Many women with polycystic ovary syndrome are worried, because polycystic ovary syndrome will cause female infertility, and the harm to female friends is great. So what is the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome? Let’s take a look at it together. 1, the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis regulation function is abnormal. due to the increased sensitivity of the pituitary gland to gonadotropin releasing hormone, excessive LH secretion stimulates the ovarian stroma and follicular membrane cells to produce excessive androgens. High androgen in the ovary inhibits the maturation of follicles and cannot form dominant follicles, but the small follicles in the ovaries can still secrete estradiol equivalent to the level of early follicular phase, and androstenedione is converted into estrone under the action of aromatase in peripheral tissues , The formation of hyperestroneemia. The continuously secreted estrone and a certain level of estradiol act on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and present a positive feedback to LH secretion, which increases the amplitude and frequency of LH secretion, presenting a continuous high level, no periodicity, and no mid-menstrual LH peak. Ovulation occurs. Estrogen has a negative feedback on FSH secretion, so that FSH level is relatively reduced and LH/FSH ratio increases. High levels of LH promote the secretion of androgens from the ovaries. Continuous stimulation of low levels of FSH stops the development of small follicles in the ovaries and forms non-dominant follicles, thus forming a vicious circle of excessive androgen and continuous anovulation, leading to polycystic ovarian changes. 2, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin decreases, and the biological efficacy of insulin is lower than normal, which is called insulin resistance. About 50% of patients have varying degrees of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Excessive insulin acts on the islet receptors of the pituitary, which can enhance the release of LH and promote the secretion of androgens from the ovary and adrenal glands, and increase free testosterone by inhibiting the synthesis of liver sex hormone binding globulin. 3. 50% of patients with abnormal adrenal endocrine function have elevated DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which may be related to the increase of P450c17α enzyme activity in the adrenal cortex reticular zone, and the increased sensitivity and function of adrenal cells to ACTH Hyperthyroidism is related. An increase in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate suggests that the excessive androgens are coming from the adrenal glands. 4, genetic factors familial ovulation dysfunction and polycystic ovarian changes suggest that the disease has a genetic basis, hyperandrogenism and (or) hyperinsulinemia may be the genetic characteristics of the same disease in members of the polycystic ovary syndrome family. Through the introduction of the above content, I believe that everyone has an understanding of the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome. I hope that you can correctly understand this disease and find a suitable treatment method for yourself, so as to avoid the disease from bringing more to yourself s damage.
One of my cousins, 28 years old, recently diagnosed with diabetes. He was anxious like an ant on a hot pot. He repeatedly asked me: Why am I getting diabetes so young? Isn’t diabetes only for the elderly? In the inherent concept of many people, diabetes is a senile disease like coronary heart disease and hypertension. But in fact, more and more young people are also suffering from diabetes. Even some children have type 2 diabetes. As the saying goes, sickness comes from the mouth. Our stomach and intestines are like a sugar-making machine. Some of the food we eat in our stomach is made into glucose. After the glucose enters the blood vessels, it becomes blood sugar. Blood sugar can provide energy for body organs and cells, but it needs to wait for the administrator-insulin to allocate it. When various internal and external factors lead to insufficient insulin secretion or decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), these blood sugars cannot be distributed and converted into energy, and blood sugar will rise. Why has diabetes become younger? The rejuvenation of diabetes is the product of the development of the times and the product of economic development. In the age of under-eating and working day and night, diabetes is relatively rare. With the changes in life and diet, people prefer high-fat, high-calorie foods, overweight and obese young people are increasing, and the proportion of young people with type 2 diabetes is gradually increasing. The five bad habits of young people promote the rejuvenation of diabetes. 1. Smoking and drinking. Smoking and drinking will reduce insulin sensitivity and affect the glucose metabolism in the body. Long-term smoking and drinking will increase the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. For people who already have diabetes, smoking and drinking will increase the prevalence of diabetes complications. Young people don’t get diabetes? Don’t be fooled by this sentence, the 28-year-old cousin’s blood sugar exceeded the standard 2. More and more young people with high-calorie diets wander between hot pots, buffets, and barbecue restaurants. Too much and uncontrollable diet, overnutrition, cause obesity, fatty liver, decreased insulin sensitivity in the body, and too much nutrients can not be consumed, making insulin secretion relatively insufficient. Long-term high-calorie diet is one of the important causes of diabetes. 3. Irregular diet Many young people have irregular diets due to work or study. One full meal and one hungry meal, either overeating or not eating one or two meals. This type of diet may not only cause obesity, but also There is endocrine disorder, and normal insulin secretion dysfunction. 4. Staying up late staying up late is a commonplace for modern young people. Watching dramas and playing games, I spent a whole night accidentally. Such irregular work and rest for a long time will cause the circadian clock disorder, some people will even suffer from sleep disturbance, the immunity will be reduced, and then the body metabolism will be problematic. 5. Sit down for a long time and lie down after eating, eat a lot but do not exercise, the energy in the body cannot be consumed in time, it will induce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and other diseases. There are muscle glycogen in the muscles. As soon as the muscles move, the muscle glycogen will be catabolized, which can consume the blood sugar converted by food, so the blood sugar will drop. Sitting for a long time without exercise will not only lead to obesity, decrease insulin sensitivity, but also make muscles unable to consume excess sugar. In short, type 2 diabetes is an acquired disease with a genetic predisposition. For people with a family history of diabetes, the more bad habits, the higher the probability of diabetes, and the younger they will be diagnosed with diabetes.
Polycystic ovary syndrome may affect women’s health or fertility during the development process. After the discovery of polycystic ovary syndrome, treatment should be actively carried out to control the development of the disease in a reasonable way. Do you know the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome in girls? Let’s work with the doctors from Beijing Weiren Hospital to learn more about it. Girls’ polycystic ovary syndrome etiology 1, genetic factors Polycystic ovary syndrome genes are X-linked dominant inheritance or autosomal dominant inheritance, but do not fully comply with Mendelian laws of inheritance. Related genes are divided into high androgen-related genes and insulin receptor-related genes. 2. Environmental factors A, diet and lifestyle. Among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, about 30% are obese. The incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome in normal-weight women is only 5%. Patients with obese polycystic ovary syndrome have more serious endocrine and metabolic disorders. B, hormone exposure Embryonic period: Female children exposed to high androgen during the embryonic period may have a series of endocrine and reproductive changes, which will eventually lead to polycystic ovary syndrome. Early childhood: low birth weight infants in their early growth and overtaking stage, leading to early insulin resistance, leading to precocious puberty and hyperandrogen symptoms in adolescence, and ultimately leading to adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome. 3. Hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian dysfunction 4. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia 5. Mental and psychological factors 6. Drug factors Polycystic ovary syndrome harm 1. Menstrual disorders The common influence of polycystic ovary syndrome is menstrual disorders. Mainly manifested as prolonged menstrual cycle, low menstrual flow or amenorrhea. Long-term absence of menstruation and long-term endometrial failure may increase the chance of endometrial malignancy. Therefore, patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have a higher incidence of non-polycystic endometrial cancer. 2. Infertility Due to ovulation disorders, it will be difficult for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome to get pregnant. Once pregnant, various risks during pregnancy and perinatal period are significantly increased, such as gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, premature babies, and even abortion Wait. 3, acne Excessive androgens will stimulate the sebaceous glands to secrete excessively, causing acne. It is more common on the face, such as the forehead and both cheeks. The pus will cause permanent scars and pockmarks on the face. Friendly reminder: This is the first for the description of the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome in girls. Emotional management and avoiding excessive stress are also effective measures to prevent polycystic ovary syndrome.
. .In May 2020, the fifth issue of the Chinese Journal of Nursing published my country’s first guidance document for standardizing needle-free clinical practice-“Guidelines for the Operation of Needle-Free Insulin Injection.”  . . Medical staff who implement needle-free insulin injections need to receive professional training and assessment, understand the anatomical structure of the injection site, the characteristics of the absorption of different injected drugs in the human body, the principle and operating specifications of needle-free injection, and the handling of common problems Methods, etc. (A recommendation).  . .Research shows that the subcutaneous diffusion depth of insulin without needle injection is 4~6mm. As a new insulin injection method, it is suitable for all people who need subcutaneous insulin injection, especially those with needle-phobia (level B recommendation).  . .According to operating characteristics, nerve distribution, distance between major blood vessels, subcutaneous tissue conditions, etc., determine the specific parts of the human body suitable for needle-free insulin injection, including the abdomen, the outer thigh, the outer upper arm and the outer upper side of the buttocks. The borders of the abdomen are as follows: about 1 cm above the pubic symphysis, about 1 cm below the lowest costal margin, and bilateral abdomen beyond 4 cm around the umbilicus (recommended for category B).  . . Before needle-free injection operation, the general condition of the patient, the condition of the injection site, and the skin condition need to be evaluated. After confirmation, the preparation of injection items and insulin can be carried out in accordance with the requirements of medical regulations.  . .The operation of needle-free insulin injection should strictly follow the instructions of the selected needle-free syringe: 1 wash your hands and wear a mask; 2. check; 3. install the medicine tube: do not let anything touch the top of the medicine tube when installing the medicine tube. Avoid pollution (A-level recommendation); 4. Pressurize and ensure effective pressurization according to the instructions (A-level recommendation); 5. Inhale insulin injection (at the same time adjust the injection dose), if you need to exhaust, the extracted dose is greater than the injection dose 1 ~2U (Recommended for Grade C); 6. Exhaust: Keep the medicine tube upright and tap the needle-free syringe with your palm to make bubbles flow to the top of the medicine tube and expel the bubbles (grade C recommended); 7. Subcutaneous injection: use 70 Disinfect the injection site twice with %~80% ethanol solution. After it is dried, the disinfected area is >5cm. Check the patient’s relevant information, insulin dosage, and type before injection.
. . . . . . Use a special insulin pen to inject insulin, after using it, the needle should be removed. The needle is originally for one-time use. In addition, the insulin pen and needle are connected together. If it is cold or when the insulin is put in the refrigerator, the insulin will contract when cold, and air will enter the pen core through the needle, thereby changing the insulin Concentration, bubbles in the refill will affect the dosage of insulin and the time of insulin injection. If it is at a higher temperature, the insulin will swell and it will spill out of the pen core, and the insulin will also overflow when it is shaken. Either way, it will affect the accuracy of insulin dosage, so it is best not to connect insulin to the needle.
. .(1) Insulin or insulin secretagogue: The dosage of the drug should start from a small dose, gradually increase the dose, and adjust the dose carefully according to the blood sugar level.  . . (2) Not eating on time or eating too little: Diabetes patients should eat regularly and quantitatively. If the amount of meals is reduced, the dose of hypoglycemic drugs should be reduced accordingly. If there is a possibility of missed meals, prepare in advance.  . . (3) Increase in exercise volume: Diabetic patients should avoid excessive exercise to prevent hypoglycemia, increase the necessary carbohydrate intake before exercise, and carry sugary foods for backup during exercise.  . .(4) Alcohol intake, especially fasting drinking: It is not recommended for diabetics to drink alcohol. If you drink alcohol, you should calculate the total energy contained in alcohol. And should be alert to the hypoglycemia that alcohol may induce, and avoid drinking on an empty stomach.  . . (5) Severe hypoglycemia or recurrent hypoglycemia: The treatment plan for diabetes should be adjusted, and the control target of the patient’s blood sugar level should be adjusted appropriately. When patients using insulin have hypoglycemia, they should actively look for the cause, and carefully adjust the insulin treatment plan and specific dosage according to the patient’s specific situation.  . . (6) Carry snacks for later use: Diabetics should carry carbohydrate foods with them regularly. Once hypoglycemia occurs, eat them immediately. If patients taking α-glycosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose) have hypoglycemia, they need to use glucose or honey during treatment, while sucrose or starchy foods are not effective in correcting hypoglycemia.  . .Prevention and timely treatment of hypoglycemia can help diabetic patients reach the optimal blood sugar level, delay and reduce the occurrence of complications. A severe hypoglycemia episode will bring great harm to the patient. A severe hypoglycemia in a diabetic patient may offset the effect of the patient’s blood glucose standard for several years.
50%-70% of people with polycystic ovary syndrome are obese, mostly abdominal obesity, namely apple obesity. Fat is mainly stored in the abdomen. Because the abdominal organs also have a lot of fat, it is easy to get metabolic diseases. Can cause: ①Leptin resistance: it can directly act on the follicle and inhibit the development of the follicle; androgen increases. ②Insulin resistance. ③Lifestyle intervention for endometrial disease is the preferred basic treatment for PCOS patients, especially for PCOS patients with overweight or obesity. Clinical data shows that weight loss may improve pregnancy outcome and increase pregnancy rate. A weight loss of 5-10% can enable more than 80% of patients to resume ovulation, restore menstruation, make menstruation more regular, and become pregnant; improve glucose metabolism, reduce insulin resistance, reduce diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk; indirectly reduce androgen levels and effects , Improve the symptoms of acne and hirsutism. It can be seen that weight loss has a great impact on patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the weight loss journey is long and most patients fail to lose weight. What are the reasons for the failure? Let’s analyze it: There are three common reasons for this situation: 1. Misunderstanding that control your mouth = diet For weight loss, the first thing most people think of is to control your mouth and open your legs. Silence is often understood as dieting, which means skipping dinner, skipping meat, skipping staple foods… Hopefully, by reducing energy intake, the body’s energy can reach a negative balance and gradually decrease Body fat, weight loss. However, after trying for a period of time, I found that except for the slight weight loss at the beginning of the diet, it became stuck afterwards. Once the diet was restored, the weight immediately rebounded. This is because when people are hungry, the thyroid hormones are downregulated, which causes the body to activate the “low metabolism life-saving mechanism”, the body’s basal metabolic rate decreases, and the efficiency of energy consumption becomes lower, which has become the legendary “fat-fat constitution” , Naturally, not only will the weight not drop, it may enter the cycle of fatter. Therefore, dieting to lose weight does not achieve effective weight loss, and it will make people lose weight and fatter. 2. Eating the wrong food for polycystic weight loss is different from ordinary people’s weight loss, ordinary people only need to pay attention to the calorie intake and consumption ratio, but polycystic patients should also pay attention not to eat the wrong food, which can cause insulin resistance and cause polycystic The vicious circle of the ovarian syndrome triangle. The correct way is to choose the right food and restore the body’s normal metabolic cycle through scientific eating methods, so that the weight will naturally decrease and the symptoms of PCOS will also be relieved. But most people don’t know how to choose food, what is really low GI (glycemic index) food, and even naively think that what is not sweet is low GI. So what are the common foods that aggravate polycystic? 1. Mainly include high GI diet (glycemic index), high AGES diet (fried smoked roast), heavy metals or foods with pesticide residues. ①The GI value refers to the glycemic index, the ability of food to increase the speed of the body’s blood sugar. The higher the GI value of the food, the faster the blood sugar rises after eating, thereby increasing insulin resistance. ②There is a lot of evidence that high-temperature cooking food contains higher AGEs, which leads to increased insulin levels, insulin resistance (IR) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. 2. Intake of unhealthy fats will also aggravate polycystic symptoms and make weight loss more difficult, such as saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and high-temperature cooking oil. ①Saturated fatty acids are contained in the fat of cattle, sheep, pigs and other animals, and a few plants such as coconut oil, cocoa butter, palm oil, etc. also contain such fatty acids. ②Trans fatty acids are a kind of unsaturated fatty acids that are not good for health, and there are a small amount in natural fats. Common foods containing trans fatty acids are: plant-based cream, potato chips, salad dressing, biscuits, cakes, bread and so on. Western-style fast food such as French fries and fried chicken legs are more. There are also some conditions that can cause insulin resistance, such as long-term lack of magnesium, zinc, chromium and other elements in the food intake, insufficient muscle mass, and disorder of intestinal flora. In short, if you want to lose weight, polycystic patients must ensure balanced nutrition on the basis of a reasonable diet. They must not eat less, but eat the right ones. Only by eating enough can they return to normal weight and help prepare for pregnancy. 3. Ignore the influence of stress on weight loss. Finally, let’s talk about an existence that is very important for weight loss, but easily overlooked by everyone-stress. A lot of PCO
What are the early manifestations of diabetes? Many diseases are not painful or itchy at the beginning, and most people will not pay attention to it. Moreover, most people do not deliberately go for examination and treatment, and only when the problem becomes serious, do they start to worry. Doctor Xinglin Cao tells you: What are the symptoms of early diabetes? Hypoglycemia before the first meal. In the early stages of diabetes, some patients do not have the typical “three more and one less” symptoms, but often show pre-meal hunger and low blood sugar. The reason is that insulin secretion is delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes, which is not synchronized with the changes in blood sugar. When the blood sugar peaks after a meal, the insulin secretion does not reach the peak. When the blood sugar drops before the next meal, the insulin secretion peaks instead. Causes hypoglycemia and triggers hunger before meals. The second unexplained weight loss. Diabetics suffer from glucose utilization disorders due to insufficient insulin secretion or insulin resistance. As a result, the energy needed by the body can only be provided by breaking down body fat and protein, which leads to weight loss. Therefore, people who lose weight suddenly and cannot find the cause should consider the possibility of diabetes. Third, repeated urinary tract and lung infections. Recurrent urinary tract and lung infections in some patients may be related to diabetes, especially women, because women have a shorter urethra, they are more likely to develop urinary tract infections than men. If you have diabetes, poor resistance, and high urine sugar content, the urethra becomes the best breeding ground for various bacteria, and urinary tract irritation such as frequent urination, urgency, and pain may occur. If it is combined with “neurogenic bladder” , Leading to urinary retention, will further increase the chance of urinary tract infection. The fourth oral symptom. In the early stage of diabetes, some people often experience dry mouth and thirst, oral mucosa swelling, burning sensation in the mouth, atrophy or swelling and pain of gums, periodontal infection, loose teeth or even loss, etc. These are all related to high blood sugar leading to vascular and neuropathy, calcium Loss, decreased immunity, and secondary infection are related. If the above symptoms have occurred, you must be alert and check your blood sugar as soon as possible. The vision of the fifth eye changes. In some early-stage diabetic patients, if they suddenly see vision loss or dark shadows appear in front of their eyes, they can’t take it for granted that it is “old dazzling” or “senile cataract”. This may also be caused by retinopathy or cataract caused by high blood sugar. Go to the hospital for examination to rule out diabetic eye disease. Sixth skin itching. High blood sugar can also stimulate skin nerve endings and cause skin itching, especially in women with genital itching; at the same time, due to the decrease in local resistance, the skin is prone to infections and boils. Skin and skin fungal infections, folliculitis, furunculosis, blisters and other skin diseases , Very stubborn, long-term cure. So beware that this may be caused by diabetes. Abnormal paresthesia at the end of the seventh limb. Some early patients have symmetry acral paresthesia, manifested as numbness in the distal limbs, ant walking sensation, acupuncture sensation, burning sensation, pain sensation, etc. The symptoms gradually progress from mild to severe. At this time, it is usually to suggest the possibility of diabetes, and it is necessary to check early. The eighth wound did not heal for a long time. Because the blood sugar of early diabetic patients is not normal, peripheral vascular disease is often present, which affects the blood supply of tissues around the wound. In addition, diabetic patients suffer from severe nutritional loss and reduced resistance, which leads to difficulty in wound healing. It is not a trivial matter that the wound does not heal for a long time. You must go to the hospital for related examinations to rule out diabetes. The ninth family history. Diabetes is common in people with family history, middle-aged and elderly people. The incidence of obesity is relatively high. Therefore, from a medical point of view, it should be recommended that people who are obese, have family history, and those over forty years old should do fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose monitoring. To understand the early signs of diabetes, prevent and treat them well in advance. There are still many symptoms in the early stages of diabetes. If early symptoms appear, everyone must pay attention to it and actively prevent and treat them. We should learn to understand and observe our own body, discover some early symptoms, and learn to prevent them. Doctor Xinglin Cao finally tells you: Diabetes is not terrible, we must pay attention to it and actively treat and prevent it.  . . . If you have any of the above questions and would like to consult and see a doctor, please pay attention to my public account: Dr. Xinglin Cao.
The hazards of gout 1. Cardiovascular damage The heart and blood vessels of patients with gout are prone to atherosclerosis, resulting in insufficient blood delivery to the heart, poor blood circulation, and a particularly high probability of causing stenosis or myocardial infarction, especially when it is originally present Gout patients with hyperlipidemia are more prone to heart disease. Harm of gout 2. Diabetes. Oral glucose load test for patients with gout found that 30-40% of patients with mild non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are caused by obesity and overeating, which can cause low insulin sensitivity. With diet therapy and weight control, insulin sensitivity can quickly recover. The harm of gout III. Hypertension: About half of gout patients have high blood pressure. In addition to the above-mentioned renal hypertension caused by renal dysfunction, obesity in gout patients is also one of the reasons. As hypertension treatment drugs often use antihypertensive diuretics, which can inhibit the excretion of uric acid and increase the uric acid value, this must be noted. The hazards of gout 4. Most patients with hyperlipidemia and gout are relatively obese. Excessive accumulation of fat in the body can easily cause arteriosclerosis and cause high blood pressure. Because patients with gout tend to eat high-fat and high-calorie foods in their daily diet, the body’s medium The sex fat content is quite high, and the cholesterol value usually exceeds the normal standard. It is one of the common groups of hyperlipidemia.
Many friends with diabetes problems need to take insulin to strengthen blood sugar control. Through exogenous insulin supplementation, the body’s ability to metabolize and use blood sugar is strengthened. It is also a simple, direct and very effective way of blood sugar control. Long-term use of insulin is the best A common adverse reaction is the problem of weight gain, and the problem of obesity is a risk factor for insulin resistance and increased blood sugar. This creates a contradiction. Insulin can help control blood sugar, but weight gain is also right. Blood glucose control has an adverse effect. Therefore, for diabetics, especially those with obesity, how to stably control blood sugar during the use of insulin and minimize the risk of weight gain is what we are An important point that needs to be paid attention to in the use of insulin. Under what circumstances should insulin be used to control blood sugar? For patients with type 1 diabetes who have inherent problems with their insulin levels, they often need to use insulin for life to strengthen blood sugar control. For patients with type 2 diabetes, when to use insulin during the process of blood sugar control, it is not There are certain rules. Usually, if it is a new-onset diabetic patient, once it is discovered that there is a serious increase in blood sugar and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin exceeds 9.0%, insulin can be used in a short time to lower blood sugar and reduce the acuteness caused by severe hyperglycemia. Risk of complications; and for patients with type 2 diabetes who use other types of drugs to control blood sugar, they can only use 2 or more oral drugs in sufficient quantities on the basis of diet, exercise and other lifestyle adjustments. In the case of effective control up to the standard, the use of insulin should be considered to strengthen blood sugar control. The use of insulin should follow this principle. When it can be controlled by life conditioning and oral medication, it should not be used or abused. If the blood sugar cannot be controlled and there is a risk of further increase, it should be timely Application, do not dare to use it because you are afraid of forming dependence. Insulin is an inherent physiological hormone in the human body, so there is no need to worry about forming dependence. Diabetics take insulin, why does it cause weight gain? Insulin is an inherent physiological hormone in our human body and the only hormone in the human body that has the effect of lowering blood sugar. Therefore, whether it is insufficient insulin secretion in the body or tissue cells in the body Resistance to the action of insulin may cause the body’s blood sugar to not be fully utilized, resulting in the problem of high blood sugar. Exogenous insulin supplementation can improve the body’s blood glucose metabolism disorder, make full use of blood sugar, and reduce the loss of nutrients in the body. Under the same intake, the body weight will naturally increase. Another reason that insulin causes obesity is that insulin does not only lower blood sugar. Insulin also promotes body protein and fat synthesis. Therefore, when exogenous insulin is supplemented, the body’s lipid synthesis will increase. And because blood sugar is well controlled, the problem of lipid decomposition and gluconeogenesis is greatly reduced. Under such circumstances, the body is more likely to accumulate lipids and cause obesity. If it is due to diabetes, the body is thin, and after the insulin treatment, the body has the problem of weight gain, as long as it is not the problem of overweight, there is no problem, and if it is the diabetic friend who has the problem of obesity, in After using insulin, if your body gains weight further, you must pay more attention to it actively. After all, weight control is also an important aspect of controlling blood sugar levels. Diabetes people who get fat by taking insulin should pay attention to these three points, which will help to improve if their own weight is overweight, because they need to take insulin to control blood sugar. During insulin treatment, there is further weight gain. We can consider The following 3 aspects to strengthen weight control. The first is the choice of insulin type. With the continuous development of pharmaceutical research and development, various types of insulin have emerged. In addition to animal insulin, synthetic human insulin, insulin analogs and other types of insulin preparations are also increasing. Too much. For insulin analogues that can simulate the physiological secretion of the human body, the risk of weight gain is lower, but the relative price is higher. For friends with economic conditions, you can also choose a newer type,
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common chronic disease with abnormal female endocrine and metabolism. Its pathogenesis is complex and clinical manifestations are diverse. PCOS not only causes irregular menstruation, infertility, etc., but also easily complicated by diabetes, metabolic syndrome, endometrial cancer and cardiovascular disease. The cause of PCOS is complex, such as genetic, environmental and psychological factors will affect it, its exact pathogenesis is not yet clear, and it is also related to the complex regulation of neuroendocrine and immune systems. The clinical manifestations of PCOS in women of childbearing age, the prevalence of PCOS is about 5%~10%. Common clinical manifestations: 1. Menstrual disorders: mostly manifested as oligomenorrhea or even amenorrhea, but also as irregular uterine bleeding and menstruation Irregularity in cycle or menstruation. 2. Hairy, acne: It is the most common manifestation of hyperandrogenism. 3. Acanthosis nigricans: gray-brown pigmentation appears in the skin folds such as the labia, neck, and groin, showing symmetry. 4. Obesity: More than 50% of patients have a body mass index ≥25Kg/m2, and are often abdominal obesity, which is related to insulin resistance and increased free testosterone ratio. 5. Infertility: Infertility caused by ovulation disorders in reproductive women. PCOS treatment 1. Daily life: (1) Diet control: Controlling total calorie intake and a balanced diet is the key, choosing low glycemic index (GI) foods, while taking in rich vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. (2) Appropriate exercise: weight loss of 5% to 10% can significantly improve the patient’s reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. For patients with normal weight, exercise can also increase insulin sensitivity and prevent further metabolic abnormalities. (3) Improve living habits: regular work and rest, avoid staying up late, quit smoking and limit alcohol and relieve mental stress. 2. Drug treatment: (1) For patients with non-fertility requirements: We mainly regulate menstruation. Generally, we use progesterone to withdraw blood in the second half of the cycle. If there are symptoms of Kaohsiung, it is recommended to use long-term short-acting contraceptives (COCP) to regulate menstruation. (2) For patients with fertility requirements: For those with fertility requirements, after basic treatments such as lifestyle adjustment, anti-androgen and improvement of insulin resistance, ovulation induction therapy, and IVF if necessary. (3) Improve insulin resistance: commonly used insulin sensitizers, reduce blood insulin levels, correct the patient’s high androgen state, and improve ovarian function. (4) Others: anti-androgen drugs, etc. 3. Surgical treatment: can also consider surgical treatment, such as: laparoscopic ovarian perforation and ovarian wedge resection. But not as a routine treatment of choice.
How can I lose weight? In “Why do diet and exercise lose weight fail? In the article, we analyzed why dieting and exercise are not successful. So how can we lose weight successfully? To answer this question, we should first know what causes obesity. We all know that obesity is caused by too much calorie intake and too little consumption. This is correct, but it is only a condition that causes obesity. We know that some people are born not to get fat. Even if they eat, they sleep and eat again when they wake up. No matter how they eat, they will not get fat. Because their genes for managing metabolism are optimistic and carefree all day long, if you eat more, his metabolic rate is high, and if you eat less, his metabolic rate is still high. It’s as if some people are drunk today and will talk about things tomorrow. Therefore, excessive intake is only a condition that can cause obesity. The root cause of obesity is increased insulin levels. Let’s look at diabetes. The typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are “three more and one less,” “three more” refers to polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria, and “one less” refers to weight loss and weight loss. You see, eating more and drinking more can make you lose weight. Why? It is because of the lack of insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes. If your body’s insulin level is not high, you won’t get fat. The treatment of this type of patients mainly depends on insulin injections. When insulin injections are started, the body begins to gain weight. People who inject insulin for many years know that fat hyperplasia occurs at the insulin injection site, which is called insulinlipohypertrophy. The picture shows the hyperplasia of abdominal wall of insulin at the local injection site. On the other hand, patients with type 2 diabetes are relatively obese, because the insulin of type 2 diabetes patients is not deficient, but elevated. Therefore, insulin is the root cause of obesity. High insulin means obesity; low insulin means not obesity. Humans invented insulin in 1921. Doctors used insulin to treat low-weight children in 1923. Children who were too thin began to gain weight after being injected with insulin. By the 1930s, insulin was routinely used to treat pathologically underweight adults in Europe and the United States.  .Pictured before and after insulin treatment . Therefore, the key to weight loss is first, not to reduce the body’s metabolic rate, but to maintain a normal high metabolic rate; second, not to keep insulin at a high level for a long time. So how can we achieve these 2 points? First look at the body’s metabolic rate. In “Why do diet and exercise lose weight fail? “In the article, we know that the body’s metabolism is within its means, and the less you eat, the lower the metabolic rate. Therefore, to maintain a high metabolic rate, one cannot eat less. Here we must understand a concept, what is to eat more and what is to eat less. Eating more or less refers to eating more or less each time, rather than eating more or less in the total amount of the day. This means that if you eat more this time, your body’s metabolic rate will immediately increase, and this metabolic rate will remain until the next time you eat. Next time, if you eat more, your metabolism will be high, and if you eat less, your metabolism will decrease immediately. How should we eat? For example, your daily intake of calories was 2000 calories, but now you plan to drop it to 1500 calories, which is great. If you divide the 1500 calories into three meals, and each meal is about 500 calories, the body will know that you are eating less and your metabolic rate will drop immediately. Then if you divide the 1500 calories into two intakes, the body will think that you have not eaten less and continue to maintain the original metabolic rate. Or if you concentrate these 1500 calories in one intake, the body thinks that you eat more and your metabolic rate rises. Therefore, for the same total amount of intake, it is better to eat in a concentrated manner than to eat in small amounts several times. The second point is not to keep insulin at a high level for a long time. The reason that stimulates the increase in insulin is eating, and it is inevitable that insulin will increase after eating. However, the degree of insulin increase caused by various foods is different. Some foods can increase insulin very obviously, and some foods have a weaker stimulating effect on insulin. The food we eat is roughly divided into three categories: carbohydrates, protein and fat. The food that stimulates insulin the most is sugar. Sugars are carbohydrates, and carbohydrates generally have a stronger effect on stimulating insulin secretion. The second is protein. Protein digestion is amino acid absorption, which also has a certain stimulating effect on insulin. Fat is the weakest to insulin stimulation. Fat content
Before fertility treatment for patients with polycystic ovary infertility, both spouses should be checked to confirm and try to correct the risk factors that may cause reproductive failure, such as obesity, uncontrolled impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, and hypertension. Specific measures include reducing body weight, quitting smoking and alcohol, controlling blood sugar and blood pressure, etc., and pointed out that weight loss is the basic treatment to promote fertility in obese PCOS infertility patients. Why do most doctors advise patients to lose weight? What benefits can it bring? 1. Weight loss can improve insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and reduce the occurrence of metabolic syndrome. Through weight loss, plasma free fatty acids are reduced, muscle and adipose tissue’s function of uptake of glucose is enhanced, the binding force of insulin and receptors is increased, the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin is improved, and the activity of tyrosinase in fat cells is enhanced, leading to Intracellular insulin is strengthened. 2. Weight loss increases the levels of SHBG and IGFBP-1, reduces the synthesis of ovarian androgen and free testosterone in the circulation, and improves the clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenemia and hyperandrogen. 3. Weight loss may increase FSH secretion, promote follicular development and ovulation, and improve reproductive function. The more weight loss within a certain range, the more obvious the decrease in insulin, and the higher the probability of resuming ovulation. Studies have shown that after 5% weight loss, 1/3 patients resume menstruation, and more than 1/10 patients resume ovulation.  .4. Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are high-risk factors for endometrial cancer. Most studies have shown that weight loss can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Of course, you know the benefits of exercise, but you can’t do it. It is recommended that everyone can choose convenient and easy exercises, such as skipping rope, brisk walking, jogging, and swimming. 3-5 times a week, each time for more than half an hour, start with low intensity and increase intensity after adapting. Moreover, we must persist. If you feel that you are weak-willed, you can change the way you go home every day to brisk walking or jogging or choose a sport you like, which will make you more persistent.
Polycystic ovary is a relatively common gynecological disease, which has a greater impact on the health of female friends, and will affect the normal pregnancy process of women. The treatment of ovarian diseases is more difficult, so what are the causes of polycystic ovary Well, the following will give you a detailed answer. Causes of polycystic ovary syndrome 1. Obesity and hyperinsulinemia can lead to polycystic ovary syndrome. In these patients, insulin resistance appears. When the blood insulin content increases, resistance will also appear. Insulin, results in polycystic ovary syndrome. 2. Drugs and emotional effects. When women are in anxious and nervous mood for a long time, the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian regulatory function in the body is easily out of balance. At this time, symptoms such as hirsutism and menstrual disorders may occur. If you take some drugs for a long time Such symptoms can also occur. 3, heredity polycystic ovary syndrome can also be inherited, and the cause of this disease is difficult to avoid. If the mother has polycystic ovary syndrome, the child will also be prone to it. 4. Abnormal adrenal function Some women may have adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal tumors, etc. due to hyperadrenal function, and also cause polycystic ovary syndrome.
Eight Side Effects of Insulin Some time ago, a patient came to me and told me that I was taking insulin recently. I felt that since I was taking insulin, my quality of life has declined. I don’t want to take it anymore. I want to take Chinese medicine instead of insulin. In fact, many friends felt this way when they first started taking insulin. Why does this happen? In fact, insulin injection has certain side effects, especially when it is first applied, the feeling will be more obvious. So what are the specific side effects of insulin? 1. Hypoglycemia Diabetic patients may have hypoglycemia during treatment, especially those treated with insulin. It is more dangerous for diabetic patients to have hypoglycemia. If they cannot add sugar in time, it will cause coma, and in severe cases it can be fatal. Therefore, diabetic patients, especially those undergoing insulin therapy, should carry a piece of candy or chocolate with them. If dizziness, palpitation, hunger, and other conditions occur, they should add sugar in time. 2. Pain Insulin needs acupuncture injection, so there will be pain, which makes many people feel fear. In fact, insulin syringe needles are much smaller than ordinary needles, and it is best to choose the abdomen when injecting. The pain is relatively light and it is also conducive to the reasonable absorption of insulin. 3. Edema Edema is often seen during early treatment, and it is more common on the face. Generally, the edema is relatively light, and most of it will subside within a month. 4. . Patients with allergies to insulin are relatively rare. It is related to the impurity protein in insulin. Local redness, itching, blisters, induration, etc. may occur. In severe cases, there will be systemic symptoms such as mucosal edema, dyspnea, asthma, and even shock. For patients who are allergic to insulin, you can change the type of insulin, or choose a higher purity insulin. 5. Infection. Infection in diabetic patients is caused by many reasons and cannot be entirely attributed to insulin. Diabetes patients have low immunity, and the prognosis of the wound is also slow. When insulin is injected for a long time, infection at the acupuncture site is easy. Therefore, when injecting insulin, pay attention to disinfection and personal protection. After the infection occurs, it is necessary to avoid further expansion of the infection, and timely antibacterial and anti-inflammatory treatments. 6. . Fat pad The formation of fat pad is caused by long-term injection at the same position to stimulate the proliferation of subcutaneous fat. There are also a small number of patients who experience lipoatrophy and form depressions. To prevent fat pads or lipoatrophy, you only need to change the injection site regularly. 7. Obesity After insulin treatment, the blood sugar of most patients will be well controlled, so the usual exercise and diet control are often ignored, which leads to weight gain. During treatment, diabetic patients should also take reasonable diet control and physical exercise, and should not slack off because of normal blood sugar. If you rely solely on insulin for treatment without diet control and physical exercise, diabetes will continue to worsen and various complications will occur. 8. Insulin antibodies Insulin antibodies were more common before, but now they are rare, because the formation of insulin antibodies is related to impurities in insulin preparations. Now the level of insulin production is getting higher and higher, the impurities are getting less and less, and insulin antibodies are hardly produced. Don’t worry if you have insulin antibodies, you can replace insulin preparations with higher purity. Can I not use insulin? Insulin has been widely used in the treatment of diabetes and has achieved good results. Many of the side effects described above can actually be avoided. If it is relatively mild diabetes, it can be controlled by taking Chinese medicine, but for more severe patients, it is difficult to control it with Chinese medicine alone. Under my persuasion, the patient no longer rejects insulin. Now his blood sugar is very stable and he is energetic. Therefore, the use of insulin is necessary, not to delay the treatment of the disease because of temporary discomfort.
. . . . . . .Many diabetic patients use insulin for treatment, they cannot do without needles, because insulin is currently an injection.  . . . . . .Insulin injections are generally dedicated syringes and disposable needles. The needles are very thin, and there is almost no pain during injection. But it is not recommended to reuse. Many patients said: “This needle is good once used, why can’t it be reused?” In clinical practice, many patients, especially elderly patients, are repeatedly using it, even many times. There are risks and undesirable consequences in doing so. There are mainly the following aspects. 1. Increase the risk of needle breaking into the body. Insulin needles are very small and delicate. Repeated use makes the needles easy to break in the body. Because the needles are small and easy to move around in the body, it is very complicated to take the needles. 2. Increase the pain of injection, the insulin needle is relatively thin, and a layer of lubricating siliconized layer will be applied at the same time, which can reduce the pain of the patient, but if it is repeatedly used, it is prone to different degrees of bending, burrs and barbs. Injection pain. 3. The needle is easy to block, and there will be residual insulin crystals in the used needle, which will block the needle after repeated use. 4. Increase the risk of infection at the injection site, which may not only contaminate the liquid medicine, but also increase the chance of infection at the injection site of the patient. 5. Lead to hyperplasia of subcutaneous fat at the injection site. Repeated use of the needle can cause abnormalities in the skin at the injection site, such as induration or scarring, which is not conducive to the absorption of insulin and reduces the effectiveness of blood sugar control. 6. Affect the accuracy of the injection dose. For example, the burr of the needle caused by repeated use may bring out the injected insulin, reduce the insulin injection dose, and cause the patient’s blood sugar control to be inaccurate.  . . . . .Insulin injection repeatedly using injection needles has so many hazards, so the needles cannot be reused, remember to change them at a time.  . .
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is undoubtedly a disaster for women who want a baby. This disease seriously affects the endocrine function of women of childbearing age, resulting in poor follicle development and failure to ovulate normally. Could it be that I can’t get pregnant with PCOS? In fact, it is very important for polycystic sisters to raise eggs. The following 5 small habits of raising eggs are shared with you. Adjust diet to improve ovulation ability by up to 50% to 70% of PCOS patients are overweight or obese. Obesity, insulin resistance and secondary hyperinsulinemia are interrelated. High levels of insulin can stimulate the pituitary gland, release high levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and act on the follicular membrane cells to increase androgen secretion; at the same time, hyperinsulinemia can reduce the liver’s synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) , The content of free androgen is further increased. This is the culprit that causes follicle atresia and inhibits ovulation. Therefore, it is imperative to reduce weight by adjusting diet. The key is to reduce intake and increase consumption! Here are a few tips for weight loss: ·Enable a healthy eating mode (less staple food + more vegetables + constant protein), and ensure 4 to 8 kinds of ingredients for each meal; · The order of eating should be careful, soup-vegetables-meat-rice; ·appropriate Increase whey protein and dietary fiber to help increase weight loss. · Eat small meals more often. Be aware that excessive dieting ≠ effective weight loss! Adult women need an average of 1500 kcal of energy per day. If their daily energy intake is less than 800 kcal, their own basal metabolism will be drastically reduced. On the contrary, symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, and vertigo will appear, which will seriously affect the weight loss effect and affect the female endocrine function. Another blow. Proper exercise and raising high-quality eggs for exercise therapy for PCOS patients are also recognized at home and abroad. Exercise can consume fat, lower blood lipids, and reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with fertility needs. In addition, exercise therapy can also improve ovulation and insulin resistance, ensure egg quality and improve physical fitness. Clinically, we recommend that patients with PCOS should do more than 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise every week, combining aerobic and anaerobic activities to improve reproductive and cardiovascular health. ·Aerobic exercise: walking, brisk walking, jogging, race walking, skating, swimming, cycling, Tai Chi, fitness dance, ball sports, etc.; · Anaerobic exercise: sprinting, equipment, push-ups, high jump, long jump, plank support It is worth noting that: People with a large weight base are still advised to adjust their diet first, because during exercise, the excessive weighing burden can easily damage the knees. The knees said: “The concubine can’t do it!”. Supplementing prebiotics, a new hope for raising eggs In recent years, more and more studies have shown that there are some links between intestinal flora and PCOS. Some PCOS-related genes have been found to be related to carbohydrate metabolism and steroid synthesis pathways, which indicates that there is a strong correlation between metabolic factors and the pathology of PCOS. The intestinal flora is an indispensable participant in a variety of metabolic activities, showing the connection between the two. Prebiotics are a dietary ingredient. Supplementing prebiotics can stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestines, increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestines, and promote efficient metabolism. In addition, prebiotics have the effects of reducing appetite, improving insulin resistance, reducing body weight and testosterone levels, and improving ovarian polycystic state. Therefore, in the usual diet, adding some prebiotics will play a role in raising eggs. Regulating the menstrual cycle, laying the foundation for ovulation, regulating the menstrual cycle is not accomplished overnight, no matter which method is used, it requires a longer period of treatment: contraceptives can reduce the production of androgens and protect the endometrium. Clinically, it usually lasts for 2-3 months; for estrogen and progesterone, it can be used continuously for 12 days to achieve better endometrial protection. Avoid menstrual sex life and enhance the vitality of eggs. Women who are in menstrual period lack the support of progesterone and other endocrine factors, and the endometrium has undergone large-scale metamorphosis and shedding, and is exposed and thin. At the same time, many small blood vessels in the uterus rupture during menstruation, and the permeability of capillaries increases significantly, which provides conditions for the invasion of various pathogens and greatly increases the chances of genital infection and inflammation in PCOS patients. In addition, menstrual sex can stimulate the body to produce anti-sperm antibodies, induce pelvic infections, endometriosis and other diseases, and reduce egg viability. Excessive sperm antibodies in the body will hinder the encounter and combination of sperm and egg, which is undoubtedly a snowy issue for PCOS patients.
. Jiajia goes to the hospital for a pregnancy check as usual. The result of this examination was to inform her that she had: gestational diabetes. It was a bolt from the blue, and a grandmother from her hometown appeared in her mind every time she injected insulin into her body. When I think about it, I feel terrible. I can’t help but ask the doctor with a little trembling voice: “Do I have to inject insulin to treat diabetes in the future? But I didn’t have a history of diabetes before I became pregnant. What is going on? Will it harm the child?” The doctor comforted Jiajia: “Don’t worry, if gestational diabetes is well controlled, many people will not get diabetes again after giving birth.” Many pregnant mothers have such doubts that they have never had diabetes before pregnancy. How come I got pregnant but got diabetes. What exactly is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is divided into two clinical situations. Diabetes has been developed before pregnancy, that is, diabetes combined with pregnancy, also known as pre-gestational diabetes. Another situation is that the blood glucose level before pregnancy is normal, and the abnormal condition of glucose tolerance is found for the first time after pregnancy, that is, gestational diabetes. About 70%-80% of pregnant women with increased blood sugar during pregnancy can have gestational diabetes. 1. Common causes are as follows: 1. Maternal resistance to insulin or insufficient insulin secretion during pregnancy leads to impaired glucose tolerance. Due to the growth and development of the fetus in pregnant women, the mother’s body may undergo adaptive changes, resulting in a corresponding increase in the body’s demand for glucose. 2. The placenta secretes a series of substances after pregnancy, such as prolactin, estrogen, progesterone, tumor necrosis factor cytokines, which can cause the body to have an antagonistic effect on insulin function, cause a series of abnormalities in glucose metabolism, and induce high levels during pregnancy. blood sugar. 2. What is the harm of gestational diabetes? 1. Excessive blood glucose levels of pregnant mothers will produce many fetal complications, such as macrosomia, fetal hyperbilirubinemia, fetal distress, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and metabolic diseases in adulthood. The risk of obesity is very high. 2. The resistance of patients with gestational diabetes will decrease significantly, and they are prone to co-infection. Common such infections are urinary system infection and mold. Therefore, mothers with gestational diabetes must control their blood sugar under the guidance of a doctor. Just like Jiajia’s doubts, many mothers with gestational diabetes are confused. Why do they get diabetes? Haven’t been diagnosed with diabetes before? There are many reasons for gestational diabetes: for example, mothers who are obese before pregnancy are more likely to have gestational diabetes. There are also relatives with first-degree relatives in the family suffering from diabetes. And pregnant mothers who have given birth to huge babies, and have had unexplained fetal death in the uterus in the past. In the face of gestational diabetes, pregnant mothers do not have to worry too much. If the prevention and treatment measures are done well, many mothers will not get diabetes after delivery. 3. Mothers with gestational diabetes can control blood sugar from these aspects: 1. Exercise. After half an hour after the pregnant mother has three meals, it is best to do some exercise, such as walking. Generally, the blood glucose level 2 hours after a meal is between 6.7 and 7.0 mmol/L is a satisfactory level. 2. Diet. Eat a light diet, control the amount of vegetable oil and animal fat, use less frying cooking methods, and use more cooking methods such as steaming, boiling, and stewing. And, pregnant mothers try to eat less and more meals. You can eat 5 to 8 meals a day, 60 to 70% full each time, and a little more when you are hungry two or three hours later. If high-starch foods such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc. are used as vegetables, subtract the corresponding staple food from the daily staple food. Under the premise of total calorie restriction, choose foods with low glycemic index and high dietary fiber content to reduce fluctuations in blood glucose concentration in the body. 3. Recognize the dangers of gestational diabetes. Do a good job in health education and determine the goal of blood sugar control: fasting 3-3-5.6mmol/L, peak postprandial 5.6-7.1mmol/L, glycosylated hemoglobin less than 6.0%. Next, you can control calorie intake through professional dietary guidance and reasonable exercise. If blood sugar is not well controlled, medication can be given. The first recommendation for gestational diabetes is insulin to control blood sugar. Therefore, by controlling blood sugar well, mothers with gestational diabetes can also give birth to healthy babies. Do you have any thoughts on today’s topic? Welcome to leave comments and communicate with us. Writing is not easy, please help me to leave a message forward, Dr. Yudi, thank you! Disclaimer: My popular science, the content of popular science is my personal opinion, for reference only,
Many women with polycystic ovary syndrome are worried, because polycystic ovary syndrome will cause female infertility, and the harm to female friends is great. So what is the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome? Let’s take a look at it together. 1. Abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. As the pituitary increases its sensitivity to gonadotropin releasing hormone, it secretes excessive LH, which stimulates the ovarian stroma and follicular membrane cells to produce excessive androgens. High androgen in the ovary inhibits the maturation of follicles and cannot form dominant follicles, but the small follicles in the ovary can still secrete estradiol equivalent to the level of the early follicular phase, and androstenedione is converted into estrone under the action of peripheral tissue aromatase. , The formation of hyperestroneemia. The persistently secreted estrone and a certain level of estradiol act on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and give positive feedback to LH secretion, increasing the amplitude and frequency of LH secretion, presenting a continuous high level, no periodicity, and no mid-menstrual LH peak. Ovulation occurs. Estrogen has a negative feedback on the secretion of FSH, which makes the level of FSH relatively decrease and the ratio of LH/FSH increases. The high level of LH promotes the secretion of androgens in the ovaries, and the continuous stimulation of low levels of FSH stops the development of small follicles in the ovary and the formation of non-dominant follicles, which forms a vicious cycle of excessive androgen and continuous anovulation, leading to polycystic changes in the ovaries. 2. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Peripheral tissues have reduced sensitivity to insulin, and the biological efficacy of insulin is lower than normal, which is called insulin resistance. About 50% of patients have varying degrees of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Excessive insulin acts on the islet receptors of the pituitary, which can enhance the release of LH and promote the secretion of androgens from the ovary and adrenal glands, and increase free testosterone by inhibiting the synthesis of liver sex hormone binding globulin. 3. 50% of patients with adrenal endocrine dysfunction have elevated dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which may be related to the increase of P450c17α enzyme activity in the adrenal cortex reticular zone, and the increased sensitivity and function of adrenal cells to ACTH Hyperthyroidism is related. An increase in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate suggests that the excessive androgens are coming from the adrenal glands. 4. Genetic factors, familial ovulation dysfunction and polycystic ovarian changes suggest that the disease has a genetic basis. Hyperandrogenism and (or) hyperinsulinemia may be the genetic characteristics of the same disease in members of the polycystic ovary syndrome family. Through the introduction of the above content, I believe that everyone has an understanding of the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome. I hope that everyone can correctly understand this disease and find a suitable treatment method for yourself, so as to avoid the disease from bringing more to yourself s damage.
Type 2 diabetes requires long-term use of hypoglycemic drugs. Many diabetics are very aware of this, but when to use insulin and when to take medication, in the long run, which of the two treatments is better? Many sugar friends are not very clear. Today we will answer these questions. Treatment plan for type 2 diabetes: standardized medication is the key. According to the recommendations of my country’s type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment guidelines, if blood sugar still fails to meet the standard after lifestyle (diet + exercise) intervention, hypoglycemic drugs should be used. Generally, it starts with a single oral drug. The preferred oral drug is metformin, and this drug should be kept in the treatment plan if there are no contraindications recommended by the guidelines. If the patient does not use metformin, acarbose or sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents can be used. When monotherapy is still poorly controlled, dual or triple hypoglycemic drugs including insulin can be used. The short-term intensive insulin therapy is just a treatment plan for most people with diabetes, but there are some special cases that require short-term intensive insulin therapy. This condition includes newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes with glycosylated hemoglobin>9.0% or fasting blood glucose>11.1mmol/L, or patients who have been treated with 2 or more oral hypoglycemic drugs for more than 3 months but still>9.0% of glycosylated hemoglobin . The benefit of intensive insulin therapy is that it can reduce blood sugar in a short time, quickly alleviate high glucose toxicity, and improve the patient’s pancreatic β-cell function. Is it better to insist on insulin for a long time in type 2 diabetes or to insist on taking medicine? I don’t think there is a better comparison between the two options, only which is more suitable for the individual patient. Whether it is taking medicine or using insulin, both have their advantages and disadvantages. Standardized medication is the key! Let’s talk about taking medicine first. Taking medicine is more convenient than using insulin, and it is also in line with the preferred treatment plan recommended by the guidelines. However, not all patients are suitable for taking medicine. Firstly, oral medications have adverse reactions, and not all patients can tolerate them. Also, if the course of diabetes is longer, the elderly are older and the function of pancreatic islet cells is poor, and the elderly with liver and kidney dysfunction are associated with diabetes For patients, many hypoglycemic drugs are no longer applicable, even if the effect may not be good, at this time, they can only choose to use insulin for a long time. However, for diabetic patients who self-inject insulin multiple times a day for a long time, it is not convenient to administer it. It is good to be at home. Many patients will feel embarrassed if they expose their belly to the public before eating out to inject insulin. In addition, elderly patients may also have the wrong dose when injecting for reasons such as vision loss, which brings the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is best to choose medication alone, insulin alone, or medication combined with insulin for long-term treatment of type 2 diabetes according to your specific situation. In fact, it is all possible, mainly because blood sugar control is up to standard. In this regard, it is recommended to refer to a specialist Views. In conclusion, I would like to remind all sugar friends, whether you are taking medicine or using insulin, do not forget lifestyle intervention and blood glucose monitoring. These are measures for comprehensive treatment of diabetes. If blood sugar is to reach the standard, it is indispensable. Reference: “Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Guidelines” (2017 Edition) “Clinical Expert Guidance Opinions on Short-term Intensive Insulin Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes” (Some pictures in the text come from the network, and the copyright belongs to the original author. I would like to express my gratitude to the author of the pictures. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)