What are the 4 stages of chronic renal failure? How much do you know?

Wang Hongxia, chief physician of the Department of Nephrology, Xiyuan Hospital, Chinese Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, graduated from Beijing University of Chinese Medicine in 1995, and studied at Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from 1998 to 2001. He studied under Professor Nie Lifang, a famous Chinese medicine nephropathy expert, and obtained a master’s degree in Chinese internal medicine. Chronic renal failure is a gradual development process. If the renal function is abnormal, it may develop into renal failure or uremia if it cannot be treated in time. If it develops to the stage of renal failure or uremia, it will not only increase the difficulty of treatment, but the damage to the kidneys will also be irreversible, which may endanger life at any time. 1. What are the 4 stages of chronic renal failure? 1. Renal function compensatory phase In the renal function compensatory phase, the clearance rate of endogenous creatinine can reach more than half, and the glomerular filtration rate is reduced by at least 30~60ml per minute. Under normal circumstances, the glomerular filtration rate of healthy people is 120 liters per minute. At this stage, the kidney’s reserve capacity has been reduced, and the ability to excrete metabolites and regulate water and electrolyte balance is slightly affected, and patients will not have obvious Special performance. Blood urea nitrogen and blood muscle enzymes are normal or slightly elevated. Relatively speaking, dietary requirements are mainly to meet the body’s nutritional needs to improve disease resistance. Protein intake is 0.8 g/kg of body weight, and more than half of it is high-quality protein, including lean meat, fish, egg and milk, soy products, etc.; for example, the daily protein intake of an adult weighing 50 kg is 50×0.8= 40 grams, half of which is high-quality protein 40×0.5=20 grams. The recommended daily protein intake recipes are: breakfast (one egg white), lunch (one or two lean meat), and dinner (one bag of milk). 2. The glomerular filtration rate of patients with azotemia in the azotemia stage will decrease by about 25 ml per minute, and the nephrons will decrease by about 70%. The concentration function of the kidney will be impaired, and there will be polyuria or frequent symptoms. At night, some people will be accompanied by varying degrees of anemia, and will also be accompanied by increased blood creatinine and urea nitrogen. At this stage, the patient will experience general weakness, significant loss of appetite, significant discomfort, nausea and vomiting. Failure to protect kidney function in time or increase its burden will cause diarrhea, vomiting, and hypovolemia. If there is an infection or the abuse of drugs that are toxic to the kidneys, the kidney function will decline rapidly, leading to kidney failure. 3. When renal failure reaches the stage of renal failure, the filtration rate of the glomerulus will decrease by about 10~15 ml per minute, and the nephrons will decrease by 70%~90%. The kidney function has been severely damaged and can no longer maintain normal Water and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance and metabolism. At the same time, due to renal dysfunction in chronic renal failure, urinary phosphorus decreases and blood phosphorus increases, resulting in a decrease in blood calcium. In addition, the lack of active vitamin D3 in chronic renal failure affects the absorption of intestinal calcium. The decrease in calcium absorption exacerbates hypocalcemia. Therefore, patients with chronic renal failure can properly supplement calcium, which can not only prevent a series of symptoms such as convulsions, itching, and impotence caused by low blood calcium, but also prevent and treat hyperparathyroidism and renal hyperparathyroidism caused by low blood calcium. Osteodystrophy. 4. These symptoms of uremia indicate that it is the last stage! For example: the filtration rate of the glomerulus will drop below 15 ml per minute, the nephrons will be reduced by 90%, and multiple organ failures will occur throughout the body, such as: hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory system or nervous system Serious imbalance, etc. When uremia is reached, it indicates that the kidneys have been severely damaged. The most common symptoms are restlessness, insomnia, dreams, sudden increase in blood pressure, confusion, chest tightness, and breathing difficulties. In severe cases, convulsions, anemia, or Coma and so on. In the uremia phase, many diseases will be complicated, such as: hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, etc., which must rely on dialysis to maintain life. In case of abnormal kidney function, you should go to the hospital for treatment in time, adjust your diet, choose high-quality food, and limit the intake of phosphorus and salt. 2. Chronic Renal Failure Nursing Diet Spectrum Shenqi Coix Seed Decoction Ingredients: Codonopsis 12g, Astragalus 20g, Fried Coix Seed, 60g Rice, 4 Red Dates. Preparation method: Wash codonopsis, astragalus, red dates, fried coix seed, and rice, and soak thoroughly in cold water. Put all the ingredients into the pot together, add appropriate amount of water, simmer and boil the porridge. Efficacy: nourish the middle and nourish qi, invigorate the spleen and kidney. Be applicable

What is the most common cause of chronic renal failure? List the six major causes

For more patient communication and help, please pay attention to the WeChat public account [Nephropathy Association] Patients with chronic renal failure will experience symptoms such as sleepiness, sleepiness, yellowing complexion, patients will continue to have symptoms such as edema, and some patients will experience loss of appetite The patient will have nausea, vomiting and other symptoms. After the onset of the disease, he should go to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible. Don’t postpone it. In addition, it is also necessary to grasp some common causes of the disease and actively prevent infectious diseases. So, what is the most common cause of chronic renal failure? 1. Glomerulonephritis can cause chronic renal failure in the body. Patients with glomerulonephritis need to go to the hospital clinic as soon as possible to receive treatment, otherwise it may have a huge impact on the body’s kidney function in the middle and late stages, so everyone must pay attention to it and don’t delay it. 2. Diabetes will cause the body to produce chronic renal failure. Diabetic patients will develop diabetic nephropathy in the middle and late stages, because the kidney function of the body is affected to a certain level. If you do not choose scientifically reasonable treatments, it will be 5 years later. The probability of finding renal failure is very high. 3. Interstitial nephritis can also cause the body to produce chronic renal failure. Patients with interstitial nephritis will suffer from damage and atrophy of renal tubules, and will continue to discover fibrosis processes, so everyone must go to the hospital as soon as possible. To receive treatment, don’t postpone it. 4. Hypertension can cause chronic renal failure in the body. A continuous increase in blood pressure will cause great damage to the functional organization of the kidneys, and may cause renal failure in the body. Therefore, everyone needs long-term medication to control symptoms. Closely detect blood pressure and other index values ​​to prevent other unsuitable diseases in the body. 5. Polycystic kidney disease can also cause chronic kidney failure in the body. With the development of the disease, the body’s cysts will gradually expand, which may cause renal tissue atrophy, and eventually cause kidney failure. 6. Medicine elements. Some medicines have toxic and side effects for the kidney function of the body. Long-term abuse of medicines can cause harm to the kidney function and may cause kidney failure in the body. Therefore, everyone must take the medicine very carefully.

It is said that gout is not fatal, but this time you may be wrong!

In modern times when gout and high uric acid are more and more frequent, many people still have a one-sided understanding of gout. They simply think that the disease is not serious, so they are not active in treatment. Although high uric acid and gout, which are gradually becoming the fourth highest, are chronic diseases, they are also very harmful to the body. Continuous treatment is necessary to stabilize uric acid within the normal range to avoid complications. Gout is potentially fatal, and the main reasons are as follows: 1. Kidney damage and death: Gout causes kidney disease, renal function is damaged, and eventually develops into renal failure and uremia; this situation accounts for about the cause of death from gout. About 20%-30% of A very small number of patients with gout have a significant increase in blood uric acid during an acute attack of gout, and acute renal failure can occur in a short period of time and cause death. 2. Fatal skin infection: The tophi of the skin is ruptured without prompt treatment and care is not taken to clean and hygienic. As a result, it causes serious bacterial infection, which spreads to the blood and causes bacteremia and sepsis to death. This situation is very rare. 3. Death from urinary tract infection: gouty kidney stones, hydronephrosis, bladder stones, etc. are likely to cause intractable urinary tract infections, especially pyelonephritis; sometimes if not treated thoroughly in time, it can cause pus kidney or necrotizing papillitis, sepsis And lethal. 4. Death due to complications: some diseases complicated by gout, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, heart failure, fatal arrhythmia, and some acute and chronic complications caused by diabetes, etc., these concurrent diseases It is an important cause of death of gout patients, and it accounts for a certain proportion of deaths. In older gout patients (especially those over 55), the main cause of death is cardiovascular disease, not kidney disease.

Is high creatinine not necessarily a bad thing? “Six steps” to lower creatinine to keep you away from uremia ​

In the process of diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease, we often use the level of blood creatinine to assess kidney function and diagnose uremia. Generally, most people think that the higher the blood creatinine, the worse the kidney detoxification function, and the closer to uremia. Therefore, once the creatinine rises, the kidney friend will panic. Is high creatinine necessarily a bad thing? Not necessarily, it needs to be discussed separately, not across the board. There are two situations in which creatinine rises: sudden and gradual. Creatinine increases significantly in a short period of time, often accompanied by acute factors, such as drug factors, infection, blood pressure, etc. If these factors are corrected in time, most of the creatinine can return to normal. For example, some nephrologists who have both urine protein and high blood pressure often use pristine or sartan antihypertensive drugs, but these two types of antihypertensive drugs often have the side effect of increasing creatinine, and a small number of patients Will show this symptom. In fact, as long as the increase in creatinine is within the acceptable range, not only will it not damage the kidney function, but the increase in creatinine just shows that the drug has worked, urine protein and blood pressure are stabilized, and it helps to protect the kidney function. Compared with the sudden increase in creatinine, what is more difficult to deal with is the chronic development of creatinine. The slow progression of kidney function leads to a slow rise in creatinine. How to stabilize the creatinine value at a certain level? Delay the rate of kidney failure? The first step: control the primary nephropathy, there are more than a dozen types of pathological types, such as membranous nephropathy, minimal change nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, FSGS, polycystic kidney disease, etc., and secondary Diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, hypertensive nephropathy, obesity nephropathy, hepatitis B-related nephropathy, etc. Different pathological types, the specific lesion location is different, and the degree of the lesion is different. It is necessary to clarify the condition of the lesion through renal puncture or specific examination, and then to target treatment or repair. For example, timely removal of crescents, elimination of kidney cell proliferation and diseased tissue, repair of damaged renal tubules, and so on. Through in-depth treatment, the condition is alleviated, the progression of renal function is greatly reduced, and related indicators such as blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen can also be reduced to varying degrees. The level to which it drops is also related to the degree of decline in glomerular filtration rate. Step 2: Keep blood pressure at a low level. Among the factors that affect kidney function and blood creatinine fluctuations, hypertension ranks first. Elevated blood pressure will directly increase the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane, which will cause glomerular hypertension, accelerate the process of renal fibrosis, and cause irreversible damage to renal function. Undoubtedly, the process of kidney failure is accelerated, and creatinine also rises rapidly. The key to controlling the stability of blood pressure is to maintain adequate blood flow in the kidneys, relieve the kidney ischemia and hypoxia, and reduce toxin deposition. Whether it is a history of hypertension before the onset of nephropathy, or elevated blood pressure secondary to nephropathy, attention needs to be paid. At present, in the treatment of hypertension, the application of drugs has been very mature, and maintaining blood pressure at a low level is no longer a problem. It should be noted that in terms of medication, you must adhere to the medication on time and in the amount, and at the same time, with a low-salt diet, it is more beneficial to stable blood pressure. The third step: Strict dietary control of protein and salt intake will increase the burden on the kidneys, so those with elevated serum creatinine require a low-salt, low-fat, high-quality, low-protein diet. Daily salt intake should be less than 5g or less, and a high-quality low-protein diet contains two meanings: First, high-quality protein: milk, eggs, refined meat, fish, etc. are all high-quality protein. In the past, it was believed that soybeans and soy products were plant proteins, and patients with chronic renal failure were prohibited from using them. According to the new national standards, soybeans and soy products are also high-quality proteins. Patients with chronic renal failure can also consume them in moderation. Second, low protein: patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure, the daily protein intake does not exceed 0.8g/kg; patients with severe renal failure, the daily protein intake does not exceed 0.6g/kg. Take an example: daily staple food 4 taels, 1 egg, 1 tael lean meat, half a catty of milk, etc. A day’s high-quality protein food should be evenly distributed among the three meals, not concentrated in one meal. In layman’s terms, a high-quality low-protein diet is to eat well and eat less. The purpose is: not to increase the burden on the kidneys, but also to ensure the needs of human nutrition. The fourth step: to correct anemia. The erythropoietin produced by the kidneys promotes the production of red blood cells. After chronic renal failure occurs, the secretion of erythropoietin will decrease, which can cause anemia. On the one hand, anemia reduces the quality of life, on the other hand, it can aggravate kidney damage and cause blood muscle

His complexion is getting more and more “black”, is the kidney disease worsening?

For patients in the early stage of kidney disease, renal function is slightly impaired, creatinine, uric acid and other indicators have not increased, glomerular filtration rate is normal, blood toxin levels are low, and abnormalities are not often seen. With the decline of kidney function, more toxins cannot be metabolized and deposited in the blood. Over time, they will slowly appear on the surface of the skin, and the skin will appear dark and dull. Renal failure and uremic dialysis patients are often more obvious. If the nephrologist finds that the skin becomes “black”, he should pay attention to the reexamination indicators. The key to correcting the “unsightly complexion” is to maintain the stability of kidney function and avoid further deterioration of the condition. The key to preventing renal function decline is to control these two indicators. 1. After correcting anemia in time, blood creatinine often starts to rise after renal insufficiency, which means that the level of toxins increases. At this stage, another important indicator that affects the condition is hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an important indicator for judging whether there is anemia, which will accelerate the arrival of kidney failure. Impaired renal function can lead to a reduction in the production of a substance-erythropoietin, which stimulates the bone marrow to reduce blood production, leading to the occurrence of renal anemia. The remaining kidney function itself has ischemia and hypoxia, which promotes the reduction of blood circulation and also aggravates anemia. Patients with anemia often look pale and sallow. To prevent anemia from accelerating the failure of remaining kidney function. It must be corrected in time. In the case of decreased hemoglobin, on the one hand, erythropoietin can be injected to increase the cells that stimulate hematopoiesis until the hemoglobin condition reaches the standard. On the other hand, actively supplement iron. Although renal anemia is not iron-deficiency anemia, most patients have iron deficiency after anemia. It is necessary to supplement iron and eat more iron-containing foods such as animal blood, animal offal, lean meat, etc. 2. Pay attention to the prevention and treatment of electrolyte disorders. The kidney has the function of regulating the balance of water, acid-base and electrolyte. The early compensatory function of renal function is still strong, and only the imbalance of water and sodium appears. The electrolyte and acid-base levels in the body are still relatively stable. However, after substantial damage to renal function, glomeruli, renal tubules and renal interstitium are all damaged, and electrolyte levels will also be metabolically disordered. Electrolyte disorders are mainly manifested as changes in trace elements such as calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The main manifestations are hyperkalemia, calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders, acidosis and so on. The increase of blood potassium, blood phosphorus and other indicators will also aggravate the increase of blood creatinine, uric acid, urea nitrogen and other toxin levels, which is not conducive to the metabolism of toxins. It will also cause more complications and threaten the remaining kidney function.

Is high creatinine not necessarily a bad thing? “Three steps” to lower creatinine, uremia will not come easily

In blood biochemical examinations, we often use the level of blood creatinine to assess kidney function and diagnose uremia. Generally, most people think that the higher the blood creatinine, the worse the kidney detoxification function, and the closer to uremia. Therefore, once creatinine rises, everyone will panic. Is high creatinine necessarily a bad thing? Not necessarily, it needs to be discussed separately, not across the board. There are two situations in which creatinine rises: sudden and gradual. Creatinine increases significantly in a short period of time, often accompanied by acute factors, such as drug factors, infection, blood pressure, etc. If these factors are corrected in time, most of the creatinine can return to normal. For example, some nephrologists who have both urinary protein and high blood pressure often use pristine or sartan antihypertensive drugs, but these two types of antihypertensive drugs have the side effect of increasing creatinine, and a small number of patients will experience appear. In fact, as long as the increase in creatinine is within the acceptable range, not only will it not damage the kidney function, but the increase in creatinine just shows that the drug has worked, urine protein and blood pressure are stabilized, and it helps to protect the kidney function. Compared with the sudden increase in creatinine, what is more difficult to deal with is the chronic development of creatinine. The slow progression of kidney function leads to a slow rise in creatinine. How to stabilize the creatinine value at a certain level? Delay the rate of kidney failure? The first step: control the primary nephropathy, there are more than a dozen types of pathological types, such as membranous nephropathy, minimal change nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, FSGS, polycystic kidney disease, etc., and secondary Diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, hypertensive nephropathy, obesity nephropathy, hepatitis B-related nephropathy, etc. Different pathological types, the specific lesion location is different, and the degree of the lesion is different. It is necessary to clarify the condition of the lesion through renal puncture or specific examination, and then to target treatment or repair. For example, timely removal of crescents, elimination of kidney cell proliferation and diseased tissue, repair of damaged renal tubules, and so on. Through in-depth treatment, the condition is alleviated, the progression of renal function is greatly reduced, and related indicators such as blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen can also be reduced to varying degrees. The level to which it drops is also related to the degree of decline in glomerular filtration rate. Step 2: Keep blood pressure at a low level. Among the factors that affect kidney function and blood creatinine fluctuations, hypertension ranks first. Elevated blood pressure will directly increase the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane, which will cause glomerular hypertension, accelerate the process of renal fibrosis, and cause irreversible damage to renal function. Undoubtedly, the process of kidney failure is accelerated, and creatinine also rises rapidly. The key to controlling the stability of blood pressure is to maintain adequate blood flow in the kidneys, relieve the kidney ischemia and hypoxia, and reduce toxin deposition. Whether it is a history of hypertension before the onset of nephropathy, or elevated blood pressure secondary to nephropathy, attention needs to be paid. At present, in the treatment of hypertension, the application of drugs has been very mature, and maintaining blood pressure at a low level is no longer a problem. It should be noted that in terms of medication, you must adhere to the medication on time and in the amount, and at the same time, with a low-salt diet, it is more beneficial to stable blood pressure. Step 3: Pay attention to prevent obstructive factors. The increase in creatinine is also affected by renal obstructive factors, such as kidney stones, blood clots, thrombosis and even embolism, which can cause serious damage to the renal tubules, and lead to poor blood flow in the kidneys, causing creatinine The levels of toxins such as uric acid and uric acid increase rapidly. Although acute kidney injury can be corrected in time, it can be restored, but for nephrologists who have already suffered from chronic renal insufficiency, any injury will severely damage the kidney function again. Therefore, nephrologists should stabilize creatinine and pay attention to the occurrence of some acute factors. There are obstructive factors, some nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided, and acute infections such as urinary infections. The increase in creatinine is the result of impaired renal function, and it is not a short-term thing. Therefore, the reduction of creatinine should not be too anxious. To avoid renal failure, it should be mainly to protect renal function.

Women under pressure, beware of nephritis, avoid nephritis predisposing factors

 Urban women are getting busier and busy, always focusing on family business. However, women who are too stressed should stop and learn to release their pressure. If the stress cannot be relieved, it will cause great harm to the body, and the disease will find you. It is understood that there are many women with nephritis caused by high work pressure, which has brought great damage to their health, so it is very important to pay attention to health preservation in daily life.  Beware of nephritis when women are stressed.   Women who are under too much stress can lead to the deposition of acidic substances and affect the normal progress of metabolism. Proper adjustment of mood and self-pressure can maintain a weak alkaline physique, thereby preventing the occurrence of kidney disease. If you don’t have good habits in your daily life, do not pay attention to reasonable exercise, stay up late at night, hold back your urine, karaoke, etc., it will affect kidney function in the long term. Therefore, daily habits also have certain factors. Life is like this. We should not give Only when you feel too stressed can you keep your mood at ease, which will help you recover from your illness.  What are the predisposing factors of female nephritis  1, infection factors. Many bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections can cause nephritis. Respiratory tract infections are common. Scarlet fever, purulent skin infections, etc. At the same time, infection is also one of the important reasons for the recurrence of nephritis and aggravation of renal damage.  2, high blood pressure. Hypertension is the main symptom of kidney disease, so patients with hypertension must first consider whether it is caused by kidney disease. At the same time, persistent hypertension is also one of the important reasons for worsening renal function. Active control of hypertension is a very important link in the treatment of kidney disease at all stages.   3. Genetic factors. In the past, it was generally believed that hereditary kidney diseases were rare, but in the past 20 years, with the development of science, the discovery rate of hereditary kidney diseases has increased significantly. There are currently more than 30 known. The most common ones are: hereditary nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, etc.   4. Pregnancy. Pregnancy and kidney disease can affect each other. Pregnancy increases the burden on the kidneys, which is likely to cause pathological damage to the kidneys, which promotes deterioration of renal function. Pregnancy in patients with kidney disease can lead to premature delivery, stillbirth, and increased complications during pregnancy. For patients with kidney disease who already have hypertension or renal insufficiency, pregnancy is generally not suitable.   5. Other factors. In addition to the above-mentioned hypertension and diabetes, many other systemic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, gout, etc. can cause secondary kidney damage.

What is the “culprit” that causes kidney failure in children? Many parents don’t know

For more patient communication and help, please follow the WeChat public account [Nephropathy Association] Kidney failure in children is a more complicated and difficult to treat disease. In the course of treatment, once infection or other complications occur, the patient’s condition will often get further It is aggravated, so you should be cautious in treatment. Let’s introduce it below. The incidence of renal failure is very high, and the appearance of many child patients makes parents distressed. The occurrence of renal failure in children is the primary disease that damages the functional nephrons. After the injury, the functional nephrons are not repaired in time, which causes the damage to the functional nephrons to be aggravated or even damaged, causing its function to decline, which leads to The occurrence and development of renal insufficiency lead to symptoms of renal insufficiency and uremia such as nausea and vomiting. In the development of children with renal failure, it is best to seek medical attention as soon as possible. In the early stage of treatment, patients should master the key points of treatment under the guidance of a doctor, which is of great significance to relieve the harm of renal failure. Most antibiotics used to treat infections are renal excretion. Therefore, the key issue in the application of antibiotics is dosage adjustment. In this regard, you must follow the doctor’s advice and do not do what you want. During the treatment period, children with renal failure should maintain confidence and not be discouraged, otherwise the treatment effect will be affected. Patients should take reasonable care during the treatment period. They should not overeating or overwork. They should take in an appropriate amount of high-quality protein in their diet and avoid spicy pickled foods. As long as patients actively adopt scientific methods and do a good job in health care, the recovery of kidney function is not impossible.

What should I pay attention to when eating for renal insufficiency? Follow the 4 dietary principles and must not be taken lightly

For more patient communication and help, please follow the WeChat public account [Nephropathy Association] People with kidney disease who do not pay attention to diet may cause the disease to relapse. Therefore, it is very important for people with poor renal function to actively and correctly cooperate with treatment and care. What is suitable for people suffering from renal dysfunction? First: In order to maximize the use of protein intake in the diet of renal insufficiency, and prevent it from being converted into energy consumption, it is necessary to supplement while taking a low-protein diet energy. At least 35 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per day, mainly supplied by sugar, can eat fruits, cane sugar products, chocolate, jam, honey, etc. Second: The amount of salt in the diet for renal insufficiency should depend on the condition. If you have high blood pressure or edema, it is advisable to use a low-salt diet with 2 grams of salt per day. Third: It is worth noting that although some foods meet the previous conditions, such as egg yolks, meat floss, animal offal, dairy products, bone marrow, etc., they are not suitable for consumption due to their high phosphorus content, because the storage of phosphorus can promote The function of the kidneys deteriorates further. In order to reduce the appropriate amount of food, fish, meat, potatoes, etc. should be boiled and discarded before further cooking. Fourth: Fish and meat for renal insufficiency recipes, you can choose lean pork, lean mutton, chicken, duck, large yellow croaker, eel, pomfret, crucian, rice eel, loach, river prawn, ham, pork heart, chicken gizzard, and mussel . It is not suitable to use various meat floss, brain liver and lung of various animals, beef milk powder, dried shark, dried squid, scallops, soft-shelled turtle, herring, dried saury, open ocean, shrimp skin, whitebait, carp, hairtail, river crab, etc.

Dark complexion is a sign of kidney failure? Do 2 o’clock to reverse kidney function in time

After being sick, most people are weaker, and their faces are not very good and pale. But some kidney friends’ faces are not pale. The course of kidney disease is longer. Compared with other diseases, kidney friends often have some “faces” unique to kidney disease. On the one hand, it is affected by kidney function. After the kidney is damaged, the filtering function and detoxification function decrease, and a large number of metabolites in the blood can not be discharged in time, and the accumulation in the blood will make the face look yellow and dull, or even gradually darken. On the other hand, some index changes caused by glomerular damage and side effects after taking the medicine can also cause some obvious changes in the face. For example, eating hormones can easily cause a full moon face, and edema such as face swelling, eye swelling, and anemia, the face will not be pale, sallow and so on. Is your face getting “black” a sign of worsening kidney disease? It is generally not obvious for patients in the early stage of kidney disease. The renal function is slightly impaired, creatinine, uric acid and other indicators are not elevated, the glomerular filtration rate is normal, the blood toxin level is low, and abnormalities are not often seen. With the decline of kidney function, more toxins cannot be metabolized and deposited in the blood. Over time, they will slowly appear on the surface of the skin, and the skin will appear dark and dull. Renal failure and uremic dialysis patients are often more obvious. If the nephrologist finds that the skin becomes “black”, he should pay attention to the reexamination indicators. The key to correcting the “unsightly complexion” is to maintain the stability of kidney function and avoid further deterioration of the condition. The key to preventing kidney failure is to pay attention to these two aspects! 1. After correcting anemia in time, blood creatinine often starts to rise after renal insufficiency, which means that the level of toxins increases. At this stage, another important indicator that affects the condition is hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an important indicator for judging whether there is anemia, which will accelerate the arrival of kidney failure. Impaired renal function can lead to a reduction in the production of a substance-erythropoietin, which stimulates the bone marrow to reduce blood production, leading to the occurrence of renal anemia. The remaining kidney function itself has ischemia and hypoxia, which promotes the reduction of blood circulation and also aggravates anemia. Patients with anemia often look pale and sallow. To prevent anemia from accelerating the failure of remaining kidney function. It must be corrected in time. In the case of decreased hemoglobin, on the one hand, erythropoietin can be injected to increase the cells that stimulate hematopoiesis until the hemoglobin condition reaches the standard. On the other hand, actively supplement iron. Although renal anemia is not iron-deficiency anemia, most patients have iron deficiency after anemia. It is necessary to supplement iron and eat more iron-containing foods such as animal blood, animal offal, lean meat, etc. 2. Pay attention to the prevention and treatment of electrolyte disorders. The kidney has the function of regulating the balance of water, acid-base and electrolyte. The early compensatory function of renal function is still strong, and only the imbalance of water and sodium appears. The electrolyte and acid-base levels in the body are still relatively stable. However, after substantial damage to renal function, glomeruli, renal tubules and renal interstitium are all damaged, and electrolyte levels will also be metabolically disordered. Electrolyte disorders are mainly manifested as changes in trace elements such as calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The main manifestations are hyperkalemia, calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders, acidosis and so on. The increase of blood potassium, blood phosphorus and other indicators will also aggravate the increase of blood creatinine, uric acid, urea nitrogen and other toxin levels, which is not conducive to the metabolism of toxins. It will also cause more complications and threaten the remaining kidney function. For example, long-term hyperkalemia can cause slow heart rhythm or even sudden arrest, cause cardiovascular disease, and acidosis is more harmful. Hyperphosphatemia can increase the accumulation of skin toxins, cause skin itching, and cause bone diseases such as osteoporosis. . In the middle and late stages of nephropathy, attention should be paid to correcting electrolyte disorders, which is another key to preventing uremia.

Doing a good job can significantly reduce the risk of kidney failure. The earlier you pay attention to the effect, the more obvious

Kidney disease does not happen suddenly. It is the final result of long-term “overload” of the kidneys, decline in physical health, and abnormalities in the immune system. Corresponding deterioration of renal function is not a matter of one or two days, but a long-term development process. The time from kidney disease to uremia is related to the speed of kidney cell damage. The lighter the glomerulus and other cells are damaged, the larger the room for treatment and the lower the risk of kidney failure. Among the factors that affect the progression of kidney cells such as glomeruli and overall renal function, some factors come quickly, but have little effect, such as some sudden acute factors, such as drug-induced renal damage, sudden infections and acute renal failure And so on, and the decisive influence on the prognosis of the disease is mainly the development of some chronic factors. To delay the development of renal function, the key is to control the stability of chronic factors, which is the key to preventing renal failure. One of the most important factors is high blood pressure. The lower the blood pressure level, the more stable it is, and the risk of kidney failure is significantly reduced! Hypertension and kidney function “love each other and kill each other”. Patients with a long-term history of hypertension are at risk of kidney function damage. People who have kidney disease themselves may also experience symptoms of high blood pressure. Hypertension is almost inseparable from renal function damage, and love each other. Long-term systemic blood pressure increase will reduce the local blood supply to the kidneys, cause high pressure in the renal arteries, insufficient blood circulation, cause high glomerular perfusion, and accelerate the kidneys Glomerular fibrosis damage. The decline in renal function will increase the blood pressure and form a vicious circle. After long-term control of below 130/80mmHg, the blood pressure will be lowered, and the speed of checking glomerular fibrosis will decrease significantly , The overall renal function can also be improved. The blood pressure level is generally maintained at 130/80mmHg for a long time, the effect is more obvious. Individual patients can maintain 140/90mmHg, but not higher than this standard. How to keep blood pressure low continuously Level? Patients at different stages have different coping strategies: patients in the early stage of kidney disease, namely stage 1 and stage 2, do not have obvious blood pressure rise, and also need to pay attention to prevention, adhere to the good habit of measuring blood pressure and low-salt and low-fat diet. About 80% of kidney friends When blood pressure rises in the middle and late stages of kidney disease, attention must be paid to the treatment of hypertension at the stage of renal insufficiency. Choosing appropriate antihypertensive drugs and timely drug intervention are the key means to stabilize blood pressure. The first choice for antihypertensive drugs is RAS blockers. , That is, the commonly used pristine or sartan drugs can simultaneously lower blood pressure, lower protein, and delay renal function, and play a powerful and effective role in reducing the risk of renal failure. For creatinine above 265, the kidney Patients with more than half of the functional impairment and glomerular filtration rate below 60 should pay attention to monitoring the indicators of serum potassium and serum creatinine when taking these two types of drugs. For patients who are not suitable for these two types of drugs, other long-term effects can be selected Antihypertensive drugs, such as diuretics, calcium antagonists and other drugs, together with RAS blockers. In addition to drugs, you must also pay attention to low-salt and low-fat diets, which are the key to long-term blood pressure stability. Hypertension affects the kidneys One of the functional factors is to maintain the stability of renal function. In addition to lowering blood pressure, other factors such as urine protein, edema, anemia, etc. should also be paid attention to. Each item should be paid attention to. What level does your blood pressure belong to?

How can chronic nephritis eat to be nutritionally balanced?

&nbsp.&nbsp. Chronic nephritis, as long as you control your diet properly, it may help delay the progression of the disease, reduce proteinuria, and protect residual renal function, thereby delaying the time to enter dialysis and improving the quality of life. &nbsp.&nbsp.1, low-salt diet. Helps avoid water and sodium retention, helps reduce and prevent high blood pressure and edema. For nephritis patients without high blood pressure, edema, or proteinuria, it is sufficient to control the intake of salt below 6 grams per day. Nephritis patients with high blood pressure, edema and proteinuria should control their daily salt intake to less than 3 grams. In addition, both monosodium glutamate and soy sauce contain salt. 5 ml of soy sauce is approximately equal to 1 gram of salt. You should control the amount when cooking. If there is no taste in your mouth, you can use green onions, ginger and garlic to taste. &nbsp.&nbsp.2, high-quality low-protein diet. Meat is rich in protein and is the main source of protein for the human body. For patients with nephritis, a high-quality low-protein diet can reduce the high metabolism and high filtration of the glomerulus, delay the decline of renal function, and thus protect the kidney function. It is best to eat white meat, such as chicken, duck, fish, etc.; while red meat, such as pig, beef, and lamb, should be eaten as little as possible; cured meat should not be eaten as much as possible. &nbsp.&nbsp.3, calorie intake. Nephritis patients should take in enough calories to provide energy for the body, so that protein can be saved. Both carbohydrates and fats are the main sources of calories. Patients with nephritis should have choices and try to get calories from carbohydrates instead of fatty foods.

After kidney disease catches a cold, should I rest or take cold medicine?

As the saying goes: February and August are really sad, cold in the morning and hot in the afternoon. The large temperature difference has caused some people to be caught by the cold. Recently, there has been a small outbreak of the cold. For kidney friends with low self-immunity, special attention should be paid to strengthen prevention. And some kidney friends are prone to “frequent” colds, that is, basically every round of colds will not fall, and even small colds will occur every month. It seems that a small cold has little effect on the body, but it may be a cause of aggravation of kidney disease. I have encountered this kind of patients before, and I didn’t pay enough attention to it after catching a cold. I just took some cold medicine and thought it was good. As a result, the next day, I developed uncomfortable symptoms, nausea, vomiting, and even fainting. After I came to the hospital, I found that my blood creatinine soared to more than 300, and he developed acute renal failure. After catching a cold with kidney disease, is it safer to rest or take medicine right away? Whether to rest or take medicine after a cold cannot be generalized. It needs to be based on the condition of kidney damage and the patients’ physical fitness. If the condition is not very serious, the pathological type is mild, and it is in the early stage of inflammatory reaction, the glomerular filtration rate is above 60, the urine protein can be controlled below 1g, there are not many red blood cells in the urine test, and there is no obvious edema. High blood pressure. In order to get a better cold, you can take some cold medicine, which will not cause much impact on kidney function. However, if your condition is serious, the glomerular filtration rate declines rapidly, the urine protein is above 1g, the inflammation is still under control, and the renal function is not very stable. At this time, if a cold occurs, you need to evaluate the renal function first and determine whether to use Cold medicine requires rest at the same time, and it is more beneficial for cold recovery with a light diet and strengthening exercise. There are some drugs used in the treatment of kidney disease that also have the effect of preventing and curing colds, such as the commonly used traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus and Lycium barbarum, as well as proprietary Chinese medicines such as Certain Capsules, Certain Shuibao, etc. However, if the disease is severe, these drugs have limited effect and still need to be targeted Taking cold medicine for sex. The biggest problem in choosing cold medicine is worrying about damaging the kidneys, causing increased creatinine and accelerating kidney failure, just like the patient mentioned above. So how to use cold medicine correctly? Nephrologists with renal insufficiency and creatinine exceeding 265 should pay attention: First, try not to choose non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and cold drugs. Most of these drugs are nephrotoxic, such as cold capsules, Gankang, white plus black and so on. Instead, choose some relatively mild proprietary Chinese medicines such as Chaihu granules and so on. During medication, drink plenty of water. It can reduce the burden on the kidneys and at the same time reduce the occurrence of renal damage. At the same time monitor creatinine and other indicators of renal function. In fact, colds are not so terrible. Fluctuations caused by colds, increased urine protein, and most of them can recover after the inflammation is controlled. To fundamentally solve the problem of frequent colds or other infections, we must pay attention to two points: First, we have emphasized that many colds are often caused by immune problems. Low immunity not only causes frequent colds, but also causes the recurrence of urine protein, edema, blood creatinine and other indicators. It is very detrimental to the long-term stability of the disease. But in the course of treatment, most people don’t pay attention to the regulation of immunity. On the one hand, there are no drugs that can directly enhance immunity, and on the other hand, immunity is invisible and intangible, and it depends on their own feelings. It is not enough. The key to improving immunity is to pay attention to it in daily life. Some behaviors that consume immunity, such as staying up late, over-fatigue, and obesity, must be paid attention to. Second, pay attention to preventing the occurrence of infection. The common cold is a type of respiratory tract infection, and infections such as urinary infections and oral infections are also common infections of kidney disease. Therefore, we must pay attention to the prevention and treatment of the source of infection. If you have cystitis, you must be treated in time. It is as important as kidney disease and should not be ignored. At what stage are you and what kind of situation are you?

Attention kidney friends! Doctor: Keep in mind 4 tips to prevent kidney failure, less recurrence and better kidney protection

The development of kidney disease is often divided into three different situations, which are also the development trend of the disease from mild to severe: First, the kidney function is basically normal. However, there are mild symptoms of urine protein and urine occult blood, and the overall condition is not very serious. Second, there is a slight abnormality in renal function, and the glomerular filtration rate does not decrease significantly. Symptoms such as urine protein, occult blood, and edema are more serious. The three kidney functions are obviously damaged, the creatinine rises over 443, and the glomerular filtration rate declines faster. In addition, complications such as hypertension, anemia, and electrolyte disturbances occur, and the progress of renal failure is obvious, and it is necessary to control and prevent uremia in time. At which stage are you in the above three camps? The key to distinguishing the three different stages is to look at the condition of impaired renal function. Although the severity of symptoms in each stage is different, the changes in indicators are different, and the rate of renal function progress is different. However, some aspects of the treatment process are run through and not independent. Systemic treatment can more comprehensively maintain the long-term stability of renal function and slow down the rhythm of uremia. There are 4 aspects, kidney friends should pay more attention from beginning to end! To find out the primary disease in time, no matter what stage of the kidney disease is, it is more guiding to diagnose the cause and formulate the plan. There are many pathological types of kidney disease itself, and the specific type of kidney disease often requires further examination. Frequent nephropathy such as chronic glomerulonephritis can be judged clinically through urine protein, occult blood and renal function tests. However, for IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, minimal change nephropathy, etc., further pathological anatomy analysis is required to examine and analyze the lesions to determine the condition of important kidney tissues such as glomeruli, renal tubules, and renal interstitium. Just distinguish from the indicators. Timely judgment of the primary disease is more conducive to adjusting the treatment plan. The earlier the pathological focus is identified, the more conducive to the next treatment. And in the later treatment process, the risk of recurrence will be lower, which is beneficial to prevent uremia. Compliance with norms and individualized treatment Many nephrologists feel that the treatment plan is determined by the doctor. How can it be regulated and irregular? In addition to specific treatment plans, standard treatment also involves an important point that is adherence to follow-up. Some people do not understand the condition very well in the early stage, and the indicators such as urine protein and occult blood are not very serious. Generally, doctors prescribe drugs and take them for a period of time. They often fail to adhere to the follow-up and follow-up examinations. The condition is shelved without symptoms. Treatment, leading to worsening of the condition without knowing it. For patients who have been clearly diagnosed, they should insist on communicating with the doctor after choosing to seek medical treatment, and actively cooperate with relevant treatments. The condition was very stable. However, a small number of people heard that some patients said that certain medicine was not bad. After taking it for a while, it was good, so I bought it by myself without communicating with the doctor. After taking it for a while, I stopped the medicine and felt no effect. It must be clear that even with the same pathological type of kidney disease, due to different stages, different severity of the disease, as well as physical age, physical fitness, and drug tolerance, not everyone’s medication regimen The same, so there is no need for this mountain to look at the high mountain. Pay attention to urine protein and blood pressure levels. Various studies have clearly shown that urine protein and blood pressure levels are directly linked to the risk of uremia. People who maintain low levels of these two indicators have a lower risk of kidney failure. For patients with a large amount of proteinuria (above 3.5g), shock therapy with hormones should be used in time to reduce proteinuria’s damage to kidney function. Don’t worry too much about the side effects of hormones, which can lead to miss the best treatment opportunity. In patients with high blood pressure, sartan or pristine drugs can be used to reduce protein at the same time. For patients with renal insufficiency, it can be combined with other antihypertensive drugs to reduce the risk of increased serum creatinine and potassium. Pay attention to the key indicators to judge whether kidney function is good or bad, not just by feeling. During the treatment process, there is an indicator that must be paid attention to from beginning to end-glomerular filtration rate. The rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate reflects the risk of renal failure and glomerular damage. To prevent renal failure, it is also necessary to repair the less damaged glomerular cells in time to prolong the process of renal failure. Let’s take a look at it. In what aspect did you fail to do a good job and have problems?

There are 3 gold standards to measure the improvement of kidney disease, don’t be blindly slack

During the onset of kidney disease, there is a process for the development of renal function from good to bad. Conversely, after treatment, it takes a certain time for the recovery of renal function from bad to not too bad to slowly stable. The process of improving kidney disease is the process of treatment. You may be more sensitive to signs of deterioration. However, in addition to some routinely observed indicators such as urine protein and blood creatinine, the specific measurement standards are not very clear. This can easily lead to a relapse in the treatment process without treatment. It is clearly “cured” but relapses, and even “kidney failure” occurs. In order to avoid this kind of situation, the nephrologist must be aware of these 3 points in order to maintain the long-term stability of the condition! 1. The degree of stability of renal function judges the improvement of kidney disease, often by looking at the value of urine protein, the value of blood creatinine, whether blood pressure is controlled, etc. The stability of these indicators reflects one point, that is, whether the kidney function is stable. At different stages of development of nephropathy, the kidneys are concerned about the function of different aspects. In the early stage of chronic kidney disease, there are only symptoms of urine protein and occult blood. The main consideration is the impaired renal glomerular filtration function. The treatment is mainly to combat kidney inflammation and reduce glomerular damage to stabilize the kidney filtration Rate function. In the middle and late stages of nephropathy, the kidneys have very little self-compensation function left, and indicators such as blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen begin to rise, indicating that the kidney’s detoxification function has declined, and some excess “metabolic waste” cannot be excreted from the body. At this time, attention should be paid to the blood circulation of the kidneys and toxin metabolism. For patients in the early stage of inflammatory reaction in nephropathy, substantial damage has not yet occurred, and the glomerulus is not damaged much, and the condition can be basically kept stable. Partially sclerotic glomeruli cannot be regenerated in the middle and late stages of nephropathy, and renal function is irreversible, but most of them can remain stable. Through the decline of the corresponding indicators and the slowing down of the renal filtration rate, it can basically be determined that the condition is stable and improved. 2. The condition basically has no recurrence or fewer times. The improvement of kidney disease treatment is not only the decline of the index at that time, but also the clinical cure. Whether the condition will relapse is also a key criterion to consider whether the condition is stable. The previous patient, with renal function syndrome, was first diagnosed with urine protein 3+, 24-hour urine protein quantitative 4.5g, creatinine was normal, and renal function was not severely damaged. After hormone shock anti-immune therapy, urine protein was controlled and basically changed yin. I thought the condition was stable, but after 2 years, it relapsed again, and it was more serious. My creatinine increased to more than 300, and the renal insufficiency was in the stage. During the five years when her condition was recovered, she did not insist on medication and did not review. I don’t know when the condition will relapse and worsen. Whether the condition will relapse or worsen is not only related to treatment, but also maintenance and management in the later period. Some patients feel that the indicators have returned to normal, so they don’t need to pay more attention. However, it must be understood that kidney function can be stable, but some diseased tissues may not fully recover. Renal cells that have undergone hardening and fibrosis will leave marks in the kidney. To prevent recurrence, renal function and related indicators must be reviewed regularly and careless. 3. Basic recovery of specific symptoms of nephropathy. Impaired renal function will cause the corresponding indicators and symptoms to rise. For example, the loss of urine protein will cause renal edema, hypoproteinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Damage to the glomeruli leads to abnormal water and sodium metabolism, which can lead to increased blood pressure and cause dizziness and headaches. Most people will experience fatigue, poor appetite, and nausea in the early stages. After the condition improves, most of these symptoms can be relieved, basically the same as normal people. However, if the indicators are stable, but the corresponding symptoms are not effectively relieved, the drug cannot be stopped blindly, and the treatment still needs to be maintained for a period of time. Slowly reduce the medicine, the body adapts faster, and the relapse rate is lower in stable disease. If you have not reached these three standards, you must not blindly stop treatment, you need to adhere to standardized diagnosis and treatment.

Four methods to effectively control urine protein in nephropathy

&nbsp.&nbsp. One is to make a clear diagnosis. The current method of diagnosing pathology is mainly renal puncture. Renal puncture involves taking out part of the kidney tissue after a biopsy and performing detailed analysis and examination. It is possible to know more clearly the damage to the glomerulus, renal tubules, renal interstitium, renal capsule, and mesangial area, especially the damage to the mesangial area. The degree of glomerular sclerosis is used to assess the overall kidney function. In addition to clear pathology and understanding of renal function, puncture is more important to clear the plan. &nbsp.&nbsp. The second is to insist on medication. 1. Control the immune inflammation. Mainly to eliminate kidney inflammation, block glomerular damage, fibrosis and hardening speed, thereby reducing urine protein to maintain remaining renal function. 2. Treat the primary cause. It is mainly used antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic drugs, and lipid-lowering drugs to stabilize blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipids and other indicators, reduce the permeability of the glomerular filtration membrane, and maintain low levels of urine protein. &nbsp.&nbsp. The third is to stabilize blood pressure and other factors. Influencing factors of renal function, in addition to urine protein, there are some factors that will also accelerate the deterioration of renal function. Blood pressure is not easy to ignore. Long-term increase in blood pressure will increase the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane, cause hypertension in the glomerular arteries, cause insufficient blood supply in the kidneys, aggravate ischemia and hypoxia, and increase the risk of uremia. Studies have shown that maintaining urine protein below 0.5 grams and high blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg will reduce the risk of kidney failure. &nbsp.&nbsp.Fourth is to avoid the factors that cause the recurrence of urine protein. 1. Prevent infection and enhance the body’s immunity. Improve immunity through daily exercise or diet conditioning, and timely diagnose and treat some infectious diseases, such as urinary infections and respiratory infections. Promote a healthy lifestyle and eliminate bad habits such as high-protein diet, overwork, smoking and drinking, etc.

In addition to reducing protein in preventing kidney failure, these three aspects are also very important

Urine protein basically runs through the entire development process of kidney disease and is an independent risk factor that affects renal function. Therefore, in the treatment of delaying the development of renal function and preventing renal failure, reducing the level of urine protein is a key part of the treatment. Maintaining a low level of proteinuria can greatly reduce the risk of renal failure, but it does not mean that the urine protein will become negative and there will be no renal failure. In addition to causing urine protein, renal function damage can also affect the changes in many aspects of the body’s functions and cause other complications. There is nothing wrong with focusing treatment on reducing urine protein, but there are also some serious signs that threaten the condition, which must also be paid attention to to ensure long-term stability of kidney function. There are abnormalities in these three aspects during the treatment process, and it is necessary to actively correct and adjust, which is essential to protect the remaining renal function and is more beneficial to prevent renal failure! The first aspect: a significant decline in immunity, a decline in immunity is a common phenomenon in most nephropathy after kidney disease. It is mainly related to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Decreased immunity will not only aggravate the damage to the kidneys, but also induce other diseases. On the one hand, decreased immunity will lead to the occurrence of colds, pharyngitis and other infectious diseases, which in turn will lead to recurrence of the disease. On the other hand, the immunity is poor, so the response to some immunosuppressive drugs is also poor, which affects the therapeutic effect. Improving immunity, on the one hand, is drug correction. If necessary, immune globulinuria or corresponding drugs can be injected to enhance immunity, but long-term medication is not recommended to avoid disrupting the balance of self-regulating immunity. On the other hand, by appropriately supplementing foods rich in trace elements such as protein, zinc, iron and calcium, and appropriate exercise, strengthen nutrient absorption to enhance immunity. The second aspect: electrolyte level metabolism disorder, when there is still a certain degree of compensation in the early stage of nephropathy, there will be no obvious electrolyte disorder. When it develops to the late stage of renal insufficiency, obvious electrolyte disturbances begin to appear. Electrolyte disorder is mainly manifested as the metabolic disorder of trace elements and the corresponding symptoms caused by it. If serum potassium is elevated, it can cause hyperkalemia, calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders cause hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, acidosis and so on. Correcting electrolyte imbalances and stabilizing kidney function are the foundation. For different symptoms, you can take related drugs and cooperate with diet to control. For example, diuretics can promote potassium ion metabolism, and a low-potassium diet can generally maintain the stability of blood potassium. For such inflammatory complications, prevention is often greater than treatment, and it is best to review electrolyte-related indicators regularly. The third aspect: Strict control of blood pressure and blood lipids glomerular damage is mainly manifested by increased basement membrane permeability, resulting in increased filtration pores, giving the opportunity for macromolecular proteins to flow out and forming urine protein. The main components of macromolecular proteins are albumin, hemoglobin, etc. The leakage of these proteins will cause changes in blood morphology. Blood vessel pressure increases and blood flow slows down, causing hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Elevated blood pressure causes glomerular arterial hypertension and accelerates the process of renal fibrosis and sclerosis. Hyperlipidemia will slow down the blood flow rate, make the blood hypercoagulable for a long time, and increase the risk of thrombosis and embolism. To prevent the damage to the kidneys caused by blood pressure and blood lipids, on the one hand, we must insist on regular monitoring of relevant indicators. Patients with nephropathy after stage 3 should be monitored for a long time. Blood pressure measurement is very simple and easy, and blood lipids are rechecked once every time. To prevent thrombosis, check blood clotting.

Kidney disease prevents kidney failure, don’t just focus on reducing protein, there are three other aspects that are equally critical

Urine protein basically runs through the entire development process of kidney disease and is an independent risk factor that affects renal function. Therefore, in the treatment of delaying the development of renal function and preventing renal failure, reducing the level of urine protein is a key part of the treatment. Maintaining a low level of proteinuria can greatly reduce the risk of renal failure, but it does not mean that the urine protein will become negative and there will be no renal failure. In addition to causing urine protein, renal function damage can also affect the changes in many aspects of the body’s functions and cause other complications. There is nothing wrong with focusing treatment on reducing urine protein, but there are also some serious signs that threaten the condition, which must also be paid attention to to ensure long-term stability of kidney function. There are abnormalities in these three aspects during the treatment process, and it is necessary to actively correct and adjust, which is essential to protect the remaining renal function and is more beneficial to prevent renal failure! The first aspect: a significant decline in immunity, a decline in immunity is a common phenomenon in most nephropathy after kidney disease. It is mainly related to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Decreased immunity will not only aggravate the damage to the kidneys, but also induce other diseases. On the one hand, decreased immunity will lead to the occurrence of colds, pharyngitis and other infectious diseases, which in turn will lead to recurrence of the disease. On the other hand, the immunity is poor, so the response to some immunosuppressive drugs is also poor, which affects the therapeutic effect. What are the manifestations of poor immunity? Most kidney friends will experience persistent fatigue, loss of appetite, insomnia, dizziness and headaches. General immunity can be learned by checking blood routines and trace elements. How to improve self-immunity and reduce secondary damage to the kidneys? Improving immunity, on the one hand, is drug correction. If necessary, immune globulinuria or corresponding drugs can be injected to enhance immunity, but long-term medication is not recommended to avoid disrupting the balance of self-regulating immunity. On the other hand, by appropriately supplementing foods rich in trace elements such as protein, zinc, iron and calcium, and appropriate exercise, strengthen nutrient absorption to enhance immunity. The second aspect: electrolyte level metabolism disorder, when there is still a certain degree of compensation in the early stage of nephropathy, there will be no obvious electrolyte disorder. When it develops to the late stage of renal insufficiency, obvious electrolyte disturbances begin to appear. Electrolyte disorder is mainly manifested as the metabolic disorder of trace elements and the corresponding symptoms caused by it. If serum potassium is elevated, it can cause hyperkalemia, calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders cause hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, acidosis and so on. In addition to the abnormality of the element index itself, there will be a variety of secondary complications. For example, hyperkalemia can induce numbness of the limbs, slow heart rate or even cardiac arrest, while hypocalcemia can cause renal bone disease and induce bone Poor quality and so on. Correcting electrolyte imbalances and stabilizing kidney function are the foundation. For different symptoms, you can take related drugs and cooperate with diet to control. For example, diuretics can promote potassium ion metabolism, and a low-potassium diet can generally maintain the stability of blood potassium. For such inflammatory complications, prevention is often greater than treatment, and it is best to review electrolyte-related indicators regularly. The third aspect: Strict control of blood pressure and blood lipids glomerular damage is mainly manifested by increased basement membrane permeability, resulting in increased filtration pores, giving the opportunity for macromolecular proteins to flow out and forming urine protein. The main components of macromolecular proteins are albumin, hemoglobin, etc. The leakage of these proteins will cause changes in blood morphology. Blood vessel pressure increases and blood flow slows down, causing hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Elevated blood pressure causes glomerular arterial hypertension and accelerates the process of renal fibrosis and sclerosis. Hyperlipidemia will slow down the blood flow rate, make the blood hypercoagulable for a long time, and increase the risk of thrombosis and embolism. To prevent the damage to the kidneys caused by blood pressure and blood lipids, on the one hand, we must insist on regular monitoring of relevant indicators. Patients with nephropathy after stage 3 should be monitored for a long time. Blood pressure measurement is very simple and easy, and blood lipids are rechecked once every time. To prevent thrombosis, check blood clotting. It is not difficult to actively correct blood pressure and blood lipid indexes. Adhere to taking antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs, with a low-salt, low-fat, and low-protein diet. At the same time, pay attention to proper exercise and control weight stability. Most of them will not cause damage to kidney function and risk of thrombosis. Lower.

Kidney disease wants to reduce urine protein quickly, the 4 tips to collect it is the key to avoid kidney failure

The loss of a large amount of proteinuria is undoubtedly a catastrophic “destruction” to renal function. Stopping the continuous outflow of macromolecular proteins in time, repairing damaged glomeruli, and protecting the remaining renal function are the keys to preventing renal failure. So how to deal with the menacing proteinuria? In fact, treatment is not the first priority. Some nephrologists are often anxious to lower the urine protein and use drugs blindly, but it is not ideal. The more the treatment, the heavier and the higher it is. Four points must be mastered to reduce protein in order to maintain long-term stability, instead of just pursuing temporary decline. The first point: first make a clear diagnosis of pathological types. There are many pathological types of kidney disease, and most of the kidney diseases are symptoms of urine protein. If you want more detailed targeted treatment, it is more beneficial to clearly diagnose the pathology. The current method of diagnosing pathology is mainly renal puncture. Renal puncture is a relatively mature examination item. After a biopsy, part of the kidney tissue is taken out for detailed analysis and examination. It can be more clearly known that it includes the glomerulus, renal tubules, renal interstitium, renal capsule, and mesangial area. The condition of damage, especially the degree of glomerular sclerosis, can be used to assess the overall renal function. Some nephrologists may reject renal puncture, mainly because they worry that the kidney function is no problem, but the puncture will aggravate the kidney damage, and the treatment plan is the same. In fact, in addition to clear pathology and understanding of renal function, puncture is more important to clear the plan. Antiprotein mainly uses hormones, immunosuppressants, biological agents, antihypertensive drugs and other drugs. If there is no clear type of pathology, often only conservative treatment, there is a rough plan, so it seems that all kidney disease treatment plans are similar. If the kidney puncture clearly shows the degree of glomerular necrosis and cell proliferation. Then a more aggressive treatment plan will be adopted instead of just using hormones. Therefore, do not blindly refuse renal puncture. Not all kidney diseases require renal puncture. At present, there are some specific indicators that can also determine the pathology of kidney disease. For example, anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies can evaluate membranous nephropathy. The second point: stick to medication and don’t give up halfway treatment for protein reduction. At present, there are two main programs: one is to control immune inflammation. Mainly to eliminate kidney inflammation, to block glomerular damage, fibrosis and hardening speed, thereby reducing urine protein to maintain remaining renal function. Second, treat the primary cause of disease. It is mainly used antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic drugs, and lipid-lowering drugs to stabilize blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipids and other indicators, to reduce the permeability of the glomerular filtration membrane and maintain low levels of urine protein. Regardless of the plan, adherence to treatment is the basis for its effect. Relatively speaking, the treatment of hormone suppression of inflammation often takes 4-8 weeks to start to be effective. Most nephrophiliacs need to take the medicine for 3-6 months, and some patients need long-term medication. The effect can get better and better, so once you insist on using the medicine, don’t give it up halfway because the effect is slow. On the contrary, the gain is not worth the loss. The third point: Stabilize blood pressure and other influencing factors. Urinary protein is one of the main factors affecting kidney function. In addition, there are some factors that will also accelerate the deterioration of kidney function. The most important thing is blood pressure level. Long-term increase in blood pressure will increase the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane, cause hypertension in the glomerular arteries, cause insufficient blood supply in the kidneys, aggravate ischemia and hypoxia, and greatly increase the risk of uremia. Therefore, kidney friends should not forget to stabilize blood pressure while lowering protein. Stabilizing both at the same time is more beneficial to the long-term stability of kidney function. Studies have shown that urine protein is maintained below 0.5g, high blood pressure is below 130/80, and the risk of renal failure will be lower. Fourth point: Preventing the factors that affect the recurrence of urine protein The key to maintaining a low level of urine protein is to prevent recurrence. If it takes a long time to lower the urine protein, but relapses after a little carelessness, the effect on kidney function still exists. To prevent the recurrence of urine protein, one is to prevent infection and enhance immunity. No matter what kind of kidney disease, the most feared is infection, and kidney disease is no exception. Prevention of infection is mainly to improve immunity, as well as timely diagnosis and treatment of basic infectious diseases, such as urinary infections and respiratory infections. The second is to try to avoid some factors that affect the stability of urine protein. Such as high-protein diet, overwork, smoking and drinking, etc. Compare and see where you have the problem? If there are problems, the treatment plan needs to be re-evaluated.

How much does my creatinine drop to prevent kidney failure? The doctor gave a standard answer,

The level of serum creatinine has undoubtedly become one of the “rulers” for measuring the quality of kidney disease. The higher the creatinine, the worse the kidney’s ability to detoxify, the urgent kidney function, and the “red light” of uremia has been lit. The increase in creatinine often changes with changes in renal function. If there is an acute progression of renal function, then creatinine will also increase rapidly. When the renal function stabilizes, the creatinine value drops accordingly. Therefore, to reduce blood creatinine, we must always pay attention to the condition of kidney function. As we all know, blood creatinine is an indicator to judge uremia, 707μmol/L is the warning line, more than 707μmol/L basically judges uremia. So, for nephrologists whose blood creatinine has increased, how much creatinine can be reduced to prevent renal failure? Nephrologists whose creatinine has increased but are still some distance from the “warning line” are in the middle stage of kidney disease. In the early stage of renal insufficiency or renal failure, if the condition can be dealt with in time, the stability of renal function can be maintained, the decline of glomerular filtration rate can be controlled, and the endogenous creatinine clearance rate can be increased, there is a chance to avoid renal failure completely. Generally speaking, it is a watershed for creatinine to be controlled below 440, and the risk of renal failure is significantly reduced. If it is controlled below 265, it is basically possible to say goodbye to renal failure. How to minimize the creatinine value and delay the progression of renal function? Pay attention to four aspects! Kidney blood flow The “nutrient solution” on which the remaining cells of the kidney depend for survival is the supply of blood and oxygen. The kidney cells that have undergone fibrosis, sclerosis and even necrosis are mainly caused by hypoxia and ischemia. To ensure the blood volume of the remaining kidney tissue is sufficient, on the one hand, it is necessary to promptly remove the “garbage” in the blood such as uric acid, urea nitrogen, creatinine and other metabolic waste products, on the other hand, to maintain the normal living environment of the kidney. To regulate kidney function, traditional Chinese medicine treatments, such as medicated baths, moxibustion, etc., can be used for external use and internal treatment to promote blood circulation and regulate metabolic levels. But the effect is relatively slow. Proteinuria and hypertension are the two major factors affecting the progression of renal function, mainly the leakage of urine protein and the stability of blood pressure. Significant decrease in urine protein can effectively delay the progression of renal function, while the stability of blood pressure ensures the blood supply to the kidneys. Therefore, lowering creatinine can not ignore these two aspects. Pay attention to the prevention of acute infection, which is more “gentle” to damage kidney function and increase creatinine compared with the previous two aspects. Infectious factors will make creatinine rise rapidly. Of course, even if it is found to be treated, creatinine rises quickly and drops quickly. But pay attention to the development of acute to chronic. Acute infections are often sudden, including internal infections and external infections, internal infections such as intestinal infections, urinary infections, etc., external infections are often easier to control such as colds, fever and so on. The key to controlling infection is to inhibit the development of inflammation, while enhancing immunity, which can effectively control the stable condition and stabilize creatinine. Maintain a healthy lifestyle Some daily behaviors not only quietly hurt the kidneys, but also increase creatinine levels. For example, smoking, drinking, staying up late, and not exercising for a long time, on the one hand, it will increase the burden of toxin metabolism in the kidneys, on the other hand, with poor immunity and slow metabolism, the decline of creatinine is naturally slow. A slow decrease in creatinine is not a good thing for the long-term kidney function, so don’t think it won’t help the treatment. No matter how small things are good for the condition, persist.