How to eat for dialysis patients: pay attention to several key points of dialysis diet

When chronic kidney disease progresses to the terminal stage (which is what we usually call the uremic stage), the remaining kidney function cannot eliminate the uremic toxins and metabolites in the body, and the patient needs dialysis treatment. Most of the metabolic waste produced by food needs to be removed by dialysis. Therefore, the removal of dialysis and the intake of patients must be balanced to ensure that the body is in a good state. Otherwise, it will cause serious complications such as high blood pressure, high potassium, high phosphorus, and heart failure. Symptoms occur. How to eat for dialysis patients: Pay attention to several key points of the dialysis diet. Whether it is hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, the adequacy of the patient’s treatment, the length of survival, and the quality of life are directly related to whether the patient follows the dietary principles. Therefore, nutritional therapy is a very important part for dialysis patients. So how should dialysis patients eat? Next, let’s talk about the key points of dialysis diet. How to eat dialysis patients: Pay attention to the key points of dialysis diet. About 5-8g protein is lost per hemodialysis, while peritoneal dialysis The loss is relatively large. Therefore, insufficient protein intake in dialysis patients can cause malnutrition. Excessive protein intake will cause complications such as high phosphorus, high potassium, high uric acid, and metabolic acidosis. The current guidelines recommend that the protein intake of dialysis patients should be 1.2-1.5g/kg·d. Patients who receive dialysis once a week can continue treatment with a low-protein diet + α-keto acid (for example, the same). For patients on dialysis 2-3 times a week, the protein intake should be 1.0-1.5g/kg·d. In patients with peritoneal dialysis, the protein intake should be 1.2-1.5g/kg·d. When hemodialysis patients choose protein foods, more than 2/3 of them are required to be high-quality protein (eg egg white, milk, beef, poultry, fish, soybeans). For patients with malnutrition (weight loss, serum albumin lower than 38g/L), protein intake should be appropriately increased and α-keto acid should be supplemented at the same time (for example, Kaitong). How to eat for dialysis patients: Pay attention to several key points of the dialysis diet. Adequate calories are the prerequisite to ensure the nutritional status. According to the guidelines, the energy intake of dialysis patients should be 30-35kcal/kg·d. Currently, about half of dialysis patients consume insufficient calories. The daily energy gap of dialysis patients is about 300-600kcal. Insufficient daily energy intake, the body will decompose, consume protein and turn it into calories, and the patient will gradually become thin, weakened, exercise tolerance decreased, and even cause infection and death. Therefore, dialysis patients should be encouraged to eat high-calorie foods (foods high in carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids). For patients whose regular diet is difficult to achieve energy balance, oral nutritional supplements (such as Ferreca) can be chosen. This supplement designed for dialysis patients is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. A small bottle can provide 600kcal, which is enough to help patients achieve energy balance. At the same time, pay attention to calorie supplementation and not excessive, especially avoid excessive intake of sugars (sucrose, fructose) and saturated fatty acids (tallow, lard, etc.) food, so as to avoid hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease . How to eat for dialysis patients: Pay attention to several key points of the dialysis diet. Because many dialysis patients have relatively small urine output, unrestricted drinking water can easily lead to edema, high blood pressure and heart failure. It is recommended that dialysis patients should strictly limit the amount of drinking water, and set the amount of drinking water according to the amount of urine, excess water, sweating, weight gain, etc. Hemodialysis patients require the patient to gain <2-3kg between dialysis sessions. Dialysis patients must pay attention to the source of moisture and try to avoid high-moisture foods (soups, drinks, beer, juices, noodles, porridge, steamed buns, fruits, tomatoes, radishes, mung bean sprouts, melons, cabbage, rape, lettuce, asparagus) Wait). How to eat for dialysis patients: Pay attention to several key points of the dialysis diet. Sodium is an indispensable element in the human body. In daily life, sodium is mainly consumed through salt (sodium chloride). The excretion of sodium in dialysis patients is reduced. If too much salt or Sodium-containing foods can cause thirst and increase drinking water, leading to high blood pressure, edema, and heart failure. It is recommended that the intake of salt for maintenance dialysis patients is generally 3-5g/d, and that for anuria patients should be stricter. High sodium food intake should be avoided (preserved foods: cured meats, pickles, mustard pickles, salted fish; processed meats: sausages, ham, bacon, meatballs, canned meat, pork preserved; processed high-salt foods: preserved fruits, dried fruits , Biscuits, canned fruits, burgers, noodles, pastries; high salt