Which aspects of vitiligo treatment need to be grasped?

  Vitiligo is a disease with complex etiology and a long treatment time. Therefore, in this long treatment process, stage, type and color are the principles of diagnosis and treatment of vitiligo. At this time, whether it is the control of medication dosage, treatment intensity, etc. for each treatment course, the patient’s grasp of daily care and diet, or the grasp of the timing of treatment, it is necessary to follow a “degree”. So, what aspects of the treatment of vitiligo should be grasped?   1. During the treatment, some patients will have allergic reactions to the Chinese and Western medicines for the treatment of vitiligo. For example, some patients have used psoralen tincture and have symptoms of redness, pain, and itching. . In order to avoid this situation, the patient actively informs the attending doctor of his allergens and allergy history before taking the medicine. If he does not know whether he is allergic or not, he can consult the attending doctor to deal with the drugs that may cause allergic reactions. Skin test to minimize allergies.  Second, nursing   Patients need proper sun exposure during treatment. This is because proper sun exposure can stimulate melanocytes and enhance the function of melanocytes, which is beneficial to the recovery of vitiligo. The time of sun exposure should be adjusted according to the season. In autumn, winter, spring, and the seasons where the sun is not too strong, you can choose to irradiate at noon, the time can be slightly longer, and the windows should be opened when irradiated. In late spring and summer, the sun is strong, and you can choose to irradiate it in the morning and evening. Take care to prevent exposure to the sun.  Three, diet    do not completely eliminate eating. Because some substances that are not eaten by patients with vitiligo, such as vitamin C, are found in most of the ingredients. If vitamin C is not taken at all, it is more difficult, and it is more important to maintain a balanced nutrition for children in the developmental stage. Eat food in moderation. Many foods, if consumed in excess, will also have some bad effects on the human body. Therefore, even if the patients with vitiligo can eat, or even the foods that are helpful to the disease, the patients need to eat them in moderation.   Whether or not the “degree” can be grasped in the treatment of vitiligo is very important. The inhibitory and therapeutic effects of leukoplakia should not be underestimated, and should not be overestimated.

One radiotherapy can solve multiple tumor lesions, TOMO treatment is an additional option for tumor patients

Today, some netizens consulted: Father’s small cell lung cancer is limited, can he choose TOMO instead of surgery? TOMO is actually a kind of radiotherapy, TomoTherapy (TOMO for short)-spiral tomotherapy system, belongs to the latest generation of radiotherapy equipment. Since the first TOMO entered clinical use in 2003, more than 2000 TOMO academic papers have been published in academic journals at home and abroad. At present, the total installed capacity of the world is nearly 600, and there are 7 in the country, mainly in the top three hospitals with greater influence in areas such as Beijing 301, Zhejiang Second International Medical Center and Nanjing Bayi Hospital. The TOMO radiotherapy system is the main component of a 6-megabit (MV) medical linear accelerator installed on a 64-row spiral CT slip ring frame, which combines IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy) and IGRT (Image Guided Radiotherapy). Therefore, its machine is very unique. In terms of appearance, it is different from our ordinary linear accelerator. It is more like a CT, which can rotate and irradiate the human body. TOMO is currently the only image-guided radiotherapy system that uses radiotherapy radiation and CT to be the same. The imaging accuracy is as high as ±0.1mm, which is much higher than conventional accelerators. Compared with ordinary radiotherapy, TOMO has the following advantages: 1. Ordinary radiotherapy only treats a single lesion, while the tomo knife can treat multiple tumors at the same time and complete all treatments in a shorter time. 2. The treatment range of ordinary radiotherapy is generally 3-9 radiation fields, the tumor is less than 15-40cm, and the radiation dose distribution is uneven, while tomo knife radiotherapy can perform 360-degree rotating radiation, 51 arcs, and tens of thousands of radiation fields can achieve 40cm *The doses are evenly distributed within 160cm. 3. The radiotherapy radiation of the tomo knife system is the same as that of CT. It has the function of dose calculation and verification to ensure the double precision of the position and dose of the treatment plan. It protects normal tissues from damage and has a low recurrence rate. Due to the high accuracy, the side effects are much smaller. 4. The tomo knife can achieve precise treatment on complex structures and irregular tumors. It has broad indications and can be used to treat tumors in the brain, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, and spinal cord. The TOMO radiotherapy system can be used for special treatments such as total central nervous system radiation, total spinal cord radiation, and total lymph node radiation that are difficult to solve clinically. Frank Wilson, a well-known radiation oncologist in North America, commented on TOMO: The TOMO radiotherapy system represents the ultimate level that can be achieved by conformal radiotherapy, which means that the dose can be tightly wrapped around the tumor while keeping the surrounding key organs to a minimum. hurt. Compared with other methods, TOMO radiation therapy system can increase the target dose more effectively and effectively. In the limited stage of small cell lung cancer, if the patient’s age, lung function, and physical status are not suitable for surgery, or the patient is unwilling to operate, TOMO radiotherapy can be considered. However, because small cell lung cancer is a systemic disease, local radiotherapy alone is far from enough. Fortunately, concurrent chemotherapy or sequential chemotherapy has a high probability of brain metastasis from small cell lung cancer, and patients with limited-stage patients must also undergo preventive brain irradiation. It is worth mentioning that due to TOMO’s unique equipment, this treatment is much more expensive than ordinary radiotherapy.

Pigmentation really makes people feel inferior. How to remove them?

I usually encounter some girls who have very good skin and facial features, but they have become very inferior because of the spots on their faces. So today I will talk to you about the topic of “freckle removal”. There are a dazzling array of anti-freckle products on the market, but the results are mostly unsatisfactory. Why are stains so difficult to remove? To clarify this problem, first let me take you to understand the type and mechanism of stains. There are many types of stains, common ones are: sunburn, melasma, pregnancy spots, freckles, age spots, etc. How are spots formed? ① Genetic causes. Some people have family history. ②Ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet rays in the sun is an important cause of facial spots, so I have repeatedly emphasized the importance of sun protection. When the skin is exposed to too much sunlight, the epidermis will produce more melanin particles, and ultraviolet radiation will cause chloasma. ③ Endocrine causes. Endocrine disorders are also an important cause of facial stains in women. Changes in the level of sex hormones in the body during menstruation and pregnancy will affect the production of melanin. In addition, when endocrine instability usually causes emotional instability, it can also indirectly lead to the formation of facial stains. ④Life habits issues. Bad lifestyle habits such as stress, partial eclipse, lack of sleep can also increase melanin. People with unstable sleep time have poor skin metabolism, which will affect the production of melanin particles. ⑤ Wrong use of cosmetics. Using cosmetics that are not suitable for your skin can cause skin allergies, damage to the stratum corneum, irritate the skin, and cause the formation of spots. How to remove freckles-super picoseconds Babies who know about medical beauty will definitely think of “Ultra picoseconds” when it comes to freckle removal. Ultra picosecond laser is a device that can beautify skin, lighten spots, rejuvenate skin, wash eyebrows, and remove tattoos. The photoelectric instrument for washing birthmarks, removing acne marks, and washing eyeliner is the latest achievement in the application of laser technology from Sinoron. So what are the advantages of super picoseconds? 1. Safe and non-destructive, no skin damage, no redness and swelling, low anti-black rate, fast and powerful deterrent ability, the probability of heat damage to the skin is greatly reduced, and the risk of black back is relatively reduced. 2. It takes effect quickly and conforms to the development trend of “light medical beauty”. Ultra picoseconds can solve many types of skin problems, and it has quickly occupied the medical beauty market with its advantages of single treatment effect, simple postoperative care, and no scars. The celebrity artist personally experienced this machine, and exposed their own makeup photos. 3. Comprehensive whitening and rejuvenation of the skin through the generation of small shock waves in the skin, thereby starting the repair mechanism, allowing the skin to regenerate. 4. Thorough removal of pigments, whitening and skin rejuvenation, can take care of both, completely breaking through the limitations that traditional lasers can’t. It has a better effect on dark pigment particles! Do you have such concerns about super picoseconds? There are also some beauty seekers who are confused and ask me whether super picoseconds will harm the skin. You don’t need to worry about this. Since each of us has different skins, in the process of ultra-picosecond treatment, the energy given, the choice of wavelength, including the order of using hand tools are different. This is a test of the doctor’s professionalism. Ultra-picosecond is not Anyone can operate it, as long as the doctor has good results, the doctor’s equipment is very important and indispensable. Go to a regular hospital and find an experienced doctor to do it. If you follow the doctor’s advice and take good care of it after treatment, it will not harm your skin. If you want to know more about “Ultra Picosecond Anti-Freckle”, you can ask me a question.

Pigmentation really makes people feel inferior. How to remove them?

I usually encounter some girls who have very good skin and facial features, but they have become very inferior because of the spots on their faces. So today I will talk to you about the topic of “freckle removal”. There are a dazzling array of anti-freckle products on the market, but the results are mostly unsatisfactory. Why are stains so difficult to remove? To clarify this problem, first let me take you to understand the type and mechanism of stains. There are many types of stains, common ones are: sunburn, melasma, pregnancy spots, freckles, age spots, etc. How are spots formed? ① Genetic causes. Some people have family history. ②Ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet rays in the sun is an important cause of facial spots, so I have repeatedly emphasized the importance of sun protection. When the skin is exposed to too much sunlight, the epidermis will produce more melanin particles, and ultraviolet radiation will cause chloasma. ③ Endocrine causes. Endocrine disorders are also an important cause of facial stains in women. Changes in the level of sex hormones in the body during menstruation and pregnancy will affect the production of melanin. In addition, when endocrine instability usually causes emotional instability, it can also indirectly lead to the formation of facial stains. ④Life habits issues. Bad lifestyle habits such as stress, partial eclipse, lack of sleep can also increase melanin. People with unstable sleep time have poor skin metabolism, which will affect the production of melanin particles. ⑤ Wrong use of cosmetics. Using cosmetics that are not suitable for your skin can cause skin allergies, damage to the stratum corneum, irritate the skin, and cause the formation of spots. How to remove freckles-super picoseconds Babies who know about medical beauty will definitely think of “Ultra picoseconds” when it comes to freckle removal. Ultra picosecond laser is a device that can beautify skin, lighten spots, rejuvenate skin, wash eyebrows, and remove tattoos. The photoelectric instrument for washing birthmarks, removing acne marks, and washing eyeliner is the latest achievement in the application of laser technology from Sinoron. So what are the advantages of super picoseconds? 1. Safe and non-destructive, no skin damage, no redness and swelling, low anti-black rate, fast and powerful deterrent ability, the probability of heat damage to the skin is greatly reduced, and the risk of black back is relatively reduced. 2. It takes effect quickly and conforms to the development trend of “light medical beauty”. Ultra picoseconds can solve many types of skin problems, and it has quickly occupied the medical beauty market with its advantages of single treatment effect, simple postoperative care, and no scars. The celebrity artist personally experienced this machine, and exposed their own makeup photos. 3. Comprehensive whitening and rejuvenation of the skin through the generation of small shock waves in the skin, thereby starting the repair mechanism, allowing the skin to regenerate. 4. Thorough removal of pigments, whitening and skin rejuvenation, can take care of both, completely breaking through the limitations that traditional lasers can’t. It has a better effect on dark pigment particles! Do you have such concerns about super picoseconds? There are also some beauty seekers who are confused and ask me whether super picoseconds will harm the skin. You don’t need to worry about this. Since each of us has different skins, in the process of ultra-picosecond treatment, the energy given, the choice of wavelength, including the order of using hand tools are different. This is a test of the doctor’s professionalism. Ultra-picosecond is not Anyone can operate it, as long as the doctor has good results, the doctor’s equipment is very important and indispensable. Go to a regular hospital and find an experienced doctor to do it. If you follow the doctor’s advice and take good care of it after treatment, it will not harm your skin. If you want to know more about “Ultra Picosecond Anti-Freckle”, you can ask me a question.

Pigmentation really makes people feel inferior. How to remove them?

I usually encounter some girls who have very good skin and facial features, but they have become very inferior because of the spots on their faces. So today I will talk to you about the topic of “freckle removal”. There are a dazzling array of anti-freckle products on the market, but the results are mostly unsatisfactory. Why are stains so difficult to remove? To clarify this problem, first let me take you to understand the type and mechanism of stains. There are many types of stains, common ones are: sunburn, melasma, pregnancy spots, freckles, age spots, etc. How are spots formed? ① Genetic causes. Some people have family history. ②Ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet rays in the sun is an important cause of facial spots, so I have repeatedly emphasized the importance of sun protection. When the skin is exposed to too much sunlight, the epidermis will produce more melanin particles, and ultraviolet radiation will cause chloasma. ③ Endocrine causes. Endocrine disorders are also an important cause of facial stains in women. Changes in the level of sex hormones in the body during menstruation and pregnancy will affect the production of melanin. In addition, when endocrine instability usually causes emotional instability, it can also indirectly lead to the formation of facial stains. ④Life habits issues. Bad lifestyle habits such as stress, partial eclipse, lack of sleep can also increase melanin. People with unstable sleep time have poor skin metabolism, which will affect the production of melanin particles. ⑤ Wrong use of cosmetics. Using cosmetics that are not suitable for your skin can cause skin allergies, damage to the stratum corneum, irritate the skin, and cause the formation of spots. How to remove freckles-super picoseconds Babies who know about medical beauty will definitely think of “Ultra picoseconds” when it comes to freckle removal. Ultra picosecond laser is a device that can beautify skin, lighten spots, rejuvenate skin, wash eyebrows, and remove tattoos. The photoelectric instrument for washing birthmarks, removing acne marks, and washing eyeliner is the latest achievement in the application of laser technology from Sinoron. So what are the advantages of super picoseconds? 1. Safe and non-destructive, no skin damage, no redness and swelling, low anti-black rate, fast and powerful deterrent ability, the probability of heat damage to the skin is greatly reduced, and the risk of black back is relatively reduced. 2. It takes effect quickly and conforms to the development trend of “light medical beauty”. Ultra picoseconds can solve many types of skin problems, and it has quickly occupied the medical beauty market with its advantages of single treatment effect, simple postoperative care, and no scars. The celebrity artist personally experienced this machine, and exposed their own makeup photos. 3. Comprehensive whitening and rejuvenation of the skin through the generation of small shock waves in the skin, thereby starting the repair mechanism, allowing the skin to regenerate. 4. Thorough removal of pigments, whitening and skin rejuvenation, can take care of both, completely breaking through the limitations that traditional lasers can’t. It has a better effect on dark pigment particles! Do you have such concerns about super picoseconds? There are also some beauty seekers who are confused and ask me whether super picoseconds will harm the skin. You don’t need to worry about this. Since each of us has different skins, in the process of ultra-picosecond treatment, the energy given, the choice of wavelength, including the order of using hand tools are different. This is a test of the doctor’s professionalism. Ultra-picosecond is not Anyone can operate it, as long as the doctor has good results, the doctor’s equipment is very important and indispensable. Go to a regular hospital and find an experienced doctor to do it. If you follow the doctor’s advice and take good care of it after treatment, it will not harm your skin. If you want to know more about “Ultra Picosecond Anti-Freckle”, you can ask me a question.

Pigmentation really makes people feel inferior. How to remove them?

I usually encounter some girls who have very good skin and facial features, but they have become very inferior because of the spots on their faces. So today I will talk to you about the topic of “freckle removal”. There are a dazzling array of anti-freckle products on the market, but the results are mostly unsatisfactory. Why are stains so difficult to remove? To clarify this problem, first let me take you to understand the type and mechanism of stains. There are many types of stains, common ones are: sunburn, melasma, pregnancy spots, freckles, age spots, etc. How are spots formed? ① Genetic causes. Some people have family history. ②Ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet rays in the sun is an important cause of facial spots, so I have repeatedly emphasized the importance of sun protection. When the skin is exposed to too much sunlight, the epidermis will produce more melanin particles, and ultraviolet radiation will cause chloasma. ③ Endocrine causes. Endocrine disorders are also an important cause of facial stains in women. Changes in the level of sex hormones in the body during menstruation and pregnancy will affect the production of melanin. In addition, when endocrine instability usually causes emotional instability, it can also indirectly lead to the formation of facial stains. ④Life habits issues. Bad lifestyle habits such as stress, partial eclipse, lack of sleep can also increase melanin. People with unstable sleep time have poor skin metabolism, which will affect the production of melanin particles. ⑤ Wrong use of cosmetics. Using cosmetics that are not suitable for your skin can cause skin allergies, damage to the stratum corneum, irritate the skin, and cause the formation of spots. How to remove freckles-super picoseconds Babies who know about medical beauty will definitely think of “Ultra picoseconds” when it comes to freckle removal. Ultra picosecond laser is a device that can beautify skin, lighten spots, rejuvenate skin, wash eyebrows, and remove tattoos. The photoelectric instrument for washing birthmarks, removing acne marks, and washing eyeliner is the latest achievement in the application of laser technology from Sinoron. So what are the advantages of super picoseconds? 1. Safe and non-destructive, no skin damage, no redness and swelling, low anti-black rate, fast and powerful deterrent ability, the probability of heat damage to the skin is greatly reduced, and the risk of black back is relatively reduced. 2. It takes effect quickly and conforms to the development trend of “light medical beauty”. Ultra picoseconds can solve many types of skin problems, and it has quickly occupied the medical beauty market with its advantages of single treatment effect, simple postoperative care, and no scars. The celebrity artist personally experienced this machine, and exposed their own makeup photos. 3. Comprehensive whitening and rejuvenation of the skin through the generation of small shock waves in the skin, thereby starting the repair mechanism, allowing the skin to regenerate. 4. Thorough removal of pigments, whitening and skin rejuvenation, can take care of both, completely breaking through the limitations that traditional lasers can’t. It has a better effect on dark pigment particles! Do you have such concerns about super picoseconds? There are also some beauty seekers who are confused and ask me whether super picoseconds will harm the skin. You don’t need to worry about this. Since each of us has different skins, in the process of ultra-picosecond treatment, the energy given, the choice of wavelength, including the order of using hand tools are different. This is a test of the doctor’s professionalism. Ultra-picosecond is not Anyone can operate it, as long as the doctor has good results, the doctor’s equipment is very important and indispensable. Go to a regular hospital and find an experienced doctor to do it. If you follow the doctor’s advice and take good care of it after treatment, it will not harm your skin. If you want to know more about “Ultra Picosecond Anti-Freckle”, you can ask me a question.

Is there no effect after vitiligo is not red after 308 laser?

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.308nm excimer laser treatment is currently the most advanced treatment method for vitiligo in the world. It is suitable for various types of vitiligo, and there is no restriction on the location of the population. It promotes melanin by inducing T cell death Cell viability to achieve a good therapeutic effect. This kind of therapy takes effect quickly and can effectively prevent recurrence after healing. It is the treatment choice for the majority of patients with vitiligo. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. After the 308 excimer laser was irradiated, some people’s white spots became red, while some people did not change. What’s the matter? How does it prove that the 308 irradiation is effective? &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Whether the vitiligo gets better after exposure is not judged by whether it is red. The treatment effect depends on whether there is melanin growth, black spots on the edges of the white spots, or small black spots on the white spots, these are the manifestations of the improvement of vitiligo. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Under normal circumstances, if the patient has a slight redness after 308 exposure, it is an ideal performance. In many cases, redness means that the skin is responsive and effective. Some patients do not turn red after irradiation. This does not mean that the irradiation is ineffective. This may be caused by the patient’s physique and skin type. Sometimes the white spots do not turn red after laser irradiation. This may be because The patient’s skin has strong light resistance, and some external photosensitive drugs can be considered to increase the sensitivity to radiation and improve the effect of radiation. Of course, the lack of redness after 308 exposure may also be due to the relatively small exposure dose. However, if the redness is severe, even redness, swelling, itching, or blistering, it is necessary to consider the excessive laser dose. You can promptly report to the attending physician whether there are changes in the skin after exposure, and make continuous adjustments to the treatment plan to achieve a more ideal treatment effect. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Patients with vitiligo should not pursue redness too much. Many patients with vitiligo care too much about the skin appearance after exposure. If there is no redness, they are very anxious and ask the doctor to increase the dose. Patients with vitiligo should not pursue redness too much. If the dose is too large, the skin will become too red, even swelling and blistering, which is also unfavorable for the treatment of vitiligo. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Generally, the early leukoplakia takes about 2 courses of 308 laser treatment, and the symptoms of melanin improvement can be seen: small black spots appear in the leukoplakia, and melanin bands grow on the edge. After treatment for vitiligo for a period of time, it will enter the recovery period, which is manifested as: leukoplakia shrinks and the number decreases. After treating vitiligo for a period of time, the white spots will basically disappear. At this time, it should be noted that the melanin may not fully grow after the white spots disappear. Do not stop the treatment rashly at this time, otherwise the leukoplakia may recur later. Be sure to consolidate the treatment for a period of time under the advice of a doctor to ensure the degree of recovery of white spots. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Of course, the onset of leukoplakia is different for each patient with leukoplakia. The improvement and recovery performance and symptoms after 308 laser irradiation are not exactly the same. The specific conditions vary from person to person. However, as long as you are treated with 308 laser in a regular hospital for vitiligo, the general recovery is ideal. Thank you for reading. If you have any questions about leukoplakia, white spots, and vitiligo, you can leave a message below or consult me ​​by private message, and I will answer it for you free of charge. May the world be white and everyone has healthy skin. &nbsp.

Is it normal for blisters to appear red and swollen after the laser?

In the process of treating vitiligo, phototherapy plays an important role. Many patients have had signs of redness, swelling and blisters after receiving laser treatment. What is going on? Are there any side effects in laser treatment of vitiligo? First, let’s introduce the commonly used American 308nm excimer laser: this is the most advanced instrument used to treat vitiligo, and the consumable is xenon chloride. The 308nm excimer laser is used to irradiate the patient’s leukoplakia. The laser will penetrate into the skin of the patient’s leukoplakia, stimulate the regeneration of melanocytes, activate melanocytes, and make the cells produce melanin, so that the skin can be colored normally. This method of treatment has a better therapeutic effect on vitiligo, and any leukoplakia can be treated with it, and it is safe for children. So, what is going on with blisters and redness? Let me tell you first, because the 308 laser uses green and safe xenon chloride gas to irradiate the white spots, there will be no sequelae and no side effects. The cause of skin blisters and redness is: laser treatment has strict requirements on the dose and time of vitiligo irradiation. If the patient’s irradiation dose is too large, it is easy to cause blisters and redness in the affected area, but these are normal. The patient does not need to worry too much and will recover on its own. You can also apply erythromycin eye ointment. Patients should pay attention that if this happens after the skin is illuminated, first suspend the exposure and wait for the recovery before performing phototherapy.

The side effects caused by radiotherapy can be life-threatening if misdiagnosed!

Radiotherapy is one of the three major methods of tumor treatment. With the widespread application of radiotherapy technology, the incidence of radiation pneumonia is increasing, which directly affects the treatment process and prognosis of patients, seriously affects the quality of life of patients, and even endangers life. Therefore, active prevention, treatment and reversal of radiation pneumonitis is very important for cancer patients. 1. What is radiation pneumonia? Radiation pneumonia, as the name suggests, is pneumonia related to radiation therapy. It refers to aseptic inflammation of normal lung tissues exposed to radiation. It often occurs after radiotherapy of lung cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, malignant lymphoma or other malignant tumors of the chest. The incidence of radiation pneumonia in cancer patients is many, mainly due to the following reasons: 1. The area of ​​the irradiated lung: The larger the area of ​​the irradiated lung tissue at the same dose, the higher the incidence. 2. Exposure dose: Radiation pneumonitis rarely occurs when the radiation dose is <15Gy; if it is >60Gy, radiation pneumonitis of varying degrees will occur. 3. Division method: When the total dose is the same, the fewer the number of divisions and the shorter the total treatment course, the higher the incidence of radiation pneumonia. 4. Irradiated parts: The upper lung and lung tissues near the mediastinum are more prone to radiation pneumonitis than the lower lung and surrounding lung tissues. 5. Combined chemotherapy: chemotherapy before or during radiotherapy will promote radiation pneumonitis. When certain chemotherapeutics (such as bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate, etc.) are used simultaneously with radiotherapy, in addition to sensitizing tumors, they also increase the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. Therefore, severe radiation pneumonitis may occur even with small doses during chemotherapy. 6. Others: poor lung health, old age, children, and smokers are prone to radiation pneumonia. 2. Classification of radiation pneumonia The pathological changes of radiation pneumonia can be divided into acute radiation inflammation and chronic fibrotic lesions. Acute inflammatory changes usually occur 1-2 months after radiotherapy, mainly manifested as swelling and necrosis of alveolar cells, formation of fibrin deposits and hyaline membranes in the alveolar cavity, and swelling of capillary endothelial cells and thrombosis, resulting in arterial wall Hyalinosis, necrosis of bronchial mucosa, etc. We can simply understand it as cell necrosis and vascular disease, which affect lung function. Of course, acute inflammation can dissipate on its own, or it can transform into connective tissue hyperplasia and chronic fibrosis. The key is early treatment. Chronic fibrotic lesions usually occur 9 months or later after radiotherapy, mainly manifested as extensive alveolar fibrosis, alveolar atrophy, thickening of the vascular wall, hyalineosis and sclerosis, stenosis or obstruction of the lumen resulting in decreased gas exchange function and pulmonary artery Increased pressure. 3. What are the symptoms of radiation pneumonia in cancer patients? The symptoms of radiation pneumonia are similar to ordinary pneumonia. There may be low-grade fever, irritating cough, coughing a small amount of white mucus-like sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath, etc. In severe cases, there are high fever, chest tightness, difficulty breathing, severe cough, hemoptysis, etc. Most lung physical examinations have no positive signs, but may have local consolidation signs and wet rales. The important point is that the physical examination shows that the skin is atrophy and hardened in the radiation area. With the intensification of pulmonary fibrosis, breathing difficulties gradually appear, often manifested as chest tightness, shortness of breath after activities, and even waking up at night when sleeping and feeling poor breathing. Advanced patients are often accompanied by clubbing and signs of chronic pulmonary heart disease. In severe cases, acute heart failure can lead to death. 4. The diagnosis of radiation pneumonia can be made based on the history of radiotherapy, dry cough, progressive dyspnea, and chest X-ray inflammation or fibrosis. The diagnosis is based on the following: (1) A history of radiation exposure to one or both lungs. The dose reached more than 20Gy; (2) Before receiving radiotherapy, there was no history of upper respiratory tract and lung infections, and chest X-ray examination of both lungs was normal; (3) During the course of radiotherapy or within a certain period of time after the end of radiotherapy, different degrees of Respiratory symptoms, or chest X-ray examination without obvious symptoms suggest lung inflammation; (4) After stopping radiotherapy, after active treatment, the inflammation can be absorbed and dissipated or turned into chronic fibrotic lesions. 5. Treatment of radiation pneumonia 1. General treatment. When radiation pneumonia occurs, radiotherapy should be stopped immediately and rest in bed. When accompanied by shortness of breath or cyanosis, oxygen can be given. 2. Hormone treatment of adrenal cortex hormones is currently the most commonly used and most effective drug for the treatment of radiation pneumonia, especially in the early stage to reduce lung parenchymal cell damage and vascular changes, reduce alveolar edema and improve symptoms. Prednisone can be used in the acute phase (per kilogram of body weight per day)

What to do with photodynamic therapy for recurrence of condyloma acuminatum

Condyloma acuminatum is caused by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), not only to treat the wart-like hyperplasia seen with the eyes, but also to treat the damage of sub-clinical infections that are not easy to see with the eyes. important. 1. The principle of photodynamic therapy:    input photosensitizer into the human body, after a certain period of time, irradiate the lesion with specific wavelength light, through a series of photochemical and photobiological reactions, with the participation of molecular oxygen, singlet oxygen and or Free radicals and oxidation destroy various biological macromolecules in tissues and cells, causing irreversible damage to abnormally proliferative and active cells, and ultimately dying cells to achieve therapeutic purposes.  Second, the steps of photodynamic therapy:   1. The medical staff will distribute fresh medicines with them in preparation for treatment.   2. Wet the affected area with fresh liquid for 3 hours, and perform local encapsulation according to the specific situation.   3. The red light irradiates the focus of the lesion, and the irradiation time is usually 20 minutes. 3. Adverse effects of photodynamic therapy: Although it will produce a certain effect in the treatment of condyloma acuminatum, it has a certain effect in removing surface symptoms, but it has no effect on the genital wart virus in the body, and it is also likely to cause side effects such as skin allergies, redness and even ulcers. , And patients may have a lot of relapse after treatment. It is recommended to use the patented Chinese medicine formula of “2011101665723” to remove the warts while suppressing the virus, improve the anti-viral ability, and remove the remaining HPV from the inside out. Although the treatment cycle is longer than surgery, it is safer and will not leave scars. .

Precautions for the use of psoralen

Psoralen tincture is a commonly used drug for the treatment of vitiligo. What should I pay attention to when using it? 1. Be sure to apply the buccal tincture to the center of the white spots, not the entire white spots, because the psoralen tincture will spread out, if the whole white spots are wiped, it will seep into the surrounding normal skin, causing two Consequences: The skin around the white spots becomes dark, making the white spots appear clearer; it may also cause the white spots to expand in size.  If the white spot is very small, wrap a little cotton with a toothpick and apply it to the center of the white spot.   2. Psoralen tincture + daylight: General white spots (pure white) first apply psoralen tincture, after 3-5 minutes, under the sun, usually once a day. The length of the illumination time depends on the strength of the sun. If the sun is very strong, first illuminate it for 5-10 seconds. If the white spots do not become red, gradually extend the illumination time until the white spots become red; if the sun is weak, you can Starting from 2-3 minutes, gradually extend the illumination time until the white spots become red. Then stop the sun exposure and apply topical hormone ointment twice a day until the erythema subsides and the white spots return to the original white color. Then start topical psoralen tincture + sun exposure, and so on.  Note: Remember to expose the buccal tincture for a long time under strong light, it may cause blisters. After wiping the bony fat tincture, the skin cannot be exposed to sunlight for a long time; if it is irradiated with NB-UVB, it should be gradually extended from 5 seconds, once every other day, and the irradiation should be stopped when the white spots are not red, not once It is necessary to illuminate the white spot, which may cause blisters. If blisters appear, how to deal with them:    Don’t be nervous in case of blisters. If the blisters are small and not broken, topical calamine lotion can be used externally and oral anti-allergic drugs; if the erythema and edema are very serious, or even bullae, you can Go to the local hospital, disinfect with alcohol, iodine, etc., puncture the blisters with a needle to let the liquid flow out, but pay attention to the place where the needle is inserted to wipe the gentian purple to prevent bacteria from entering here to form pustules; Obvious or erosion occurs, you can use 3% boric acid water cold compress (3% boric acid water in the refrigerator to refrigerate), 3-4 times a day, 15 minutes each time (Note: the material used for wet compress can be cloth mask, 6- 8 layers of gauze or a small towel can be used. These wet compresses need to be soaked in cold 3% boric acid water every 5 minutes, squeeze gently, do not squeeze too dry, but also can’t drip down. Semi-dry is better), while oral anti-allergy drugs.  Generally after about 1 week of treatment, the redness, blisters and erosion will gradually subside.  Usually treated with medicine for 1-2 months, pigmented spots will appear in the center of the leukoplakia. The torso takes effect faster, while the scalp, hands, feet and other end parts will take effect more slowly and the effect will be worse. Some patients showed that the overall color of the white spots became lighter (less white than before treatment) or the range was reduced.

Some spots need to be alert

These spots have colored spots, and the following precautions are required. 1. Spot spots or map spots on the hairline: gynecological inflammation, endocrine disorders, and pigmentation caused by solar dermatitis.   2. Spots on the forehead: there are gynecological diseases, abnormal secretion of sex hormones, thyroid hormones, and adrenal sebaceous hormones.   3. The spots on the tail of the temple: Weak thyroid, frequent abortions, and poor mental state of uterine diseases.   4. Speckles on the eyelids: renal insufficiency, abnormal hormonal secretion in women, the frequency of miscarriage in pregnancy is too much stimulation, and there are psychological disorders.   5. Spots around the eyes or under the bags under the eyes: It does not fade when pressed, and it is mostly deep spots. Generally, there are more people who have uterine diseases and have miscarriage experience.   6. Massive spots on cheekbones: liver deficiency, constipation, long-term depression, sunburn, lack of sleep, etc.   7. Spots on cheeks: mostly people with weak spleen and stomach. Regardless of the cause of speckle formation, it is roughly as follows #健康真真馆#1, genetic cause    autosomal inheritance is the main cause of freckles. It usually starts with children around 5 years old, mostly women, heavy in spring and summer, and light in autumn and winter. Light brown to yellow brown needle tips to rice grain size spots, symmetrically distributed on the face (especially the nose).   2. Ultraviolet radiation  Ultraviolet radiation in sunlight is an important reason for the formation of stains, which is why sun protection is needed in summer. When the skin is exposed to too much sunlight, the epidermis produces more melanin particles, which can absorb ultraviolet rays and protect the body from harm. Moreover, ultraviolet radiation can cause chloasma and common freckles to darken.   3. Endocrine causes    Changes in the level of sex hormones in menstruation and pregnancy can affect the production of melanin. In addition, endocrine instability usually causes emotional instability, which can also indirectly cause the formation of stains.  4. Living habits issues  Stress, partial eclipse, lack of sleep and other bad habits will also increase melanin. Therefore, people with unstable sleep time have poor skin metabolic rate, which will affect the production of melanin particles.

What are the ways to freckle

When it comes to the method of freckle removal, the second best is laser freckle removal. Its fast and good effect is also welcomed and loved by everyone. Simply put, the principle of laser freckle removal is to irradiate the color spots to decompose the pigment and eventually excrete it with the metabolism of the human body. The laser beam only acts on the pigment particles and does not damage the epidermis, just like the flashlight is irradiated through the glass at night, and the glass has no damage. Furthermore, the area of ​​the laser beam is small, and it passes through the skin in a very short time of milliseconds, nanoseconds, or even picoseconds. The thermal damage to the epidermis is minimal, and no scars will be left after freckles. Frequently used freckle removal instruments: M22, super picoseconds.

Does sweating affect the effect of vitiligo laser?

Although the 308 laser is a method often used to treat vitiligo, many patients do not know much about this treatment. I don’t know whether some usual inattention will affect the effect of irradiation. Recently, patients have asked us: Does leukoplakia have any effect on the treatment effect after 308 laser sweating?   Let’s take a detailed look below. Does sweating affect the effect of vitiligo-based lasers? Sweating has a certain effect on laser treatment of vitiligo. The white spots on the patients cannot be immediately wet after receiving 308 laser irradiation, but if the sweating is not particularly large, it will not Affect the effect of irradiation. Therefore, after irradiating the laser, patients should pay attention to protect the skin of the affected area, minimize vigorous exercise, prepare for sun protection when going out, avoid contact with undesirable factors, develop good habits, pay attention to healthy diet, and eat more at ordinary times Foods high in tyrosine and trace elements can more effectively promote the synthesis of melanin. Patients should pay attention to choosing the correct equipment for laser irradiation. The new generation of 308nm excimer laser treatment equipment in the United States, unlike traditional lasers, uses a special gas, xenon chloride, to generate pulsed light waves that directly irradiate the white spot area, fundamentally to solve the melanin The problem of being destroyed does not have any useless light, no crowds and other restrictions. It can adjust the radiation dose according to the crowd, age, location, physical condition, disease, etc. It has the advantages of high safety, quick effect, short treatment course, low cost, high energy level, etc. It is the best choice for patients with vitiligo. The recovery has a shorter period of time. Reminder:    Vitiligo disease needs to be combined with treatment and care, so as to more effectively ensure the effect of removing whiteness. Because the recovery of vitiligo disease is a long process, patients must be patient during treatment, and they cannot be interrupted or replaced at will. Affect the recovery of the condition.

Radiotherapy is still the basic treatment in tumor treatment, and can even reduce the tumor and regain the opportunity for surgery

With the intensification of aging and the influence of many factors such as environment and diet, the incidence of malignant tumors has increased year by year. As one of the main methods for the treatment of malignant tumors, radiotherapy has gradually entered people’s vision, but its application is still limited by many. What is radiotherapy is simply to irradiate the tumor tissue with radiation. After reaching a certain dose, the tumor cells will lose their most characteristic ability-infinite reproduction, and cause the tumor cells to die and shrink the tumor. In fact, about 70% of cancer patients require radiotherapy at different stages of their treatment, but in fact only a small proportion of patients have received radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is not popular enough. The author believes that one of the main reasons is that radiotherapy is really a bit complicated. It is not like surgery. After being anesthetized, the tumor tissue is removed and the tumor tissue is not removed. It is not like chemotherapy or targeted therapy. It is mainly achieved by taking or using various drugs intravenously The purpose of treatment. Radiation therapy can be divided into external radiation and internal radiation according to the irradiation method. External radiation is focused on the tumor, and the radiation is focused, so that the tumor tissue obtains a high dose of radiation, thereby achieving the purpose of killing the tumor cells. Internal irradiation is divided into application, particle implantation, post-loading therapy, etc., which are given rays through different methods. And its technology is divided into conventional irradiation, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy and so on. Many ways and names often confuse and confuse us. Radiotherapy is not only a treatment method for malignant tumors, it can also be used for the treatment of various benign diseases, such as keloids, hemangioma, and splenomegaly. Radiotherapy can shrink the tumor to make surgery possible, it can also reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis after surgery, and it is also an effective way to relieve local symptoms in patients with advanced tumors. But after all, radiotherapy is a treatment method with damage, and usually only patients can be in the machine room during treatment. Radiotherapy is a local treatment method for tumor irradiation, so the side effects caused by it are mainly local, for example, head and neck tumors, such as nasopharyngeal cancer, oral cancer, larynx cancer, etc., the main irradiation site is in the oral cavity, oropharynx Etc., can cause dry mouth, oral mucosa hyperemia, erosion, ulcers, causing pain and eating disorders in patients. For patients with chest and abdomen malignant tumors, such as esophageal cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, etc., local irradiation of tumor lesions can cause radiation esophagitis, radiation pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, skin pigmentation and fibrosis. Pelvic tumors, such as rectal cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, etc., the main reactions caused by local anatomy after radiation exposure are frequent urination, urgency, dysuria, or diarrhea. For tumors of the limbs or muscles, the main radiotherapy response is skin pigmentation, which rarely causes significant discomfort. In addition, most patients also experience hematological changes after exposure to radiation, such as low white blood cells, anemia, or low platelets. Related factors secreted by the tumor and the role of radiation can cause poor appetite in patients. But whether the above reactions appear or not, the extent and severity of the reactions vary from person to person. And these acute reactions can be relieved and cured by drugs or symptomatic treatment. After all, the tumor is still a disease that has not been overcome, and various treatments including radiotherapy will cause more or less toxic and side effects. I believe that with the progress of radiotherapy technology, such as image-guided radiation therapy and dose-guided radiation therapy, particle beam radiotherapy machines are more accurate and popular, and their combination with targeting, immunity and other treatment methods, I believe that future radiotherapy can be Better serve cancer patients.

For beauty and health, how do people with lupus use sunscreen scientifically?

Lupus suffers from increased rash after sun exposure, leading to disease activity. Ultraviolet radiation is one of the important reasons for inducing and aggravating the condition of lupus erythematosus. In the course of lupus patients, up to 60% of patients are stimulated or exacerbated by sunlight. Ultraviolet irradiation with a wavelength of 290-320nm is likely to cause apoptosis of skin epithelial cells, and the new antigen is exposed to become an autoantigen, thereby inducing or aggravating the appearance of rash. Therefore, patients with lupus should learn scientific sun protection. Who needs sunscreen General patients with lupus erythematosus can be exposed to sun for 10 to 15 minutes every day without sunscreen. The degree of protection required depends mainly on the presence or absence of the rash, the location of the rash, and whether there has been a light allergy before. Some patients have no photosensitivity even if they are exposed to sunlight for a long time, but some patients may also be photosensitized under the strong sunlight reflection in the winter snow, which shows that the sensitivity to sunlight varies from person to person. Patients with light allergies need to pay special attention to sun protection, while patients who have never had light allergies do not need to be too afraid of the sun, and do not need to go umbrella when they go out. How to scientifically protect from general sun protection: When going out or when exercising outdoors, we can protect the ultraviolet rays in the following ways: First of all, we should avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight at the time of the strongest daily sunlight (10 to 16 o’clock), if we want to go out , You need to wear sunglasses, use an anti-ultraviolet umbrella, wear cotton long-sleeved tops and trousers, wear a wide-brimmed hat, try to avoid direct light on the skin. Use of sunscreen: Using sunscreen is an effective method of skin protection. It should be applied every 2 to 3 hours. Types of sunscreens: According to the difference in the principles of sunscreens, sunscreens can be divided into physical sunscreens, chemical sunscreens, and plant sunscreens introduced in recent years. Function of sunscreen: Because UVA and UVB are easy to cause skin damage, therefore, sunscreens respectively proposed SPF (sunprotectionfactor) and PA sunscreen concepts for the protection ability of UVA and UVB. SPF stands for Sun Protection Index. It is an important indicator for evaluating sunscreens to prevent UVB from sunburning the skin. The SPF value is the ratio of the minimum UVB exposure required to cause skin erythema after sunscreen application and the minimum UVB exposure required to cause skin erythema without sunscreen. The larger the value, the stronger the ability to prevent UVB. PFA is to evaluate the protective effect of sunscreen products on UVA. The more + the PA, the stronger the UVA protection. Choice of sunscreen agent: The ideal sunscreen agent should be able to prevent both UVA and UVB. In life, different sunscreen agents should be selected according to different skin types, different environments, and different age skin characteristics. Physical sunscreens are greasy and heavy, suitable for dry skin, while chemical sunscreens are fine and refreshing. More suitable for oily skin. Recommended for indoor activities is about SPF15, for outdoor activities tourists, recommended SPF20 or more, outdoor swimmers, should choose waterproof sunscreen products. Sunscreens with SPF greater than 30 and PA +++ should be selected in areas with high altitude and strong sunshine and in summer. In summary, patients with lupus erythematosus photosensitivity, whether in disease active period, remission period or resting period, should pay attention to avoid direct sunlight and ultraviolet radiation on the skin, choose sunscreen products reasonably, and try to avoid going out when the sunlight is strong.

Did the nose shine through?

At the interview today, a little girl asked me if my nose was transparent or just do? Let me tell you about science. There are two cases of light transmission: one is daily light irradiation, and the other is strong light, such as spotlight irradiation, then if the daily light irradiation has obvious light transmission Phenomenon, then this is problematic, such as thin skin, such as silicone, then if it is irradiated by strong light, any material, even the natural nose may have a light transmission phenomenon. My full-rib nose will not have obvious light transmission every day, but strong light will still be transparent. For example, if we take a flashlight to take care of our hands, it will also be transparent.