemorrhage and fetal complications, such as intracranial hemorrhage. In short, during vaginal delivery, it is not normal to produce too long or too short. The term super-fast birth can be used as a celebrity language. What the celebrity language says is often unreliable.

It’s hard to control your mouth? Fatty liver patients diet adjustment (Part 1)

“Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease” pointed out that changing bad lifestyles and reducing body weight and waist circumference are the most important treatment measures for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver and its comorbidities. Correct bad behaviors through healthy eating and strengthened lifestyle education, regular amount of three meals a day (total control), strictly control the calorie of dinner and eating behavior after dinner. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Specific implementation of & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Eating is a major event. Reasonable eating can maintain health and treatment complement each other. Unreasonable eating can cause illness or worsen the disease. The science of eating is extensive and diverse. The first rule of prevention and treatment of fatty liver is to control the mouth, but how to eat, how much to eat, how to eat can ensure sufficient nutrition, but not exceed the standard; what is the specific plan, which is what we will talk about next. The plan is divided into three parts: upper, middle and lower descriptions, including the amount of food, diet structure, unsuitable foods, good eating habits, etc., and strive to give fatty liver patients a complete dietary guidance. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.Daily dietary & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.Standard weight (kg) = height (cm) -105 (or 100) Males over 165 cm minus 105, and females and men under 165 cm minus 100 According to standard body weight, give 2 to 4 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight, 0.5 to 0.8 grams of fat, and 1.2 to 1.5 grams of protein. Daily calorie intake is about 20-25 kilocalories per kilogram of standard body weight, protein 80-120 grams, fat 35-50 grams. Note that the diet is light and not overfull. ■ Carbohydrates account for 55% to 65% of total energy, and the main sources are rice, noodles and other staple foods. ■ Low-fat diet is appropriate, and vegetable fats, such as olive oil, rapeseed oil, and tea oil, should be the main ingredients. ■ Protein should account for 15% to 20% of the total energy, of which 1/3 is animal white. Can choose lean meat (such as rabbit meat, lean beef, lean pork, chicken, etc.), milk, fish and shrimp, eggs and low-oil soy products (such as tofu, dried tofu, tofu powder, etc.). ■ Guarantee the supply of fresh vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables, to meet the body’s need for vitamins. ■ Healthy drinking water: not less than 2000ml of drinking water per day (1500ml for the elderly), and the daily drinking volume of obese persons is not less than 2200ml ~ 2700ml. The general principle should be “to make ends meet.” The calories consumed must be greater than the calories eaten in order to allow the body to use stored fat. This is an uncomfortable process, just like making less money and spending more money, consuming your “old cost” “. In addition, according to each person’s activity level, age, and gender, there is an increase or decrease. Take the male weight of 63 kg and the female weight of 53 kg as examples. The calories required for different ages can refer to the following table. Age 18-calories required per day Daily calories required Very light labor 24002100 Light labor 26002300 Medium labor 30002700 Heavy labor 34003000 Extreme heavy labor 400045- Extreme light labor 22001900 Light labor 24002100 Medium labor 27002400 Heavy labor 300060- Extreme light labor 20001700 Light labor 22001900 Medium Labor 2500210070-Very Light Labor 18001600 Light Labor 20001800 To be continued

When should the fetal membrane be broken, why do doctors sometimes need to manually break the membrane?

The fetal membrane is an important channel for material exchange between the pregnant mother and the baby. The fetal membrane is wrapped in amniotic fluid. It is an important structure to protect the baby before delivery and reduce external pressure. It maintains an internal environment that belongs to the baby’s growth and development. To a certain extent, It can also reduce pathogen infection. Before and after labor, the fetal membrane ruptures, and the baby can be delivered smoothly, and the rupture of the fetal membrane is divided into several cases: 1. Premature rupture of the membrane: Before the pregnant mother enters labor, the membrane is already ruptured, which is the fetal membrane Premature rupture, which can cause premature rupture of membranes, has many causes, such as multiple pregnancies, excessive amniotic fluid, etc., which causes the pressure of the amniotic cavity to rise, such as unbalanced pelvis, abnormal fetal position, etc., and uneven force of the membrane, such as reproductive tract pathogens. Ascending infections, such as nutritional deficiencies, etc. 2. Spontaneous rupture of fetal membranes: After the pregnant mother enters labor, regular contractions will gradually compress the anterior amniotic sac to promote cervical dilation. If the pressure of the anterior amniotic sac reaches a certain level, the fetal membrane will spontaneously rupture. Under normal circumstances If there is no human intervention, most of the rupture of the fetal membrane occurs when the cervical opening is nearly full. 3. Artificial rupture of membranes: In order to promote the progress of labor and observe the situation of baby amniotic fluid, artificially promoting the rupture of fetal membranes is a commonly used operation in obstetrics. Although the operation of artificial membrane rupture is still more beneficial than harm for childbirth. Controversial, but at present, it is still widely used clinically. In what situations is artificial membrane rupture applied? 1. In the process of natural labor, if the progress is slow, artificial membrane rupture can be used to accelerate the progress of the labor process. 2. When the baby’s condition is dangerous, artificial membrane rupture can be performed to observe the amniotic fluid and comprehensively evaluate the baby’s intrauterine situation. 3. When the pregnant mother’s uterine contraction is weak, artificial membrane rupture can be performed to promote contractions. 4. When the cervix is ​​nearly open, and the fetal membrane is not ruptured, which affects the baby’s first exposure and decline, artificial membrane rupture can be performed to promote the progress of the labor process. 5. When inducing labor, you can cooperate with oxytocin to artificially rupture the membrane to guide the pregnant mother into a natural labor state. What are the precautions for artificial membrane rupture? Before performing artificial membrane rupture, the medical staff will check whether the baby has the umbilical cord exposed first. In the intermittent period of contraction, when performing artificial membrane rupture, the movement is gentle to avoid accidental injury to the fetal head. Make sure the baby does not have umbilical cord exposure or umbilical cord prolapse, and the pregnant mother should perform fetal heart rate monitoring before and after artificial membrane rupture. At the same time, after artificial membrane rupture, in order to prevent infection, the number of vaginal examinations should be reduced as much as possible, and antibiotics should be used prophylactically if necessary. What are the pros and cons of artificial membrane breaking? Concerning the pros and cons of artificial membrane rupture, there has been controversy. Some studies suggest that when the cervix dilates more than 5cm, artificial membrane rupture can accelerate the progress of the labor process by 1-2 hours on average, and will not increase the profile The uterine birth rate has no adverse effect on the baby. However, there are also studies suggesting that although early artificial rupture of membranes can properly accelerate the progress of labor and shorten the first labor, it also increases the incidence of chorioamnionitis, and the incidence of fetal heart rate changes caused by the compression of the baby’s umbilical cord It will also have a greater incidence of no membrane rupture, so whether the advantages of artificial membrane rupture outweigh the disadvantages need to be comprehensively considered based on the situation of the pregnant mother and the baby.