Small cell hypochromic anemia

 Small cell hypochromic anemia mainly includes:    detailed classification   three kinds of anemia   (1) Iron deficiency anemia: refers to anemia in which the iron storage in the body is exhausted due to various reasons, and the maturation of red blood cells is affected. It is characterized by the lack of stainable iron in bone marrow, liver, spleen and other tissues. The saturation of serum ferritin, serum iron and transferrin is reduced.   (2) Globinogenesis disorder anemia: mainly β-thalassemia major, β-thalassemia minor, and HbH disease. They often have a family history, most of the target red blood cells can be seen in the blood film, and the fetal hemoglobin (HbF) or hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) or HbH can be increased. The patient’s serum iron, transferrin saturation, and bone marrow stainable iron all increased.  (3) Sideroblast anemia: including hypochromic anemia caused by various reasons. Impairment of heme synthesis and poor iron utilization, accompanied by ineffective production of red blood cells, are the common mechanisms of this type of anemia. The common characteristic of hematology is that there is a significant increase in sideroblasts in the bone marrow. Many of the iron granules in the cells are arranged in a ring around the nucleus. The red blood cells in the peripheral blood show obvious hypochromic characteristics, and the serum iron concentration is significantly increased. -The hemosiderin in macrophages is significantly increased. It can be divided into:   ① hereditary sideroblast anemia: relatively rare. This type of anemia may also include several anemias with different genetic types and treatment effects.  ② Acquired sideroblast anemia: It is divided into primary, drug or poison-associated, and other diseases. Primary sideroblast anemia is also called refractory erythrocyte anemia. This type of anemia is relatively rare, especially in my country. There are some cases that have a better effect on pyridoxine treatment.  Three symptoms    (4) Transferrin deficiency: also known as atransferrinemia, refers to the lack or lack of transferrin in the patient’s plasma due to genetic defects. There is a large amount of iron storage in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, but there is no available iron in the bone marrow to synthesize hemoglobin. This disease is very rare. (5) Primary pulmonary hemosiderin and pulmonary renal hemorrhage syndrome: Primary pulmonary hemosiderin is a rare abnormal iron metabolism disease characterized by extensive pulmonary capillary hemorrhage. There is a large amount of hemosiderin in the alveoli, accompanied by iron deficiency anemia. The main clinical manifestations are recurrent hemoptysis, shortness of breath and anemia. Pulmonary renal hemorrhage syndrome, also known as Goodpasture syndrome, is also a rare disease. Similar to primary pulmonary hemosiderin, it is also characterized by repeated episodes of hemorrhage in the alveoli and iron-deficiency anemia, but it also has lesions and manifestations of glomerulonephritis.   (6) Chronic infectious anemia and others: In chronic infectious anemia, although serum iron is reduced, the total iron binding capacity will not increase or decrease, so the transferrin saturation is normal or slightly increased. Serum ferritin often increases. The number of sideroblasts in the bone marrow decreased, and the hemosiderin particles increased significantly. Others, such as lead poisoning, can cause small cell hypochromic anemia. Prevention and treatment (1) Provide a high-protein diet:    The value-added differentiation and regeneration of various blood cells all need to rely on protein as the basis, so patients with aplastic anemia need to provide high nutritional value of animal protein in their diet, such as protein-rich ones. Lean meat, eggs, fish, milk, chicken, soy products and animal kidneys. In addition, eat more turtles, turtles, and animal bone or bone marrow soup. (2) Supplement of hematopoietic substances:    Although aplastic anemia is not caused by lack of hematopoietic substances, repeated bleeding can lead to chronic hemorrhagic anemia and aggravate the anemia of aplastic anemia. Therefore, food should often be supplemented with iron and vitamins. Abundant foods, such as wolfberry, red bean, black sesame, pork liver, eel, etc., and fresh vegetables such as tomatoes, celery, spinach, lettuce, etc., can not only improve anemia, but also prevent bleeding.  (3) Iron supplementation:   Iron is a component of hemoglobin, which is involved in the transport and storage of oxygen. Anemia that occurs because the iron storage in the body cannot meet the needs of normal red blood cell production is called iron-deficiency anemia, and it usually occurs when iron deficiency continues for 3 to 5 months. Iron supplements must be taken with meals or taken after meals. It can reduce the irritation of iron to the stomach and intestines. At the same time, the protein in food can increase the absorption rate of iron. You can take iron supplements containing ferrous lactate. Preparation, if it can be mixed with vitamin C-rich fruit or juice