What are the causes of female vitiligo?

Vitiligo symptoms may appear in various people of all ages. Among them, women account for a relatively high proportion of people with vitiligo. The main symptom of vitiligo is the formation of white spots on the skin, which seriously affects the appearance of patients. This is in line with the beauty of women’s nature. Contrary to this, so most girls are afraid of this disease. Faced with this situation, it is recommended that women learn more about the causes of vitiligo, so that this disease can be prevented. Then, what are the reasons for women suffering from vitiligo?    1. Women prefer makeup. Most adult women can make-up, but excessive make-up may cause skin damage. Most cosmetics contain chemical ingredients, which are not conducive to skin health. Once women over or prefer make-up, they will cause the skin to be harmed by chemicals, and will be more prone to vitiligo.   2. Women prefer to lose fat. Women love beauty, at least they value it more than men, so they often go on a diet to reduce fat. Although they can maintain a good-looking body, they will lose a healthy body in the long run. Because a person’s energy comes from diet, and the trace elements needed by the body also come from food, if dieting will hinder the absorption of body elements, it will lead to an imbalance of body elements, and then get sick.   3. Women do not pay attention to isolation. Women love beauty, so they choose to wear more exposed clothes. Especially in summer, women wearing exposed clothes can easily cause the skin to be exposed to the sun, which will affect the skin health. Although they also wear some isolation products, they still Can not be well isolated. It is recommended that female patients pay more attention to isolation and do not damage their skin, so as to avoid suffering from vitiligo.   Warm reminder: Women suffering from vitiligo may be related to their own habits, so they must pay attention to their health in order to avoid the influence of unfavorable factors. It is recommended that women wear light makeup daily, pay attention to a healthy diet, do not excessive diet, and pay attention to skin care and isolation. If you suffer from this disease, don’t worry, go to a professional vitiligo hospital for treatment and scientific care, then the vitiligo will be far away from yourself as soon as possible.

Anti-tumor drugs: white blood cell decline “culprit”

The inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs on bone marrow is related to the half-life of blood cells. The half-life of red blood cells is 120 days, the half-life of platelets is 5-7 days, and the half-life of granulocytes is 6-8 hours. After chemotherapy, leukopenia often occurs first, and then thrombocytopenia occurs. The former is more common and more serious than the latter. Chemotherapy usually does not cause severe anemia.   The degree of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, is related to many factors such as the type, dosage, usage, general state of the patient and the previous treatment of the anti-tumor drugs used. .  Neutropenia is the most common cause of death in chemotherapy and the main dose-limiting toxicity of tumor chemotherapy.  The degree and duration of neutropenia are positively correlated with the risk of infection after chemotherapy. The most common pathogens causing infections are Gram-negative bacteria, and the main infection sites are the digestive tract and respiratory tract. The main consequence of neutropenia is the increased risk of serious infections. When the minimum value of white blood cells ≥1×10^9/L, there is little chance of infection. However, the number of white blood cells below 1×10^9/L lasts 7-10 days, especially the absolute number of granulocytes is less than 0.5×10^9 /L lasts for more than 5 days, the chance of serious bacterial infection increases significantly. At this time, if the patient suffers from chills and body temperature above 38.5°C, blood culture and excretion of the suspected infection site should be performed, and effective broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs should be treated as soon as possible. Granulocytes produced by bioengineering technology-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can promote the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells and the proliferation of granulocytes, thereby reducing the granulocytes caused by chemotherapy Reduce the degree and shorten the duration of granulocyte reduction. When discovering whether or how much dose of G-CSF to use when neutropenia is found, the following three issues need to be considered:   ①Chemotherapy drug type, dose and combination use;   ②The time from the beginning and end of chemotherapy until the discovery of granulocyte decline Time;    ③ KPS score of the patient and the susceptibility factors of infection. For those with a KPS score of 80 or more, strong leukopenia drugs such as NVB and TAT have been used in sufficient doses. G-CSF support is also required for first-degree inhibition of white blood cell decline that has not reached the lowest point; otherwise, if the second-degree inhibition is not G-CSF support is required. The specific application of G-CSF dosage should be determined after fully considering the above three situations, and should not be generalized. When the patient’s WBC is 4.0-2.0×10^9/L, pay attention to the cleanliness of the oral cavity, perineum and skin, keep the indoor air fresh, often ventilate, the room temperature and humidity are appropriate, avoid going to public places to reduce the chance of infection, if necessary It is best to wear a mask when you go out, take the leukocyte-raising drugs strictly according to the doctor’s instructions, and regularly review the blood routine. It is not appropriate to eat raw, cold and irritating food.  When WBC≤0.5×10^9/L or ANC*≤0.5×10^9/L, protective isolation measures should be given. Simple isolation Check in a simple laminar bed and change the bed cover, disinfect the bed linen, sterilize the room 2 to 4 times a day, every 30min, scrub the indoor utensils with disinfectant, and soak your hands with disinfectant before entering the room to touch the patient 3~ 5min. Laminar flow room isolation is suitable for eating clean, easily digestible semi-liquid or liquid. The cleanliness of the isolation room is a class 100 sterile laminar flow room. It needs to be scrubbed all over the room upon check-in, put on disinfected clothes, and be isolated according to laminar flow requirements. Conventional application of antibiotic It is best to use two or more of them in combination to culture blood and secretions for those suspected of infection.  Skin Care  Be careful to clean the armpits, groin, perineum, buttocks, under breasts and other areas where skin damage and infection are prone.  Strictly aseptic technique, wash hands with disinfectant before entering the isolation room.  After stool, take a bath with 1:5000 potassium permanganate to prevent perianal infection.   When retaining the subclavian or jugular vein cannula, disinfect the cannula at the cannula 3 times a week and wait for the dressing to dry before covering with dressing.  Oral care  After meals, gargle alternately with 0.03% furancillin and 3% sodium bicarbonate.   Brush your teeth with a soft-bristled toothbrush. Once oral ulcers appear, use cotton swabs and saline to wipe your teeth, and apply anti-inflammatory cream 3 to 5 times a day on the ulcers.  Upper respiratory tract care   can guide patients to cough,

Swedish group immunization is a big success? Can the Swedish case really apply to any country? Read in one sentence

Since the outbreak of the new crown virus, the effectiveness of the new crown virus in various countries around the world has been different. The “social isolation” approach adopted by most countries, some countries still choose the “group immunization” method of the Buddhist system. Before the British government chose group immunization, Then, after infection, the British Prime Minister realized that the epidemic still needs strong measures to prevent and control it. But there is another country-Sweden, which did not adopt “social isolation” at the beginning of the outbreak, and Swedish experts proposed that the Swedish capital Stockholm will achieve “group immunization” in May, and emphasized that this epidemic prevention strategy is more suitable for facing the epidemic. Second burst. Was swedish immunization successful? Can it be applied to other countries? What is Sweden’s anti-epidemic policy? In fact, Sweden does not fully implement “group immunization”. The Swedish government ’s anti-epidemic strategy also emphasizes the need to maintain social distance. However, the government has not enforced anti-epidemic measures. It only stays at the stage of advisory and advice, mainly relying on the public ’s consciousness. Sweden ’s anti-epidemic policies mainly include: (1) prohibiting assembly of more than 50 people (2) restaurants and bars only accept customers with seats (3) recommend that elderly people over 70 years old isolate themselves at home (4) suggest that the public reduce social activities in accordance with According to the current data, as of May 5, Sweden had 2787 deaths from New Coronary Pneumonia and 22789 confirmed cases. The actual mortality rate was 12.22%, ranking sixth in the world. The data alone is not a success, and many mild patients in Sweden have not been tested, and the data of confirmed cases may not be accurate. It is only because the lives of residents have not been greatly affected, and economic activities have not stopped, which can be used by other countries for reference. And we do n’t know enough about the virus at this time. The virus may mutate. It is too early to say that the Swedish policy is successful. Does Sweden’s anti-epidemic policy apply to other countries? Sweden ’s anti-epidemic policy is also designed according to the characteristics of the virus in consideration of the economic cost of social isolation in consideration of the economic cost of social isolation. First of all, the people of Sweden have a high support rate for the government ’s policies, and the people are consciously able to maintain social isolation. Secondly, Sweden ’s original population density is very low. The country ’s 450,000 square kilometers has only 10.3 million people, and it is easy to live alone. Maintain social isolation. Furthermore, Sweden ’s medical system is currently not running and is still operating normally. Sweden now has about a third of the intensive care unit beds available. Therefore, Sweden ’s experience in epidemic prevention is worth learning, but it is difficult to be copied by other countries. Conclusion In human history, no infectious disease has been controlled or eliminated through “natural” “group immunity”. According to the Swedish method, if the same death rate is copied to the United States, more than 100,000 people will die. Choosing to coexist with the virus is essentially gambling, and it has to pay the price of life. (Part of the picture source network in the article, the copyright belongs to the original author, thank you for the picture author, if you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me, I will delete it.)

Can a child with cough go to school?

Is the cough contagious? Can’t a child with cough go to school? With the basic control of the new crown epidemic in China, since the end of April, primary and secondary schools in Hangzhou have resumed their studies one after another. Sitting in an expert clinic on Monday, I encountered a very real case. An 8-year-old boy was sent home by school after going to school because the child had a “cough” symptom. The teacher asked the parents to go to the hospital to see a doctor. If they want to come to school, they must ask the doctor to issue a certificate to prove that the child is not new coronary pneumonia and that the child can go to school. Ladies and gentlemen, do you think the teacher ’s request is reasonable? The doctor thinks that this is simply stepping over the dungeon one by one (feces). I carefully asked about the medical history and observed the child’s symptoms. The child just made a “chih-hum-” sound from time to time in the throat, which was between the clear voice and the nasal sound, which was far from the traditional cough. . According to parents’ memories, children have such symptoms for at least 3-4 months. But the child did not have stuffy nose, runny nose, cough at night, nor sputum, nor fever. The child’s pharynx from time to time is actually a kind of tic tics. Tourette is a kind of excessive movement of some muscle groups caused by the dysfunction of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, or twitching, if it involves the muscles of the throat and the muscles that assist breathing, including the intercostal muscles, the diaphragm, etc. Make a variety of sounds, such as clearing the throat, sniffing the nose, puffing the nose, breathing, sighing, or making a variety of sounds in the throat. Some children may also emit filthy words or words, also known as filthy language syndrome. The most clinically encountered voice is to clear your throat. Clearing your throat sounds like a cough and is often mistaken for cough by parents. Clinically, it is often misdiagnosed as cough variant asthma, and after receiving some unnecessary treatment, the result is a long-term cure. Vocal tic is a neurodevelopmental disorder disease, not an infectious disease, nor does it have the problem of infection, so it is wrong for the teacher to push such children out of the campus. You have to ask the doctor to issue a certificate to prove that the child is not a new crown. For children with coughs, the first reason is to clarify the cause, not all coughs are caused by infectious diseases. Generally speaking, if it is an infectious disease, whether it is virus, bacteria and mycoplasma, there is a certain degree of infectivity, but the degree of infection is different, such as the common cold and flu are infectious, the latter is more infectious, so It is included in the statutory key monitoring and management of infectious diseases. Bacterial infections such as whooping cough are caused by pertussis bacilli and are also contagious. They must be isolated after the onset of illness. There is also tuberculosis, and its cough can also be transmitted, so this situation needs to be isolated. Like the new coronaviruses that are now prevalent worldwide, they are extremely contagious and are particularly necessary for patient isolation. However, in children with acute or chronic cough, there are also many non-infectious diseases that are not contagious, and these do not need to be isolated. Such as bronchial foreign bodies, airway allergies (cough variant asthma), gastroesophageal reflux, neurogenic cough (vocal tic), etc. These coughs are not contagious and do not need to be isolated. It cannot be used as a reason to refuse to let him go to school.

The patients who entered the country outside Heilongjiang went on a hunger strike, and the whole floor was thrown with lunches. What do you think?

Recently, something happened in Heilongjiang that made Chinese people angry. Heilongjiang imported patients who went on a hunger strike collectively, threw the boxed lunch down the whole floor, and pointed at the nurse’s nose in front of the face to scold: Is this a meal for people? This group of people even said: We are patients, now we need nutrition, we have to do whatever we want, noodles, noodles, and dumplings. Eat ten yuan lunch all day, nutrition can’t keep up! Some people say, what do you think of this matter? Some words, if you do n’t vomit, the author will talk about these angry things. Unreasonable requirements should not be satisfied. First of all, for the unreasonable people who make trouble and justify the words, the most important thing I want to say is: no matter whether these people are Chinese or foreign nationality, wherever they come, they will be sent back. Originally, these imported patients have caused great trouble to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic situation. Heilongjiang has changed from the initial low risk to the current medium risk, and the medical staff have become more busy. Besides, these overseas patients should know clearly that they are now in isolation, not on vacation, and the staff is not obliged to keep everyone’s care intact. It has already caused such great troubles to the country itself, why should these unreasonable demands be mentioned? Reasonable requirements, the country can meet as much as possible. However, unreasonable demands should not be fulfilled, and this kind of evil spirits cannot be promoted. Because our epidemic prevention staff must treat all people equally, and we cannot give these special treatments because these people are imported patients abroad. This is unreasonable and unacceptable. These people need to be grateful. As a person, we should first be grateful. These imported patients all entered the Suifenhe port of Heilongjiang, and after nucleic acid detection, new coronavirus was detected and isolated for treatment. Suifenhe’s epidemic prevention pressure is huge, so that some patients are transferred to Mudanjiang City, this is to ensure that these diagnosed patients can recover soon. These people did not know that because of their arrival, the resumption of work, resumption of production and resumption of school in Heilongjiang were seriously affected. However, these people will not consider these, they only have themselves in mind, the only consideration is: “I am an aristocrat who came back from a foreign country, I want to eat whatever I want”, treating medical staff as hotel service staff. What the author wants to say is that no matter whether these people are Chinese or not, they should have something to do with China, either Chinese or Chinese, or working abroad or studying abroad. In this special period, China still accepts you and you should know Be grateful, understand and support more, rather than throwing away the wild. Conclusion Our country is big, and there are so many isolation points for epidemic prevention. In the past few months, I haven’t heard much about the fact that Chinese people think that food is unpalatable. However, one thing that is very confusing is that as long as it is outside the country, things become complicated. For example, overseas students who must drink mineral water during quarantine, Australian women who must run during quarantine, foreigners who line up and provoke Chinese, foreigners who beat market epidemic prevention staff, foreigners who are dog-biting nurses in hospitals, etc. Recently, there are imported patients outside Heilongjiang who do not eat lunch, and all kinds of eye-popping goods are emerging in endlessly! I hope that these people are self-respecting, if they are “unacceptable” in China, they can go back and forth, so they can leave. (Some of the pictures in the article are from the source network. The copyright belongs to the original author. Thank you for the picture author. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)

The cumulative diagnosis will break millions! A large number of Chinese Americans have set off another “back to the tide”, how does China respond?

Recently, the new crown epidemic in the United States is still severe. The cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths ranks first in the world. It is only a matter of time before the cumulative number of confirmed cases breaks through 1 million. At the same time, because the Trump administration kept dumping China to conceal its weakness in the fight against the epidemic, accusing China of concealing the epidemic data, it also made some people in the United States anti-Chinese sentiment soaring, and Chinese Americans became the first target of attack. The lives of a large number of Chinese Americans have been very difficult, and they even wanted to return home to seek refuge, again setting off a “return to the country tide.” How should China respond this time? Chinese in the United States can be divided into two identities, one is a Chinese who holds a US green card but the nationality is still Chinese, and the other is a Chinese who fully possesses American citizenship. Since our country does not recognize dual citizenship, the former can return to China, but the latter currently theoretically needs to give up American citizenship and change back to Chinese citizenship before returning to China for long-term residence. However, if it is necessary to come to China for necessary economic, trade, scientific and technological activities during this period, and for urgent humanitarian needs, you can still apply for a visa to the Chinese embassy or consulate abroad. So for this group of people from abroad to China, our country is currently responding as follows: 1. Reducing the number of international flights The Civil Aviation Administration has issued a notice on March 26, requesting to continue to reduce the number of international passenger flights. One airline can only keep one route to any country, and each route can not operate more than one flight per week; the same is true for every airline from foreign country to China. First, this has greatly reduced the number of Chinese Americans. The number of returning home. 2. Centralized isolation medical observation It is well known that China is currently the safest country in the world, but for foreign immigrants, no matter who they are, they should abide by our country ’s regulations, that is, centralized isolation medical observation must be conducted for 14 days. Isolation can only be lifted after two negative nucleic acid tests with an interval of more than 24 hours, and all costs incurred during the concentrated medical observation period shall be borne by oneself. 3. Strengthen the crackdown on illegal entry and exit. In the case of tight foreign epidemics, the possibility of someone entering the country through illegal channels is not ruled out, so the border areas have increased the deployment of police force, increased the density of patrol control, and cracked down on illegal entry and exit. At the same time encourage the masses to report such behavior. 4. Implementation of health code management Health code management should also be implemented for overseas personnel who have been released from quarantine. All access places are required to scan the code to prevent them from tracking all close contacts in time if they become ill. In the end, you do n’t need to worry too much, because under the current circumstances, it is not easy for Chinese Americans to return to China, and our country has also done all the countermeasures, so they are very unlikely to bring back the epidemic to our country. Still returning to the question of how the US epidemic will develop in the future, I personally think that the United States should reflect on why the epidemic has soared beyond control. The fundamental problem is that the government has failed to take the iron arm to isolate it, resulting in the free spread of the virus. Now, the US government should completely give up Fantasies, working with China and other countries to deal with the virus together, instead of engaging in confrontation, wasting a good time to fight the epidemic, can be described as turning back! (Some of the pictures in the article are from the source network. The copyright belongs to the original author. Thank you for the picture author. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)

The epidemic situation in Heilongjiang is severe. Should the prevention and control of Harbin be upgraded, should the city be closed like Wuhan?

The recent increase in cases in Heilongjiang Province has aroused national attention. People thought that the first stage of the epidemic had been brought under control. It was when the whole country lifted the closure of the city, resumed work and resumed production, and resumed normal working life. However, the number of existing cases in Heilongjiang ranked first in the country, and the epidemic prevention situation was grim. Some people ask, does Heilongjiang need to close the city immediately like Wuhan? The reason for the increase in cases in Heilongjiang Province The current situation in Heilongjiang is still within the controllable range, and it is not necessary to take measures to close the city like Hubei. The main reasons are as follows: (1) Cases are mainly imported from abroad. According to the latest relevant data, there are more than 400 confirmed cases in Heilongjiang, of which the most imported cases are more than 300. It can be seen that the main reason for the continued outbreak in the later period of Heilongjiang was caused by imported cases from Russia and the United States. From April 7th, the Russian-Chinese Pogranichny-Suifenhe highway port personnel passage has been temporarily closed. At present, the China-Russia land border crossing has been temporarily closed. With the continued strengthening of isolation and control measures, the epidemic in Heilongjiang can be controlled and there will not be an outbreak similar to Wuhan, so there is no need to close the city. (2) Local cases are being traced and isolated. From the case of Harbin, it is mainly because Han, who returned from the United States, although tested negative during the isolation period, still passed through the neighbors, and then there were asymptomatic infectors, aggregated infections and A cluster outbreak of 50 people infected with 1 caused by cross infection in the hospital. This is also due to the lax prevention and control of communities, hospitals and other human factors, which has led to the spread of the epidemic. At present, it has attracted attention from all quarters. The government and other departments are conducting traceability, investigation and isolation of relevant close contacts, and other measures have caused people’s attention and vigilance, and will not cause the spread of the epidemic. (3) The reasons for the closure of Hubei are different. On the one hand, the closure of Hubei was due to the Spring Festival and the large flow of people, and I do n’t know how many people are sick in Wuhan, Hubei. If they are not closed, it is more difficult to limit the spread of patients. Caused an outbreak throughout the territory. On the other hand, our materials were limited at that time, we didn’t know much about viruses, and medical personnel were limited. It is necessary to seal the city of Hubei to reduce the pressure of epidemic prevention in other regions, so that other regions can free up their hands to support Hubei. Compared with the situation in Hubei, the scale of the current epidemic in Heilongjiang is still relatively small, and we are now more experienced and able to control the epidemic more quickly. Conclusion Although Heilongjiang has not reached the level of the closure of the city at present, the virus epidemic has come back to remind us not to relax our vigilance and party for the thought that the current state of the epidemic has improved slightly. The epidemic situation of the new coronavirus is still not optimistic. Over 2.46 million diagnoses have been diagnosed worldwide. We still need to take protective measures, do not have dinners, wear masks, and wash our hands frequently. (Some of the pictures in the article are from the source network. The copyright belongs to the original author. Thank you for the picture author. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)

Will the temperature gradually rise to curb the new crown epidemic? Analysis: It is more important to do these 5 points

With the passage of time, the climate has gradually warmed. With the current overseas epidemic situation continuing to develop, many friends are also worried that the domestic epidemic situation will be repeated. Many friends are concerned about such a problem. Does it have a deterrent effect on the new crown epidemic? We will analyze and discuss this issue today. Is the activity of the new coronavirus related to temperature? Of course, it does matter. At 56 ° C, the survival time of the new coronavirus does not exceed 30 minutes, while at 4 ° C, the survival time of the new coronavirus can exceed 28 days. Such a characteristic shows that the new coronavirus is indeed “loving cold and fearing heat”. Therefore, the temperature rise will have a certain restraining effect on the new coronavirus. With the advent of summer, the sun will cause the ground temperature to rise, and the temperature in the air will also increase greatly. The intensity of the ultraviolet rays of the sun (ultraviolet rays can kill coronavirus) will also increase greatly, resulting in high heat Dry environment, etc., these conditions are not conducive to the survival of the new coronavirus, therefore, for the spread of the new coronavirus, these will become unfavorable conditions, but also more conducive to the containment of the new coronavirus. However, it should also be understood that high temperature is by no means a decisive condition for the suppression of the new crown epidemic. This is a good proof that in China ’s Hainan region, Southeast Asia ’s Xinmatai and other regions, even in December, the climate is still hot However, in the course of this outbreak, these areas have not been spared from the attack of the new coronavirus. Although Hainan has been cleared, the cumulative number of cases has also been 168, while countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines in Southeast Asia are still daily There are still new cases, more than 6,000 people have been diagnosed, and there are many places in the world that are hot climates. There are also new crown epidemics. These cases have proved that high temperature may inhibit the new crown. Viral activity can reduce the survival time of the new coronavirus, but it cannot be the key factor and decisive condition for curbing the new coronavirus. It is also worth noting that with the advent of summer in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding regions of the southern hemisphere will enter the cold winter, and whether the outbreak will further erupt in the southern hemisphere or become more difficult to control, also deserves our more attention. In this world, no one is isolated. Therefore, the overall control of the epidemic should also be considered from the global level. The new coronavirus is a new type of virus. In the course of the epidemic, new features are constantly emerging and being discovered. Hopefully, there will be more research data to prove how specific the correlation between virus transmission and temperature is. The temperature change is an objective condition, and for the new pandemic of the global pandemic, if you want to control the epidemic, it is impossible to control the epidemic completely by “days and days”. Our country’s anti-epidemic results have proved that we want to thoroughly To control the epidemic well, we should not rely on the increase in temperature, but on the following efforts-1. Effectively isolate the house, maintain social distance, and minimize the chance of close contact with the infected person. 2. Pay attention to protection when going out, minimize unnecessary crowd gathering, and reduce the probability of virus transmission. 3. For those infected with the new coronavirus, they should be collected and medically isolated until they are completely restored before they are released. 4. Actively identify and track infected persons and close contacts of suspected patients, and do medical isolation. If possible, conduct a comprehensive nucleic acid check to minimize the chance of missed checks and reduce the risk of virus transmission. 5. In response to the outbreak of overseas epidemics, take strict precautions against overseas imports and concentrate on isolation. Although the current epidemic situation is well under domestic control, the outbreak of the international epidemic situation has not been fully contained, and the phenomenon of one after another is currently showing. Under such epidemic situation, each of us will be affected by it, but As an individual, in such a situation, all we can do is to prevent and control the epidemic from a personal point of view, and maintain the good hygienic habits developed during the epidemic, which becomes a normal state. We have done our best to prevent and control the epidemic.

The scarlet fever is “fighting”, and the parents of Baobao and Baomu are alert!

Scarlet fever is a common acute respiratory infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcus. Streptococcus invades the human body from the respiratory tract and can occur all year round, but it is more common in spring from April to June and winter from November to December. The age of onset is mainly 3-8 years old. At the peak of scarlet fever, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reminds the majority of parents to pay great attention to prevention. Scarlet fever is highly contagious and spreads rapidly. It is mainly spread by droplets in the air, contact between people or contact with contaminated items. Scarlet fever patients and healthy carriers are both infectious sources. The patients are contagious 24 hours before the onset and the entire course of the disease. Children in close contact with the source of infection or in the same polluted environment are easily infected. Crowded places such as schools and nursery schools are places where scarlet fever is prone. Scarlet fever is not terrible. Only by fully understanding the related knowledge of scarlet fever can we better prevent scarlet fever. Let us learn together. What are the symptoms of scarlet fever? Infection of scarlet fever first causes angina and tonsillitis. Typical manifestations are: fever, angina, and rash. The fever is mostly persistent, and the body temperature can reach about 39 ° C. It can be accompanied by headache, general malaise and other symptoms of systemic poisoning. The angina is manifested as sore throat, dysphagia, etc. The rash appears 24 hours after the fever, starting behind the ear Neck and upper chest, then quickly spread to the whole body, and evenly distributed congestive needle-sized papules appear on the skin, fading, accompanied by itching, and in most cases, the rash starts in the order of rash after 48 hours It subsides and may peel off in flakes. Some patients may have “palm circles around the mouth”, “myrica tongue” and so on. It should be noted that patients with angina have a large amount of bacteria and are not easy to be found, which is an important source of infection. Babao and Baoma can often use a flashlight to check the throat of the child to achieve early detection. What should I do if I get scarlet fever? 1. Ventilation and disinfection: the children’s room should be sprayed with 500mg / L (1: 100) of 84 disinfectant solution, including tables and chairs, floors, walls, door handles and any other places where children may touch. Open windows frequently for ventilation, no less than 3 times a day for 15 minutes each time. Tableware used by children should be boiled and disinfected. Used towels, clothes, etc. should be boiled and boiled. After the child is healed, a thorough disinfection should be performed. Toys and furniture should be scrubbed with 500mg / L (1: 100) 84 disinfectant solution. If they cannot be scrubbed, they can be exposed to the sun for 1-2 hours. 2. Treatment and isolation of patients: patients with suspected scarlet fever and angina should be treated with isolation. Should pay attention to bed rest, do not contact with other children, avoid activities in public places. Wear a mask when nursing patients. The isolation period is not less than seven days from the date of treatment. Children with suppurative complications need to be isolated until the inflammation subsides, and the isolation can be released after complete recovery. Scarlet fever prevention is the most important Because scarlet fever is not yet available for vaccines, it is important to prevent it in daily life: 1. Achieve “ventilation, drying bedding, exercise more, and immunization.” Keep the air fresh in the room, dry the bedding and clothes, keep clean, and participate in more physical exercises to enhance immunity. Educate children to wash their hands frequently and keep their mouth and skin clean and hygienic. They can use normal saline to gargle their mouths as little as possible to crowded places. 2. Timely medical treatment: In the high season, especially when scarlet fever patients are around, parents should pay close attention to the child’s physical condition. Once you find that your child has fever, throat swelling or skin rash, please send to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment in time. 3. Parents should cooperate with schools and childcare institutions to actively carry out morning and afternoon examinations and follow-up investigations due to illness. When your child is on leave due to illness, the teacher should be informed of the reason for the leave. Especially if you are diagnosed with an infectious disease, please inform the school and the childcare institution in time so that the school and the childcare institution can conduct screening and disinfection in time.

Harbin 1 biography 44, 87-year-old man triggered a “chain” spread! Interpretation of the truth behind the article

At present, the domestic epidemic prevention and control situation has improved, and many places have been cleared. However, there has been a sudden outbreak in Harbin recently. After combing through layers, a transmission chain that has infected 44 cases due to 1 case has shocked many people. Why does this happen? How should we respond? Why does this happen? According to the review of the transmission chain of the local case epidemic in Harbin, it can be concluded that the following reasons led to the occurrence of 1 transmission 44: (1) the transmission of the transmission of 1 transmission 44 at home was confirmed by previously diagnosed personnel. Han quarantined and infected the neighbor Cao in a building. Han had done two negative nucleic acid tests during home isolation, and it was difficult to verify whether she infected Cao after she was released from isolation, or whether it was transmitted to Cao during home isolation. If at the beginning she returned to the country to be quarantined and tested in multiple ways, it may not cause subsequent infections. (2) Infected personnel dinner spread caused Cao Mou to spread to her daughter’s boyfriend Guo Mouming through her daughter. This is also considered to be an infection in the family. However, Guo Mingming and 87-year-old Chen, who caused a cluster of infections, had dinner together, which caused more subsequent infections. Gathering together and eating together is the key to the “chain” spread of the new crown virus. (3) The outbreak caused by cross infection in the hospital was only spread by ten people. It was only at the age of 87 that Chen Mou detonated the entire transmission chain. Due to stroke, Chen went to Harbin Second Hospital for medical treatment, and was later referred to Harbin Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, resulting in infection of multiple patients, accompanying staff and nurses in the same wards of the two hospitals. The family members of patients in the district spread across provinces. If the hospital can screen for potential infections in a timely manner, it will not be infected for so long and so many people will be spread. How should we respond? This case once again sounded the alarm for everyone. The new coronavirus is much more cunning than we thought, and it cannot be neglected because of the improvement of the epidemic situation. Those returning to China should be self-disciplined, properly isolated, and cooperate with the inspection. Everyone should try to avoid gathering activities and dinners. There should be no fluke, wear masks, wash hands frequently, and do personal hygiene. Screening should be done in high-risk areas such as hospitals. Suspected patients should be tested immediately, not necessarily only. Test patients in fever and respiratory departments, and other departments should also pay attention. In short, the battle for the new crown epidemic has not been completed. This gathering infection epidemic once again proves the importance of “outside prevention input, internal prevention rebound”. Everyone still does not gather for dinner, does not gather, wash hands frequently, and wear masks!

Scarlet fever prevention

Western medicine treatment 1. Isolate the patient. Isolate the patient for more than 6 days, until the pharyngeal swab culture is negative 3 times, and the complication can be released. For those who continue to have positive pharyngeal swab culture, the isolation period should be extended. 2. General treatment should be bed rest in the acute phase. Eat soft, light food and drink plenty of water. Keep the mouth and skin clean and hygienic to prevent secondary infections. Elderly children can gargle with normal saline. 3. Antibiotic therapy Penicillin is a commonly selected drug for treating scarlet fever and all streptococcal infections. Early application can shorten the course of disease and reduce complications. In severe cases, the dose can be increased. In order to completely eliminate pathogenic bacteria and reduce complications, the course of treatment is at least 10 days. Those who are allergic to penicillin can use erythromycin or cephalosporin. In severe cases, it can also be administered intravenously. The course of treatment is 7 to 10 days. 4. Symptomatic treatment of high fever can use a smaller dose of antipyretic agent, or use physical cooling and other methods. In case of toxic shock of infection, blood volume should be actively supplemented to correct acidosis. Active treatment will be given to complications such as otitis media, sinusitis, nephritis, and myocarditis. 5. TCM treatment TCM syndrome differentiation treatment. Prevention of scarlet fever 1. Patients with scarlet fever should be treated in isolation; during the scarlet fever epidemic, patients with suspected scarlet fever, acute pharyngitis, and tonsillitis should be treated in isolation; for carriers, conventional treatment doses of penicillin can be used until the culture is turned negative to control infection source. 2. For those who are in close contact with scarlet fever patients, they should be closely observed and quarantined for 7 to 12 days. They can be used for pharyngeal swab culture or given penicillin prophylactically. 3. During the epidemic, avoid crowded public places, especially children.

Child scarlet fever is not serious

Children are easily infected with scarlet fever, which is the most severely affected area of ​​the disease, and the injuries suffered by children suffering from scarlet fever are still relatively serious. They need to be treated in time, otherwise there will be complications and serious consequences. 1. The severity of scarlet fever means that it can cause many complications, such as rheumatic myocarditis and arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. In addition, scarlet fever can also cause acute nephritis. 2. Rheumatic myocarditis usually occurs in the late stage of scarlet fever. Once the child has scarlet fever and has symptoms such as shortness of breath and chest pain, it is likely that myocarditis is caused. 3. Rheumatoid arthritis caused by scarlet fever usually appears on relatively large joints, which are often symmetrical at the time of the attack, and the joints will have symptoms such as redness, swelling and heat pain, and will appear sequentially on the large joints. Go to the hospital for treatment. 4. Acute nephritis caused by scarlet fever is usually when the scarlet fever appears for one to three weeks. The symptom is that the child’s urine volume decreases, and there will be dark urine or hematuria. In this case, take the child to do Urine routine examination. Scarlet fever is considered to be a serious child disease. If other diseases are complicated, it will cause great harm to the child. The parents of the child must always pay attention to the various symptoms of the child. Treatment requires timely treatment by the hospital. 1. Isolation of patients: Scarlet fever patients are usually isolated for about a week. After complete recovery and no complications, the isolation can be lifted. If the test is positive, the isolation time should be extended accordingly. 2. General treatment: Scarlet fever patients should try to rest in bed, choose light food, and drink plenty of water. At the same time to clean the mouth and skin to prevent secondary infections, you can also use normal saline to gargle. 3. Antibiotic therapy: Penicillin is the first choice for the treatment of scarlet fever. It can effectively shorten the course of disease at the early stage of the disease and reduce the complications. If the patient is seriously ill, the dose should be increased. 4. Symptomatic treatment: If the child has fever symptoms, some antipyretics can be used, and if there are symptoms of toxic shock, blood volume should be replenished quickly.

Entering more than 400 people in China, how serious is the Russian epidemic? This article highlights the key points

While the domestic epidemic control has gradually stabilized, the “multiple outbreaks” of foreign epidemics in various countries are worrying. Russia, which was not in a tense situation at first, seems to have undergone major changes. This point, without looking at anything else, depending on the imported cases in China, we can get a glimpse of one or two, showing that many cases have been imported at the land entry port of Suifenhe City, Heilongjiang, the port has been temporarily closed, and a sheltered hospital has been established to treat patients. The country also sent a team of experts to assist Hubei, and once again rushed to this border town. Recently, Russian flights in Shanxi and Shanghai have also detected large-scale infections. A flight in Shanxi has more than 25 people diagnosed, while Shanghai ’s The number of confirmed flights is as high as 60. In total, Russia has recently imported more than 400 cases in China, and it has become one of the countries with the largest number of cases imported into China. If the epidemic does not develop to a certain extent, such a situation usually does not happen. At present, the number of confirmed diagnoses announced by Russia exceeds 18,000, and the number of new people added every day is more than 2500 recently. Is there any information lag caused by the failure to keep up with the test? Although it is still impossible to make a conclusion, this possibility is still very big. After carefully sorting out the reasons for the recent outbreak of the Russian epidemic, I believe that it has a close relationship with the following reasons-Russia crosses the Eurasian continent, but has a closer relationship with Europe. At the beginning of the European outbreak, Russia still had The country maintains frequent contacts, and the lack of timely import prevention measures is the main reason for the outbreak of Russia. Data show that 1 million people returned to Russia from abroad within 10 days in late March, although many people have done They were isolated at home, but no accounting tests were conducted. In the early stage of the spread of the epidemic, research data showed that all confirmed cases in Russia belonged to imported cases. Therefore, the outbreak of the Russian outbreak has a close relationship with the importation of people returning from Italy, France, Spain and other countries. Insufficient epidemic prevention and control are not in place, which is also one of the reasons for the outbreak of Russia. Although Russia is one of the earliest countries to adopt epidemic prevention and control isolation measures, from March 28th, Russia has also taken a national holiday for 9 days to strengthen isolation and Prevention and control, but the public does not seem to feel any tension. Such a holiday has become a time for many people to go on vacation. They have not fully isolated their homes, and the mobility of people has not been effectively controlled. It is also the cause of the recent outbreak of the Russian epidemic. . Judging from the situation of multiple countries, usually, once an outbreak occurs, its growth tends to increase exponentially. According to the current situation in Russia, although in the global outbreak, Russia is still not in the top ten Name, but it is foreseeable that the outbreak of the Russian epidemic has just begun. In the later period, how the Russian government and the people do well in the prevention and control of the epidemic is the key to the full control of the epidemic. We have our national defense epidemic success There are also examples of ongoing outbreaks in countries such as the United States and Britain. Therefore, the direction of the Russian epidemic depends entirely on the availability of anti-epidemic measures and personal protection awareness. On the 12th, China has dispatched a team of experts on epidemic prevention to Moscow to provide assistance and support to Russia ’s epidemic. However, for our country, what we should do at present is whether we should focus on doing a good job or “anti-import” work. It is a neighboring country with many cooperations and contacts. The number of people living and working in Russia alone is as high as 160,000. Whether it is a land entry port or an air entry port, how to prevent imports and how to do isolation treatment for imported cases, etc. Work is still the top priority in our follow-up epidemic prevention work.

On the day of segregation at home, contradictions continue!

Zhou Xin, female, 28 years old, teacher, married for six years; her husband is the same age, a middle-level cadre of a company; her son is more than one year old. Main problem: During house separation, the husband and wife have new and old accounts, and conflicts and conflicts continue. Zhou Xin claimed that he would divorce when the epidemic was over. The husband expressed his companionship. Telephone consultation is Zhou Xinyue. When connected to the phone, Zhou Xin said incoherently, I didn’t know how to do this at home during this period of isolation. My life was very chaotic and my mind was chaotic. When I was restless all day and didn’t calm down, my temper was very bad. A few days ago, I always quarreled with my husband. Now I do n’t quarrel anymore. I have a cold war. I have to sleep in separate beds. A divorce has also been filed. Now I do n’t know what to do. Zhou Xin’s husband is a middle-level cadre in the company. He is young and promising. He is usually too busy to work and does not stay at home all day. When the New Crown Epidemic began to quarantine at home, Zhou Xin was quite happy, and the two could finally be together every day. She also took a lot of pictures of Xiu’ai and posted them in the circle of friends. The friends joked that they “sprayed a lot of dog food.” But it didn’t take long for the problem to come. & nbsp. Zhou Xin saw that the number of patients with new coronary pneumonia reported on the Internet and TV was rising every day, and the doctors in the hospital had invisible medical attire, which scared her to buy back a lot of disinfectant, masks, goggles, protective clothing, Disinfection at home every day, also fully armed when going out. The husband disagreed, if there were no community workers watching the gate of the community, he didn’t even want to wear a mask when he went out. Zhou Xin asked her husband to protect and disinfect the children every day. The husband was very troubled. He often slipped out of the house to find friends to play with. Zhou Xin was unwilling to call back. Zhou Xin discovered that her husband didn’t care about herself at all. It was difficult for her husband to stay with her at home. Once the husband ’s aunt delivered a mask and fruit to the family, and took a break for a while before the husband came back. Afterwards, Zhou Xin said angrily that if her aunt did not come, her husband would not know when to return home. The husband was very angry. During home isolation, the mother-in-law was very worried about his son’s health and called every three times to ask about the situation of his son and grandson. At least half an hour after the call, Zhou Xin was rarely mentioned. Every time at this time, Zhou Xin was terrified. I remembered that when I was my husband ’s girlfriend for the first time, I went to my husband ’s house for the first time as a guest. Zhou Xin dressed up and went away with anxiety, but the husband ’s mother only chopped vegetables for his son. Before leaving, he said in a shady way, don’t marry a fox spirit to come to the house as the daughter-in-law. Later, under the insistence of her husband, the two finally got married, but the knot in Zhou Xin’s heart was still untied. Now every time I hear her mother-in-law calling her son, Zhou Xin is particularly unhappy. After her husband answered the phone, Zhou Xin asked the old lady if she mentioned herself, and then took out the matter of being a guest at her husband’s house and the grievances she suffered from her mother-in-law. At first, Zhou Xin was nagging like this, and her husband would comfort her and coax her, and then she would say nothing at all, and it would be gone. A few days ago her husband answered his mother’s phone, Zhou Xin was not happy again, and began to talk about the previous thing. My husband suddenly felt anxious, shouting that Chen Guzi rotten sesame seeds every year, nagging every day. When Zhou Xin heard it, tears flowed down, crying and saying that his life was suffering. So the husband threw his own mobile phone on the ground, Zhou Xin picked up the TV and fell to the ground, and did not want to break that kind. Unexpectedly, her husband picked up the TV and fell heavily on the ground, breaking the TV. The child was crying in fright. Zhou Xin was anxious and said to be divorced, her husband said no problem. That night, the two of them split into beds and haven’t spoken until now. Analysis: The level of panic and anxiety caused by the epidemic is different for everyone. Zhou Xin let her husband do it according to his own requirements for protection and disinfection. The starting point is good, but the husband ’s feelings are not taken into consideration, and it is said that it is for the sake of children. Psychological pressure. In addition, Zhou Xin blindly hoped that her husband would stay away from home, but he did not know that people had the nature to keep a distance. This also made her husband unbearable, so her husband had to “flee” out of the house. Once the home isolation husband is always away, it will cause Zhou Xin’s loss and dissatisfaction, suspecting and complaining that the husband has no feelings for himself. The mother-in-law called Zhou Xin ’s husband frequently and for a long time, and did not greet her daughter-in-law, which caused Zhou Xin ’s jealousy and displeasure, and activated the past bad memories of her mother-in-law. Husband was able to coax her before, but later ignored it, in fact did not really understand Zhou Xin ’s needs