We used to think that you would be safe for a while when the summer passed quietly, but then we discovered that we were too naive. The oily skin in autumn and winter is even more maddening!  .A friend of mine has mixed and oily skin. When he was a teenager, he had a big oil field on his face. When he was 20+ years old, his cheeks became dry and sensitive, but the T-zone was still very oily. Acne has never stopped. In the autumn and winter before, in addition to the acne on the chin, the blackheads on the face also appeared endlessly. And the skin is easy to pull dry, especially on both sides of the nose often scaly, the T-zone floating powder is serious after makeup, the whole person looks oily and yellow at a glance, and is listless. That’s the situation that I’m talking about oily and dry. I take off the makeup here and the floating powder, it’s better to have a good summer! Today I will quickly summarize how to systematically protect oily skin. At the same time, some medical beauty items suitable for Youpi will also be interspersed. In short, this is a dry article of conscience, with extremely high operability. I believe that after reading it, it will definitely solve many of the problems of Youpi girls. -01- . .Clean . .Many oily skins like the pure soap-based facial cleanser that cleans the Libel Bar. But while these soap-based facial cleansers clean the excess oil on the skin, they also destroy your skin barrier. Over time, it will wash from oily skin to sensitive skin, which is very troublesome.  . Therefore, for oily skins, you can choose some mild and cleansing power such as gender surface active or soap-based compound system. If it is oil-sensitive skin, you can choose a facial cleanser based on alkyl glycosides. Because alkyl glycosides are non-ionic surface actives, they will have a stronger ability to remove grease and are very mild. -02- . .Moisturizing . Many people think that it is not necessary to moisturize the oily skin. NO, oily skin also has the right to moisturize~ . In fact, skin oil and skin moisture are completely two different indicators. The secretion of oil does not mean that your skin has high moisture content. Therefore, there is a type of oily skin that needs to pay attention to moisturizing, that is, babies who are “oil outside and dry inside”. This kind of baby is characterized by a lot of oil, and a lot of oil in the T zone; even closed mouth and acne; but often feel dry and tight.  . . Then why does this happen? Skin oil can be divided into sebaceous gland lipid and intercellular lipid according to its source. Sebaceous gland lipids, as the name suggests, are mainly derived from the secretion of sebaceous glands, such as triglycerides, etc. It determines whether your appearance looks oily or not. Intercellular lipids come from the keratinocytes of the epidermis. In the final stage of keratinocyte differentiation, they will be discharged into the gaps between stratum corneum cells. Like mud, such as ceramide, they fill the keratinocytes to form a barrier to the skin. , It determines your skin’s ability to lock water. The sebaceous gland lipids and intercellular lipids are relatively independent, each playing its own role. Therefore, the so-called “external oil and internal dryness” essentially means excessive secretion of skin oil and lipid disorder between cells. The use of light moisturizing products and ingredients containing skin lipid analogues, such as ceramide, is the correct way to moisturize the oil inside. Regular hydration injection is not a good choice because it has a strong hydrating effect and quick results.  . .-03- . .oil control .Many oily skins like the toners of Japanese products, because it feels that the effect is obvious at the moment of use, the pores are reduced, and the shine is gone. But in fact, this is more of a sense of convergence brought about by the rapid volatilization of alcohol. For oil skins, you can choose to contain oil control ingredients such as nicotinamide and PCA zinc. If it is oily acne skin, you can choose one that contains fruit acid or salicylic acid. Fruit acid products can accelerate the shedding of dead keratin, and have excellent anti-oxidation and moisturizing ability; while salicylic acid products accelerate the shedding of dead keratin, they have good fat solubility and easily penetrate hair follicles, making them more suitable Use for oily and acne-prone skin. Medical beauty project: Fruit acid skin rejuvenation (brushing acid), in fact, is to use acidic liquid to soften the cutin, unclog the pores, help you to discharge the cutin/trash accumulated in the sebaceous gland openings more smoothly, and can also inhibit the formation of acne Role. - .04- . .Sunscreen . Putting a lot of sunscreen on your oily skin will definitely make you uncomfortable. How to find a sunscreen with a refresher texture? Usually the business considers everyone
The use of facial mask is considered by most of my friends to be the best hydrating care. As a sensitive skin, facial mask mainly plays a role of moisturizing, nourishing, reducing fever, soothing and calming, and it mainly cleans the skin from excessive aging and desiccation. Grease provides a large amount of moisture and moisturizing substances to the skin in a short time, and its good heat dissipation function makes the skin red and calm. In the process of using the mask, even for healthy skin, overuse may cause more harm than good. From the perspective of skin physiology, the moisturizing mask uses the hydration effect of the skin keratin. The skin is non-woven for a long time or too frequently. The closed soaking of cloth facial mask will cause excessive hydration of the skin and cause the hollowing effect of the keratinous gap, which will cause the skin to lose water and reduce the immune resistance. This is like a lime wall that is repeatedly soaked in water and dried, which will inevitably lead to the wall. The body ages prematurely, so over-application of the mask every day will damage the skin and become sensitive. For normal skin, it is recommended to use a mask once or twice a week. If you are used to using a mask every day, it is best to choose a sleeping mask similar to an emulsion. Sensitive skin needs more attention, preferably once a week or follow the doctor’s advice.
What is your concept of protein? Eggs, milk, or soybeans? 85%~90% of our hair is keratin, so if you want thick hair, keratin is an indispensable substance. The past and present of keratin. Keratin is not only found in hair, but also in our nails, which can be used to protect our tissues. But the hair shaft and nails of our hair are dead cells, and there is no way to absorb and metabolize substances. Therefore, the human body cannot digest and absorb protein, but this substance has caused some animals to kill. The main constituents of pangolin scales and rhino horns are keratin, but some people think that these substances have magical effects and can be used to treat various diseases. Therefore, the hunting of pangolins and rhinos has caused some species to be on the brink of extinction. In fact, horns and scales have no medicinal effects. This tragedy is caused by the superstition of rhinos and pangolins. Therefore, we should correctly understand keratin. What does keratin do? The keratin in the hair shaft is equivalent to the “guard” of each of our hair. It can help us resist external irritation, protect sebum, inhibit the evaporation of water, and make our hair soft, smooth and not frizzy. If the cuticle of the hair becomes thinner, the defense effect will be weakened and our hair will become fragile. How do we supplement keratin? Although keratin is a dead cell, we still have a way to replenish it. First, keratinocytes need amino acids to produce keratin. Therefore, our protein intake must be adequate and eat more lean meat, fish, yogurt and other protein-rich foods. But the effect of diet is not immediate, and it is not the only factor that affects keratin production. Your food is only one of the factors that affect keratin production. Long-term lack of protein will inevitably affect the growth of hair and the health of other parts. In addition, some care products also contain specific molecular weight keratin and amino acid components, which can penetrate deep into the core and supplement the keratin in our hair. So if you want to have beautiful hair, you must add an important substance-keratin. Only by doing both internal (diet) and external (conservation) can you have healthy hair. Which shampoo do you usually use, let’s talk about it! So how should I choose the right shampoo for my daily shampoo? Analyze the hair quality first: because it involves hair care, the center around depends on what type of hair you have. Many times, you will find that the things of friends and online Amway are not suitable for you, because everyone’s hair condition is not exactly the same. Different hair types are suitable for different hair care products. You do not understand your own hair quality. What about hair care? Therefore, before choosing the right care products, we must first understand our hair quality. We have already talked about the structure of our hair, which is divided into scales, fur quality and hair medulla. The differences in our hair from person to person are mainly reflected in: the degree of greasiness, the degree of damage and the difference in diameter ①Greasy degree, according to the hair greasy and Classification of dryness: dry hair (Dry-D) and oily hair (Oil-O) ②The degree of damage can be divided into damaged hair (Damaged-A) and non-damaged hair (Non-Damaged- N)③Hair diameter, can be divided into thin hair (Thin–I) and thick hair (Thick-K). For these three different hair differences, after comprehensive consideration, our hair will have 2x2x2=8 Different hair types. According to these classifications, you can compare and judge your choice of hair and hair care products. The different hair types are clear. When we choose shampoo, it will be much simpler, oily, and delicate: oil control, less silicone oil. But it is recommended to add a light-care conditioner. No need to use a hair mask to prevent the hair from collapsing. Cassie Oil-Control Strong Hair Care Non-silicone Care Series Oily Damage Thickness: For oil control, you can use a conditioner hair mask. But be sure not to let the conditioner and hair mask touch the hair, unless it is a scalp care conditioner, so as not to make the scalp hair more greasy. Leave-in conditioners and oils can also be considered. (You can consider using it with a set from the above picture.) Oily non-damaged and slender: oil control. The big trouble for this hair is that the hair strands are stuck together, so it is very suitable for this type of hair to use silicone-free shampoo. And there is no need for any conditioner and hair mask anymore. in case
The so-called large pores refer to the appearance of uneven pores on the skin surface. When a single pore exceeds 0.02mm2, it is called large pores. His existence does not affect physical health, but it is a fatal flaw for girls who have skin-like fat requirements. There are many reasons for enlarged pores, such as oily skin with excessive secretion of oil and sensitive muscles, imperfect skin barrier, and aging skin with enlarged pores. Then we use a variety of treatment methods to reduce the principle of pores, we must start from the following aspects: #超能健康团#1. Strengthen moisturizing, increase the content of extracellular fluid, and increase skin fullness. At this time, you can increase the content of hyaluronan, retinol, and dextran, so that the extracellular fluid is fully filled, so that the skin’s firmness increases and the pores become smaller. 2. Speed up the metabolism, speed up the metabolism, reduce the secretion of oil, and dredge the pores. 3. Promote collagen regeneration and anti-aging, increase skin firmness, and make skin plump. Optional treatment methods 1. Skin tightening, appropriate selection of laser, photoelectric and radio frequency treatment methods. The laser photoelectric methods include: non-exfoliation lattice laser holographic picosecond and honeycomb picosecond treatment. Radiofrequency treatments include heatmaggi and heatlift. The purpose of treatment is to make collagen degenerate under the action of photoelectricity, and have more growth and reconstruction, thereby improving the large pores, roughness without luster, sagging and other skin aging problems to obtain long-term maintenance effects. After the non-exfoliative lattice treatment is over, there will be slight redness in the season, which will subside after about 24 hours, and there is basically no recovery period. There will be scabs after the fractional laser, and the recovery period is 7 to 10 days. At the same time, you should pay attention to good sun protection to prevent the appearance of pigmentation. However, it has the best effect in treating pores. There is no recovery period for video-based treatments, but there will be unnoticeable skin swelling on the second day after treatment. 2. Mesotherapy supplements the dermis with corresponding nutrients. Mesotherapy, also known as mesodermal treatment, is to directly penetrate the effective ingredients into the dermis through transdermal absorption technology. On the one hand, there will be more new cells due to the stimulation of microneedles, on the other hand, the injected ingredients will help cells metabolize faster and supplement the corresponding nutrients. The most common is the injection of hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid can store 1000 times its own weight in water, wake up the cell regeneration function, and reproduce and repair skin withered and broken cells. After injection, the skin can appear firm, white, full and moisturized in a short time. Effect. You can also inject other active ingredients such as L-polylactic acid collagen. For those who produce too much oil, botox can be added to inhibit the secretion of oil. It is very helpful for the reduction of pores. After this kind of treatment, because the skin’s waterways are opened too much, it is more difficult to lock in water. After treatment for 3 to 7 days, it will be very dry, so we need to use some hyaluronic acid, pantothenic acid, ceramide Skin care products such as active ingredients help build the skin barrier, and at the same time drink plenty of water. 3. To speed up the metabolism, use AHA or salicylic acid or compound acid to remove excess keratin, unclog pores, and eliminate inflammation. We use fruit acid to peel off the skin keratin, promote the shedding of aging stratum corneum, accelerate the renewal speed of keratinocytes and upper epidermal cells, and then improve the effect of enlarged pores. The concentration of the acid must be controlled well. Too strong acid can easily cause skin scabs and even pigmentation, so you must go to a regular hospital for treatment. Fourth, the daily life tips should be reminded that the nasal strips and wire-drawing masks will not work. On the contrary, the stratum corneum will be peeled off too heavily and the skin barrier will not be healthy. 1. Proper cleaning, but it is not recommended to use instruments such as face wash to scratch the skin. 2. Do a good job of hydrating and moisturizing, and regularly apply a moisturizing mask. The mask has the effect of softening the keratin and can make the old keratin peel off properly. In addition, you can also use some skin care products containing salicylic acid or fruit acids. Low-concentration acids also help accelerate skin metabolism. 3. Pay attention to rest, don’t stay up late, eat healthy and light, and keep a happy mood. 4. Sunscreen and anti-oxidation, no rest throughout the year, it is very important for the defense against photoaging. No one likes large pores, but if the problem is not big, just keep the condition from getting worse; if the problem is serious, you should seek professional treatment as soon as possible.
Due to the dry weather in autumn, if you do not undergo dietary conditioning, your baby is likely to have symptoms such as dry stool and constipation. Especially nowadays babies, due to their superior living conditions and some parents’ misunderstandings about childcare, they often give their children some easy-to-get angry snacks, and constipation is even more common. If you find that your baby has constipation in the fall, you should solve the problem as soon as possible. Otherwise, in winter, children eat less vegetables and fruits, and their activity is reduced, which makes constipation more likely to become more serious. On the other hand, the dry weather in autumn can easily damage the children’s lungs. If the lungs are not properly nourished in autumn, the chances of children suffering from respiratory infections will be greatly increased. . 1. Develop the habit of regular bowel movements for BB. You can regularly stool or practice sitting in the morning. 2. Dilute milk powder: When constipation, you can add more water or rice soup to the milk powder to dilute it, or take two teaspoons of honey every morning, but the amount should not be large to avoid diarrhea. You can also eat baby Qinghuobao or milk companion. 3. Adjust your diet: Eat more “three nourishment” foods. One is to nourish the stomach, that is, some fruits and vegetables rich in crude fiber, such as spinach, celery, bamboo shoots, apples, and some foods with laxative effects, such as honey, walnuts, bananas, sesame, etc. The second is to nourish the lungs. In addition to the well-known white fungus, lilies, pears, etc. mixed with honey to cook porridge or stew, you can also let your children eat more yam, water chestnuts, radishes, garlic, and onions, which can also refresh the heart. Lung, prevent and treat respiratory system and digestive system diseases. The third is to maintain the body. Children eat more dark fruits to prevent colds. Dark fruits such as mango, yellow peach, and kiwi are all high in vitamin C, which has a good effect on fighting colds and increasing body resistance. 4. Drink plenty of water, you can drink juice or boiled vegetable water for BB. Use half a radish and one pear (with core) in boiling water every day. 5. Massage the abdomen in a clockwise direction around the navel at ordinary times or before defecation to stimulate bowel movements. If there is anal fissure, take a bath in warm water to keep it clean. 6. Eat a little yogurt every day, pay attention to it is full-fat yogurt (original flavor, strawberry is fine), not lactic acid drink (the latter does not have much nutrition), it is especially improved! 7. If the child has dry stool and it will be excreted for 3-4 days However, parents can take some temporary measures at home. For example, they can gently stimulate the anus with sterilized cotton and vegetable oil, or they can sit in warm water to stimulate the anus and have a bowel movement. You can also use pediatric opener Tuck into the anus or squeeze a small amount of glycerin. Be careful not to cut the opening of the Kaisailu so that it is uneven or very sharp, so as not to scratch the anus when it is inserted. Be sure to stay for a few minutes after squeezing the glycerin, and wait for the child to defecate before defecation. If you don’t have kaisailu, you can use a little water on the soft soap tip at home, so that it can be easily inserted into the anus and reduce children’s panic and discomfort. This is only a method used under circumstances of last resort. It’s better to see a doctor if you are serious.
Why are hair follicles so important? Like many other organs in the human body, hair follicles are non-renewable. According to statistics, the human body has about 4-5 million hair follicles, of which 1 million are in the head and about 100,000 are in the scalp. The number of hair follicles has been determined since the person was born. In the future, hair follicles will only decrease but not increase. As long as the hair follicles are healthy, hair loss and hair loss are not a problem. Each hair follicle is a separate hair production factory. But if the hair follicles shrink and close, they will not grow hair. Many people lose their hair because of hair follicle problems. So if you want to have healthy and thick hair, hair follicles are essential. Hair has a variety of functions as a magical part of the body that can change length, shape and color at will. In ancient times, hair had a social role of “body skin and skin, parents who dare not damage, and the beginning of filial piety”. And society has developed to the present day, in addition to the social role, hair also has a physiological role and beautification. The beautifying effect of hair is self-evident. Anyone is tireless in changing hair color and style. Under the premise of bringing themselves a pleasing look, they must also be able to attract others to meet the expectations of attention. In our daily life, we should pay attention to protecting the nutrition and moisture of the hair from loss. A hair is about 80-90 microns thick, but it has an extremely complex composition. Hair is mainly composed of keratin fibers composed of keratin molecules, which are intertwined with each other in a spiral combination, and fur is the main component of hair, accounting for almost 85%-90% of the hair. It is composed of small melanin melanin. Composed of fibrous cells. The main component of fibroblasts is keratin. Many helical fibrils form small fibers, and then multi-spiral small fibers form large fibers, and then several large spiral fibers form outer fibers, which is the main body of fur. Many people’s hair is yellow and frizzy, which is largely caused by damage to keratin. When the hair dryer is used to dry after shampooing, the temperature of the hair dryer is too high to exceed the limit of keratin, which leads to denaturation and moisture in the hair. Loss of hair scales is damaged, which is why the hair is dry and frizzy after blowing.  . Therefore, when using the hair dryer, it is necessary to ensure that the temperature of the wind is appropriate to avoid the denaturation of the hair and damage to the hair caused by excessive temperature. At the same time, the water ions and negative ions contained in the wind of the hair dryer can supplement the water lost in the hair and remove static electricity in time, so that the hair becomes moist and compliant!
The treatment of keloids is constantly updated and developed. At the same time, the research on the treatment of keloids is also constantly being carried out. Not long ago, some scholars published a related literature about pirfenidone inhibiting keloids.  . Keloids are benign proliferative skin lesions that are difficult to treat and are a source of distress for patients. As far as its mechanism is concerned, recent literature shows that the conversion of keloid epidermis to dermis is one of its important pathogenesis. In the past, by studying the effect of the antifibrotic drug pirfenidone on keloid keratinocytes, it was found that pirfenidone has a certain inhibitory effect on keloids. In the experiment, keratinocytes isolated from normal skin tissue and scar tissue were cultured in vitro, and the effects of pirfenidone on cytotoxicity, cell migration, cell proliferation, and EMT-related genes and protein expression were studied. The experiment found that pirfenidone can significantly reduce the levels of vimentin and fibronectin in normal and keloid keratinocytes, and hinder the migration of basal cells. When the concentration of pirfenidone was from 200-1000ug/ml, the proliferation rate of cell basal cells showed a significant dose-dependent decrease. When the concentration of pirfenidone was as high as 1000ug/ml, the experiment did not find any cytotoxic effect . This study suggests that pirfenidone may inhibit the progress and recurrence of keloids. The literature shows that pirfenidone may have the prospect of treating keloids, but it is worth noting that the response of the same cells to the same drugs in vivo and in vitro is usually different. The most important thing is the effect of pirfenidone on cells in the body. The experimental results still need to be supported by clinical application data.
The principle of small bubbles The small bubbles form a vacuum circuit by vacuum negative pressure, which fully combines the ultra-small bubbles and the nutrient solution, and directly acts on the skin through the specially designed small spiral tip, which can be deep in a safe and painless state. Cleansing the face, removing aging keratinocytes, removing sebum blackheads, thoroughly removing all impurities, mites and oil residues from the funnel of the hair follicle, and at the same time filling the funnel of the hair follicle with nutrients to provide long-lasting nourishment to the skin and make the skin moist, delicate and shiny. The small bubble can be said to be an entry-level medical beauty, no trauma, the price is also the price of cabbage, and the medical beauty Xiaobai can also be fully accepted. The first step of the small bubble cleaning treatment process: low irritation and gentle cleansing of the lactic acid-rich solution, spray and absorb it on the entire face, and then use negative pressure to suck off the dead skin cells. Step 2: Special care for the penetration of the solution rich in salicylic acid in the T-zone, which helps to remove blackheads and other dirt. The third step: moisturizing/nutrition supply is rich in extracts of dentula, and the deep penetration of urea hyaluronic acid solution can supply moisture and nutrition to clean skin. The fourth step: disinfection and cleaning After the third step, solution 4 cleans and disinfects the instrument system. Benefits of small bubble management 1. Remove excess oil, mites and makeup powder from pores to keep pores clear and whiten skin. 2. Remove pore dirt, exfoliate waste keratin, and promote better absorption of nutrients to the skin. 3. Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, inhibit sebum secretion, adjust water-oil balance, improve acne. 4. Sedative anti-allergy, repair barrier, improve sensitive muscles. 5. Moisturizing, improving dry tightness, peeling, fine lines. 6. Inhibit the activity of tyrosinase, exfoliate waste keratin, lighten skin and rejuvenate. 7. Astringe pores, restore skin elasticity, firm and nourish skin. 8. Prevent problems such as blackheads, pimples, acne, and spots. Who is suitable for small bubble management? Small bubble management is a deep cleansing, exfoliating, and blackhead management project. It can be done for all skin types, but it should be noted that thin skin, inflammatory acne skin is best not to use small bubbles to suck suction, Available smear management. Notes on the management of small bubbles 1. After the AS1 (fruit acid) and SA2 (salicylic acid) are over, you need to wipe off the acid with an ice towel and wash it with water for many times until there is no tingling sensation. 2. Thin skin, long operation time, excessive suction, allergy to the product, etc. may cause small red spots or red skin. Before you decide to manage small bubbles, you must first understand what kind of management method your skin is suitable for. . 3. Oily skin, thick cuticle, etc., can be used once more than three days until the skin problem is improved; dry, aging skin type, once more than two weeks. It should be noted that blackheads are constantly being generated and cannot be completely eliminated, so the effect of small bubbles is only to temporarily clean the skin and needs to be done regularly. Although the management of small bubbles is only an immediate effect, compared to the crude methods of pig nose stickers and blackhead spatulas, fast and safe small bubbles are a more friendly choice.
The physical barrier function of the skin is bidirectional. On the one hand, it has protection against mechanical, physical, chemical, and microbial damage to the outside world, and protects all important organs in the body. On the other hand, it can prevent the loss of nutrients and moisture in the body, and maintain the moisture content of the skin. If the skin barrier function is not perfect, the lighter ones will affect the beauty and beauty, and the heavy ones may cause skin sensitivity, inflammation, atopic dermatitis, and polymorphism. Sexual eye rash and other diseases occur. The skin structures related to the physical barrier of the skin are: sebum film (moisturizing lipids and sweat glands emulsify to form a transparent weak acidic film covering the skin surface called “sebum film”. Moisturizing lipids are secreted by sebaceous glands and keratinocytes disintegrate The lipid is composed of 12% of squalene, 26% of wax fat, 57.5% of triglyceride, 3.0% of cholesterol ester and 1.5% of cholesterol. The iconic component of moisturizing lipid is squalene, which not only has “lock water” “The role of anti-ultraviolet damage, the relatively stable lipid and moisture content of the sebum film can maintain the integrity of the sebum film, is the first line of defense of the skin barrier.) The stratum corneum (the stratum corneum is located in the skin The outer layer, which is in direct contact with the external environment, can be regarded as a special biosensor located at the outermost layer of the skin. It can repair the bad external environment and surface trauma through a complex biological process involving multiple enzymes in a short time. To restore the normal physiological function of the skin, the stratum corneum is composed of 12-16 layers of flat and nucleated keratinocytes overlapping each other and arranged in a mutually restricted manner. The lipid matrix is sandwiched between each layer of keratinocytes to form a stable “brick wall structure”; namely : The keratinocytes constitute bricks, the lipid matrix constitutes stucco, and the physical barrier function of the skin is mediated by this special structure. The intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum mainly include ceramide 50% and fatty acids 10%~20 %, cholesterol 25%, etc. The optimal molar ratio of ceramide, free fatty acid to cholesterol distribution in the stratum corneum lipid is 3:1:1: the reduction of intercellular lipid composition can reduce the skin’s water storage and moisturizing function, which also directly affects The growth of keratinocytes is regulated by differentiation. At the same time, during the repair process after the skin barrier is damaged, three components (ceramide, cholesterol, free fatty acids) need to be replenished. When the components are not healthy or the ratio changes, the repair of the barrier will be delayed. In addition, the intermediate silk-related proteins in the stratum corneum continue to degrade to form natural moisturizing factors and sugars, lactates and other natural moisturizing factors, which play a key role in maintaining the optimal hydration state of the stratum corneum.)
When I was a child, I often heard adults say that the lack of crescents on the nails meant that I was in bad health, so the children would meet together head to head, crescents, crescents. Is this really true? Is there any scientific basis for this statement? The real name of the crescent on the nail is the half-moon, which is actually a newly grown keratin cell. Newly born keratinocytes are white, and when it is completely keratinized, it becomes a translucent nail. So to put it plainly, the crescent on a nail is a newly grown, underage nail. Under the skin behind the nail root, there is a piece of tissue called “methyl”, which produces a lot of keratin cells every day. Due to the metabolic growth of the body, keratin grows slowly on both sides and grows faster in the middle, so crescent-shaped white marks are formed. The size and number of crescents are not directly related to their health. Crescents generally exist, but the crescents of some people are hidden and we can’t see them. For example, some people’s crescents start too far behind and hide under the skin; some people cover the roots of the nails with thicker skin, blocking the crescent; while others crescents grow slowly. Through careful observation, we will find that the growth rate of the thumb is usually faster, so the crescent is generally more than the crescent on the little thumb or other fingers. To sum up, there is no scientific basis for judging health by whether you can see the crescent or the crescent of the finger. In 2012, there was an article in the “China Traditional Chinese Medicine News” that specifically clarified that the diagnosis of crescents lacks the theoretical support of traditional Chinese medicine. As you age, your metabolism gradually slows down, and crescents may slowly become smaller or disappear. This is normal, and don’t worry too much. If there are usually more crescents on the nails, and suddenly decrease or disappear in the short term, suggesting that the growth rate of keratin has slowed down, then we really need to pay more attention from our own nutrition, sleep, mood, stress and other perspectives. In addition, it is best to check the thyroid function. When the crescent on the nail suddenly increases in the short term, be wary of the possibility of hyperthyroidism. There is also a special case where the crescent becomes very large, directly covering half of the nail, even the entire nail is white, and the nail is thinned. This nail is called Terry nail. In 1954, Dr. Richard Terry discovered that patients with liver disease, especially those with liver cirrhosis, had such special manifestations and reported them, so they were also named Terry nails. Studies have found that Terry nails are more common in patients with cirrhosis, chronic heart failure, and adult diabetes. This special sign can provide a certain guiding significance for doctors to diagnose and treat patients in clinic. In addition to crescents, some people say that the appearance of vertical streaks on the nails indicates that the body is relatively weak. This is also without any basis. The small and transparent vertical streaks on the nails are normal physiological phenomena that appear with age. Long wrinkles. In short, crescents are not equated with physical health.
“Dr. Liu, Dr. Liu, you said how to maintain the hair after perm dyeing? I have been permed for a few days, and I feel that my hair is getting dry and rough! What should I do?” Miss Design looked at me with a grievance over her “wool roll”. As a hair doctor, I guess many fairies have troubles in this respect. After perming the hair, I don’t know how to take care of it. Looking at the increasingly dry hair, I’m at a loss! My hair is dry and dyed, how to maintain it? Today, hair doctor will study with you! 1. How does perm dyeing damage hair? Hair mainly contains protein (90% -95%), lipid (1% -9%) water, minerals and trace elements (accounting for 0.26%, although small, but indispensable, is an essential component of hair fiber and pigment ). The protein is mainly deformed keratin (α-keratin). Alpha-keratin mainly depends on disulfide bond cross-linking to maintain structural stability, which is the decisive factor for maintaining the stability of hair fiber physicochemical properties. The damage caused by changes in keratin structure is mainly caused by various perm agents, hair dyes, bleaches and hair straighteners. They all penetrate into the cortical layer structure from the hair scales and then have various effects to affect the hair quality. Dyed and permed hair is chemical damage, because the structure of the hair has been destroyed, and the hair keratin has changed, so it can only be repaired. 2. The essence of hot dye repair? Dyeing and repairing can only start from the hair shaft and cannot change the hair follicles. From a biological point of view, after the hair grows out of the scalp, it has become dead cells, and all injuries are permanent and irreversible. All we can do is use hair care products to reduce the damage caused by the friction and physically repair the hair scales. The hair scales are closed when the hair just grows. After shampooing, combing hair, grasping, perm dyeing … will make the hairy skin lift, but the hairy skin is not what you want to close, you can close it … You can choose physical repair, which is to use hair care products to fill the raised gaps to make the hair smoother and prevent greater damage caused by friction between the hair. The lubricating layer formed by repairing can also slow down the rate of water loss in the hair. 3. Hair care after perm dyeing? When shampooing, shampooing, shampooing, shampooing, shampooing and shampooing should be selected, and then conditioner should be used to keep the hair soft and fluffy. Regular maintenance recommends that friends should go to a regular hair care facility to do hair care every other month. Many friends are very dissatisfied with the newly dyed and hot hairstyles. The next day, they went to teacher tony to ask for a new color and style. This will cause great damage to the hair. The longer the interval between the second perm dyeing, the longer the better! Strengthen and nourish a lot of dry hair without luster at all, in addition to lack of moisture is lack of nutrition. In addition to using a conditioner every time you wash your hair, deeply nourishing your hair once a week is a great way to enhance your hair’s shine. After shampooing, apply the essence from the root to the end of the hair, and repeat 3 times until the essence is absorbed. After persisting for a month, the dryness of the hair will be reduced and the gloss will naturally increase. Eating seaweed hair gloss depends largely on the role of thyroxine in the body. However, when a woman is over 30 years old, her body’s ability to secrete thyroxine decreases. The iodine in seaweed food is very rich, this element is the main raw material for thyroid hormone synthesis in the body. Therefore, often eat seaweed foods, hair growth, moisturizing. Ensure the intake of green vegetables & yellow fruits lack of vitamins is also easy to cause hair dullness. For example, vitamin B has the effect of promoting hair growth and giving the hair a natural luster, while vitamin C can activate the microvascular wall, so that the hair can smoothly absorb nutrients in the blood. Therefore, usually eat more vitamin-rich vegetables and fruits, such as spinach, leek, celery, mango, banana, etc., not only can beautify the skin, but it also has a multiplier effect on the restoration of healthy and shiny hair. Eat beans often Eating soybean products such as tofu can not only increase the gloss and elasticity of hair, but also prevent split ends or breakage. Eating more soy products and drinking more soy milk can not only promote the metabolism of brain nerve cells, but also prevent the formation of gray hair.
Today we come to talk about the topic of itching, coolness and pain. Don’t laugh, I’m talking about serious things … I have seen too many patients with itchy skin in the outpatient clinic (please forgive me for not being kind enough to start bragging since Hi.) To be honest, I’m going to say the right thing. Patients with this type of skin disease have a common feature: itching, peeling, scratching, redness, and sometimes exudate, thickened keratin, and scales. This is not the point of skin peeling and thickening of scaly skin. What’s more important is that they all like to scald these itchy places with hot water. They say that the hotter the itch, the itchier the hotter. There is a kind of catching foot called “Shuang” that can’t be described in words until the itching disappears and the pain begins to appear! What follows is that you do n’t know what kind of disaster will happen to the skin that is often scalded by hot water? First, the skin will be red, swollen, painful, and exuded; then the cortical layer will begin to thicken and then pigmentation will begin, and severe burns and other undesirable malignant diseases will develop. Did the friends startle? It really doesn’t scare you. If this is the case, skin cells will easily divide into malignant cells. The consequences are of course very serious! (This kind of photo is too scary. If you go online to find it yourself, there will be unexpected surprises.) Please allow me to popularize science: the structure of the skin. The basal layer cells of the lowermost layer of the human epidermis have become polygonal spiny cells, flat Granulocytes of basophilic granules, flat keratinocytes without nucleus and organelles. This process of skin structure generally takes 28 to 45 days. The differentiation process of the epidermis is controlled by many factors and is easily disturbed (external stimuli such as hot water, scratching, inflammation, etc.). All factors that can cause basal cell division and differentiation can cause hyperkeratosis and hypokeratosis. Excess keratin formation or keratin accumulation can make the horny layer hyperkeratotic. Incomplete keratinization or abnormal keratinization results in incomplete keratinization and poor keratinization. I summed up the core content of the above popular science: the stratum corneum of the skin is the protective barrier of our skin. If it is abnormal, various problems of skin diseases will follow one after another. Therefore, doctors often recommend applying ointments such as vitamin E cream to protect our stratum corneum. In addition, through consultation, it was found that the vast majority of patients often use their hands to tear these keratinized skin, resulting in more severe peeling. Some housewives do not protect their hands and directly contact degreasing agents such as washing powder, dishwashing liquid, soap, etc., which makes their skin more and more fragile! So what is the correct way of washing supplies? 1. It is absolutely forbidden to overheat the water to scald the skin, keeping the water temperature at about 30 degrees; 2. Apply moisturizing cream or animal oil every time after washing the skin. Patients with severe peeling and cracking can wear PE gloves or wrap the skin with plastic wrap; 3. Do not eat spicy food, tobacco and alcohol (because tobacco and alcohol will aggravate edema and other side effects of skin and blood vessels); 4. Prohibit random medication Use and over-apply ointments of unknown ingredients; 5. Go to the dermatology department of a regular hospital for professional examination (such as dermoscopy, skin CT, blood routine, immunization, skin fungal detection, allergen detection, etc.) Solution; Okay, children’s shoes, the above is my words, time, remember, itchy skin must not be hot, professional doctors will help you overcome the disease, and restore your healthy skin! Please correct me if there is any discrepancy, and you are welcome to leave a message in the comment area! [Original Statement] This article is an original work, please indicate the source when reprinting, otherwise you will be held liable.
The weather is getting hotter and hotter. Many people have a hard time as a mixed skin. Presumably, the days of oil skin are even worse! Is it a pound of oil, a pimple, and more and more closed mouths? It seems that there are small particles around the eyes? I have been asked a lot of these questions recently, so I decided to create a collection of problems that are prone to appear in the summer. No matter how difficult it is, I have a solution. Come on, get on! ❶ & nbsp. Closed forehead & nbsp. & Nbsp.❷ & nbsp. Greasy pores & nbsp. & Nbsp.❸ & nbsp. Unshakable blackhead & nbsp. Closed forehead & nbsp. Let ’s talk about closed mouth first, closed mouth is really annoying, squeeze , It will immediately deteriorate into red and swollen acne, but if it is not crowded, it looks and replies, and it can’t cover the makeup, even the stars are successful. The full name of closed mouth is “closed pimples” (open pimples are blackheads and whiteheads). It is a type of acne. To put it simply, too much oil blocks the pores, and then the oil gathers together to form needles or rice grains. Pimples, combined with abnormal keratinization, directly block pores. Greasy pores and large pores are really beautiful invisible killers. Every time you apply makeup, you need to spend a lot of time to cover the concealer. At this time, the makeup will look heavy and very worrying! Many little fairies have put a lot of effort into shrinking their pores, but people often go into a misunderstanding: “The enlarged pores are caused by skin dehydration, aging of the horny, imbalance of oil and water, etc., do the corresponding skin care homework You can make your pores smaller. “If you think so, it is very likely that the skin that you have spent time protecting in the past is in vain, and it does not make your pores smaller. The lingering blackheads and blackheads can’t be pulled out, and the spring breeze is blowing again … for a time, I don’t know which of the blackheads and the closed mouth is more annoying. In fact, blackheads are similar to closed mouths, except that closed mouths are closed, blackheads are open, and the front end of sebum particles exposed at the opening of the hair follicle is oxidized and blackened, which is blackheads. This hard grease grain can be thought of as a carrot buried in solid soil. If you pull it directly, a big hole will appear in the land, and even a few cracks will be cracked. The skin will be swollen and sensitive, and may even become infected. Therefore, to get rid of blackheads correctly, we must start from two aspects: 1. Soak the soil, and then easily take out the radish, the land will not be greatly damaged. 2. Be less radish! Having said so much, how to do the above three annoying skin problems? You can get rid of the acid skin. Fruit acid rejuvenation (acid brushing), in fact, uses acidic liquid to soften the keratin, clear pores, help you discharge keratin / garbage accumulated in the opening of the sebaceous glands more smoothly, and can also play a role in inhibiting the formation of acne. When we are greasy or lazy during skin care, the oil secreted by the sebaceous glands and clogged pores are not cleaned in place, and the aging cuticles will pile up together and cannot be cleaned. Brushing acid can remove aging keratin and smooth the skin. After the fruit acid rejuvenation, many little fairies’ faces will appear, and the acne under the skin will come out like crazy. This is a normal phenomenon. Do not pick it up and wait for it to naturally scab and fall off. All right. & nbsp. Then you need to pay attention to the follow-up skin care, it is best to choose skin care products with simple ingredients, safe, suitable for sensitive muscles; diet, mainly light; sleep, sleep early. It is estimated that many fairies have heard that after the acid is applied, the skin becomes thinner and thinner. This is a “human-to-human” phenomenon. Do you know what it means to use it correctly? Refers to your own skin, the acid concentration and frequency that can be tolerated, and each person’s situation is different. The doctor will adjust the concentration appropriately according to your situation. As long as you don’t work too hard, there will generally be no major problems. . & nbsp. It ’s not as good as making money as much as possible to make acid. The slower the concentration, the lower the low frequency, the slower the build up of the skin ’s tolerance. & nbsp. In fact, skin problems that are often difficult to deal with can often be solved by simple and rough methods, so you who are bothered are not obedient. & nbsp.
If the cuticle repair ability is weak or the cuticle is thin, it is not recommended to do photon directly. I suggest you repair the cuticle first before doing this project. Secondly, if a person with a thin stratum corneum does photons, the skin will become sensitive. This is because the absorbed heat denatures the keratin in the stratum corneum, which destroys the normal structure of the stratum corneum. Both membrane and basal layer may have an impact. Or in the process of reduction, if the stratum corneum is repaired slowly, it is easy to appear pigmentation, allergies, redness and other phenomena. At this time, it may be difficult to achieve the desired results by photorejuvenation. Therefore, before any project treatment, it is necessary to interview a regular doctor to diagnose the facial condition and confirm the appropriate treatment plan.
Yesterday we talked about what are the anti-acne ingredients, today we will take a closer look at these ingredients ~ 1, Vitamin A acid Vitamin A acid is a first-line treatment of acne, it can not only reduce inflammation, antibacterial, regulate keratin, but also improve the enlarged pores , Wrinkle removal, treatment of photoaging skin diseases, etc., can be called “all-round”. There are many types of retinoic acid, the more common ones are all-trans retinoic acid, isotretinoin, adapalene, and tazarotene. The irritancy of tretinoin to the skin is also a big problem. Patients are prone to “retinoic acid dermatitis” when they use it for the first time-red skin, dry peeling, and tingling. Patients with these discomforts can continue Reduced use, these discomforts will disappear after the skin establishes tolerance after a period of time. The use of retinoic acid can also improve the photosensitivity of patients, so strict sun protection during the topical application of retinoic acid is very important. Retinoic acid has a good therapeutic effect on inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne. The low concentration of adapalene has a good effect on acne type. Tazarotene is more suitable for moderate to severe acne. 2. Benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is a commonly used external medicine for the treatment of acne. The history of its treatment of acne can be traced back to 1950. As a first-line treatment for acne, it has excellent antibacterial and acne-dissolving effects. The antibacterial effect of benzoyl peroxide exceeds that of most topical antibiotic gels, and there are no concerns about drug resistance. It is a commonly used drug in dermatology. The concentration of benzoyl peroxide ranges from 2.5% to 10%, and the therapeutic effect of different concentrations is not much different, but there are only 5% dosage forms in China. During the treatment of acne, BPO will cause the skin to release free radicals, which has a certain harmful effect on healthy skin. Patients often take the method of spot application. BPO is suitable for pustular acne. It has a poor effect on non-inflammatory acne. It is better to use clindamycin gel or salicylic acid for dense inflammatory acne. However, the biggest problem with benzoyl peroxide is its skin irritation. 1% -2% of the population will experience allergic reactions, redness, swelling and pain in the skin, and unlike tretinoin can be gradually tolerated. Especially for Asian people, skin testing is required before using benzoyl peroxide products to avoid allergic reactions. 3, Salicylic Acid Salicylic acid is a commonly used external medicine for acne treatment, which has the effects of acne, oil control, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, and two-way conditioning of keratin. As a fat-soluble acid, salicylic acid can unclog pores, reduce excessive sebum secretion, and promote acne metabolism by promoting keratin metabolism. The concentration of salicylic acid has anti-keratosis and anti-keratosis bidirectional keratin conditioning effect at a concentration of 1% -4%, and salicylic acid above 5% has a keratolytic effect. The salicylic acid used for chemical skin rejuvenation is generally more than 10% and has the effect of exfoliating keratin. The concentration of external salicylic acid is generally about 2% -3%, which will not damage the stratum corneum. Its bidirectional conditioning of the stratum corneum can also help to stabilize the stratum corneum while removing excess stratum corneum. Boleda 2% supramolecular salicylic acid solves the problem that salicylic acid can only be dissolved in organic solvents such as alcohol and ether through supramolecular chemistry, greatly reducing the irritation of salicylic acid and greatly improving patient compliance, even Sensitive skin can also be used.
Every time I have just washed my head in a fluffy and refreshing way, there will be a feeling of being the most beautiful when I walk on the street, and I can’t suppress my confidence! But many hair friends are born with soft and soft hair, not only sticking to the scalp, but also showing their faces! And as work pressure increases, hairline issues are also a headache. Congenital hair is thin and soft, indicating that your hair itself is thin and soft, this problem is not big, you can strengthen some maintenance later. However, if the hair formed is small and thin, the original hair is also thicker and harder, but as the age grows, the hair becomes very thin and soft, and the amount of hair becomes less. You should pay attention to such hair problems. What causes the hair to become thinner and softer? To solve the problem of fine hair, first of all, we must understand the cause of the problem. The three main factors for healthy hair growth. First, healthy hair growth requires adequate blood circulation and hemoglobin to provide nutrition to the hair nipples. Secondly, sufficient protein is also needed to allow hair follicles to synthesize various keratins, thereby forming hair. The process of hair follicle cell differentiation will be affected by some external factors, mainly hormones (androgens inhibit hair growth, estrogen promotes hair growth). If your hair is very good, but gradually becomes thinner, then there is a 99% possibility It is related to the above three factors, among which androgens are the main reason. Why does hair become thinner and softer? The hair thinning and softening is essentially the weakening of the hair follicles ‘ability to synthesize hair, while the lack of hair is the loss of hair follicles’ ability to synthesize hair. After all, the same thing is the same thing, that is-the hair follicle’s ability to grow hair is weak. Solutions for the degradation of fine and soft hair People with fine and soft hair have a lot of troubles, no matter whether they have more hair or not, they will appear less. It is easy to stick to the scalp when it is soft and soft. Hair is thin and soft, and it is difficult to increase the amount of hair in a short time. It is necessary to start with some daily habits. 1. The main component of hair is sulfur-containing hair keratin, which also contains many trace elements. These are essential elements of the body. If the body lacks these elements, the hair will be dull. 2. We usually eat more protein-rich things, such as meat and eggs. 3. Fine hair is often accompanied by symptoms such as hair loss. Such a situation generally occurs in adolescents and middle-aged people. Stress should be the main killer. Now in a fast-paced life, your hair is an indicator of your health. 4. Among many reasons, genetic causes are not ruled out. Normally, we should add zinc appropriately, eat more kelp, black sesame and the like, wash hair at the same time, take some Yangxueshengfa capsules, which can effectively protect Our hair.
Every end of spring and early summer, patients with large peelings of fingers and palms often come to the clinic for consultation. Is it eczema? NO! Dermatologist diagnosed with “exfoliative keratolysis”. What is exfoliative keratolysis? Exfoliative keratolysis (keratolysisexfoliativa, KE) is also called lamellar laxity. It is a superficial exfoliative skin disease of the stratum corneum of the palm and plantar. The typical manifestation of exfoliative keratolysis is the appearance of a ring-shaped rash with an inflated blister in the middle, and then the rash disappears and flake peeling occurs. In more severe cases, multiple lesions will fuse, which may cause the entire surface of the palm and plantar skin to peel off. Although exfoliative keratolysis can cause peeling, the symptoms of discomfort are mild for the patient, and there may be a slight itching or burning sensation before peeling. In addition, the skin may become sensitive and have slight pain after continuous peeling and thinning, but some people do not feel any discomfort, but just feel that the hand peeling is ugly. Why does exfoliative keratolysis occur? The reason is unclear. People with eczema are more likely to develop, but exfoliative keratolysis is not itself eczema, so hormone therapy is ineffective. In addition to eczema, people with other atopic diseases (allergic rhinitis, asthma) also seem to be more prone to exfoliative keratolysis. Sometimes, there are many people in the family who are suffering from exfoliative keratolysis, indicating that genetics may also have a certain impact. In addition, high temperature and humidity, friction, long-term soaking in water, and excessive sweating, these factors may also cause the disease to worsen. What should I do if I have exfoliative keratolysis? Although exfoliative keratolysis can relieve itself, it is also prone to repeated attacks, and there is currently no special treatment. But the symptoms can be improved by the following care methods: 1. Avoid frequent hand washing, reduce the use of soap, soap and hand soap, you can consider using a more moisturizing shower gel to wash your hands. 2. Avoid direct contact with irritants, such as detergents, solvents, shampoos, etc .; when you have to contact, consider wearing gloves. 3. Avoid peeling off the peeled skin by hand. The skin that has been lifted can be cut flat with a nail clipper. 4. You can apply urea ointment, vitamin E ointment, petroleum jelly and other oily ointments to the cracked and peeling skin to keep the skin moisturized. 5. If you have peeling feet, you need to keep the shoes dry and breathable, and wear cotton socks; you can prepare several pairs of shoes to change to avoid damp shoes. A
What to do if you are allergic if you accidentally, it is common for friends with red bloodshot eyes to have itchy skin allergies. If your face is not properly treated, allergic symptoms will appear. Skin allergies affect not only our beauty, but also our Healthy, what should I do if I have redness on my face? How is red blood on my face formed? Red blood on my face is a skin problem caused by the thinning of the stratum corneum of the skin due to innate or acquired factors and the expansion of the capillaries. The forming factors are as follows: 1. I have used wrong cleaning products like some soaps, makeup remover, makeup remover, deep cleansing mask, wipes, etc. These things have a strong degreasing function, long-term use or every time If you wash your face for too long, you can also remove the lipids between the keratinocytes while removing the oily dirt on the skin surface. The loss of keratinocyte junctions will inevitably cause the keratinocytes to loosen, the cell gap will increase, and the barrier function will be greatly reduced. 2. Use the wrong functional products. Many of the products for removing freckles, acne and blackheads on the market contain salicylic acid, fruit acid, tretinoin and other ingredients. If you use this product for a long time, it will cause excessive exfoliation of the keratin and skin changes. Thin, and destroy the function of the keratin barrier, over time will form sensitive muscle red blood. 3. Life and rest problems Some bad lifestyle habits, such as staying up late, smoking, drinking, etc., are also very harmful to the skin, which will cause the decrease of intercellular lipid production and make the skin sensitive and fragile. 4. Hormone Long-term dependence on hormone therapy or the use of skin care products containing hormones will inhibit the synthesis of intercellular lipids. Fat red blood on my face is always allergic and itchy how to do, do daily skin care work. Fully moisturize the skin. The stratum corneum of the red blood skin is generally thin, so this kind of skin cannot maintain enough moisture, so in the air-conditioned room in summer or the dry climate in winter, such a person will have a better skin quality. The average person can more sensitively feel that the skin is dehydrated and dry, so such people should usually strengthen the skin’s moisturizing work. Targeted massage The phenomenon of red blood streaks on the surface of the skin indicates that blood is accumulated in the blood vessels, so the most effective way is to add proper massage at the same time as daily basic care. This will not only promote blood circulation, but also reduce red blood streaks, The occurrence of redness. Reduce skin irritation Usually reduce skin irritation, don’t over-expose, blow cold wind, etc. Try not to eat spicy food. Also, those complicated skin care operations should be stopped in time.
Has a certain effect of shrinking pores. Nowadays, fruit acid, salicylic acid and complex acid have been widely used in chemical exfoliation and skin care products. The main indications include the improvement of acne, chloasma, superficial scars and keratosis. These acids have similar effects and each has its own focus. In general, the main causes of enlarged pores include strong secretion of sebaceous glands, relaxation of tissues around the pores and hypertrophy of hair follicles. One possible mechanism for fruit acid to improve pore size is that fruit acid loosens the keratinocytes accumulated in the opening of the sebaceous glands, corrects the abnormal keratinization of the hair follicle epithelium, and makes the secretion of the sebaceous glands smooth. Small molecular weight fruit acids can penetrate into the dermis, thereby stimulating collagen synthesis and increasing the support of surrounding tissues for hair follicles. At the same time accompanied by reduced oil secretion. In addition, fruit acid can activate the metabolism of keratinocytes, renew or rebuild the epidermis, and promote the elimination of melanin particles, reducing pigmentation. Generally speaking, the research on whitening takes about 3 months, if applying high concentration of fruit acid, sun protection is necessary.