Renal cyst is one of the common diseases in urology. It refers to the appearance of cystic masses in the kidneys of different sizes and different from the outside world. The cysts are filled with light yellow transparent liquid, which are mostly found during physical examination. It rarely feels uncomfortable, and the patients are not only middle-aged and elderly men, but also young men and women who find kidney cysts. 1. The cause of renal cysts The reason why blisters grow on the kidneys is related to heredity, the development of renal tubules, kidney infections, and stones. There is a serous liquid in the blisters, and part of it is urine. 2. Classification of renal cysts Simple renal cysts are the most common, with one or more blisters, which generally do not feel much, and are usually found during physical examination. Although it is called a cyst, many people are frightened by the word “swelling” and think it is a tumor. In fact, it is benign and the disease progresses slowly. If it is co-infected, you will occasionally feel back pain. But don’t worry, it will not affect kidney function. The second type is polycystic kidney disease. There are many or even hundreds of cysts on the two kidneys, which not only compress the blood vessels but also destroy the kidney tissue, and even affect the kidney function; what is more disturbing is that it can be inherited. With the development of polycystic kidney disease, there may be a series of problems, such as infection and high blood pressure. It is especially important to beware that polycystic kidney disease may develop into renal failure and uremia. 3. What should I do if a renal cyst is found? Simple renal cysts are less than 5cm in diameter, and the kidneys are not compressed, have no infection, or high blood pressure. Generally, there is no need for treatment. Renal color Doppler ultrasound is reviewed every six months or a year. Attention, regular review, must have! If the cyst is larger than 5cm, the low back pain can obviously undergo a minor operation. The cyst wall on the surface of the cyst is cut off under a laparoscope to release the “water” accumulated in the cyst. The damage is small, the effect is good, and the safety is high. If the cyst is enlarged, remember to check the kidney function, especially the parapelvic cyst, to see if the kidney is damaged by the blisters. Polycystic kidneys are mainly used to control infection and blood pressure. If uremia develops, dialysis or kidney transplantation is required. 4. How to distinguish between renal cyst and cystic renal carcinoma. In clinical practice, there are many cases where cystic renal carcinoma is misdiagnosed as renal cyst. It didn’t take it seriously. In the end, the kidney had to be cut, and even worsened to death! This is because some cystic kidney cancers have lesions that look very similar to renal cysts, so they will inevitably be misdiagnosed. But don’t worry too much. Although patients with cystic kidney cancer do not have special physical discomfort in the early stage, they are mostly found during physical examination, but the two diseases can be distinguished by imaging examination. If you go to an irregular physical examination institution or poor examination equipment, the results are ambiguous. If you are not assured, it is recommended to go to a large hospital for a plain scan + enhanced thin-slice CT scan or MRI. If it is found that the inner wall is smooth without separation, it is a benign cyst; the inner wall is not smooth or there are nodules with separation, especially if the inner wall has irregular nodules and there are enhanced nodules on the enhanced CT scan, it is likely to be cystic kidney cancer! Facts have proved that most of the clinically cut lesions in this situation are cystic kidney cancer! If cystic kidney cancer is misdiagnosed, puncture pumping or topping decompression surgery in accordance with the treatment of renal cysts will bring catastrophic consequences. The diagnosis result directly determines the treatment plan, so everyone must go to a regular large hospital for physical examination regularly to confirm the diagnosis, and know the consequences of treatment due to misdiagnosis, which is even more terrible!
This problem is divided into two cases. The first is hematuria without knowing whether there is kidney cancer; the second is hematuria and the diagnosis of kidney cancer. These two situations are different. This answer will analyze these two situations separately. The first situation: Hematuria occurs when kidney cancer has not been diagnosed. First of all, we have to make sure that hematuria is not a disease, but a symptom. There are many diseases hidden behind this symptom, and kidney Cancer is just one of them. Therefore, from this perspective, hematuria is not necessarily caused by kidney cancer, because it may be caused by other diseases. Common diseases that cause hematuria are: Urinary tract infections: For example, our common infectious diseases such as cystitis, urethritis and pyelonephritis are often accompanied by hematuria. Of course, there are various types of infections. Some are General bacterial infections, some are specific infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After the pathogenic bacteria infect the human urinary system, the pathogen itself will invade the mucosa, and also cause local inflammation, causing bleeding of the urinary system mucosa. Urinary tract infections are usually accompanied by symptoms of urinary tract irritation, such as frequent urination, urgency, and dysuria. Severe infections will also have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, etc., so if hematuria occurs, these symptoms are also accompanied , Should first consider urinary tract infection, not kidney cancer. Urinary calculi: Urinary calculi are a very common type of disease in the urinary tract. Kidney stones, ureteral stones, bladder stones and urethral stones are all urinary stones, and now the most common are kidney stones and ureteral stones. There are two main reasons for hematuria caused by stones. One is the physical stimulation of the stones, because stones will stimulate the mucosa of the urinary system and may be obstructed; on the other hand, stones in the urinary system can cause local infection and inflammation. , Causing hematuria. Urinary stones are often accompanied by symptoms of pain and urinary tract irritation. Therefore, stones should be considered first when such symptoms appear. Urinary system tumors: The incidence of urinary system malignant tumors is increasing. Urinary system tumors that can cause hematuria include kidney cancer, renal pelvis cancer, ureteral cancer and bladder cancer. Urinary system tumors have no special symptoms in the early stage, and many people are not aware of them. After the symptoms appear, they are often in the middle and late stages, including hematuria. Tumors cause hematuria because the tumor can invade the surrounding normal tissues and destroy blood vessels. There are also blood vessels in the tumor itself. If the tumor ruptures, there will be symptoms of hematuria. Urinary system trauma: When encountering traumas such as car accidents, falls, crush injuries, etc., the urinary system is damaged, and the symptoms of hematuria will naturally appear. This situation is easier to distinguish, because everyone knows when they are injured. . Nephrology related diseases: These diseases are mainly various types of nephritis, such as acute glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, etc. This type of disease mainly destroys the microstructure of the kidney, such as Glomerulus, renal tubules. This type of disease not only has symptoms of hematuria, but also manifestations of proteinuria, edema, and hypertension. Other systemic diseases: Many systemic diseases also have hematuria symptoms, such as leukemia and other diseases caused by coagulation dysfunction. Exercise-induced hematuria and unexplained hematuria: Some people will have hematuria after exercise, and some people will also have hematuria for no reason. After examination, no abnormality is found. This type of hematuria is recommended to be reviewed regularly. Urine is red, but not real hematuria: What we mean by hematuria refers to the presence of red blood cells in the urine, but in some cases, such as eating red dragon fruit, beetroot and other foods or drinks can also make the urine change It turns red, but it is not hematuria, and some are caused by drugs. This type of hematuria cannot be regarded as real hematuria, but the urine is red. Red dragon fruit can also make urine red. From the above common diseases that can cause hematuria, kidney cancer is only one of the diseases. Therefore, hematuria is not necessarily an advanced kidney cancer, and on the other hand, kidney cancer may not necessarily occur. There are manifestations of hematuria, so it is not comprehensive to diagnose kidney cancer through hematuria or even to judge whether the kidney cancer is advanced. The second situation: kidney cancer is diagnosed at the same time as hematuria. We mentioned earlier that there is no obvious clinical manifestation of kidney cancer in the early stage.
As a doctor, every time I go out to eat with non-doctor friends, I will be asked various medical questions: What to eat to prevent cancer? My waist is uncomfortable these days, is it kidney deficiency? Will kidney deficiency become kidney cancer? It is not completely unfounded that everyone is so scared about cancer. There are more and more people suffering from cancer, and they tend to be younger. In the past, most of the cancer patients we saw were elderly people, but now we can often see young people getting cancer, and it is more dangerous. The youngest kidney cancer patient I have ever seen is 26 years old, and it was discovered during the physical examination. Today, I will talk to you about how to judge whether you have kidney cancer, and how to diagnose kidney cancer. According to clinical symptoms, renal cancer has no special clinical manifestations in the early stage, so it is difficult to detect the existence of renal cancer through self-perception. When kidney cancer has some clinical manifestations, it has often entered the middle and advanced stages. The clinical manifestations of kidney cancer mainly include: pain in the waist and abdomen of the affected side, hematuria, lumps in the waist and abdomen, weight loss, fatigue, and low-grade fever. These clinical symptoms are not very specific, which means that these symptoms are likely to be other diseases, not kidney cancer, so after these symptoms, you still need to go to the hospital for diagnosis and diagnosis. The clinical symptoms of kidney cancer are basically advanced. Does it mean that kidney cancer is difficult to detect early? It used to be like this. Many kidney cancer patients were already at an advanced stage when they were discovered. At that time, the economy was relatively backward, and the people didn’t have the money or health consciousness to do physical examinations. But now this situation has changed a lot. Not only have people’s awareness of physical examinations improved, but physical examinations are also held during school enrollment, employment, and normal work. Therefore, many kidney cancers are now discovered during physical examinations. Here I want to say that kidney cancer can be detected early, but the early detection is not always early kidney cancer, but no matter what, physical examination is still the best way to detect kidney cancer early. What are the common tests used to detect kidney cancer? The inspections for most diseases are carried out in the order of first simple and then complex, first non-invasive to invasive. Checking in this order can avoid unnecessary pain to the patient and save a lot of medical resources. For example, if the patient has hematuria, he can’t get a renal biopsy or cystoscopy directly. Instead, ask the medical history first, judge what the problem is based on the clinical situation, and then perform non-invasive tests such as urine routine and color Doppler ultrasound. Finally, if there is It is necessary to do cystoscopy again. With regard to the examination of kidney cancer, the following are commonly used: Urine routine: Although the urine routine is very cheap, but the effect is very large, the main purpose is to know whether there are red blood cells, white blood cells, bacteria and proteinuria in the patient’s urine. Because these tests can reflect the general condition of the patient, there are often unexpected findings, such as large amounts of proteinuria, bacteriuria, etc. Although these tests are simple, they have certain meanings for diagnosis and treatment. Renal function: Renal function is mainly derived from the blood creatinine concentration in the blood tested by blood tests. The purpose is to understand whether the patient’s renal function is normal. For example, some patients have poor renal function, which may become worse after surgery. At this time preoperative evaluation becomes very important. Ultrasound: Ultrasound is relatively economical and convenient in imaging examinations, and it is non-invasive. It is very suitable for screening and is very helpful for preliminary judgment of the nature of renal mass. CT: Today’s imaging technology is getting better and better. CT is the most important and best test for kidney cancer. In particular, enhanced CT has greatly increased the diagnosis rate of kidney cancer. Some patients need not only CT related to the urinary system, but also lung CT, the main purpose is to determine whether there is metastasis. MRI: MRI is also very helpful for kidney cancer examination. MRI is mainly for imaging the details of soft tissues. For kidney cancer, these are the main tests. Other tests can be performed according to the specific situation. For example, when bone metastasis is suspected, a bone scan can be done. Some patients who have undergone surgery will have questions. He said that he had done more than these checks before surgery. This is the case. Many other tests are routine tests, mainly for preparing for surgery, such as electrocardiogram, heart function, blood coagulation, liver function immunity, blood type, blood sugar, blood pressure, etc. For example, if the patient’s blood clotting is not good and it is not found before the operation, the incision will bleed continuously during the operation. This situation is not only difficult to perform the operation, but more dangerously, the bleeding may not only threaten the patient’s life. Finally, the doctor based on the patient’s symptoms, signs and these checks
As of January 2019, the National Cancer Center released the “National Cancer Statistics”. The data showed that deaths from malignant tumors accounted for 23.91% of all deaths. Kidney cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the genitourinary system, accounting for about adults. 3% of malignant tumors account for 80-90% of adult renal malignant tumors. Moreover, the incidence and fatality rate of kidney cancer in the world are showing a rapid upward trend. The incidence of kidney cancer in my country has been increasing at an average annual rate of 6.5% in the past 20 years, ranking first among urinary system tumor-related deaths. Among them, about 20-30% of patients diagnosed with kidney cancer are at the advanced stage, and a quarter of patients have metastasized at the time of initial diagnosis, and the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis is less than 10%. As of 2017, kidney cancer has become the 9th most common male malignant tumor in my country. Therefore, it is necessary to talk to everyone about kidney cancer. Male friends must pay attention to it and take notes carefully. Kidney cancer. Kidney cancer must be related to the “kidney”. What is the kidney? Kidney, what we are talking about here is an organ in the body, which is what we usually call “waist”. As shown in the picture below ↓ Generally, if there is no problem, everyone will have 2 kidneys, hidden on both sides of our spine, one on each side. As an important organ of our human body, the kidney mainly functions as a “sieve”. Simply put, it is an organ that keeps the substances needed by the human body and expels the unnecessary things. As for where to discharge from, it depends on you two “holes” up and down. Kidney cancer means that some weird seed bags have grown on your kidneys. The cause of kidney cancer The cause of kidney cancer is still unclear, but the factors of kidney cancer may be related to the following: People who smoke and smoke must have seen the words on the cigarette box: Smoking is harmful to your health, and quitting as soon as possible is good for your health. According to research, smoking can increase the incidence of kidney cancer, and the incidence can be reduced by stopping smoking for more than 25 years. Practitioners who are exposed to occupational cadmium are more likely to get kidney cancer than those who do not. In addition, coke oven workers, printers and practitioners engaged in petrochemical work have a relatively high incidence of kidney cancer. Urban, Rural and Cultural Economic Status According to data, the incidence of kidney cancer among urban residents is higher than that of rural residents. The use of hormones and drugs. Hormone can increase the incidence of kidney cancer. Long-term use of diuretic drugs in patients with hypertension can also increase the incidence of kidney cancer. Other factors renal insufficiency, and long-term dialysis patients are prone to kidney cancer. In addition, obesity, history of blood transfusion, radiation, drinking, food and other factors may be related to the onset of kidney cancer.
If kidney cancer has distant metastasis, it is at an advanced stage, and the stage is also the highest-level stage IV. There is almost no possibility of cure. What can be done is to improve the quality of life of the patient as much as possible so that the patient will suffer less. Factors that affect the survival of kidney cancer The most important factors that affect the survival of kidney cancer are pathological staging, that is, the size of the kidney cancer, the extent of invasion, whether there is lymphatic metastasis, and whether there is distant metastasis. Other factors such as the histopathological classification of renal cell carcinoma are also factors that affect the prognosis. The Fuhrman classification is the most commonly used. The higher the classification, the worse the prognosis. How long is the survival period of advanced kidney cancer? Kidney cancer has a poor prognosis in malignant tumors of the urinary system, but in general cancers, the prognosis of kidney cancer is considered good. Many kidney cancers still have a longer survival time than other cancers in their advanced stages. The prognosis of kidney cancer is not determined solely by the subjective judgment of doctors. We have certain standards, among which the most commonly used is the prognostic risk factor score for metastatic kidney cancer established by UCLA. The above is the patient’s situation, the last one is considered as one high-risk factor, the two are two high-risk factors, and so on. Among them, the Karnofsky score is the physical status score, which is mainly based on the general state of the patient. If the score is lower than 80, it is considered a high-risk factor. According to the number of risk factors, it can be divided into three groups: low risk, medium risk and high risk. Low risk: no risk factors; 5-year survival rate is 90%. Moderate risk: 1-2 risk factors; 5-year survival rate is 62%. High risk: With 3 or more risk factors, the 5-year survival rate is 42%. The above is just a statistical result, a concept of a group, if it is specific to a certain person, there are two choices of 100% and 0. If there are more risk factors, the prognosis will be worse. Regarding the cure of advanced kidney cancer, I myself have never seen a cured patient, nor have I heard any official reports. Don’t believe in the native methods that can cure advanced cancer, so as not to be deceived.
Physical examination found that renal cysts can be divided into three categories: the first category is simple renal cysts: don’t worry about this situation, half of people over 50 years old will have renal cysts, if not more than 5 cm, it is not important to oppress The location can be left untreated. Observe the follow-up. The second category is polycystic kidney disease: polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disease. Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by multiple kidney cysts, like genetic grapes. Polycystic kidney disease is incurable, and can only control blood pressure, treat large cysts, control complications, and observe follow-up. The third type is cystic kidney cancer: cystic kidney cancer is a type of kidney cancer, and its manifestation is similar to cysts. Cystic kidney cancer should be actively treated after discovery. Simple renal cysts Simple renal cysts are a very common disease. Half of the people over the age of 50 have renal cysts. The kidney cyst is filled with cystic fluid and has a thin wall. The specific cause of the kidney cyst is unknown. Simple renal cysts are benign diseases and generally have no serious consequences. If complications such as rupture, bleeding, infection, and compression occur in the cyst, it is not a big problem as long as it can be found in time. CT images of simple renal cysts Simple renal cysts are a very common disease. Half of people over the age of 50 have renal cysts. The kidney cyst is filled with cystic fluid and has a thin wall. The specific cause of the kidney cyst is unknown. Simple renal cysts are benign diseases and generally have no serious consequences. If complications such as rupture, bleeding, infection, and compression occur in the cyst, it is not a big problem as long as it can be found in time. Most simple renal cysts do not need treatment. Those under 5 cm can be observed and followed up; those over 5 cm can choose surgical treatment. There are two main methods of surgical treatment: ultrasound-guided puncture and extraction of renal cysts: using ultrasound fluoroscopy, puncture the renal cyst with a puncture needle, draw the cystic fluid out, and then drive the cyst wall with anhydrous alcohol into the cyst, To destroy the secretory function of the bladder wall, the alcohol can be drawn back into it, repeated 2-3 times, to achieve the purpose of treatment. Puncture pumping is easy to operate and has little trauma, but it has a certain recurrence rate. Laparoscopic decompression of renal cysts: a part of the kidney cyst wall was cut off by laparoscopy, the cyst fluid was washed out, hemostatic with an electric knife, the bladder wall was burned, and the structure of the cyst was destroyed to achieve the purpose of treatment. Laparoscopic surgery is slightly more invasive, but the recurrence rate is low. Polycystic kidney disease Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disease, and the dominant inheritance is more. Although polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary disease, the incidence of most patients is found in middle age. Its clinical feature is that it cannot be cured. The kidneys are covered with large and small cysts. These cysts will cause certain pressure on normal kidney tissues. Over time, kidney function will gradually lose. If the life span is long enough, this disease The final outcome is uremia. Polycystic kidney CT: Both kidneys are covered with large and small cysts, and like grape bunches, there is a clear difference compared with simple renal cysts. The purpose of treatment for polycystic kidney disease is to extend renal function as much as possible. Regular physical examination. If a large cyst is found, it can be treated surgically. Kidneys with polycystic kidney disease basically have high blood pressure. High blood pressure will affect kidney function, so controlling blood pressure is a very important task. If complications such as cyst ulceration, infection, bleeding, etc., active treatment is required, because these factors will accelerate the deterioration of kidney function. Cystic kidney cancer Cystic kidney cancer is kidney cancer, but it exhibits cyst-like performance during growth, either cystic growth or cystic necrosis of the tumor. CT manifestations of simple renal cysts are often thin and smooth, without enhancement, uniform cystic fluid, oral separation, calcification, and blood clots, while the performance of cystic kidney cancer is complex, and the cyst wall is often not smooth and enhanced In the foci, the cysts are separated and calcified, and the cyst fluid is often not uniform, and some tissue suspension and blood clots may appear. Cystic kidney cancer CT: enhanced cyst wall and uneven cyst fluid. Cystic kidney cancer is a type of malignant tumor, so it should be actively treated after discovery. The main treatment methods are comprehensive treatment methods such as surgery, radiotherapy, and targeted drugs. Summary Renal cysts are very common diseases. Most of them are simple renal cysts, which will not cause great harm. If you suspect that it is polycystic kidney disease or cystic kidney cancer, the doctor will recommend you to further check. But even simple renal cysts need to be followed up regularly, and ultrasound should be checked once a year to understand the situation.
Kidney cancer can be inherited. If divided according to whether it is inherited, kidney cancer is divided into sporadic and familial. The so-called sporadic refers to those sporadic cases that have no obvious genetic tendency, which is also the most common; the other is renal cancer with obvious family aggregation, called hereditary kidney cancer or familial kidney cancer, which The proportion of kidney cancer is still relatively small, accounting for 2%-4% of the total kidney cancer. Types and characteristics of hereditary kidney cancer: More than one person in the family of hereditary kidney cancer has a history of kidney cancer, so an important feature is the obvious heredity. Moreover, the onset time of hereditary kidney cancer is earlier than that of sporadic kidney cancer. We know that clinically seen kidney cancer patients are basically unilateral kidneys, and rarely have bilateral kidney cancer. This is a characteristic of sporadic kidney cancer, but patients with inherited kidney cancer have bilateral kidney disease. The probability is higher, because they were born with genetic defects. Regarding the genetic characteristics, I will understand the case of a case investigation. A family of hereditary kidney cancer that Cohen investigated. There were 10 kidney cancer patients in three generations, 6 of which were bilateral kidney cancer. The median age was only 45 years old. Type: Hereditary kidney cancer is mainly divided into three types of autosomal dominant non-papillary cell carcinoma: mainly caused by translocation of the short arm of chromosome 3. In fact, 95% of patients with sporadic kidney cancer also have changes in the short arm of chromosome 3. This shows that there are genes closely related to kidney cancer on the short arm of chromosome 3. VHL disease: This is a genetic disease that often has retinal hemangioma, cerebellar hemangioma, etc. Kidney cancer is only one of the manifestations, and the incidence rate is about 45%. This disease is called this name because it is related to mutations in the VHL gene. Autosomal dominant papillary cell carcinoma: The main difference between this and the first type is that this inheritance is papillary carcinoma, and the first one is all except papillary carcinoma. In summary, kidney cancer is inherited, but the proportion of inherited kidney cancer is not high. If it is inherited kidney cancer, it will also have obvious characteristics. Many people may worry that their elders have kidney cancer, so will it be inherited to themselves. In fact, this situation is a good judgment. If the incidence of kidney cancer in your two generations is significantly higher, and there are more bilaterals, it may be inherited kidney cancer, which may be inherited by you; but if the elder is Kidney cancer is only one within three generations. This condition is often sporadic and has little to do with heredity.
Why do most kidney cancer men? The ratio of kidney cancer to male to female is close to 2:1, the incidence in urban areas is four times that in rural areas, and the high incidence age is 50-70 years old. Although smoking is an important risk factor for kidney cancer, and there are more male smokers than women, it cannot be simply considered that the difference in the incidence of kidney cancer between men and women is entirely caused by smoking. Studies have shown that the incidence of kidney cancer may be related to sex hormones, but the specific reason is not fully understood. The main risk factors for kidney cancer are: Smoking: Smoking is a relatively certain risk factor. Heredity: According to whether inherited, kidney cancer can be divided into inherited kidney cancer and sporadic kidney cancer. Investigations have shown that in a family of inherited kidney cancer, there are 10 kidney cancer patients in three generations. However, most patients with kidney cancer are sporadic. Exposure to poisons: Long-term exposure to some chemical poisons and radioactive substances, such as harmful metals, printing, chemicals, dry cleaning, and petrochemicals, etc. These are also risk factors for kidney cancer. Drugs, diet, and obesity: Chinese medicine containing aristolochic acid has been very determined to be related to kidney failure and kidney cancer. Many studies have shown that body mass index is related to kidney cancer (obesity), and long-term high animal protein, fat diet and lack of fresh vegetables and fruits in the diet may be related to kidney cancer. Therefore, we can roughly conclude that men have different roles in social life, relatively more exposure to cigarettes and some toxic substances, and kidney cancer may be related to sex hormones. Under the combined effect of these factors, male kidney cancer The incidence is higher than that of women. How to detect kidney cancer early There is only one way to find kidney cancer early: that is physical examination. Early tumors have no symptoms, and people have no fluoroscopic eyes. How can they be found? It can only be found by physical examination. The main items of the medical examination are medical imaging: ultrasound, CT and nuclear magnetic. What kind of people need early medical examination? If there are several high-risk factors for kidney cancer, it is recommended to conduct an earlier medical examination. For example, there are kidney cancer patients in the family, long-term heavy smoking, working in chemical plants and printing plants.
In modern people, anemia patients are more common. Don’t think that smoking and drinking are just “little habits” in life, and it will inadvertently invade your kidneys; don’t think that only the three major symptoms of hematuria, low back pain and lumps will indicate the crisis of your kidneys. In fact, anemia, high fever and other extrarenal manifestations may also be early “signal soldiers” of kidney tumors. Early symptoms outside the kidney also have a warning effect. The kidney is the main organ of the urinary system. It generates and excretes urine, excretes metabolic wastes and harmful substances, and absorbs useful substances; it can be used to regulate water, osmotic pressure, and acid-base balance. Maintain the stability of the environment in the body. It can be said that the kidney is an important organ to maintain the normal life activities of the human body. In recent years, the incidence of kidney tumors has been increasing year by year. When many patients find a diagnosis, the disease has often entered a more critical stage. The reason for tracing is mainly because most people fail to find the “signal” of kidney disease early. In response to this phenomenon, experts pointed out that the clinical manifestations of kidney cancer vary widely. In addition to the three typical symptoms of hematuria, low back pain and mass, there are many extrarenal manifestations of non-urinary system such as high fever, abnormal liver function, anemia, hypertension, polycythemia and hypercalcemia in kidney cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to whether these indicators and performance outside the kidney are abnormal. Smoking and alcohol abuse can accelerate the pathogenesis. At present, the etiology of kidney tumors is still not fully understood. Studies have shown that aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, aflatoxins, hormones, radiation and viruses can cause kidney cancer; and certain genetic diseases such as tuberous sclerosis and multiple neurofibroma can also be combined Renal cell carcinoma. In addition, kidney stones combined with renal pelvis cancer may be related to local long-term chronic stimulation. In addition, another important “catalyst” for kidney cancer is smoking. Clinical data shows that the incidence of kidney cancer in severe smokers is higher than that in mild smokers, and the length of smoking time is directly related to the prevalence. This is mainly because the dimethylnitrosamine component in tobacco may cause kidney cancer. Therefore, experts advise everyone not to ignore the harmful effects of smoking and alcoholism, which are bad habits in daily life and rest. Long-term smoking combined with other risk factors such as alcoholism and occupational exposure can further increase the risk of developing kidney cancer.
In modern people, anemia patients are more common. Don’t think that smoking and drinking are just “little bad habits” in life, it will inadvertently invade your kidneys; don’t think that only the three major symptoms of hematuria, low back pain and lumps indicate her kidneys’ pathological crisis. In fact, anemia, high fever and other extrarenal manifestations may also be early “signal soldiers” of kidney tumors. Early symptoms outside the kidney also have a warning effect. The kidney is the main organ of the urinary system. It produces and excretes urine, excretes metabolic waste and harmful substances, and absorbs useful substances; it can be used to regulate water, osmotic pressure, and acid-base balance. Maintain the stability of the environment in the body. It can be said that the kidney is an important organ to maintain the normal life activities of the human body. In recent years, the incidence of kidney tumors has been increasing year by year. When many patients find a diagnosis, the disease has often entered a more critical stage. The reason for tracing is mainly because most people fail to find the “signal” of kidney disease early. In response to this phenomenon, experts pointed out that the clinical manifestations of kidney cancer vary widely. In addition to the three typical symptoms of hematuria, low back pain and mass, there are many extrarenal manifestations of non-urinary system such as high fever, abnormal liver function, anemia, hypertension, polycythemia and hypercalcemia in kidney cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to whether these indicators and performance outside the kidney are abnormal. Smoking and alcohol abuse can accelerate the disease At present, the etiology of kidney tumors is not yet fully understood. Studies have shown that aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, aflatoxins, hormones, radiation, and viruses can cause kidney cancer; and certain genetic diseases such as tuberous sclerosis, multiple neurofibroma, etc. can also be combined Renal cell carcinoma. In addition, kidney stones combined with renal pelvis cancer may be related to local long-term chronic stimulation. In addition, another important “catalyst” of kidney cancer is smoking. Clinical data shows that the incidence of kidney cancer in severe smokers is higher than that in mild smokers, and the length of smoking time is directly related to the prevalence. This is mainly because the dimethylnitrosamine component in tobacco may cause kidney cancer. Therefore, experts warn everyone not to ignore the harmful effects of smoking and alcoholism, which are bad habits in daily life and rest. Long-term smoking and other risk factors such as alcoholism and occupational exposure can further increase the risk of kidney cancer.
Kidney cancer is a common malignant tumor of the human urinary system, and renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of case, accounting for 80% -90% of kidney malignant tumors. Kidney cancer has a certain relationship with smoking, genetics, obesity and high blood pressure. The treatment methods for kidney cancer include surgery, immunotherapy, targeted drug treatment and radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Surgical treatment is a very important treatment for kidney cancer. Today I will talk about the surgical treatment of kidney cancer. The surgical treatments for kidney cancer mainly include radical nephrectomy and nephron-sparing surgery. If metastasis occurs, regional lymphadenectomy, venous cancer thrombectomy, metastasis resection, and metastasis can also be performed according to the specific situation. Tumor reduction surgery for excision of the primary kidney. Radical nephrectomy with the word “radical” in cancer surgery can theoretically completely remove the tumor through surgery. Although there is the possibility of recurrence and metastasis after surgery, there is no pre-operative examination. If evidence of metastasis is found, if the metastasis occurs, the goal of radical cure cannot be achieved, and surgery cannot be called radical cure. It can only be said to be tumor reduction. Radical nephrectomy is suitable for patients with localized renal cancer with clinical stage I and II. TNM stage corresponds to stage T1N0M0 and T2N0M0. Simply put, the tumor is limited to the kidney. No matter how big the tumor is, as long as the tumor is limited to the kidney and there is no lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis, you can choose radical surgery for kidney cancer. Radical nephrectomy has a relatively large range of resection, not only to remove the entire affected kidney, but also to remove the peri-renal fascia, peri-renal fat and ureter on the affected side. In the past, the adrenal glands and regional lymph nodes on the same side were also removed, but now The claim is not cut. Cancer surgery must ensure the principle of no tumor, so a certain safe distance must be guaranteed. At present, the surgical methods of radical surgery for kidney cancer mainly include laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery and traditional open surgery. The resection ranges of these three operations are the same, but the methods are different. Laparoscopy and robotic surgery are relatively less invasive. Recovery is faster. Reserving nephron operation Preserving nephron operation is also called partial nephrectomy, which means that only the tumor is completely removed, and it is not necessary to remove the entire kidney. If the tumor is relatively small, partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy have the same treatment effect, but they can retain a kidney. The main indications for partial nephrectomy: the tumor is limited to the kidney and the diameter is less than 4cm. You can choose partial nephrectomy instead of radical resection; some experts believe that you can also choose partial for 4-7cm localized tumors cut. Partial resection is selected in this case because the postoperative effect is similar to radical surgery. If the patient has this kidney for various reasons, or the contralateral renal function has failed, a partial renal excision is also made for this situation. Because if a radical operation is done, such a patient will have no kidneys, and it will inevitably develop uremia after surgery. Patients with bilateral kidney cancer also choose partial nephrectomy. This principle is the same as before, because the choice of total nephrectomy will result in no kidney available for postoperative patients. The surgical method of partial nephrectomy is the same as radical nephrectomy, which is divided into laparoscopic, robot-assisted and traditional open surgery. The scope of surgical resection is the same, and the recovery is relatively fast after minimally invasive surgery. How to choose surgical treatment for metastatic kidney cancer? If kidney cancer has metastasized, it means that it cannot be removed by surgery, and the effect of surgery will be discounted. However, kidney cancer is a relatively good prognosis tumor. Many studies have shown that if the patient’s condition permits, kidney cancer occurs even Transfer, surgical treatment is also helpful to patients. Common surgical methods include: regional lymph node dissection: if there is suspicion or clear lymphatic metastasis, lymph node dissection can be performed. Renal vein or vena cava tumor thrombectomy: because of renal vein invasion of the vein, mild renal vein invasion only, severe vena cava invasion, the severity depends on whether the tumor has violated the vein wall. In this case, the tumor thrombus can also be removed by surgery, and even a part of the vein wall must be cut. This operation is extremely difficult, and the risk of surgery is relatively high. Primary tumor reduction surgery: Although this operation does not achieve the goal of radical cure, it can prolong life and improve quality of life. Surgical treatment of metastatic foci: This type of surgery is suitable for patients with solitary metastases. It is not suitable for multiple metastases. Too much metastasis can not be cut, and the significance of surgery is not great. Many cancers do not advocate surgery on metastases if they have metastasized
Two months ago, Hao Hao discovered the late stage of kidney cancer. This news is like a thunderbolt for the family. “You are too ignorant.” After tracing Hao Hao’s life in detail, the doctor only regretted that everything seemed to be explained. Haohao ’s parents run a company and get up early every day, especially busy. Since there was no time to make breakfast, Hao Hao’s mother hoarded some bread at home, and every morning a bottle of milk and a bag of bread were stuffed into a school bag for Hao Hao to take to school. This eating is 7 years. “In recent years, my father and I have no time to take care of the children in order to make money and buy a house in this city. When I found out that he was thin, I thought I was about to start growing up, and I was a little happy in my heart. Unexpectedly … “Recalling the past, Hao Hao’s mother was in pain. That day, Hao Hao’s stomach hurt badly, and Hao Hao’s mother thought she had eaten the wrong thing and asked her younger sister-in-law to take him to the hospital for examination. The attending doctor was taken aback—there was a lump in his stomach that he could not detect without careful palpation. The doctor immediately performed a laboratory test and puncture biopsy. The results showed that Haohao’s liver and kidney functions were severely damaged, and it was diagnosed as advanced kidney cancer! More seriously, the cancer has already metastasized, involving the liver. Can bread actually cause cancer? Points situation! After reading the above case, do you find it incomprehensible: the bread you usually eat can actually cause cancer! In fact, regular and qualified bread has no carcinogenic risk, but some breads with illegal additives have to be vigilant. In 2018, India issued a directive that comprehensively banned the use of potassium bromate as a food additive in any food. The origin is traced to the fact that the baked goods produced in the Indian capital New Delhi have been tested for the carcinogenic chemical potassium bromate. These bread brands include some well-known fast food and bakery shops. Potassium bromate is a flour treatment agent and an additive to noodle products, which can make the bread softer. In fact, under ideal baking conditions, potassium bromate is converted to bromide, which is harmless to the human body. However, due to various reasons in actual operation, potassium bromate cannot be converted into bromide, resulting in direct intake by the human body. Potassium bromate is difficult to decompose after entering the human body, and it will have acute toxicological effects when it reaches a certain dose. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, hemorrhage, and diarrhea. In severe cases, renal tubular necrosis and liver damage, methemoglobinemia, and hearing damage can occur. Long-term ingestion can cause kidney cancer. In the 1990s, the World Health Organization determined that potassium bromate was carcinogenic. Since then, most countries, including China, have explicitly banned the addition of potassium bromate to food. How to buy safe and secure bread? With the improvement of living standards, people’s footsteps have become hurriedly busy, and there is no more free time to get up in the morning to cook a rich breakfast, replaced by a variety of bread. Bread is delicious and convenient, and many children are willing to eat it. However, some merchants will add potassium bromate illegally when making it in order to make the bread look better and attract consumers. In 2005, the Ministry of Health of China issued an announcement banning the use of potassium bromate as a flour treatment agent in wheat flour. The announcement also stipulates that the residual amount of potassium bromate in flour bakery should not exceed 30PPM (maximum usage 0.03g / kg), that is, it cannot exceed 30mg per kg. However, in the face of businesses that are frantically tempted on the verge of breaking the law, and faced with all kinds of bread, how can we identify whether the bread is safe? First of all, the bread is not as white as possible. The good bread is pale yellow when baked. The bread added with potassium bromate looks whiter, and some are even golden and bright. Gently touching the skin has good elasticity and toughness, so Do not choose bread that is too white or too yellow but has no bright colors when buying. Secondly, the bread added with potassium bromate will be more bulky and larger, with unparalleled softness, and the structure of the bread core is perfect when cut. However, the degree of bulkiness is also related to the manufacturing method, so this can only be used as an auxiliary reference. In addition to bread, the common noodles on the market have also experienced the addition of potassium bromate. Therefore, when we buy bread, noodles and other foods, in addition to learning whether to add potassium bromate, we should also try to buy regular brands, pay attention to see the production date, manufacturer, brand and other factors. Finally, we should remind everyone that eating bread often leads to indigestion, and a balanced diet is the best way to maintain health.
The triad of kidney cancer: hematuria, abdominal mass, and low back pain. However, this is a typical symptom. At present, such a typical triad has rarely appeared. Because of the application of physical examination, color Doppler ultrasound, CT and other tests, many kidney cancers are discovered in a very small time, and even these symptoms are not even present. If you feel a mass or low back pain, it means that the tumor is bigger and there is hematuria, which means that the tumor has invaded the renal collection system and caused hematuria. The prognosis is definitely worse than that without hematuria. So if there is hematuria, it must be transferred? That is not the case. Kidney cancer, like many tumor metastases, is divided into lymphatic tract, blood metastasis, and direct invasion. In the end, whether there is metastasis needs to be checked. If there is local invasion into nearby organs, CT and MRI can be clear, and if there is distant metastasis, CT, MRI or PET-CT should be checked. In summary, kidney cancer with hematuria does not necessarily have metastasis.
According to data from related studies in the United States, in any field of cancer, men have a higher risk of disease than women, and the mortality rate will be higher. Cancer, the sooner you find it, the sooner you see a doctor, the more hope you have for survival. You can find it through some early physical abnormalities, and then judge whether there is a possibility of cure. Because men are the main group of cancer, they should understand these related knowledge earlier and take precautions early. & nbsp.1. & nbsp.Prostate cancer: This is the most common malignant tumor of the male reproductive system and the second most common male cancer in the world. It is more common in men over the age of 60. Since there is no obvious performance in the early stage, even if there is discomfort, It is easy to be ignored by people, so early judgment is more difficult. & nbsp. (Male health issues, click here to consult) 2. & nbsp. Lung cancer: Lung cancer is currently the most common cancer disease in China, with more than 610,000 deaths each year, making people pay more attention to this disease. Among the causes of lung cancer, smoking is the most high-risk factor. As the main group of smoking, men naturally become the main group of death caused by lung cancer. Liver cancer: One-half of the global population of liver cancer is in the country, and men are the most common population, five times more than women. The main population of liver cancer is middle-aged men aged 40-50 years, and is related to drinking, viral hepatitis, eating moldy food, genetics and so on. In the early stage, there are often no symptoms, and in the late stage there is pain, fever, and fatigue in the liver area. Early detection has the potential to be cured, while in the middle and late stages, the situation is complicated, and the difference in effect is very obvious. & nbsp. (Male health issues, click here to consult) 4. & nbsp. Kidney cancer: Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor originating from the renal parenchymal urinary epithelial system. Kidney cancer accounts for about 2% -3% of adult malignant tumors, accounting for adult kidneys. 80% -90% of malignant tumors. The situation in different countries or regions around the world is different. In general, the population of kidney cancer in developed countries is higher than that in developing countries, urban areas are higher than rural areas, there are more men than women, and the ratio of male and female patients is about 2: 1. Age can be seen in all ages, with a high incidence age of 50-70 years. The main cause of kidney cancer is unknown, and the related factors related to the incidence of kidney cancer are genetic, smoking, obesity, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. Colorectal cancer: Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor, including colon cancer and rectal cancer. Its incidence is closely related to lifestyle, genetics, colorectal adenoma, etc. The age tends to be aging, the ratio of men to women is 1.65: 1 , Related to high fat and low fiber diet, chronic inflammation of large intestine, colorectal adenoma, heredity and smoking. Early performance is not obvious, only feeling uncomfortable, indigestion, fecal occult blood, etc., later manifested as changes in stool habits, abdominal pain, blood in the stool, abdominal mass, intestinal obstruction, etc., with or without systemic symptoms such as anemia, fever and weight loss.