The lack of potassium in the body is uncomfortable with the heart, and the tension is always related. Today we will briefly introduce the relevant knowledge of hypokalemia. Does hypokalemia cause panic? What other symptoms? Potassium ions are an indispensable electrolyte in our body. If the body’s electrolyte metabolism is disturbed and the concentration of potassium ions in the blood is lower than 3.5 mmol/L, it is a case of hypokalemia. The main role of potassium ions in the human body is to maintain the normal functioning of nerve and muscle cells. If potassium deficiency occurs in the body, causing hypokalemia, the body will often have a variety of related discomfort symptoms, including fatigue. , Nausea, vomiting, arrhythmia, these are the lack of potassium ions in the body that causes various muscles and nerves to be affected, whether it is our skeletal muscle, smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, or myocardium, it is possible that blood potassium is biased Low and affected, severe hypokalemia problems can affect the respiratory muscles, leading to breathing difficulties, cardiac arrest and even death. Therefore, if you have the problem of hypokalemia, check that the blood potassium does not reach the normal level, and always feel palpitations, panic and other uncomfortable feelings. This feeling may not be nervous, but our heart myocardium is suffering from hypokalemia Hemorrhagic effects, heart discomfort caused by arrhythmia, usually in the early period of hypokalemia, symptoms such as tachycardia, atrial or ventricular pre-systolic contractions, and sometimes these symptoms feel, It seems to be feeling nervous or uncomfortable. In fact, in addition to emotional influence, this situation is likely to be closely related to low blood potassium. What is the cause of hypokalemia? The problem of low potassium in the body causes related health risks and discomfort symptoms. Only when it is corrected in a timely and reasonable manner can the body’s electrolyte balance be better adjusted and the health of the body can be maintained. If you want to regulate the hypokalemia problem, you must understand what causes hypokalemia. Before talking about the etiology, let’s take a look at the three basic reasons for the reduction of blood potassium in our body. The vast majority of potassium ions in our body are present in cells, and a small amount are present in the blood and body fluids. Usually the level of potassium ions in the body All are relatively balanced, and excess potassium ions are excreted by the kidneys, such as urine, and thus excreted from the body. Knowing the distribution and excretion of potassium ions in the body, you can roughly understand why hypokalemia occurs. Generally, there are four physiological mechanisms that cannot be ran out of – the lack of potassium ions caused by insufficient long-term intake leads to hypokalemia The problem. Excessive excretion of potassium ions leads to the problem of hypokalemia with decreased potassium ions in the blood. Too much influx of potassium ions in the cell leads to a decrease in potassium ions in the extracellular blood, resulting in the problem of hypokalemia. Too much extracellular fluid increases blood volume, which causes potassium ions to be diluted, resulting in the problem of hypokalemia. Understand the above physiological mechanism of hypokalemia, and then discuss the specific causes of hypokalemia, it is more clear, the following reasons, may cause the body’s blood potassium level to drop, resulting in hypokalemia . The first is the problem of insufficient potassium intake due to excessive dieting. Some friends are too strict with themselves in the diet in order to lose weight. In this way, although the weight loss effect is significant, it also leads to insufficient intake of certain nutrients and triggers various This kind of problem, if excessive dieting for a long time, insufficient intake of potassium ions in the body, will lead to the occurrence of hypokalemia blood problems. Second, in the case of diarrhea or vomiting problems, such as vomiting and diarrhea caused by gastroenteritis, if the amount is large and the duration is long, if potassium is not supplemented in time, it will cause potassium deficiency in the body, resulting in hypokalemia happened. Third, the influence of some drugs, such as diuretic drugs, such as furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, etc., will promote the excretion of potassium in the urine during use, and also pay attention to the risk of adverse reactions of hypokalemia. Fourth, when the effects of some metabolic diseases, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis, occur, potassium ions flowing into the cells will increase, which will also cause hypokalemia problems. Fifth, in addition to the effects of drugs, there are some problems of the kidney and endocrine system. It also causes the increase of urine potassium excreted in the urine, causing the body to produce hypokalemia. Sixth, a lot of sweating in a high-temperature environment. If potassium cannot be supplied to the body in time, hypokalemia can also occur. In addition, the big noodles
Many people have had this experience: during sleep or exercise, the leg muscles suddenly become abnormally straight, painful, and the duration lasts for a few seconds or tens of seconds. This condition is usually called cramps, the scientific name is “muscle cramps”. Muscle cramps are spontaneous tonic contractions of muscles that usually occur between the lower leg and toes. There are many causes of leg cramps, such as cold, excessive exercise, calcium deficiency and so on. Why does the body’s calcium deficiency cause leg cramps? Calcium is the most abundant metal element in the human body. More than 99% of the calcium in the human body exists in the bones and teeth in the form of calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate. It can be said that bones are the largest calcium storage reservoir. The calcium content in the blood is actually less than 1% of the total body calcium. 40% to 50% of the calcium we usually get from food will be absorbed into the blood, mainly in plasma. The main role of ionized calcium in plasma is to reduce neuromuscular excitability, maintain the excitability and rhythm of myocardial conduction system, participate in muscle contraction and nerve conduction, etc. This shows that muscle contraction and calcium ion function are closely related. Human muscle cells contain thick muscle filaments and thin muscle filaments. The two muscle filaments are intertwined with each other, just like the two hands holding each other. When calcium ions and troponin on the thin muscle filaments are combined, the thin muscles The filaments will approach the thick muscle filaments, and the muscles will begin to contract; when the calcium ions break away from the thin muscle filaments, they will move away from each other and the muscles will begin to relax. Calcium ions can reduce the excitability of neuromuscular muscles. When calcium ions in the blood decrease, that is, calcium deficiency, the excitability of neuromuscular muscles will increase, the nerves will continue to release electrical activity, and the muscles will continue to contract, resulting in cramps. Those with mild calcium deficiency may have numbness in hands and feet, cramps with tingling in the lower legs, and severe cases may have limbs twitching, respiratory muscle spasm, muscle contraction of the whole body, etc., which is extremely dangerous. How to supplement calcium reasonably and reduce cramps? 1. To have a balanced diet, eat more foods with higher calcium content, such as milk, beans, lean fish, shrimp, dark vegetables, seaweed kelp, sesame paste, etc. Keep in mind that bone soup is extremely low in calcium except for fat particles. 2. Choose the right calcium agent. The common calcium agents on the market are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Calcium citrate is easier to absorb than calcium carbonate, but its price is relatively high. Calcium supplementation is not more beneficial, generally 500mg per day, too much calcium supplement is easy to cause constipation and cause kidney stones. 3. Vitamin D should be supplemented with vitamin D at the same time, because vitamin D can promote the absorption and utilization of calcium. Cod liver oil, sardines, egg yolk and other foods contain richer vitamin D. In addition, more sun exposure can also promote the synthesis of vitamin D in the body. . Elderly people with osteoporosis can take oral alfacalcidol at the same time. 4. Normally strengthen muscle stretching exercises, especially the parts of the body that are prone to cramps, which can relax muscles and promote blood circulation. Keep the lower limbs warm during sleep.
Women in their 30s, who have long-term weakness in their hands and feet, went to the neurology department for treatment many times. Examination revealed high blood pressure and low potassium ions in the blood. Potassium ions are indispensable substances for the human body. All cells need potassium ions. When potassium ions are low, muscle weakness or paralysis will occur. They are diagnosed as “periodic paralysis” and “hypertension.” All patients were treated with potassium supplementation and antihypertensive therapy and were discharged. Until this time I came to our hospital … The outpatient examination found a 1.6cm tumor in the right adrenal gland. Combined with its history of hypertension and recurrent “cyclic paralysis”, consider that it may have primary hyperaldosteronism. So we gave aldosterone and other tests to confirm the diagnosis and performed a posterior laparoscopic resection of the right adrenal tumor. Postoperative pathological examination: aldosterone tumor. Postoperative patients did not need high blood pressure drugs, their blood pressure returned to normal, they no longer need to take drugs, and hypokalemia and periodic paralysis no longer occur. Pay attention to the following symptoms: 1. Hypertension is the earliest symptom. In most patients, blood pressure rises significantly. Primary aldosteronism (PA) may be accompanied by refractory hypertension, which is defined as the blood pressure (BP) still not reaching the standard even after insisting on the use of appropriate three diuretic treatment regimens including diuretics. But very few patients may not be accompanied by hypertension. 2. Neuromuscular dysfunction (1) Muscle weakness and periodic paralysis are very common. Generally speaking, the lower the blood potassium, the more muscle involvement, the common cause of fatigue, or taking hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide and other diuretics to promote potassium excretion, but most of them are not obvious. (2) Numbness in limbs, twitching hands and feet. In the case of severe hypokalemia, due to reduced neuromuscular stress, the twitching of the hands and feet may be mild or absent. 3. Kidney performance due to a large amount of potassium loss, renal tubular epithelial cells appear vacuole deformation, reduced concentration function, accompanied by polyuria, especially nocturia, secondary thirst, polydipsia, often complicated by urinary tract infection. Increased urinary protein, a small number of patients with renal impairment may occur. 4. Heart performance (1) The electrocardiogram is hypokalemia; (2) The more common arrhythmia is paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation can occur in the most severe cases. 5. Other manifestations of children with growth and developmental disorders are related to long-term potassium deficiency and other metabolic disorders. During potassium deficiency, the release of insulin is reduced, the effect is weakened, and glucose tolerance may be reduced. If there are some of the above symptoms, you should go to the hospital to check for primary aldosteronism.
Water is an indispensable important substance in our daily life. Water is the source of life. Normal human body water content accounts for 70% of the effect and is widely distributed throughout the body. Therefore, water health has attracted everyone’s attention. With the improvement of living standards, there are more and more aquatic products. There are many names of bottled water, purified water, mineral water, and cool white boiling water on the market. Which kind of water is more healthy to drink? What would happen to my body if I only drank the boiling tap water without touching the bottled water or mineral water? Which aquatic product is healthier? First of all, we have to distinguish between these types of water. The tap water comes from lakes, rivers and other places. After treatment by the water plant, including flocculation and sedimentation, sterilization and disinfection, it flows into thousands of households through tap water pipes and faucets. Therefore, in addition to water, tap water also contains a small amount of Neglecting chloride ions, there are some trace minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sulfate. After the tap water is boiled, in addition to sterilization and disinfection, it will also convert most of the calcium and magnesium ions into precipitation, which is what we usually call scale. The bottled water comes from tap water or groundwater extraction, and is processed into pure water by modern water purification technologies (such as reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, distillation, resin softening, etc.), and then sold through PC barrels for filling. At present, there are many types of bottled water on the market. If minerals are added to pure water, it is called mineral water. According to different water sources, different production techniques, and different quality of minerals, we can also see mountain spring water, activated water, ionized water, etc. when buying in supermarkets. What kind of water is better for our health? I think every kind of water has its advantages and disadvantages. We should choose according to our own physical condition and economic situation. For example, for people in remote mountainous areas and poverty-stricken areas, tap water can meet our daily needs. After treatment by the water plant The health of water quality can be basically guaranteed. If the body is weak or the gastrointestinal tract is more sensitive, drinking boiled tap water (that is, cool white boiling water) is also very good. The lack of minerals that everyone cares about can also be supplemented by food or medicine. For families with good economic conditions, bottled water and mineral water have entered thousands of households. At present, urban residents prefer bottled water and mineral water. Through the treatment of technical means, the water quality is more healthy for the human body, but It should be noted that long-term drinking of pure bottled water alone will lack beneficial mineral elements. If necessary, supplement it in an appropriate amount. For patients with kidney stones, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of mineral water and avoid increasing the burden on the kidneys. What would happen to my body if I only drank the boiling tap water without touching the bottled water or mineral water? In fact, even if we do not drink bottled water or mineral water, our bodies will not necessarily be affected. The minerals and trace elements required by our bodies are also widely present in food, and some nutrients (such as calcium tablets, iron tablets, etc.) It can also be supplemented. It’s just that the elements in the water are more in the form of ions, which are more likely to penetrate into the cells and be absorbed by the body, which is more beneficial to the body. Conclusion Therefore, which kind of water to choose is mainly determined by our economic ability and physical condition. Everyone should understand this and choose aquatic products that are more suitable for them. (Some of the pictures in the article are from the source network. The copyright belongs to the original author. Thank you for the picture author. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)
Is it easy to get stones after drinking too much milk? Milk contains calcium, which does not mean that calcium will become stones after eating calcium. The research results show that calcium-containing stones account for about 80% of all kidney stones. The stone-forming factors of calcium-containing stones are very complicated. From the perspective of intestinal absorption of calcium ions, even if we eat too much calcium, it does not mean that there will be Equal amounts of calcium ions are absorbed. When our body finds that excessive calcium ions are absorbed and results in increased blood calcium, it will reduce calcium absorption through negative feedback of intestinal 1-25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Of course, transient high Calcium urine. There is substantial evidence that a low-calcium diet is associated with an increased risk of kidney stone formation. Taking calcium oxalate stones as an example, lower calcium intake leads to insufficient calcium, which is unable to combine oxalate in the diet with the intestine, thereby increasing oxalate absorption and excretion of oxalate in urine. Most people daily intake of 1000-1200 mg of calcium can reduce the risk of kidney stones. Compared with calcium ion, oxalate ion is a more important factor in stone formation. The vegetables and fruits we usually eat are rich in oxalic acid, including vitamin C which is also a precursor of oxalic acid. After eating, there is more oxalate in the intestinal tract, and only soluble oxalate can be absorbed by the intestinal tract, and eventually formed by the kidneys to form oxalate urine. When the concentration of oxalic acid in urine is too high, it is very easy to chemically react with calcium ions in urine to form calcium oxalate crystals, which is the early form of calcium oxalate stones. An important influencing factor here is the soluble oxalic acid content in the intestine. Oxalic acid as an anion reacts with cations such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium to form soluble oxalate. This type of oxalate can be absorbed, while calcium ions and oxalic acid in the intestine form insoluble calcium oxalate. Can not be absorbed and eventually excreted through the intestine. Doctors often encourage patients with stones to drink more milk, because the calcium absorbed from milk is relatively stable, and the unabsorbed calcium can be combined with oxalate ions in the intestine, which will form stable oxalic acid that is not easily absorbed and decomposed Calcium is excreted through the intestine, then oxalic acid is not easily absorbed, forming high oxalic acid urine. At this time, the benefits of calcium ions are reflected. Not only is the body not absorbed into the urine in large amounts to form high-calcium urine, but also combined with oxalate ions in the intestine in time, thereby effectively reducing the oxalic acid content in the urine. Therefore, for drinking milk, ordinary people, including most patients with stones, do not need to do too much restriction, even if patients with acidic stones in the urine, as long as appropriate intake is OK. On the contrary, for some patients with calcium stones, they can even encourage patients to drink more milk. However, there is a special type of patients with calculi. Patients with cystine stones have genetic problems that cause protein conversion problems in the body. These patients need to strictly limit the intake of milk. Of course, in order to better prevent kidney stones, pay attention to the diet: 1. Drink plenty of water: a large amount of drinking water has a preventive effect on urinary stones, and it is also the most effective prevention method; 2. Balanced diet intake, not partial food, Picky eaters to avoid excessive intake of animal protein; 3. Eat less foods rich in oxalic acid: such as spinach, peanuts, chocolate, asparagus, etc. In fact, most vegetables and fruits also contain oxalic acid. 4. Drink less strong tea. People who regularly drink strong tea are more prone to kidney stones. Compared with vegetables and fruits, tea contains more oxalic acid. If people with stone constitutions drink too much strong tea, the risk of stones is much greater than that of other people, so Experts do not advocate drinking strong tea. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.