What is the difference between normal ct and enhanced ct?

What is the difference between normal ct and enhanced ct? Ordinary CT examination, also known as plain scan. The inspection method is that the patient removes the metal objects such as metal buttons, necklaces, keys, coins, etc., from the inspection site, and usually lies on the inspection bed so that the inspected part of the body is located in the center of the scanning field, and controls the movement of the bed so that the inspection site enters the hole of the scanning frame Inside, set the scanning baseline and the moving position of the bed, you can scan the positioning map. Select the slice thickness, slice distance, scanning gantry tilt angle according to different inspection sites and different lesions, and determine the scanning range on the positioning map. The spiral CT scan also needs to set the pitch, and then start the layer-by-layer scan or spiral volume scan until all The parts to be inspected must be scanned. The slice thickness and slice distance of the plain scan are usually 5mm or 10mm according to different inspection sites. Multi-slice spiral CT is often reconstructed after thin-slice volume scanning, such as scanning thickness 0.5mm, 1mm or 2mm, reconstruction thickness 5mm or 10mm. The orientation often adopts the transverse plane. Sometimes direct coronal scanning is possible to examine brain and head lesions. Multi-slice spiral CT can reconstruct the coronal plane with volume data obtained from cross-sectional scanning. During the CT scan, the patient should remain still, because motion can produce artifacts and affect image quality. The patient’s braking can be fixed with a fixing strap. Ordinary CT mainly plays a role in screening, for example, like chest CT, general plain scan can basically find early lung cancer. If you need to check for intracranial hemorrhage, the lesion can basically be found on CT plain scan. If CT plain scan suspects cerebral infarction or brain tumor, enhanced CT or magnetic resonance can be done for further evaluation. CT plain scan scans quickly and is used more in emergency departments. CT enhanced scan: This test requires intravenous injection of iodine contrast agent, such as iohexol, iodofluranol, etc. The contrast agent circulates through the blood throughout the body, and the blood vessel contains high concentration of iodine contrast agent, which can be used for vascular diseases The diagnosis of the disease, as well as the evaluation of the blood supply arteries and draining veins of the disease. In contrast-enhanced CT, the scan will be performed according to the time requirements of the arterial phase, venous phase and delay phase after injection of the contrast agent. The contrast agent is first developed in those areas where the blood vessel supply is abundant, and these areas are called enhancement. Because the diseased tissue and the normal tissue have different enhancement characteristics, and the degree of enhancement of the diseased and normal tissues is different, it will increase the density difference between the two, and find the lesions that cannot be found during the plain scan. For example, liver metastases from lung cancer can only see low-density images of the liver during plain scan, and the nature cannot be determined. However, when doing enhanced CT, the description can be seen: multiple low-density lesions can be seen in the liver, and the arterial lesions can see edge ring enhancement. Consider metastasis. The scope of application of enhanced CT is very wide, and it can check for brain trauma, cerebral infarction, brain tumor, pericardial tumor, pericardial effusion, lung trauma, infectious disease of the lung, lung tumor; for solid organs, liver, gallbladder, Tumors of the spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands and other organs, and various diseases of bones and joints can be examined. Enhanced CT is mainly used for some diseases that cannot be diagnosed effectively by plain scan to make further diagnosis. For lung cancer, an enhanced scan is usually done before surgery to observe the condition of the mediastinal lymph nodes, hilar lymph nodes and the relationship between the tumor and the surrounding blood vessels, which is more conducive to preoperative evaluation and staging. The scanning period of plain scan and enhanced CT is different. The plain scan ends with one scan, while enhanced CT often requires multiple scans. After the contrast agent is injected, there are many different time periods (arterial phase, venous phase, and delayed phase). For this scan, due to the long scan time, the amount of radiation received is higher than that of CT plain scan. A very small number of patients may be allergic to iodine, and the contrast agent is eventually excreted through the kidneys. Therefore, people with iodine allergy and severe renal insufficiency cannot do enhanced CT. After the enhanced CT examination, you must drink plenty of water to speed up the excretion of iodine contrast agent from the body.

It is unfortunate to have cancer, and it is lucky to find it early. How can we find early cancer?

Pass early cancer screening. In fact, most cancers do not have very typical symptoms in the early stage, and it is difficult to detect by the patient’s own body alone, and it is also difficult to detect even with ordinary physical examination. If you want to screen more effectively, you must resort to early cancer screening methods. This is the most direct and effective preventive mechanism. I will list some high-incidence groups, high-incidence age groups, and corresponding screening methods. Hope to help friends in need. 1. Lung cancer, the highest incidence rate in the country. 1. Screening method: low-dose spiral ct 2. Age group: 50-74-year-old high-risk group 3. High-risk group: 1) Smokers with at least 20 pack-year smoking history , Number of packs per day × number of years of smoking = pack year (such as 2 packs a day, continuous smoking for 10 years, also 20 pack years of smoking history) 2), have quit smoking, but quit smoking time <15 years 3), frequent exposure to radon in life or work, Asbestos, uranium, arsenic, chromium, nickel, soot, cooking oil fume, etc. 2. Colorectal cancer, the second highest incidence of cancer. 1. General population screening: 50-75 years old, colonoscopy is performed every 10 years. 2. Screening of high-risk population: Screening should be started at ≥45, stool occult blood test once a year, stool DNA test once every 3 years, sigmoidoscopy once every 5 years to 10 years. 3. High-risk population: 1), fecal occult blood is positive. 2) Have a history of intestinal adenoma. 3) Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis. 4), have a history of pelvic radiotherapy. 5) First-degree relatives have a history of colorectal cancer. 6) Long-term smoking, excessive drinking, obesity, sedentary and low-activity, age> 50 years old. 3. Gastric cancer, 1. Screening methods: blood test (serum pepsinogen, gastrin 17), Helicobacter pylori test, gastroscopy. 2. Frequency of examination: ≥40 years old, gastroscopy every 1-3 years. (According to the risk level) 3. High-risk groups: those aged ≥40 years old and meet any of the following conditions. 1) People in areas with a high incidence of gastric cancer. 2) People infected with Helicobacter pylori. 3) Previously suffering from precancerous diseases of the stomach such as chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastric polyps, postoperative remnant stomach, hypertrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, etc. 4) First-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer. 5) There are other risk factors for gastric cancer (such as high salt intake, salted diet, smoking, heavy drinking, etc.). 4. Liver cancer 1. Screening methods: serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test, liver ultrasound examination. 2. Screening frequency: high-risk population ≥40 years old (AFP test + liver ultrasound test every 6 months). 3. High-risk population: 1) Hepatitis B or C virus infection. 2) Long-term alcoholism. 3) Non-alcoholic fatty liver hepatitis. 4) Eat food contaminated with aflatoxin. 5) Liver cirrhosis caused by various reasons. 6) Have a family history of liver cancer. V. Breast cancer (the cancer with the highest incidence of women in my country) 1. Screening items: breast b-ultrasound, mammography, magnetic resonance examination 2. Screening frequency for general risk population: 1), 20-39 years old: every 1 -Clinical screening once every three years (breast ultrasound examination is optional, breast examination first is not recommended) 2), 40-49 years old: 1 x-ray examination per year. 3). 50-69 years old: breast x gland examination every 1-2 years. 4), ≥70 years old: check the breast x gland every 2 years. (After 40 years old, it can also be combined with b-ultrasound) 3. Screening frequency for high-risk groups: starting at the age of 20, once a year. (Consult a specialist for specific items) 4. High-risk groups: 1) People with obvious genetic predisposition for breast cancer (2 or more close relatives have breast cancer) 2) Carriers of BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations. 3). Past breast duct or lobular dysplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ. 4). Previously received chest radiotherapy. 6. Esophageal cancer 1. Screening method: endoscopy. 2. Screening object/frequency: 40-69 years old, once every 1-3 years. (Consult a specialist according to the risk level) 3. High-risk groups: 1) Live in areas with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (area near the Taihang Mountains). 2) First-degree relatives have a history of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. 3) Past history of esophageal disease (esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia). 4) I have a history of cancer. 5), long-term smoking history or long-term drinking history. 6) Poor eating habits such as fast eating, frequent hot food, high-salt food, and pickled food. Seven, thyroid cancer 1. Screening method: neck palpation, thyroid B ultrasound. 2. Screening objects:

How to check and diagnose male death syndrome?

   Death syndrome refers to multiple semen examinations and all sperm are dead. Under normal circumstances, within 1 hour of excretion of semen from the body, more than 70% of the normally viable sperm should be more than 70%. If more than 40% of the dead sperm are dead, it will affect pregnancy. Sperm survival time should be maintained for 6 hours with a survival rate of more than 20%. If there are no surviving sperm within 6 hours, it can cause infertility. Then, how to check and diagnose male death syndrome?    The activity of sperm is directly related to the fructose contained in the seminal vesicles. If fructose is reduced and nutritional deficiency, sperm mortality is higher. In addition, the lack of vitamin A and E also has a great impact on sperm activity. It is inevitable that there are a certain amount of deformed sperm in sperm. It is generally considered that less than 10% can be considered normal, and more than 10% or even 20% will affect fertility, because in this case, it is often accompanied by poor liquefaction and low vitality. problem.  How to check and diagnose male death syndrome?   Degeneration syndrome means that most sperm in semen are dead, but there is no obvious abnormality in the shape and quantity of sperm. The dead sperm can cause infertility due to loss of mobility and insemination ability. To determine whether the sperm is dead, the following methods are commonly used for inspection: take 1 drop of semen and place it on a glass slide, add 0.5% blue eosin solution for staining, add a cover glass, and let it stand for about 2 minutes. Check under a high-power microscope. Sperm is not colored, and dead sperm are dyed red.   Under normal circumstances, sperm is produced from the seminiferous epithelium of the testis and enters the epididymis to further mature. The tail of the epididymis and the ampulla of the vas deferens are places for storing sperm. Seminal vesicle epithelial secretions are rich in fructose, which is the energy source for sperm to ejaculate. The prostate fluid is alkaline and suitable for the survival and movement of sperm.

The most complete Titmus stereoscopic inspection tutorial in history

Has your child checked Titmus? I believe that about 1/5 of the parents will say that they have checked. Another 1/5 of the children checked Titmus, but the parents didn’t know it. According to the medical records of children with strabismus and amblyopia I have contacted in the past two years, more than 30% of them have checked Titmus. This also objectively supports the popularity of Titmus in pediatric ophthalmology clinics. Parents learn and understand some eye examination methods in advance, which is very helpful for children’s eye disease treatment. The child understands the inspection process of the inspection items in advance, which will eliminate tension and calmly inspect. The high school head teacher once told us before the college entrance examination: I am not afraid that you will not answer the questions correctly, but I am afraid that you will not answer the questions correctly! Parents and children were ignorant of the inspection items in advance. It happened that the examiner did not have the energy/capacity/mood/patience to explain the inspection. Just imagine how embarrassing, rushed, and helpless the process is; just think about it. The result is whether there is moisture. Knowing Titmus Titmus is the Chinese transliteration of “Titmus”, I think the transliteration of “Titmus” is more accurate. The same is transliteration. I feel that “Bush” is better than “Trump”. It is a booklet. Specifically, it is a wallet with only two picture cards in it. Titmus needs polarized 3D glasses for near-stereoscopic inspection. This kind of glasses should be familiar to everyone. When you go to the theater to watch a 3D movie, the waiter will send you similar 3D glasses. The picture on the right side of the booklet is a picture of a big fly. This fly chart is used for stereoscopic “qualitative” inspection. The so-called “qualitative” means “whether there is stereoscopic vision”-that is, “with stereoscopic vision” or “no stereoscopic vision”. The left side of the booklet is divided into upper and lower parts. The upper part on the left is the nine circle graphs, which are used for “quantitative” inspection of near-stereoscopic acuity. The so-called “quantitative” refers to the degree of stereoscopic sharpness. Stereoscopic sharpness is an index describing the fineness of stereoscopic vision. The smaller the stereoscopic sharpness value, the better, the smaller the value, the finer the stereoscopic vision (the better). On each circle, there are four “small circles” distributed in a diamond shape (up, down, left, and right), and they are identified as 1, 2, 3…9. During the inspection, when people with normal stereopsis wear polarized 3D glasses normally, they will see that there is a small circle on the circle diagram from No. 1 to No. 9 that is convex; reverse the polarized 3D glasses, or rotate the Titmus booklet by 180 degrees/ Turn it upside down and you will see that the originally raised small circle will “recess”. There are three rows of animal pictures in the lower part on the left, which are also used for “quantitative” inspection of near-stereoscopic acuity. Different from the “quantitative” of the nine circle pictures, the circle picture divides the stereoscopic sharpness into 9 levels from coarse to fine; while the animal picture only divides 3 levels. There are three rows of animal pictures, and the first row identifiers are A (row), B (row), and C (row). The stereoscopic acuity of A row is large (the stereoscopic vision is thick) and the stereoscopic acuity of C row is small ( Stereoscopic fineness), the stereoscopic sharpness of line B is between line A and line C. In each row, there is an animal “protruding”; wearing polarized 3D glasses, or rotating the Titmus booklet 180 degrees/upside down, you will see that the originally raised animal will “dent”. The reason why Titmus has made two sets of stereoscopic quantitative detection maps is to take care of the understanding ability of patients of different ages and different cognitive abilities. Among them, Titmus preferentially recommends using circle diagrams for near-stereoscopic quantitative examination. If children do not understand the meaning of circle diagrams, use animal diagrams for rough quantitative examination. The unit of stereoscopic sharpness is generally expressed by “second angle”, recorded as English double quotation marks-&quot. Regarding the concept of visual sharpness, it is enough for ordinary parents to understand the above sentence. Let’s talk a little bit more to the students of “Xueba”: the “second” of stereoscopic acuity refers to the parallax angle. The so-called parallax refers to the difference in direction when observing the same target from two points with a certain distance. , Which is the angle between these two points from the observation position. The reason why our eyes have a three-dimensional effect when we see things is because our eyes have different viewing angles, which leads to parallax between our eyes when we look at the target. This parallax, processed by the brain’s visual center, will show a three-dimensional effect. Elementary school geometry knowledge: The unit of angle is “degree”, 1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds, and the second angle comes from here. The near-stereoscopic acuity corresponding to the fly map, circle map and animal map are shown in the table below

Professor Dai Gengwu will come to the hospital for consultation this Thursday to help “overcome” the problem of leukoplakia, come to make an appointment!

September is the harvest season. After hard “cultivation”, all efforts will reap the same rewards. However, there is a severe disease-vitiligo, but it still makes countless patients trapped in the deep waters of vitiligo. in. Although it is now in autumn, the high temperature of summer continues in September, and the condition of vitiligo is still very easy to get worse. If the patient does not have a scientific treatment for his condition, then the vitiligo will continue to trouble the patient.   The cure is not right! Can only be trapped in the whirlpool of worsening leukoplakia. The reason why many patients have not achieved good treatment results is not because the treatment is not focused, but because the patients blindly treat the clinic without knowing their own condition. As a result, coupled with high temperature weather, it is more likely to aggravate the condition of vitiligo. Therefore, the patient must undergo scientific treatment under the guidance of a professional doctor and fully understand his own condition. .  Professor Dai Gengwu came to the hospital for personal consultation this Thursday to help “conquer” the problem of leukoplakia! In order to let patients better understand the characteristics of their condition and implement scientific treatment of the symptoms and causes, Chengdu Western Vitiligo Hospital will invite Professor Dai Gengwu to come to the hospital for consultation on this Thursday (September 10), and effectively “conquer” the treatment for the majority of patients with vitiligo. Difficult problem. The expert introduced the Sichuan Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, the chief physician, who has been engaged in skin surgery, skin transplantation, vitiligo epidermal transplantation and more than 5000 cases since 1984. He has deep knowledge in skin surgery and medical beauty. Thousands of vitiligo surgeries have been performed, which has been well received by patients.  Professional and good at   Professor Dai Gengwu is good at surgical treatment and laser treatment of difficult skin diseases, especially in vitiligo laser treatment. He has deep research on 308nm excimer laser treatment of vitiligo, and has obtained research results on many scientific research topics.  Professor Dai Gengwu has always been patient and meticulous with a high degree of medical responsibility to deeply analyze the condition of patients with vitiligo, and effectively solve the problems in the treatment. He is deeply trusted by the patients with his professional skills.   The treatment of vitiligo is a protracted battle. Patients must believe that only by fully understanding their condition and applying scientific treatment can they truly win this “white battle”. In the September of harvest, I hope that patients with vitiligo can also harvest skin health!   In order to allow vitiligo patients to enjoy high-quality diagnosis and treatment services during the epidemic and even during the subsequent period affected by it, Chengdu Western Vitiligo Doctor opened an outpatient clinic for special needs specialists for vitiligo and built an expert diagnosis and treatment platform for patients with vitiligo. Chengdu Western Vitiligo Hospital invited Dai Gengwu and Liu Gang, senior experts in the Department of Dermatology, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, to come to the hospital regularly for consultation. The number of experts on the day of the appointment is limited, and the green channel makes an appointment for half-price examination:    Vitiligo 8 examinations including liver function examination, kidney function examination, wood lamp examination, urine routine examination, blood routine analysis, immune five items, six trace elements and Three-dimensional skin CT examination in the United States.   want to make appointment with an expert/ want to check leukoplakia, click here to get it quickly   Telephone appointment: 24-hour health hotline 028-87788834, 18030413120  Internet appointment: make a free appointment online

Professor Dai Gengwu will come to the hospital for consultation this Thursday to help “overcome” the problem of leukoplakia, come to make an appointment!

September is the harvest season. After hard “cultivation”, all efforts will reap the same rewards. However, there is a severe disease-vitiligo, but it still makes countless patients trapped in the deep waters of vitiligo. in. Although it is now in autumn, the high temperature of summer continues in September, and the condition of vitiligo is still very easy to get worse. If the patient does not have a scientific treatment for his condition, then the vitiligo will continue to trouble the patient.   The cure is not right! Can only be trapped in the whirlpool of worsening leukoplakia. The reason why many patients have not achieved good treatment results is not because the treatment is not focused, but because the patients blindly treat the clinic without knowing their own condition. As a result, coupled with high temperature weather, it is more likely to aggravate the condition of vitiligo. Therefore, the patient must undergo scientific treatment under the guidance of a professional doctor and fully understand his own condition. .  Professor Dai Gengwu came to the hospital for personal consultation this Thursday to help “conquer” the problem of leukoplakia! In order to let patients better understand the characteristics of their condition and implement scientific treatment of the symptoms and causes, Chengdu Western Vitiligo Hospital will invite Professor Dai Gengwu to come to the hospital for consultation on this Thursday (September 10), and effectively “conquer” the treatment for the majority of patients with vitiligo. Difficult problem. The expert introduced the Sichuan Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, the chief physician, who has been engaged in skin surgery, skin transplantation, vitiligo epidermal transplantation and more than 5000 cases since 1984. He has deep knowledge in skin surgery and medical beauty. Thousands of vitiligo surgeries have been performed, which has been well received by patients.  Professional and good at   Professor Dai Gengwu is good at surgical treatment and laser treatment of difficult skin diseases, especially in vitiligo laser treatment. He has deep research on 308nm excimer laser treatment of vitiligo, and has obtained research results on many scientific research topics.  Professor Dai Gengwu has always been patient and meticulous with a high degree of medical responsibility to deeply analyze the condition of patients with vitiligo, and effectively solve the problems in the treatment. He is deeply trusted by the patients with his professional skills.   The treatment of vitiligo is a protracted battle. Patients must believe that only by fully understanding their condition and applying scientific treatment can they truly win this “white battle”. In the September of harvest, I hope that patients with vitiligo can also harvest skin health!   In order to allow vitiligo patients to enjoy high-quality diagnosis and treatment services during the epidemic and even during the subsequent period affected by it, Chengdu Western Vitiligo Doctor opened an outpatient clinic for special needs specialists for vitiligo and built an expert diagnosis and treatment platform for patients with vitiligo. Chengdu Western Vitiligo Hospital invited Dai Gengwu and Liu Gang, senior experts in the Department of Dermatology, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, to come to the hospital regularly for consultation. The number of experts on the day of the appointment is limited, and the green channel makes an appointment for half-price examination:    Vitiligo 8 examinations including liver function examination, kidney function examination, wood lamp examination, urine routine examination, blood routine analysis, immune five items, six trace elements and Three-dimensional skin CT examination in the United States.   want to make appointment with an expert/ want to check leukoplakia, click here to get it quickly   Telephone appointment: 24-hour health hotline 028-87788834, 18030413120  Internet appointment: make a free appointment online

Professor Dai Gengwu will come to the hospital for consultation this Thursday to help “overcome” the problem of leukoplakia, come to make an appointment!

September is the harvest season. After hard “cultivation”, all efforts will reap the same rewards. However, there is a severe disease-vitiligo, but it still makes countless patients trapped in the deep waters of vitiligo. in. Although it is now in autumn, the high temperature of summer continues in September, and the condition of vitiligo is still very easy to get worse. If the patient does not have a scientific treatment for his condition, then the vitiligo will continue to trouble the patient.   The cure is not right! Can only be trapped in the whirlpool of worsening leukoplakia. The reason why many patients have not achieved good treatment results is not because the treatment is not focused, but because the patients blindly treat the clinic without knowing their own condition. As a result, coupled with high temperature weather, it is more likely to aggravate the condition of vitiligo. Therefore, the patient must undergo scientific treatment under the guidance of a professional doctor and fully understand his own condition. .  Professor Dai Gengwu came to the hospital for personal consultation this Thursday to help “conquer” the problem of leukoplakia! In order to let patients better understand the characteristics of their condition and implement scientific treatment of the symptoms and causes, Chengdu Western Vitiligo Hospital will invite Professor Dai Gengwu to come to the hospital for consultation on this Thursday (September 10), and effectively “conquer” the treatment for the majority of patients with vitiligo. Difficult problem. The expert introduced the Sichuan Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, the chief physician, who has been engaged in skin surgery, skin transplantation, vitiligo epidermal transplantation and more than 5000 cases since 1984. He has deep knowledge in skin surgery and medical beauty. Thousands of vitiligo surgeries have been performed, which has been well received by patients.  Professional and good at   Professor Dai Gengwu is good at surgical treatment and laser treatment of difficult skin diseases, especially in vitiligo laser treatment. He has deep research on 308nm excimer laser treatment of vitiligo, and has obtained research results on many scientific research topics.  Professor Dai Gengwu has always been patient and meticulous with a high degree of medical responsibility to deeply analyze the condition of patients with vitiligo, and effectively solve the problems in the treatment. He is deeply trusted by the patients with his professional skills.   The treatment of vitiligo is a protracted battle. Patients must believe that only by fully understanding their condition and applying scientific treatment can they truly win this “white battle”. In the September of harvest, I hope that patients with vitiligo can also harvest skin health!   In order to allow vitiligo patients to enjoy high-quality diagnosis and treatment services during the epidemic and even during the subsequent period affected by it, Chengdu Western Vitiligo Doctor opened an outpatient clinic for special needs specialists for vitiligo and built an expert diagnosis and treatment platform for patients with vitiligo. Chengdu Western Vitiligo Hospital invited Dai Gengwu and Liu Gang, senior experts in the Department of Dermatology, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, to come to the hospital regularly for consultation. The number of experts on the day of the appointment is limited, and the green channel makes an appointment for half-price examination:    Vitiligo 8 examinations including liver function examination, kidney function examination, wood lamp examination, urine routine examination, blood routine analysis, immune five items, six trace elements and Three-dimensional skin CT examination in the United States.   want to make appointment with an expert/ want to check leukoplakia, click here to get it quickly   Telephone appointment: 24-hour health hotline 028-87788834, 18030413120  Internet appointment: make a free appointment online

【Disease Science】Prevent breast cancer from daily

   National cancer statistics show that breast cancer is the first among women. However, breast cancer is also preventable and controllable. Regular physical examination is an important measure for early detection of asymptomatic breast disease.  How often is the breast examination? The age of the Chinese population at the time of breast cancer diagnosis is mainly 45-55 years old. It is generally recommended that people over 40 years old should be screened for breast cancer. 40-69 years old should have mammography or breast ultrasound every 1-2 years. Dense breasts are recommended. The two are combined. Imaging examination is performed when there are symptoms or suspicious signs over 70 years old.   For some people at high risk of breast cancer, the starting age of screening can be advanced to before 40 years old. Once a year, in addition to color Doppler ultrasound and mammography, which are commonly used by the general population, the screening method can also use new imaging methods such as MRI.  Who are at high risk? 1. Patients with obvious genetic predisposition to breast cancer (including BRCA1/2 carriers, family history of breast cancer and patients with ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer);    2. Patients with past breast duct or lobular dysplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ ;  3. Patients who have undergone chest radiotherapy.  Prevent breast cancer from the daily routine  Keep a good attitude: face life positively and optimistically, ensure adequate sleep, and reduce work pressure.   Wear a suitable bra: Choose natural fabrics, the size is right, and relax at night.  Reasonable diet: reduce the intake of high-fat, high-calorie foods, especially fried, spicy and pungent foods, and ensure the intake of fruits and vegetables.   Physical exercise: chest expansion exercises, dumbbell exercises, swimming, etc.   promote breastfeeding.  Learn to check yourself.   Breast health is an important part of women’s health. At present, early screening has become an important means to improve breast cancer prognosis and reduce breast cancer mortality. Early screening, early diagnosis, and early treatment will keep the breast away from cancer!

How to care for postoperative vas deferens obstruction

  How to care for the vas deferens after blocked vas deferens, postoperative, blockage, nursing Summary: Many people pay special attention to the treatment of vas deferens infarction. Experts say that there are still many options for clinical treatment of vas deferens, but there are still more options for surgical treatment. Then, do you know how to carry out nursing work after vas deferens infarction operation? Next, let’s take a look.   Many people pay special attention to the treatment of vas deferens infarction. Experts say that there are still many options for clinical treatment of vas deferens, but there are still more options for surgical treatment. How should nursing work be done after vas deferens infarction operation?   How to care after vas deferens infarction   1. Obey the doctor’s instructions and inspect for 2 hours after the operation. The general inspection for sticking or plugging is about 1 hour. For ligation, the inspection is about 2 hours. You can leave only when there is no swelling or bleeding in the operation area.  2. After going back, take antibiotics as prescribed by the doctor and make follow-up after operation. Discovery of blood in the wound, swelling, pain, swelling or blood stasis, and fever are all abnormal conditions and should be treated promptly. Summary of mild wound pain: Many people pay special attention to the treatment of vas deferens infarction.  How to take care after vas deferens infarction  1. Obey the doctor’s advice and inspect for 2 hours after the operation. The general inspection for sticking or plugging is about 1 hour. For ligation, the inspection is about 2 hours. You can leave only when there is no swelling or bleeding in the operation area.  2. After going back, take antibiotics as prescribed by the doctor and make follow-up after operation. 1 Once blood is found in the wound, the swelling, pain, swelling or blood stasis, and fever are abnormal conditions and should be treated in time. Mild pain in the wound is normal. 3. If the seminal vesicle is not perfused during the operation, the sperm may remain for 4-6 months after the operation. Therefore, contraception should be adhered to. The semen can be monitored every 1 to 2 months until the absence of sperm is confirmed. Stop contraception. Even if the seminal vesicles have been perfused, the semen should be monitored after the operation, and contraception can be stopped only when there is no motile sperm.  4. Rest for 1 week after operation, avoid having sex within half a month, avoid heavy physical labor and strenuous exercise, such as cycling, playing ball, running, carrying burdens, etc.   5. When you resume your sexual life after the operation, you may feel pain and discomfort in the part of the operation. This is a common situation, not abnormal, and there should be no heavy mental burden. One month after the operation, if the local pain or swelling still persists, the patient should be treated for timely treatment. The above is the relevant introduction of how to care for the vas deferens after the vas deferens surgery. After reading the information, have you mastered it? Correct care is really necessary, because it is not only related to the patient’s disease as soon as possible Rehabilitation will also reduce the torture suffered by patients.

What to check for genital warts

  Most patients with genital warts do not feel any discomfort during the progress of the disease, that is to say, patients with genital warts generally do not experience itch or pain in the initial stage. There are also a very small number of patients with genital warts that may have mild itching and tingling symptoms. In addition, in general, patients with condyloma acuminata have more moist onset sites, increased local secretions, and increased chances of infection such as bacteria. The emergence of    condyloma acuminata not only endangers the patient’s physical and mental health, but also infects people around them, so patients should be treated as soon as possible when they find condyloma acuminata. If you suspect that you have condyloma acuminatum, what tests should you do to check:   1. Acetic acid white: soak gauze with 3%-5% acetic acid solution and apply it to the affected area after 5 minutes. If you have condyloma acuminata, then There will be white papules, if not, it will appear as white patches (limited to patients without warts, the accuracy rate is 90%).  2. Pathological examination: Take out a bit from the wart body. If the examination results show that there are hollowed cells, it is condyloma acuminata (accuracy rate 100%).

How much can genital warts be cured

   The cost of treatment of condyloma acuminata also varies from person to person. The degree of infection, the sensitivity of the body, the virulence of the bacteria, the site of infection, the length of the infection, and the presence or absence of complications are different for each person. At the same time, they are related to the health of the patient and the different treatment techniques and methods used, which directly affect To the specific treatment costs for each person. Therefore, the fundamental way to save treatment costs is science and testing, standardizing treatment, not only cutting the grass, but also removing the roots. Expenses for examination: Before treatment, you must go to the hospital for related examinations. The cost of the same examination items in different hospitals in the same area is also different. If the doctor has rich clinical experience, the initial diagnosis can often be made through consultation. What kind of disease is, supplemented by targeted inspections, virtually eliminates unnecessary cumbersome items and saves costs.

It’s a pity that the cured kidney disease has not escaped uremia, so it can be avoided.

The author always encounters some patients with special kidney disease in the outpatient clinic. In the past few months, I always feel something is wrong, I can’t lift the energy when I do things, I have no taste when eating, and I always urinate many times at night. At first, I never thought that my kidney would have a problem again. I didn’t become afraid until I was checked in the local hospital recently. It turned out that I had severe kidney failure (blood creatinine exceeded 707μmol/L). He doesn’t believe this will happen, nor can he accept this fact! How can kidney disease that has been “cured” a few years ago suddenly become uremia? However, uremia has indeed come to him. It is a pity that the cured kidney disease has not escaped the catastrophe of uremia. How can this be avoided? Those kidney diseases that they thought had been “cured” never escaped the “uremia”, mainly due to the following three reasons. 1. Quiet relapse has the best effect in the outcome of nephropathy treatment, which is “clinical remission (or cure)”. Taking nephrotic syndrome as an example, the criteria for clinical remission are: clinical symptoms disappear and urine protein turns negative (24-hour urine protein quantitative is less than 300mg or 0.3g), plasma albumin returns to normal, renal function is completely normal. This is called a cure, or it can be said to be completely cured, because all the examination indicators have returned to normal; however, it can also be said that there is no cure, because the kidney pathology of patients with nephrotic syndrome must still have “scars”, which we call it It is called “glomerular sclerosis and/or interstitial fibrosis”, but the amount is very small and will not have any effect. There may also be other “hidden dangers” in it. When it recurs, some patients may not have edema and a significant decrease in urine output, but they will definitely have obvious proteinuria again. And I can’t feel its existence. Long-term obvious proteinuria can directly lead to the accelerated progression of kidney disease. If it can’t be detected in time and treated regularly, uremia is its ultimate attribute. 2. Long-term latency If the criterion of “clinical remission” of nephrotic syndrome is applied to other kidney diseases, problems will arise. For example, IgA nephropathy, gross hematuria may occur within 72 hours after tonsillitis infection, and IgA nephropathy is diagnosed by examination. Hematuria disappears after treatment, urine examination is normal, blood pressure is not high, and kidney function is normal. As long as you don’t do related tests, you will not be able to feel its existence for a long time (months, years, or even ten years) afterwards, because its only symptom is gross hematuria. However, the pathological changes of IgA nephropathy have been “latent” there. Inflammatory changes in the kidney, glomerular sclerosis and tubular and interstitial fibrosis are slowly progressing. After that, even if the urine protein is high and/or the blood pressure is high, you can still not feel it, and it is not surprising that you will become uremia in the end. 3. Misdiagnosis due to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis is also a common occurrence of uremia. For example, polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetically related kidney disease, is often missed or misdiagnosed without special examinations or detailed family history at the young age. Only the urine test and renal function were checked. It was found that there were red blood cells and a small amount of proteinuria in the urine routine, normal blood pressure, normal renal function, no edema, and no other discomfort. It is considered to be acute nephritis or mild chronic nephritis. All abnormal indicators have returned to normal, and they are considered “cured”. Years later, it is not surprising that he was diagnosed as “polycystic kidney disease, uremia” after another investigation. There are really many misdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of kidney diseases. Some kidney diseases are misdiagnosed as stomach or blood diseases, and some kidney diseases are only diagnosed as hypertension, etc., thus losing the best treatment opportunity. All the above are regrettable, whether it is the “quiet recurrence” of kidney disease, “long-term latency”, or “missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis”, the lessons are painful and profound. However, just remember that uremia will never “harass” easily. These are the four most important words that Kidney First wants to say today: It is a pity that the kidney disease has been cured regularly, and it has not escaped the uremia. This can prevent the kidney disease from being different from other diseases. Most kidney diseases “come without a trace and go without a trace”, which means that there is no special feeling when the kidney disease starts, and the disease progresses slowly or unconsciously. Therefore, regular check-ups for nephrologists are one of the most effective ways to avoid uremia. Which items should be checked? Do at least the following tests: measure blood pressure, check urine routine, check 24-hour urine protein quantification, test kidney function, and do kidney color ultrasound examination.

How much does it cost to treat female genital warts

Condyloma acuminata is a venereal disease with complicated conditions and symptoms. Condyloma acuminata is very harmful and contagious. It harms the entire family and the entire society. Therefore, people who are infected with condyloma acuminata are eager to completely cure it. They are often daunted by the cost of treatment, and some even give up treatment, leading to worsening of the disease in the later stage.  1. Inspection fee: The inspection and diagnosis fee is based on the relevant regulations of the National Price Bureau, and strictly enforces the unified charging standards set by the Ministry of Health to prevent arbitrary charges. 2. Drug cost: After examination, patients with condyloma acuminatum, whether it is mild, moderate, or severe, will be treated with corresponding medications. Depending on the results of the test, the individual’s physique (such as allergies) will be used. The types of drugs are also different, which will cause differences in costs.   3. Surgical expenses: The treatment of condyloma acuminatum includes two major aspects: Chinese and Western medicine. The treatment of condyloma acuminatum includes two major aspects of Chinese and Western medicine. Traditional drug treatment is often cheap, but the effect is poor and it is easy to relapse. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.

What test items should be done for tubal obstruction?

   Fallopian tube blockage is mainly caused by inflammation. Incomplete or untimely treatment will affect the function of the fallopian tube to pick up eggs and the ability to transport sperm and eggs. Do you suspect that the fallopian tube is blocked? What are the tests? Here are a few self-tests and hospital inspection methods. Self-examination generally shows that the biggest symptom of tubal blockage is infertility. If it is pelvic inflammatory disease, women with tubal blockage will be accompanied by varying degrees of lower abdominal pain, soreness, swelling, and falling in the lower back and sacrum. When inflammation affects the ovaries, When the function is damaged, there will be irregular menstruation such as frequent menstruation and excessive menstruation. Sometimes pelvic congestion leads to stasis dysmenorrhea, the closer to the menstrual period, the heavier the menstrual period until the menstrual cramps.  Some women will also have symptoms such as increased leucorrhea, pain during sexual intercourse, gastrointestinal disorders, fatigue, affected labor or intolerable labor, neurological symptoms and depression.  Hospital examination   laparoscopic examination    is a more advanced examination and treatment of tubal infertility. During the operation, you can directly see the adhesion around the fallopian tube, the adhesion site, the degree of adhesion, and the anatomical relationship between the umbrella end of the fallopian tube and the ovary. B-ultrasound B-ultrasound is also a commonly used inspection method for fallopian tube examination. It has a certain inspection effect on hydrops, but because it is impossible to accurately determine the location of the fallopian tube blockage and the severity of the disease, it is generally necessary to use Other inspection equipment.  Fallopian tube imaging   Inject contrast agent, use X-ray machine to make a correct diagnosis of the fallopian tube, and have a certain therapeutic effect on slight blockage. Compared with passing water, contrast imaging has relatively no side effects and pain, and is a commonly used method for medical examination of tubal problems.  Beijing Weiren Hospital 3D Stereoscopic Mirror Technology   Principle of Inspection/Treatment  3D Stereoscopic Mirror Technology is a “diagnostic expert” for diagnosing fallopian tube diseases and a brand new technology for dredge the fallopian tubes. The 3D stereoscopic mirror is imported from Germany and can be magnified 2.5 times on the basis of ordinary hysteroscopy. The instrument is fully automatic focusing. It can not only know whether the uterus and fallopian tube are congenital malformations or pathological conditions, but also understand Whether the fallopian tubes are unobstructed, and the function of the fallopian tubes, find out the cause of primary or secondary infertility for many women with infertility. Operated under 3D stereoscopic mirror, using biological fluid pulse fusion technology, it can restore the cilia peristalsis of the inner wall of the fallopian tube and the egg picking function of the umbrella end of the fallopian tube. The fourth generation of biological anti-adhesion membrane in the United States is injected intraoperatively to achieve fallopian tube dredge and Anti-sticking/water accumulation effect.

finally understood! X-ray, CT, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, the difference is too big

Many common imaging examinations such as X-ray, CT, B-ultrasound, and MRI are unclear. Hospital experts compare the body to food and tell you how these tests play different roles. First, X-ray: like crushing the bread to see that the X-ray will pass through the human body, and when it meets the blocked part, it will not be exposed on the film. This part is white after the film is processed. For example, the bones of the thigh are round, but the film is flat, but you can see the trabecular bones. Just like a piece of bread or a piece of cotton, you can’t see the fiber texture inside, but it will be clearer if you crush it by hand. The biggest shortcoming is that the images of the shallow and deep tissues overlap each other and hide each other. Sometimes it is necessary to take a side X-ray film. 2. CT: The principle of CT inspection is to slice bread into CT. The X-ray will pass through the human body in layers, and then the computer will calculate the secondary imaging, just like cutting a piece of bread into slices, the advantage is that it can be viewed in layers. And, after calculation, more organizational information can be displayed. 3. B-ultrasound: Like tapping watermelon before tapping, the principle of B-ultrasound is to use ultrasound to penetrate the human body. When sound waves meet different tissues, especially the tissue interface, reflected waves will be generated. The ultrasound probe emits ultrasound while receiving reflection. Waves, and imaging by calculating reflected waves. Just like picking a watermelon, knocking and watching shows the condition of the lesion. & nbsp. MRI: Shake and look at the magnetic resonance (MRI) development principle is to detect changes in water molecules. The content of water molecules in the body varies greatly in different tissues, but the direction of the magnetic field lines of each water molecule is arbitrary. The MRI machine uses a stronger magnetic field to make the magnetic field lines of all water molecules in the human body have the same direction. At this time, the magnetic field of the magnetic resonance machine suddenly disappears, and the direction of the magnetic field lines of the water molecules in the body suddenly returns to the original randomly arranged state. After repeatedly applying the magnetic field repeatedly and suddenly disappearing, the MRI machine will obtain sufficient data and calculate it after the operation. Simply speaking, it is equivalent to shaking by hand to make the water molecules vibrate, then calm down and feel the vibration inside. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has also been jokingly described as a shake-up examination. 5. Why did the doctor open the checklist like this? When visiting a doctor, doctors often prescribe a variety of imaging examinations: ultrasound, CT, nuclear magnetic … Many patients are very puzzled about this, and they also question that doctors sometimes deliberately open high-priced examinations. In fact, doctors choose different imaging tests based on different conditions. 1. Traumatic bones-a close look at X-rays, a close look at CT, and a magnetic resonance can’t see all kinds of trauma. If you suspect that you have injured a bone, the X-ray examination results are quick and easy to obtain, generally the first choice. If you want to make further observations, you can choose CT. Ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance are not clear on bone medulla, etc., and its effect is not as good as X-ray based X-ray film and CT. 2. Cervical and lumbar vertebrae — the best choice for MRI, secondary CT cervical spondylopathy, lumbar disc herniation, and other disc diseases requires observation of the disc and corresponding nerve roots. To better observe these soft tissues, the best choice is nuclear magnetic. Similarly, for joint, muscle, and adipose tissue examinations, MRI is also the first choice. 3. Chest-roughly understand X-rays, choose CT for detailed analysis, do not choose MRI chest X-rays for lungs, you can roughly check the heart, aorta, lungs, pleura, ribs, etc., you can check for increased lung texture, lungs Department of calcification, aortic nodular calcification, etc. Compared with X-ray, chest CT examination shows a clearer structure, and the sensitivity for detecting chest lesions and the accuracy of showing lesions are better than conventional X-ray chest radiographs, especially for the decisive significance of early lung cancer diagnosis. High-resolution CT has further increased the resolution of lung observation, which is of great significance for certain diseases (such as pulmonary interstitial disease), but the radiation dose of CT examination is significantly higher than that of X-ray. The application of MRI to the diagnosis of lung diseases is very limited. 4. Abdominal pelvic cavity-In addition to the intestine, general ultrasound can check the gallbladder and other abdominal organs. It is greatly affected by breathing, which will affect CT and MRI, and ultrasound will not be affected. At the same time, ultrasound has a high accuracy rate in the diagnosis of liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, pelvic organs, etc. Under the examination of an experienced ultrasound doctor, the accuracy rate is no less than CT and MRI. However, ultrasound is greatly disturbed by gas, and for organs such as the intestine that contain more gas, the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis will be reduced. 5. Heart-use CT to eliminate coronary heart disease, use ultrasound to see the heart function. If it is a routine heart structure and function check, provided by heart color Doppler ultrasound

It doesn’t matter if the man doesn’t work, it must be scientifically viewed!

This is a story of the boy being “lambtail, date crab” due to the hasty “inspection” before marriage. He and she are first in love, and the two had already agreed to get married at the beginning of this year. Before the end of the year, the girlfriend who happened to live with the girl had to break up because the man had sexual dysfunction and was taboo. So the girl took the initiative to request “inspection”. In order to make it warmer for the first time, they deliberately organized a candlelight dinner at the place where the boy rented, and both parties also drank a lot of wine. Because the boy knew the purpose of the girl’s “inspection”, the psychological pressure suddenly increased a lot, coupled with the effect of alcohol, the boy was unable to normal erection. It stands to reason that such things are normal, but they think that the boy is really a problem, so they went online to seek medical advice and medicine. On the Internet, they met a person who claimed to be a male doctor. After communication, the other party made a clear “diagnosis”: the boy was caused by frequent damage to the corpus cavernosum and ischemia, which caused crab”. The man also promised that as long as he took the medicine he had prepared, it would only take 42 days to completely cure the boy’s sexual dysfunction. At that time, it had been closed in recent years, and the two decided to go back to their homes first, and the boys took medication as required. Due to the epidemic, they each stayed in their hometowns for a long time. During this time, the boy not only finished all the medicine he bought, but also bought another course of medicine under the advice of the man. After everyone returned to Beijing, they chose the second “inspection”. Who knows, the two people were unhappy because of other trivial matters in the same room, and this time the boy couldn’t get an erection normally. When they wanted to contact that person again, they realized that WeChat was blacked by the other party, which made them realize that they might have been cheated. This time they chose to go to the hospital to see me, and the results showed that the boy’s erectile function was completely normal. Later, through related explanations and psychological counseling, they understood why the boy had problems. A few days later, the boy contacted me via Weibo private message, saying that they are very happy now, and they are going to spend their honeymoon with their girlfriend in October. … In fact, judging whether it is “sheep tail” is simple: if there is no girlfriend, you can score according to this form: if you have a sexual partner, you can score according to this form: as long as the score exceeds 21 points, it means there is no erectile dysfunction. As for date crabs, there is also an evaluation scale: as long as the score does not exceed 10 points, there is no real date crab.

How to view the “ten-day battle” of nucleic acid screening in Wuhan? This article gives you a rational analysis

Someone has long proposed the idea of ​​universal nucleic acid detection in Wuhan. When discussing this issue at the time, Pharmacist Li once thought that although this was safe, it was too difficult. Unexpectedly, the Wuhan Municipal Government has really begun to implement “universal detection” recently The conference was fought. The nucleic acid inspection of all residents in Wuhan was completed within ten days. On average, more than 1 million nucleic acid tests were performed every day. This determination and courage are amazing. But there are some hidden worries that may exist. It is worth our thinking and attention. Although sporadic cases always occur occasionally, the overall epidemic situation in China is still very good. Not only has the work been fully resumed, but now the large and elementary schools are also considering the issue of comprehensive resumption of classes. Under such circumstances, several newly confirmed cases have recently appeared in Wuhan. As a severely affected area, there are occasionally new cases in a small area, which is also completely normal. Under such a background , Wuhan City put forward the requirement of “ten-day battle”, and strive to complete the nucleic acid detection of all staff within ten days, and further strengthen the control of the epidemic. Under the premise that the current domestic epidemic situation is steadily controlled, it is certainly possible to concentrate superior resources and conduct comprehensive screening in high-risk areas, but this is undoubtedly difficult. The test volume of 1 million a day is not a small challenge in terms of the number of test kits, but I believe that the relevant departments should also be fully estimated and prepared, but for the staff, the test workload is huge Is it possible to temporarily recruit non-professional personnel to perform nucleic acid testing in order to complete the testing task? Whether the accuracy of sampling, operation and testing can be guaranteed is a question worth considering. After all, since the outbreak of the New Crown Outbreak, even the tests performed by professional testing personnel have occurred many false negatives in nucleic acid tests. The high-density nucleic acid detection and inspection, how to fully guarantee the accuracy and reduce the probability of false negatives, is the top priority in this conference battle. Speed ​​is important, but quality is also important. After all, the epidemic situation in Wuhan has been basically controlled. If some people are left because of the pursuit of speed, the hidden dangers cannot be completely eliminated. Of course, there is no absolute safety. There is no absolute risk. There is no doubt that such a large-scale investigation can further reduce the risk of epidemic prevention and control in Wuhan. For this “ten-day battle” approach, put forward a few thoughts from a personal perspective, everyone can discuss together-whether it can be a comprehensive inspection as a goal, but not necessarily within 10 days, you can combine the situation of each region, partition Slicing, to divide densely populated areas and populations with high risk of infection, such as several outbreak communities, such as densely populated and complex old communities, etc. For personnel, such as students returning to school, often Public service personnel who are in contact with others, people whose population density is concentrated in confined spaces, within these ten days, conduct comprehensive nucleic acid screening to ensure the accuracy of the inspection and reduce the occurrence of high-risk areas and high-risk groups The possibility of an aggregate outbreak. The subsequent nationwide investigation can be carried out in an orderly manner. In addition to the nucleic acid examination, whether antibody testing should also be considered. The nucleic acid examination is to check the risk of transmission of virus by infected persons. The antibody examination is an important data for epidemiological research. In this epidemic, How many people are infected with the new coronavirus, there are few cases of self-healing without symptoms, how the antibodies are produced, and the differences between individuals will provide more data support for our subsequent epidemic prevention and control, virus research Of course, antibody testing does not have to be synchronized with nucleic acid detection, and can be carried out gradually during the subsequent epidemiological investigation.

Is prenatal inspection really necessary? So what have you checked many times?

With the popularization of medical information at present, prenatal examinations are now more common and standardized. Prenatal examinations can detect abnormalities of babies in time, prevent and treat complications and comorbidities during pregnancy, and comprehensively evaluate pregnancy. The risks of mothers and babies help our pregnant mothers choose the right timing and delivery method to ensure the safety of our pregnant mothers and babies to the greatest extent. The World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women without comorbidities have at least 8 prenatal examinations throughout pregnancy. Our country recommends that pregnant mothers without comorbidities are between 6 weeks pregnant to 13 + 6 weeks pregnant, 14 weeks pregnant to 19 + 6 weeks pregnant, 20 weeks pregnant to 24 weeks pregnant, 25 weeks pregnant to 28 weeks pregnant, 29 weeks pregnant to 32 weeks pregnant 、 Pregnancy 33 weeks to pregnancy 36 weeks, pregnancy 37 weeks to pregnancy 41 weeks (once a week) for prenatal prenatal examination, if there are high-risk factors for pregnant mothers, you need to increase the number of prenatal examinations as appropriate. The first examination (6 weeks of pregnancy to 13 + 6 weeks of pregnancy): the first antenatal examination, our pregnant mother is mainly to establish a health care manual during pregnancy, based on the last menstrual period and color Doppler ultrasound to determine the gestational age, estimate the expected date of delivery, measure blood pressure, Weight, and calculation of BMI, to assess whether there are high-risk factors, etc., around 12 weeks of pregnancy, you can also hear the baby’s fetal heart rate through ultrasound. In addition, blood routine, urine routine, blood type, liver and kidney function, fasting blood glucose, hepatitis B, syphilis, AIDS screening, early Down screening, etc. will also be carried out. For thalassemia-prone areas, thalassemia screening will also be conducted check. The second examination (14 weeks pregnant to 19 + 6 weeks pregnant): This prenatal examination is mainly to analyze the results of the first birth examination, in addition to the mid-term Down’s screening (15 weeks to 20 weeks) or non-invasive genetic testing (12 Week to 22 + 6 weeks), amniocentesis puncture examination of fetal chromosomes (16 weeks to 22 weeks), etc. are also carried out in this inspection. The third examination (20 weeks of pregnancy to 24 weeks of pregnancy): The most important thing in this prenatal examination is to perform fetal macroscopic malformation through fetal system ultrasound. The fourth examination (from 25 weeks to 28 weeks of pregnancy): During this period, in addition to the routine blood pressure and weight check of the pregnant mother and the blood routine and urine routine review, the more important thing is to use the 75g OGTT test for pregnancy Screening for diabetes. The fifth examination (29 weeks pregnant to 32 weeks pregnant): This gestational week, the prenatal examination will still carry out routine examinations, but the focus is on educating pregnant mothers to monitor the baby’s situation in the uterus through self-counting fetal movements. The sixth examination (33 weeks to 36 weeks of pregnancy): near term, from 32 weeks to 34 weeks of pregnancy, pregnant mothers who may have intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy may be able to perform liver function and bile acid tests. From 35 weeks of pregnancy to 37 weeks of pregnancy, pregnant mothers need to be screened for group B streptococcus. The 7th to 11th examinations (from 37 weeks of pregnancy to 41 weeks of pregnancy), this period is already full term, pregnant mothers may enter labor at any time, so the focus of the examination is to check the condition of the cervix (Bishop score) to check whether the cervical canal has subsided, Whether the cervix is ​​opened, as well as obstetric ultrasound to determine the fetal position, monitor the size of the baby, the position of the placenta, the condition of amniotic fluid, etc. If you are more than 41 weeks pregnant, you need to be hospitalized, evaluate the mother ’s condition, and choose the appropriate method to induce labor to avoid overdue pregnancy.

For anti-cancer medical examination, which kind of ultrasound, nuclear magnetic, CT, PET-CT has the highest accuracy?

Ultrasound, nuclear magnetic, CT and PET-CT are commonly used clinical examination methods, collectively referred to as imaging examination. Their working principles are not the same, so the clinical application is also different. In actual work, ultrasound, MRI, CT, and PET-CT can all be used as a means of screening for cancer. However, due to the difference in imaging principles and prices, there are also priorities in the examination order. Similarities and differences of several inspection methods 1. Working principle Ultrasound is to transmit ultrasonic waves to the human body, and use the acoustic characteristics of various tissues of the human body to generate reflection, refraction, scattering, attenuation and other signals to the ultrasonic waves, and then receive these signals through the receiver To achieve the inspection method that shows various tissue forms. CT uses a precise radiation beam to perform a tomographic scan of a certain thickness on a part of the human body under the action of the detector, and finally transforms it into a digital image. Nuclear magnetism is to place the human body in a strong magnetic field to excite hydrogen atoms in the human body by pulses, generate magnetic resonance phenomena to obtain electromagnetic signals, and finally process images by computer processing. PET-CT is a combination of PET and CT. PET can obtain the functional metabolism of the lesion. CT can accurately describe the anatomical features such as the shape, size and location of the lesion. Therefore, PET-CT is also the most advantageous in cancer screening. of. 2. If the price difference is sorted according to the price from low to high, it should be ultrasound, CT, nuclear magnetic, PET-CT, so the ultrasound examination is generally used as the initial screening test for cancer. Anti-cancer medical examination which method has the highest accuracy? Ultrasound examination has the advantages of low price and no radiation to the human body. It is often used as a primary screening method for visceral tissue tumors, but because it cannot clearly display the overall spatial structure of the lesion or organ, and its accuracy is affected by the inspection personnel’s technical level and experience. Large, so the accuracy of the inspection is not high, and it is easy to cause missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. CT examination can find primary tumors and metastatic lesions, but due to the lower resolution of soft tissue density and fewer imaging parameters and methods, the diagnostic information obtained in tumor screening is also less than that of MRI, so the accuracy rate is lower than that of MRI. MRI can find small space-occupying lesions that can not be found by CT scan. The resolution of soft tissue is high. It can directly make images of cross-section, sagittal plane, coronal plane and arbitrary slices. There are many imaging parameters and methods, so the inspection is accurate. The rate is higher. But to say that the highest accuracy should be PET-CT, PET-CT fusion images can detect very small subclinical tumors, and you can also find out whether the cancer has spread through a one-time full-body scan. Not only that, PET-CT can also accurately locate tumor radiotherapy and intervention, and evaluate the efficacy of tumor treatment. Therefore, in addition to the highest accuracy, it is also widely used in cancer screening to treatment. In conclusion, anti-cancer physical examination is of great significance for the early prevention and treatment of cancer, but it is worth reminding that because the morphology of cancer in different parts is very different, CT is not necessarily more accurate than ultrasound, and PET-CT is definitely better than MRI. The most important thing is that under the guidance of a specialist, it is the most critical to choose the appropriate examination. (Some of the pictures in the article are from the source network. The copyright belongs to the original author. Thank you for the picture author. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)

Is the urine protein test result accurate? Have you done these 6 points?

Urine protein is one of the most important indicators in the early stage of chronic kidney disease and is directly related to the treatment of patients, but many patients are still very “familiar” with it. Unfamiliarity does not mean that patients do not know urine protein, but that they do not know urine protein and how to check urine protein is accurate. Some situations may affect the results of urine protein testing. Therefore, it is very important for everyone who is going to have a urine test to master the precautions for urine protein testing. So is urine protein testing accurate? What should we pay attention to? 01 Whether to take morning urine? Urine can be collected at any time for routine urine testing, but it is generally best to retain morning urine for testing. Morning urine refers to the first urination when you wake up in the morning, which is relatively thick and has a large amount of urine. There are more components in the urine than urine diluted in the daytime. If there is a problem, it is easier to find out. You can also avoid diet, Drinking water, sports and other factors. For patients with kidney disease, in order to make each urine routine comparable, it is necessary to retain morning urine; for patients with mild kidney disease or medical examination, it is more necessary to retain morning urine, and it is easier to find abnormalities. Don’t drink more water after 8 o’clock the night before urination. Because the routine urine test is a qualitative test, the amount of urine is increased when drinking more water, and the components in the urine are greatly diluted, resulting in a negative test result. When the specific gravity of urine is too low, the red blood cells in the urine will be destroyed , Resulting in the inability to find red blood cells during microscopic examination. Is 02 during the menstrual period? For women to do routine urine tests, they must first clean the vulva, and then leave the middle section of urine to prevent leucorrhea from mixing into the urine. Leucorrhea contains proteins, white blood cells, and even some red blood cells. Mixing in leucorrhea will seriously affect the results of routine urine tests. Female menstrual period and 3-5 days before and after it is generally not suitable to retain urine for examination, so as not to mix menstrual blood into the urine, causing the illusion of hematuria. It is generally necessary to wait for a week after the end of menstruation before conducting routine urine tests. 03Do you want to take mid-section urine? The way to keep the urine in the middle is to discharge the first urination first, the middle one, and the last urination not to enter the urine. This is because the anterior segment of urine is connected to the urethra. Under normal circumstances, bacteria colonize and multiply. In addition to keeping urine in the middle of urine for bacterial culture, it is best to take the middle urine for examination when checking urine routine and urine micro-proteins to reduce the possibility of urinary secretions or leucorrhea mixed into the urine. 04Is urine retention under special circumstances? Interpretation of the results of routine urine testing should be judged in light of the physical condition before and at the time of urine retention, which is very important. Fever, strenuous exercise, taking certain medicines, infections, etc. can all cause transient abnormalities in the urine or abnormal increase in the original urine, so when checking, you should avoid testing urine routine in the above situation. Another point to note: the same room should be avoided the day before the urine retention routine! 05Is it submitted for inspection in time? Urine test is best to use fresh urine, the fresher the urine, the more accurate the test results. If it is not fresh urine, it is generally acceptable to send the test within 1h in winter; however, the weather is hot in summer and it is best to stay at the hospital for immediate examination. If you wake up in the morning and can’t get to the hospital to collect morning urine, you can put the collected urine sample at home into the fresh-keeping layer of the refrigerator and send it for inspection within 1 hour. 06 Are antibiotics used? If antibiotics were used shortly before the urine retention test (usually within a week), antibiotics or their metabolites will be excreted from the urine, inhibiting the growth of bacteria therein, which may lead to false negative culture results. Therefore, for patients who stay in the urine for mid-stage urine culture, antibiotics should be stopped one week later. If it is necessary for the condition, the urine is cultured during the middle period of antibiotics, and the doctor should be informed of the antibiotics that have been taken recently. If you have any related problems such as kidney disease, you can directly [Private Message] Professor Mo Feifan