. .Women go through a menstrual period once a month, and women with adenomyosis will gradually show symptoms of excessive menstrual flow as the disease worsens. If you don’t pay attention to blood supply and nourishment, it is easy Causes symptoms of anemia, including palpitation, dizziness, pale complexion, insomnia and other blood deficiency diseases. Blood is the most important material basis for women to maintain their health. Healthy women and women who pursue both internal and external beauty should pay attention to blood supplementation. Needless to say, patients with adenomyosis need blood tonic the most! However, many women don’t know much about how to nourish blood and easily fall into the misunderstanding of blood supplementation and still suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Let’s take a look at the four major nutritional misunderstandings that cause female anemia.  . 1. Fruits and vegetables are not beneficial to iron supplementation?  . .Many women only know that fresh vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, and feel that they do not contain iron, so they ignore the importance of vegetables and fruits! They don’t know that eating more vegetables and fruits is also good for iron supplementation. This is because fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamin C, citric acid and malic acid. These organic acids can form complexes with iron, thereby increasing the solubility of iron in the intestinal tract, which is conducive to iron absorption. 2. Is eating more meat bad for your health?  . . In order to lose weight, some women only become “vegetarians” and only pay attention to the health benefits of plant foods, resulting in too little intake of iron-rich animal foods. In fact, animal food is not only rich in iron, but its absorption rate is also high. The iron element in plant food is interfered by the phytate and oxalate contained in the food, and the absorption rate is very low. Therefore, avoiding meat can easily cause iron deficiency anemia. In the daily diet, the intake of fruits, vegetables and meat should be balanced. 3. Is it OK to drink more coffee and tea?  . . For women, excessive drinking coffee and tea may lead to iron deficiency anemia. This is because some substances in tea and coffee may form insoluble salts with iron and inhibit iron absorption. Therefore, women should stop drinking coffee and tea in moderation.  .Four, how much do eggs and milk benefit people with anemia?  . . Milk is nutritious, but its iron content is very low, and the human body’s absorption rate is only 10%. For example, relying only on supplementing nutrition with milk and neglecting complementary foods often causes iron deficiency anemia. Egg yolk is good for iron supplementation. Although egg yolk has a high iron content, its iron absorption rate is only 3%, which is not a good iron supplement. Certain proteins in eggs can inhibit the body’s absorption of iron. Therefore, although these two common nutritious foods are rich in nutrients, it is not advisable to rely on them to supplement iron.  . . In addition to the misunderstanding of nutritional supplements, most of the iron-deficiency anemia of female friends is caused by diseases. Common diseases include hemorrhoids, tumors, digestive ulcers, and a common gynecological disease for women: adenomyosis! Adenomyosis is most likely to cause iron deficiency anemia in patients. Therefore, women should pay attention to the treatment of their own symptoms. After anemia is found, they should go to the hospital in time for a clear diagnosis and correct treatment.  .
Iron-deficiency anemia in pregnant women has been ignored. Most people think that it is normal for every pregnant woman to have anemia. Mild anemia will not have much impact on you and your baby, but if iron is not supplemented in time, once you turn into severe anemia, it will have an irreversible impact: 1. Cannot supply enough oxygen to the placenta, leading to fetal uterus Internal ventricular, premature delivery, stillbirth. 2. Decreased resistance during pregnancy, easy to get sick and infection, and increase the difficulty of delivery. 3. The risk of anemia after the birth of the fetus increases, which affects the mental development of the fetus. . Symptoms of iron deficiency in pregnant women .1. Iron deficiency will cause the complexion to be less rosy, a little pale, often dizzy, heart palpitations, breathing speed, difficulty in concentration, fear of cold, etc. , When iron deficiency is severe, the symptoms will be more obvious, there will be a burst of dizziness, and more serious will lead to fetal development, premature delivery and stillbirth.  .2, general fatigue and fatigue, loss of appetite, is also one of the symptoms of iron deficiency. If iron is not supplemented in time, swallowing difficulties, dizziness, tinnitus, and even fainting may occur.  .3. Routine blood examination, the amount of hemoglobin is less than 110g/L. Why is it prone to ischemia during pregnancy 1. The blood volume and the number of red blood cells in pregnant women gradually increase to the third trimester. The blood volume of pregnant women increases, but the hematopoiesis of red blood cells in the blood cannot keep up with the increase in total blood volume, which results in excessive water in blood The blood is diluted, and hemoglobin, the main component of red blood cells to carry oxygen, is relatively reduced. The composition of hemoglobin is based on iron, which is also called iron deficiency anemia. - .2, the growth of the fetus and placenta tissues require additional iron. During the growth and development of the fetus, the amount of iron required by the hematopoietic muscle tissue is provided by the pregnant mother, and the mother’s nutrition is based on the principle of “baby first” For selection and absorption, the main reason why most pregnant mothers have mild anemia symptoms is that the baby preferentially absorbs a lot of iron. Even the iron required for the baby within 4 months of birth is obtained from the mother, and the iron requirement of pregnant mothers during pregnancy is still very high.  .3. Studies on other risk factors have found that pregnant women’s advanced age, short birth intervals, not taking iron-containing folic acid tablets or occasionally taking them, and poor eating habits are closely related to iron deficiency. Among them, the most important factor is insufficient iron intake during pregnancy or the decrease of iron utilization rate caused by unreasonable dietary structure.  .How to supplement iron? Anemia in pregnant women is worthy of our attention. After pregnancy, we should do a good job of iron supplementation to prevent anemia during pregnancy. 1. Eat more iron-rich foods . From before pregnancy and when you first get pregnant, you should start to pay attention to eating more iron-rich foods such as lean meat, poultry, animal liver and blood (duck blood, pig blood), and eggs. Soy products also contain more iron and have a higher intestinal absorption rate, so pay attention to intake. Eat more pasta as the staple food. Larger rice contains more iron, and the intestinal absorption is better than rice. 2. Eat more foods that help iron absorption . Fruits and vegetables can not only supplement iron, but the vitamin C contained in it can also promote iron absorption in the intestines. It is best for expectant mothers to eat eggs and meat at the same time to increase the absorption rate of iron in eggs. Or eat eggs and tomatoes at the same time, the vitamin C in tomatoes can increase the absorption rate of iron. 3. Supplement folic acid and take folic acid tablets three months before pregnancy to three months after pregnancy. Folic acid deficiency is also one of the causes of anemia. In the later stage, you can eat more animal organs, bananas, green beans and other foods to increase the source of folic acid. In addition, it is necessary to limit caffeine and tannin. Foods high in tannin, coffee, tea, etc., can reduce the absorption of iron in food.  .In order to detect anemia and other problems early, you must choose the Far East Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, which is a designated third-level specialist hospital of Shenzhen Medical Insurance. The obstetrics department is one of the key departments of the hospital. It is composed of Su Fangming, the former director of the obstetrics department of Shenzhen People’s Hospital. Zeng Yuee, the former director of the obstetrics room of Shenzhen Maternity and Child Health Hospital, led a group of doctors, nutritionists and midwives with decades of clinical experience to form a strong obstetric team to escort the health of mothers and babies.  .
Patients with adenomyosis are more likely to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia, not only because patients with adenomyosis will lose a large amount of blood every month during their menstrual period, and then develop anemia. In mild anemia, women may also have some misunderstandings in their diet and behaviors that are not conducive to blood supplementation, which is also an important reason for the delay in correcting iron deficiency anemia.  .Misunderstanding 1: Eating more meat is bad for your health. Some women are misleading about the health effects of meat advertised in general advertisements. They only focus on the health benefits of plant foods, resulting in too little intake of iron-rich animal foods. In fact, animal food is not only rich in iron, but its absorption rate is also high, reaching 25%. The iron element in plant food is interfered by the phytate and oxalate contained in the food, and the absorption rate is very low, about 3%. Therefore, avoiding meat is not conducive to the correction of iron deficiency anemia. In the daily diet, the intake of vegetables, fruits and meat should be balanced. Misunderstanding 2: Supplementing more eggs and milk is beneficial to correct anemia. Milk is rich in nutrients, but its iron content is very low, and the body’s absorption rate is only 10%. Although the iron content of egg yolk is relatively high, its iron absorption rate is only 3%, which is not a good iron supplement. Certain proteins in eggs can inhibit the body’s absorption of iron. Therefore, although these two foods are rich in nutrients, it is not desirable to rely on them to supplement iron. However, animal liver not only contains high iron content, but also has an absorption rate of over 30%, which is suitable for iron supplementation.  .Misunderstanding 3: Vegetables and fruits are not beneficial to iron supplementation? Many patients with adenomyosis do not know that eating more fresh vegetables and fruits is also good for iron supplementation. This is because fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamin C, citric acid and malic acid. These organic acids can form complexes with iron, thereby increasing the solubility of iron in the intestinal tract, which is conducive to iron absorption. Myth 4: Is it okay to drink more coffee and tea? For women, excessive drinking coffee and tea may cause iron deficiency anemia. Therefore, when correcting anemia, it is necessary to reduce the intake of coffee and tea. This is because the tannic acid in tea and the polyphenols in coffee can form insoluble salts with iron and inhibit iron absorption. Therefore, patients with anemic adenomyosis should stop drinking in moderation, and it is best not to drink. Misunderstanding 5: Stop taking iron doses when anemia improves? Anemia patients with adenomyosis take iron according to the doctor’s instructions, but when the anemia situation improves slightly or just stabilizes, they immediately stop taking it. This is also a wrong approach, which will cause the patient’s anemia to reappear! The correct method is to take iron to treat iron-deficiency anemia. After the anemia is stable, continue to take iron for a period of time to replenish the iron stored in the body. The above 5 are the misunderstandings that adenomyosis patients are prone to appear when anemia occurs. If you want to correct the symptoms of anemia as soon as possible, the patients and sisters should try their best to avoid these misunderstandings and follow the doctor’s advice to correct the symptoms of anemia as soon as possible!  . .
Iron-deficiency anemia is usually caused by insufficient iron supply in the body, and at this time, iron supplementation is not paid attention to, so that iron supply exceeds demand. People suffering from iron-deficiency anemia usually have symptoms such as dizziness, palpitations, insomnia, dark hair, and even menstrual disorders. If the symptoms of anemia are not corrected in time for a long time, it will form a vicious circle, which will cause the patient’s immunity to decline, and it is easy to cause diseases. Therefore, if you do not want your health to be threatened by anemia, you must actively take corresponding treatment measures. Lycium barbarum and jujube porridge is a common diet therapy used to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia. The raw materials needed for this blood-tonifying dietary therapy are: wolfberry, jujube, and rice. The production method is to wash the three raw materials one by one with clean water, and then add an appropriate amount of water to the pot to make porridge. Under normal circumstances, people with anemia can take 3-4 times a day for 30 days, and the symptoms of anemia can be significantly improved. In addition, this dietary prescription also has the effect of nourishing yin and nourishing qi. In daily life, iron-rich foods include spinach, tofu and lean meat. In addition, some common red meats are also rich in iron, which is of great help in improving the symptoms of anemia. In addition, some dark-colored vegetables, such as rape, celery, black fungus, mushrooms, etc., are also iron-rich foods.
Anemia means that the number of red blood cells per unit volume in peripheral blood or the amount of hemoglobin is lower than normal. The hemoglobin of newborn babies is less than 145 g/L, the hemoglobin of 1 to 4 months is less than 90 g/L, the hemoglobin of 4 to 6 months is less than 100 g/L, and the hemoglobin of 6 months to 6 years old is less than 110 g/L is anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is an anemia caused by the lack of iron in the body that reduces the synthesis of hemoglobin. It is the most common type of anemia in children. Iron-deficiency anemia is most common in children from 6 months to 2 years old, and it is often ignored by parents because of its slow onset. Babies with anemia symptoms are pale, lips and nails are pale in color. Breathing, heart rate increase, appetite loss, nausea, abdominal distension, constipation, lack of energy, lack of concentration, emotional irritability, etc. Older children also have headaches , Dizziness, black spots in front of eyes, etc. Children who have been sick for a long time often experience fatigue, dry hair, and lagging growth and development. The main manifestations of iron-deficiency anemia include gradual pale skin and mucous membranes (the most obvious color of lips and nails), decreased appetite, vomiting or diarrhea, and some children may also have pica, such as eating dirt, wall coverings, etc. Or irritability, lack of concentration, decreased intelligence, etc. What do babies eat for anemia? Millet and red date porridge Applicable to babies: From 6 months old, 100 grams of millet and 15 grams of red dates Wash the millet and soak in water for 2 hours. Wash the red dates, remove the core, and cut into pieces. Put the millet in the pot, add water to boil, add the red date slices and cook until thick. Jujube contains vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin P, biotin, carotene, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and other minerals. It is also rich in nutrients such as folic acid, pantothenic acid, and niacin. It can improve human immunity and prevent bones. Porosity and anemia. Millet has the functions of clearing heat and quenching thirst, invigorating the stomach and removing dampness, and sleeping in the stomach. It also has the functions of nourishing yin and nourishing blood.
Causes and Pathogenesis One. The metabolism of iron in the body The iron content of a normal human body is 35-60 mg/kg. Among them, 65-70% is present in the hemoglobin A of circulating red blood cells, 25-30% is stored iron, which is present in the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, bone marrow, etc.) in the form of ferritin and hemosiderin, about 5% Exist in myoglobin and various iron-containing enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, cytochrome, etc.). The iron transported in plasma accounts for only about 0.1%. The iron needed by the human body comes from food and; iron released after the destruction of aging red blood cells. Only about 5-10% of iron contained in general food can be absorbed. The absorption rate of iron salt in plants is low, while that in meat is high. Divalent iron is easier to absorb than trivalent iron. At the same time, intake of vitamin C, fructose, amino acids, and hydrochloric acid in gastric juice are all conducive to iron absorption, while phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, and phytic acid in food hinder iron absorption. The absorption of iron is mainly carried out in the duodenum and upper jejunum. Intestinal mucosal cells have the function of regulating iron absorption. This cell has a life span of 2 to 3 days and forms a zone for temporary storage of iron between the intestinal cavity and the blood. When there is too much iron in the body, the intestinal mucosal cells that store a large amount of iron fall off in the intestinal lumen and are excreted from the body, reducing iron absorption. On the contrary, when iron deficiency and hematopoietic function increase, the amount of iron entering the blood circulation through the intestinal mucosa increases. After the iron absorbed from the intestine enters the plasma, it is combined with a transferrin (transferrin) and is transported to the tissues for storage or to the bone marrow to participate in hematopoiesis. Under normal circumstances, about 1/3 of the transferrin is bound to iron, and the bound iron is the serum iron content. The remaining 2/3 transferrin still has the ability to bind with iron. Adding a certain amount of iron in the body can make it saturated. The amount of added iron is called the unsaturated iron binding capacity. The sum of serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity is called serum total iron binding capacity. The percentage value of serum iron binding to total serum iron is called serum iron saturation. Two. Iron deficiency and anemia Iron is the raw material for the synthesis of hemoglobin. When the iron transported in the plasma reaches the bone marrow hematopoietic tissue, the iron enters the young red blood cells and is taken up by the mitochondria to form heme. The latter then forms hemoglobin with globin. When iron deficiency or iron utilization in the body is impaired, the synthesis of hemoglobin is insufficient due to insufficient hemoglobin synthesis, and the amount of hemoglobin in the new red blood cells is insufficient. Obvious iron deficiency also has a certain effect on the division and proliferation of young red blood cells, but it is far less obvious than the effect on hemoglobin synthesis. Therefore, the newly-born red blood cell body becomes smaller and the amount of hemoglobin in the cytoplasm decreases, resulting in small cell hypochromic anemia. Severe iron deficiency not only causes anemia, but also causes a lack of iron-containing enzymes in the body, causing cell respiration disorders, affecting the functions of tissues and organs, and clinically dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, circulation, and nervous systems. Due to anemia and lack of oxygen, the dysfunction is aggravated. three. Causes of iron deficiency The following reasons can exist alone or at the same time: (一) insufficient iron storage in the body the maximum iron obtained from the mother during the fetal period is the last trimester of pregnancy. The iron storage of normal full-term neonates is about 25'.'.0～300 mg (average 60～70 mg/kg). The iron released by storing iron and destroying red blood cells after birth is sufficient for hematopoiesis within 3 to 4 months after birth. If iron storage is insufficient, iron deficiency anemia is likely to occur earlier in infancy. Maternal severe iron-deficiency anemia, premature delivery or low birth weight caused by twins, and blood loss from the fetal circulation (such as fetal blood transfusion to the mother or blood transfusion to another sibling twin fetus), all cause the reduction of neonatal iron storage the reason. Delay the ligation of the umbilical cord after birth, and squeeze the blood out of the umbilical cord by hand, which can make the newborns 75 milliliters of blood or 35 milligrams of iron. (二) Insufficient iron intake Insufficient iron supply in the diet is an important cause of iron deficiency anemia. Both human milk and milk have low iron content (<0.21 mg/dL), which is not enough for babies. If milk is used alone and supplementary foods with more iron are not added in time, iron deficiency anemia is prone to occur . Although spinach contains more iron in food, it is poorly absorbed. Soybean is a food with higher iron content and higher absorption rate in plants, so it is preferred. The absorption rate of iron in meat is higher, while the absorption rate of iron in eggs is lower in animal food. Iron caused by long-term diarrhea, gastrointestinal malformations, intestinal malabsorption, etc.
Iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women? Iron deficiency in pregnant women will not only affect the health of pregnancy, but also affect the fetus. The symptoms of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women are not obvious, so you need to pay special attention. Impact of iron deficiency in pregnant women on their own health If you do not consume enough iron, the iron stored in your body will be exhausted if things go on like this. If you develop that there is no longer enough iron in your blood to make the hemoglobin your body needs, you will have symptoms of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia consumes your energy and can cause many other symptoms, especially if the anemia is severe. It will also reduce your immunity. If you have anemia during childbirth, you are more likely to need a blood transfusion; if you lose a lot of blood during childbirth, the possibility of other problems will increase. Some studies have shown that iron deficiency in pregnant women is also associated with postpartum depression. The effect of iron deficiency in pregnant women on the fetus Iron deficiency anemia may also affect the fetus, increasing the risk of premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine death and neonatal death. When the baby is still in your womb, he can well absorb the iron he needs. He will absorb the iron he can get before you. Even so, if a pregnant woman is severely anemia, it may still damage the iron storage in the baby’s body at birth, thereby increasing his risk of anemia in infancy, and may also impair his physical and cognitive development. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia Pregnant women may not have any symptoms of iron deficiency. After a routine blood test, they were surprised to find that they were anemia. Pregnant women with anemia may feel tired, weak and dizzy. Anemia in pregnant women may be paler than usual, especially your fingernails, inner lower eyelids and lips. You may experience rapid heartbeat, palpitations, shortness of breath, or difficulty concentrating. Some studies have also found that severe iron deficiency anemia is related to the desire to eat non-food substances such as ice or soil (this condition is called pica). Iron deficiency is common all over the world, and your risk of iron deficiency during pregnancy is particularly high. The doctor will give you a blood test during your first check-up, and you will have blood tests frequently throughout your pregnancy to see if there is a need for iron supplementation for pregnant women. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women If the blood test results show that you have anemia, you need to take supplements to supplement iron, usually 60 to 120 mg per day. As with all supplements, you should not increase the dose by yourself unless your doctor advises you. Pregnant women can only take iron supplements strictly in accordance with the dosage recommended by the doctor.
Assistant Hu Guisheng WeChat: dd326751 Article source: Reposted from the WeChat public account [Hu Guisheng Studio] Nowadays, everyone pays more attention to scientific diet, reducing salt, sugar, and oil every day. However, when everyone is depressed, they will take more desserts to help them regulate their emotions. Chocolate belongs to a kind of dessert, can anemia eat chocolate? Anemia patients mainly lack iron in the human body, and chocolate does not contain iron, so it can be eaten as a snack. Anemia is a very big problem that people are dealing with nowadays. The situation of anemia is now more and more. The vast majority of people are all iron-deficiency anemia, which is the lack of iron in the body, which causes anemia, mainly in the body. Vitamin A substance, chocolate is now loved by everyone, there will be many people who don’t know whether the iron deficiency anemia group can eat chocolate, let’s talk about it now. Iron-deficiency anemia patients can eat chocolate, but it is not suitable to eat too much. In fact, many people have a lot of misconceptions about chocolate. They feel that chocolate has no nutrients to the human body. In fact, chocolate also contains many nutrients. Elemental, it belongs to high-calorie products, which can supplement the calorific value needed by the human body, and the protein content is also very colorful. Chocolate is a product of physical and mental health, which can give people happiness, stability and superiority. It is beneficial to everyone’s heart and mind health, improves everyone’s immunity, and reduces blood cholesterol levels. It is not only beneficial to patients with iron deficiency anemia, but also beneficial to ordinary people. However, patients with iron deficiency anemia should not eat more chocolate, because the fat rate in chocolate is also a lot, it will cause people to gain weight. If you don’t have to eat chocolate, people will gain weight very easily, and it is also very difficult for anemia patients. Yes, so patients with iron-deficiency anemia should consume chocolate in moderation, not too much, just maintain the body’s kinetic energy. Patients with iron-deficiency anemia should eat more foods with rich and colorful copper content, and pay attention to their own nutritional collocation. The collocation of meat and vegetables should be suitable. Chocolate can be eaten in moderation and can supplement the body’s kinetic energy, but iron-supplemented food is the key The diet match. Iron-deficiency anemia patients can eat chocolate, but it is necessary to control the body’s intake of chocolate, which is not suitable for excessive consumption. Iron-deficiency anemia should still eat more iron-supplemented foods, drink moderately to supplement the nutrients that the human body lacks, and hope that the human body can recover as soon as possible.
What should I do if my child has anemia? Anemia in children is clinically mainly nutritional anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is more common, and the lack of adequate iron intake in the diet or the lack of iron trace elements caused by the body’s iron loss. The development of iron deficiency anemia is a slow process. It is not easy to detect at the beginning of anemia. The symptoms of mild anemia are not obvious. Especially young infants and young children are generally difficult to detect without careful observation. When children have other symptoms I went to the hospital for an examination when I was sick and found that hemoglobin was low. At this time, I was anemia. Judging anemia is based on routine blood examinations. The hemoglobin values of different ages are different. The hemoglobin of 0-6 months is lower than 145g/L for anemia, and the hemoglobin of 6 months to 6 years old is lower than 110g/L for anemia, 6 years old ~14 years old hemoglobin lower than 120g/l is anemia. In the early stage of anemia in children, even mild anemia will have some obvious symptoms. Observe the children carefully, such as showing pale or yellow faces and not loving to eat; older children will be sluggish and unable to concentrate easily. Irritability; older children with heavier anemia can cause dizziness, tinnitus, fatigue, and fatigue; at the same time, anemia can also lead to reduced immunity, easy to infect respiratory and digestive diseases, and poor resistance to diseases. The main reason for children’s anemia is picky eating and partial eclipses. Children with a normal diet generally do not have anemia when there is no iron loss from other diseases. Children’s anemia is mostly caused by improper diet, such as improper feeding by parents and infants who do not add complementary foods in time. Or children who are picky eaters and do not like to eat and reduce iron intake can lead to iron deficiency anemia. After the anemia is detected, timely treatment is needed. If the anemia will affect the normal development of the child for a long time, attention needs to be paid. The treatment of iron deficiency anemia is relatively easy to cure. On the one hand, the diet should be supplemented with adequate nutrition, if necessary Appropriate supplementation with iron supplements, such as Oral Ti Hengjian Iron Edge Tablets, tastes good without any side effects, safe iron supplementation, blood production, nutrition, and effective improvement of iron deficiency anemia in children.
The cause of iron-deficiency anemia in children is due to the lack of iron stored in the body, resulting in decreased hemoglobin synthesis. It is a common disease that affects the health of children. The incidence is highest within 3 years old, and it is more common around 1 year old, but most of them are mild anemia. The main causes of iron deficiency anemia in children are: 1. Insufficient iron storage. Such as premature birth, twins, and mother’s anemia, will reduce the iron storage of newborns. 2, . Fast growth and development. From birth to 1 year old, babies grow and develop the fastest, their blood volume increases rapidly, and their iron needs are large. Therefore, children who grow too fast are prone to iron deficiency. 3. Iron deficiency in the diet. 6 months after the baby is born, the hematopoietic substances obtained from the mother are basically used up, and human milk and milk contain very little iron. Therefore, if supplementary food is not added in time, it is easy to be iron-deficient simply by feeding. 4. Illnesses such as chronic diarrhea, etc., cannot absorb iron well, resulting in iron deficiency. It takes a long time to discover the symptoms of anemia. Therefore, mild symptoms are often ignored. Generally, they are usually already moderate anemia when they are discovered. Common symptoms include restlessness or lack of energy, lack of activity, loss of appetite, pale skin and mucous membranes, and are most obvious in lips, nails, and palms. Older children can show symptoms such as dizziness, black eyes, inattention, and memory loss. Anemia affects the growth and development of children (including intellectual development), gastrointestinal function, and immune function. Therefore, prevention and treatment of anemia in children is very important.
What is the harm of anemia? Anemia is a common disease among women and children in my country, among which iron deficiency anemia is the most common. The iron reserves in pregnant women must not only meet the synthesis of their own hemoglobin, but also meet the needs of fetal development, which makes pregnant women a high incidence of iron deficiency anemia. And with the growth of the gestational age, the incidence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women is gradually increasing. Anemia is not good for both pregnant women and fetuses. For pregnant women, the main hazards are as follows: First, due to anemia, the plasma protein concentration of pregnant women is low, the antibodies produced are less, the function of macrophages is weakened, and the immunity is reduced. Poor disease, prone to infection. The lower the hemoglobin content, the greater the possibility of postpartum infection. Second, when pregnant women have anemia, the blood’s ability to carry oxygen is low, and there will be no discomfort in chronic mild anemia, but in severe anemia or acute excessive blood loss, the heartbeat will increase, output will increase, blood flow will increase, and worse Heart burden. If it continues to develop, myocardial hypoxia will occur, leading to anemic heart disease and even congestive heart failure. When hemoglobin is less than 50g/L, pregnant women will experience myocardial damage. The third is the decreased tolerance to blood loss. At the time of delivery, even if the amount of bleeding in pregnant women with anemia is within the normal range, they may suffer shock and death due to reduced tolerance. For the fetus, because the fetus is the main receptor tissue for iron, fetal tissues dominate in the process of competing for the intake of maternal serum iron, and iron passes through the placenta in one direction and will not be transported back from the fetus to the mother. Fetal iron deficiency will not be too serious. However, when the mother is severely iron-deficient, due to low hemoglobin and low oxygen uptake, it can cause chronic hypoxia in the fetus, causing fetal growth retardation, premature delivery, stillbirth, and neonatal anemia. This kind of baby is pale, the growth and development of all organs in the whole body are poor, the intelligence is also worse than that of the normal baby, and the response is slow. Anemia in pregnancy must be prevented. Hemorrhagic diseases, such as menorrhagia and hookworm disease, should be actively treated before pregnancy to increase iron reserves. Strengthen family planning and avoid too many births. Pay attention to nutrition during pregnancy, eat more iron-rich foods, such as liver, eggs, lean meat, cabbage, etc., and consume about 21-28mg of iron per day. Iron should be supplemented from the 4th month of pregnancy. Ferrous sulfate should be given 0.3g daily, and it is best to supplement vitamin C at the same time, which is beneficial to the absorption of iron. The second is to give active treatment to pregnant women suffering from anemia. Different doses can be given according to the severity of the anemia. For pregnant women whose hemoglobin value is less than 60g/L, close to the expected date of delivery or need to undergo cesarean section in a short time, blood transfusion can be used to correct anemia.
Diagnostic criteria for pediatric anemia: neonatal hemoglobin (HB) <.145g/l within ten days after birth. Infant (HB) from ten days to three months old (HB) <.100g/l. Three months to less than six years old HB<.110g/l. Six to fourteen years old HB<.120g/l. is anemia. In terms of sea level, HB increases by about 4% for every 1000 meters of altitude increase. Causal diagnosis of anemia: Anemia is not a disease, but a syndrome. The cause must be found out and the cause diagnosis must be made. In order to correctly treat and judge the future. 1. Onset, development and characteristic manifestations of anemia, acute leukemia. Acute aplastic anemia is more rapid onset, anemia is a progressive development. Chronic aplastic anemia. Chronic hemolytic anemia, slow onset and long course. 2. Family history: with or without genetic factors, there are more anemias in childhood and inheritance. Such as hemoglobinopathy ., thalassemia, and congenital red blood cell enzyme deficiency. Fanconi anemia and other diseases. There are often the same patients in the family (or close relatives). 3. The patient’s living area is in schistosomiasis, hookworm, and malaria endemic areas. Due to consideration of anemia caused by parasitic infections, corresponding examinations should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. 4. Age and nutritional history: jaundice that occurs within one to two days of the birth of a newborn, and anemia is likely to cause hemolysis in the newborn. Infants and adolescents from 6 to 3 years old and adolescents are the peak age of onset of iron deficiency anemia. Long-term pure breastfeeding ., nutritional megaloblastic anemia is highly likely. Iron deficiency or long-term diarrhea in artificially fed foods may lead to iron deficiency anemia. Older children have a history of peptic ulcer, so pay attention to hemorrhagic anemia. 5. Seasons, drug history. And whether there are pathogenic factors: Broad bean disease often occurs during the harvest season of broad beans, and there is a history of eating broad beans, and drug-induced hemolysis often has a history of medication. The onset of aplastic anemia is related to chloramphenicol cytotoxic drugs. 6. The degree and speed of anemia: Anemia that occurs within a few hours or days and worsens rapidly is mostly related to acute hemolysis and blood loss. Severe anemia is due to consideration of hemolysis, hookworm disease, blood loss and aplastic anemia. Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is often mild. 7. Anemia with fever. Hepatosplenic lymph nodes enlarged, bleeding tendency, and cachexia may have leukemia. There are anemia, fever, bleeding, but the liver and spleen lymph nodes are not swollen, while white blood cells and thrombocytopenia may be aplastic anemia. One or several groups of lymph nodes are enlarged, suggesting malignant lymphoma. 8. Anemia with mental retardation. And tremor of the limbs is the possibility of megaloblastic anemia, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in patients with repeated respiratory infections. Anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly and hemoglobinuria are mostly acute hemolytic anemia. 9. Are there chronic diseases that cause anemia: chronic infections (tuberculosis, parasites, bacteria), malignant tumors, kidney and liver endocrine diseases, autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal malformations, polyps, and rheumatism can all cause anemia. 10. Responses to commonly used anti-anemia drugs. Iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid are good for nutritional iron deficiency anemia and megaloblastic anemia. It is ineffective for malignant tumors, aplastic anemia, and thalassemia.
What should I do with iron deficiency anemia? Prevention first Why is iron deficiency anemia a global problem? Firstly, due to the internal physiological factors of anemia population, such as women, they lose part of their iron regularly every month, and they will also lose a lot of blood and iron during childbirth. Children grow up fast, and their maternal nutrition is insufficient during the fetal period. Insufficient supply, etc., are all physiological causes of iron deficiency anemia. In addition to the physiological causes that cannot be changed by nature, there are many external causes of iron deficiency anemia that we can prevent. 1. Pay attention to iron supplementation. The main cause of anemia is iron deficiency. The daily diet pays more attention to iron-containing food supplements, such as pig liver, lean meat, red dates, black fungus, spinach, kelp, etc. It can also be cooked in an iron pot to inject iron into the diet from the outside, and it can also be used with iron deficiency anemia. Tiezhiyuan tablets, more effective iron supplementation to improve iron deficiency anemia. Two, scientific work and rest. Chinese medicine believes that 23 o’clock at night is the time when day and night change and the yang energy is weakest. 23 o’clock to 1 o’clock the next day are the two most important hours for sleep. If these two hours are spent in high-quality sleep, hemopoiesis in the liver can be accelerated. Nourishes blood. Therefore, the prevention of iron deficiency anemia requires scientific work and rest and must not stay up late. Three, drink less strong tea, coffee, and eat less garlic. Strong tea and coffee contain high caffeine, which stimulates cardiovascular and nerves. It is easy to cause dysmenorrhea, long menstrual periods or excessive blood loss. The tannic acid in tea will hinder iron absorption and accelerate anemia; volatile substances in garlic will cause Inhibit the secretion of gastric juice, reduce hemoglobin and red blood cells, and hinder iron absorption. Therefore, to prevent iron deficiency anemia, drink less strong tea, coffee, and eat less garlic. How to make up for iron deficiency anemia anemia? Eat more foods that supplement iron and blood Anemia is caused by iron deficiency, so how to supplement iron for iron deficiency anemia? Xinxibao nutrition experts recommend eating more foods that supplement iron and blood. Animal food has better iron supplementation effect than plant food. Such as animal blood, animal liver, beef, fish, especially liver foods, but not too much food, it is recommended to eat animal liver once or twice a week. Plant foods have a low iron absorption rate, but contain vitamin C and folic acid, which can promote iron absorption, such as red dates, black fungus, alfalfa, spinach, celery, rape, amaranth, shepherd’s purse, day lily, tomato, and a combination of meat and vegetables in the diet Helps improve iron absorption. What to do with iron deficiency anemia? The above are foods for supplementing iron and blood. If you unfortunately suffer from iron deficiency anemia, you can eat more food. However, people with iron deficiency anemia generally have the bad habit of anorexia and partial eclipse. Food supplementation alone may not meet the original iron deficiency. For people’s physique, it is recommended to take some safe iron supplements for direct iron supplementation, such as Ti Hengjian Iron Edge Tablets, which contain ferrous lactate, donkey-hide gelatin, and zinc-rich protein powder. While supplementing iron and blood, it is also extremely nutritious, and It has a good taste and is generally accepted by people with anorexia and partial eclipse. It can effectively increase the amount of hemoglobin and improve iron deficiency anemia.
How is iron deficiency anemia treated? Iron deficiency anemia (also called nutritional anemia) is a common disease in infants and young children. It is caused by lack of iron necessary for hematopoiesis. According to the survey, the incidence of anemia in infants under 6 years old is 20%-40%. When the hemoglobin of infants under 6 years old (excluding newborns) is less than 110 g/l, it can be diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia. The main reasons for iron-deficiency anemia are: ① Infants and young children grow and develop fast, and their iron requirements increase, especially premature infants. ② Iron deficiency in the diet. After the baby is 3 to 4 months old, the iron from the mother has been exhausted, and the milk-based diet contains very little iron and cannot meet its growth needs. ③Excessive iron loss, such as small and chronic blood loss caused by anal fissure, intestinal polyps, hookworm disease, etc. ④Others such as diarrhea, acute and chronic infections, etc. How is iron deficiency anemia treated? The symptoms of children with anemia are usually: pale skin and mucous membranes, the most obvious in lips, nail beds, and oral mucosa; usually tired and less active; anorexia, and even heterophilia (like eating dirt, wall dust, etc.). Severe anemia may cause enlarged liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and enlarged heart. Moreover, before the onset of anemia, the child has manifestations of restlessness, hyperactivity, inattention, slow response, poor memory, and low IQ, but these manifestations often fail to attract the attention and attention of parents. When the hemoglobin is between 100 and 110 grams per liter, it can be treated by diet, that is, eat more iron-rich foods with high iron absorption rate, such as animal liver, lean pork, soybeans and soy products. Animal liver contains 25 mg of iron per 100 grams, and the absorption rate can reach about 22%; red meat, such as lean pork and lean beef, contains 2.4 mg and 3.2 mg of iron per 100 grams, respectively. The absorption rate can also reach 22%; animal blood contains 3 to 4 mg of iron per 100 grams, and the absorption rate is 12%. In addition, the iron content in soybeans and soybean products is not low, with 11 mg of iron per 100 grams of soybeans, and an absorption rate of 7%. You should also eat them regularly. It needs to be pointed out that although the iron content in egg yolk is relatively high, the absorption rate is only 3%, so eating more egg yolk is not the best food for preventing and treating iron deficiency anemia. When the hemoglobin is below 100～110 g/L, iron treatment is needed. Commonly used are ferrous sulfate and iron fumarate. Iron can stimulate the gastrointestinal mucosa and cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other adverse reactions, which can lead to patients who cannot tolerate it and stop treatment in the middle, and anemia cannot be corrected. In recent years, animal experiments have shown that taking iron for 2 days every 3 days or a week has the same effect as taking iron every day for iron deficiency anemia. The results after clinical application also confirmed the above-mentioned effects, and with few side effects, the treatment can be adhered to and the hemoglobin can be increased to more than 100 g/L. The dose of iron therapy for infants and young children every 3 days or 2 days a week should be based on the standard of 4-6 mg of elemental iron per kilogram of body weight (the same as the general therapeutic dose). Specifically, the dosage of ferrous sulfate is 0.15～0.30 grams per day for infants and 0.30～0.60 grams per day for children; the dosage of ferrous succinate is 0.15～0.30 grams per day for infants and 0.20～0.40 grams per day for children. The dosage of ferrous gluconate is 0.30～0.50 grams per day for infants and 0.60～1.20 grams per day for children. Taking vitamin C while taking iron can promote the absorption of iron, but avoid taking it with milk, tea, coffee at the same time, so as not to affect the absorption of iron. After treatment for about 4 to 6 weeks, the hemoglobin needs to continue to be taken for 4 to 6 weeks after it reaches the normal value to store a part of iron in the body to prevent infection or gastrointestinal diseases from affecting the absorption of iron and causing another anemia.
Where is anorectal surgery in Changsha, Hunan? The harm of stool bleeding? 1. Long-term blood in the stool can cause iron deficiency anemia: Long-term blood in the stool can easily cause a large amount of iron to be lost in the patient’s body, causing iron deficiency anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia generally develops slowly. There may be no symptoms or mild symptoms in the early stage. When the anemia is severe, pale complexion, fatigue, loss of appetite, palpitations, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath after physical activity, edema, etc. may occur. Some patients may even experience Nervous system symptoms such as irritability, excitement, irritability, etc. appear. 2. For children, iron deficiency anemia can cause deficiencies in the cellular immune function of children, reduce the blood’s oxygen uptake capacity, and cause various organs and tissues of the body to have varying degrees of hypoxia, resulting in poor immunity and easy disease. 3. For female patients, long-term anemia can easily lead to decreased function of female kidney concentration. Patients often have symptoms such as polyuria, decreased urine specific gravity, and decreased libido. Female patients with anemia often experience irregular, excessive or decreased menstruation, and dry skin. , Hair loss and other symptoms. 4. Anemia is more harmful to the elderly. Long-term anemia leads to a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin, and the amount of oxygen carried by red blood cells in the body will also decrease. In the long term, various organs in the body will work under hypoxic conditions, which can easily lead to The emergence of related diseases. At the same time, anemia also affects the nervous system of the elderly, and patients are prone to symptoms of dizziness, insomnia, and irritability. 5. Blood in the stool may indicate the appearance of a variety of anorectal diseases. Blood in the stool is a common symptom, and its appearance often indicates the appearance of some anorectal diseases. In many anorectal diseases, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, rectal polyps, colon polyps, ulcerative colitis and even rectal malignant transformation will have blood in the stool, but the blood in the stool caused by each disease is different. Warm reminder: In order to meet the medical needs of the majority of patients, Changsha East Large Anorectal Hospital contact number: (0731-82839120) during holidays, all clinics, including auxiliary examination departments, all work normally, and specialist outpatient clinics are open normally.
1. Etiology treatment. From the name of the disease, we can understand that iron deficiency anemia is caused by the lack of iron in the body. Therefore, it is best for us to find out the cause of iron deficiency, so that we can treat the symptoms, supplement iron, and improve the anemia. Sometimes iron deficiency is caused by certain diseases. If it is not discovered or ignored in time, iron deficiency anemia cannot be cured completely. 2. Medication. The treatment of iron deficiency anemia requires iron supplementation. Usually, iron supplementation is used, and 150~200mg of iron supplementation is enough every day. Commonly used calcium agents are ferrous calcium agents, including ferrous succinate or ferrous fumarate. If you cannot accept oral medications, you can use injections. Commonly used are iron dextran or iron sorbitol intramuscular injections for iron deficiency anemia. Notes: Replenishing during or after meals can reduce the gastrointestinal effects of the drug influences. Can not be taken with tea. The tannic acid in tea will combine with iron to form a precipitate, which is difficult for the body to absorb. Calcium and magnesium salts can inhibit iron absorption, so avoid taking them together. The hemoglobin returns to normal 1 to 2 months after taking the medicine, but it is still necessary to take calcium for about 3 months, and then stop using it when the body has sufficient reserves. 3. Pay attention to diet and nutrition. Eat more foods rich in calories, protein and iron, such as animal foods such as beef, pork, egg yolk, liver, or vegetables, dates, fruits rich in vitamin C, iron-fortified cereals or dried fruit foods, Plant foods such as bread and a reasonable combination of foods can achieve nutritional balance and improve iron deficiency anemia. Eating more vitamin C foods can also help the absorption of iron and promote the body’s early recovery. 4. Chinese medicine treatment. Generally speaking, iron-deficiency anemia is the body’s poor absorption of iron. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment of iron-deficiency anemia is more unique. Moreover, Chinese medicine treatment can regulate the body, fundamentally nourish the body, and help the body absorb iron.
5 kinds of food to stay away from iron deficiency anemia 1. Lean meat. Lean meat is rich in protein and hemoglobin, which can supplement iron and prevent anemia. Many people think that spinach is rich in iron. In fact, lean meat supplements iron better than vegetables. 2. Animal liver. Animal liver is actually rich in a variety of nutrients and is the first choice for the prevention and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia, especially bamboo stems, which are the main raw material for hematopoiesis, and are also rich in vitamins, which can prevent anemia. For pig liver, stew is generally used, but it should be washed before use and cooked before eating. 3. Red dates. We all know that red dates have the function of replenishing blood. For many women who love beauty, it is a good food for eye-catching and blood-activating. Studies have shown that red dates are rich in various nutrients, including protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, trace elements (calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc.), organic salts, etc., which can be used as an auxiliary food for iron deficiency anemia. 4. Fruits. Whether you are sick or not, eating more fruits is good for your health, because most fruits are rich in various vitamins and have antioxidant functions, which can enhance human immunity. Vitamin C can help the absorption of iron, so it is best for people with iron deficiency anemia to eat more vitamin C-rich foods such as oranges, tangerines, cherries, grapes, peaches, and kiwis to enhance iron absorption and reduce anemia. The iron content of cherries is the highest in fruits. 5. Red beans. Many pregnant women are prone to iron deficiency anemia. Eating more red beans can not only improve the condition, but also promote milk secretion, and it is also a nourishing ingredient for women. 2 recipes to relieve the symptoms of iron deficiency anemia. Therapeutic prescription 1: Mulberry and red dates Drink 30g each of mulberry, red dates and brown sugar, add water and cook for 1 hour. Therapeutic prescription 2: Chinese wolfberry and red amaranth Wash 500g of red amaranth and cut into sections, then saute 10g of ginger, add 30g of wolfberry and stir-fry together.
Why are pregnant women easy to get iron deficiency anemia? During pregnancy, due to a series of physiological changes, many expectant mothers have reduced immunity, especially the early pregnancy reaction in the early stages of pregnancy, which can lead to loss of appetite and the lack of nutrients, especially iron and zinc, leading to anemia. In addition, the iron required by pregnant women during pregnancy is more than 4 times higher than that of normal people. The growth and development of the fetus and the maternal hematopoietic capacity require a large amount of iron, at least 4 mg per day. How to prevent iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women? 1. Get enough calories and protein. Calories and protein are conducive to the production of red blood cells, thereby helping hematopoiesis. Such as dairy products, soy products, meat, etc. are rich in protein, which can improve anemia. 2. Take foods rich in iron. Iron-rich animal foods include beef, pork, egg yolks, liver, etc.; plant foods include: vegetables, dates, fruits rich in vitamin C, iron-fortified cereals or dried fruit foods, bread, etc. Note that although both animal and plant foods are rich in iron, the absorption rate of the former is better than that of the latter. 3. Foods that increase vitamin C. Vitamin C can help the absorption of iron, so eating more fresh fruits and vegetables can help improve iron deficiency anemia. It is best to supplement it during or after meals to facilitate absorption. 4. Reduce food that affects the absorption of iron. For example, strong tea, strong coffee, stomach medicine, excessive fiber, etc. In addition, many pregnant women have symptoms of cramps during pregnancy. Calcium supplements can alleviate the symptoms. However, it should be noted that high-calcium foods are easy to combine with iron and reduce iron absorption, so avoid eating at the same time. 5. Increase vitamin B group and other nutrients. Many pregnant women have iron-deficiency anemia and insufficient dietary nutrition. Lack of iron, folic acid and vitamin B group can easily cause anemia. Pay attention to supplement this kind of nutrients.
What is good for children with iron deficiency anemia? 1. Supplement foods high in iron. Many children with iron deficiency anemia are mainly picky eaters. Therefore, parents should pay special attention to their diet, eat more iron-rich foods for their children, and supplement iron with food in time. For example, animal liver, soy products, egg yolks, dairy products, green leafy vegetables, vitamin C fruits, kelp, jujube, etc. are all rich in iron. In daily life, parents should spend more time thinking about it and match foods reasonably. Children eat more of these foods. 2. Adding supplementary food to babies should strengthen iron. Babies will gradually add complementary foods around 4 months old. At this time, parents can appropriately add fish paste, egg yolk, liver paste, vegetable paste, and iron-fortified food. Our country has also promoted food fortification iron for many years to prevent anemia in women and children. 3. Use iron pot utensils. Parents should choose iron pans and shovel for cooking, because this is a better iron supplementing utensil. When cooking, it will produce fine iron filings, which will form soluble iron salts after being fused with food, which can be absorbed by the intestines and stomach. 4. Encourage children to eat more vegetables. Many children’s anemia is related to partial eclipse or not eating food. To prevent children from anemia, parents should encourage their children to eat more. In this case, you can also give your child a proper intake of iron fate tablets or calcium, two tablets a day, the child’s anemia will be improved after taking one month. During the iron supplement period, pay attention to eating less alkaline foods, for example, you can not take it with milk. How to prevent iron deficiency anemia? Some babies are iron-deficiency anemia caused by inadequate iron storage. This is caused by the mother’s lack of iron or anemia during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Therefore, mothers-to-be should consciously eat more iron-rich foods. Check hemoglobin regularly, and treat in time if anemia is found. 2. From an early age, develop a child’s eating habits that are not picky or partial. 3. Premature infants and low birth weight infants should be given iron as a preventive treatment as soon as possible. 4. Do a good job in the prevention and treatment of various diseases and improve the physical fitness of the children, especially the prevention and treatment of strange insects and various digestive tract diseases, so as to facilitate the absorption of iron.
What are the causes of iron deficiency anemia? 1. The iron requirement is greater than the intake. This usually happens to pregnant women. Many expectant mothers suffer from loss of appetite in the early stages of pregnancy due to the early pregnancy reaction, which can easily lead to the lack of nutrients, especially iron and zinc, resulting in anemia. In addition, the iron required by pregnant women during pregnancy is more than 4 times higher than that of normal people, so it is easy to cause increased iron requirements and insufficient intake. 2. Poor absorption of iron. Many children have developed poor eating habits of picky or partial eclipse since they were young, which caused insufficient or poor absorption of iron by the body. 3. Excessive blood loss. This will affect the growth of hemoglobin, which is also the direct cause of anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is mainly caused by the abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin caused by the lack of iron. Therefore, the key to iron-deficiency anemia diet is to supplement the blood with iron. So what do you eat for iron deficiency anemia? 1. Eat more red or lean meat. Animal liver, pork, beef, pig blood or duck blood are all good sources of iron, and are rich in protein, which can promote body recovery and help iron absorption. 2. Eat more iron-rich vegetables and beans. Deep red vegetables such as spinach, red amaranth, and sweet potato leaves are not only rich in iron, but also contain folic acid that promotes the production of red blood cells. When cooked with meat, they can provide comprehensive nutrition for the body. In addition, beans such as peanuts, soybeans, peas, and red beans have the same effect. 3. Eat more fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C. Vitamin C can promote the absorption of iron. Most fresh green leafy vegetables or fruits are rich in vitamin C.