For babies with hypospadias, is surgery really good at about 1 year old?

Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the external genitalia. Its incidence is currently about 3/1000, and this data is still rising. Although hypospadias occurs in private parts and it is difficult to show it in normal times, it does great harm to the patient, especially the psychological harm, which far exceeds the physical impact. Some families may even cause a series of conflicts due to children’s hypospadias, affecting family harmony. (Source: In order to avoid excessive impact on patients and their families, hypospadias advocates early detection and early treatment. According to current international standards, the best time for hypospadias surgery is 6-18 months. For the timing of this operation, many parents are also puzzled: Why is there such a time standard? Wouldn’t the operation be earlier or later? (Source: 1. Why can’t my child undergo surgery at birth? Many parents know that their child is hypospadias, and worry that it will cause greater harm to the child or the parent in the future, and hope to correct it as soon as possible. So far, surgery is the only effective way to treat hypospadias, and the newly born baby is not fully developed in all aspects of the body, and it is not enough to withstand the impact of surgery. In addition, children with hypospadias surgery need to meet two conditions: the width of the head of the penis reaches 1.2cm and the weight reaches 10kg. If the child develops better, the postoperative effect will be better. (Source: 2. Can a child about one year old be able to bear the operation? Previously, hypospadias advocated to complete the operation before school age, but according to the latest international standards, the best time for surgery has been redefined as 6-18 months. The timing of surgery is not based on the situation of a certain patient or a hospital, but a comprehensive consideration of the physical development of children of the same age (including physical, mental, intellectual, etc.), current medical technology level, doctors’ skill level and anesthesia level And other conditions. In addition, children undergoing surgery at about 1 year old will not produce permanent memories, and psychological harm to the child can be avoided as much as possible. During this period, the child’s compliance is better, and it is easier for the parents to care for after the operation. For some severe hypospadias that need to be staged, perform the first operation as much as possible at about 1 year old, leaving enough time for subsequent operations to avoid excessive harm to the child, and prevent the child from various accidents (such as colds). Etc.) Affect the smooth progress of the operation and miss the best time for the operation. Today’s interaction: Do you have any questions about hypospadias? Welcome to leave a comment in the comment area!

What diseases can cause lumbar disc herniation?

     1. Infection: It is a more serious comorbidity. After 5 to 14 days, severe low back pain accompanied by hip or lower abdomen cramps and muscle cramps occurred, and the patient could not turn over, making the patient miserable.  2. Nerve damage: When the lumbar intervertebral disc is herniated, the compressed nerve root itself is congested, edema, adhesion, etc. due to the compression of the intervertebral disc tissue and the chemical stimulation of the nucleus pulposus material.  3. Organ damage: When the lumbar intervertebral disc is removed, simple organ damage is rare. Almost all vascular damage is accompanied by other organ damage, such as ureter, bladder, ileum, appendix, etc.  4. Lumbar spine instability: It is mainly manifested in abnormal activities when the lumbar spine flexes forward.

Emergency treatment of drug-induced ocular trauma

&nbsp.&nbsp. Most eye injuries caused by drugs are chemical damages from acids, alkalis and toxic gases. Such damages mostly occur in factories or laboratories where chemicals are produced and used. &nbsp.&nbsp.But at present, some chemical agents are often stored or used in general households. These chemical agents accidentally splash into the eyes, and they can also cause different degrees of eye trauma. You must pay attention and understand the emergency treatment methods. &nbsp.&nbsp. The more common chemicals in the family mainly include various descaling agents, dishwashing detergents, toilet cleaners, disinfectants, hair dyes, pesticides, universal glues and so on. The degree of damage to the eye varies according to the type of medicine. It can cause reversible surface damage to the eyelid skin, cornea, conjunctiva, etc., and can involve the inside of the eye, and even cause blindness. &nbsp.&nbsp. Once the chemicals splash into the eyes, wash them immediately with continuous flushing to fully dilute and remove the drugs, flush the eyes as much as possible, and call 120 for help or the nearest eye hospital while flushing. &nbsp.&nbsp. The chemical preparations used in households, except for a few (such as toilet cleaners, certain detergents, universal glue), generally recover well as long as they are fully washed at that time. However, it should be closely observed. In some cases, it is not serious at the time, but the damage may spread to the inside of the eye, so you must go to the hospital for examination and treatment by an ophthalmologist.

Will cosmetics hurt our skin?

Will cosmetics hurt our skin? The definition of cosmetics is “daily use of scrubbing, spraying or other similar methods, spreading on any part of the human body surface (skin, hair, nails, lips, etc.) in order to achieve the purpose of cleaning, eliminating bad odors, skin care, beauty and modification Chemical Industry Products”. The use of cosmetics is very common worldwide, but why do people always say, do not use cosmetics, it will hurt your skin if used for a long time? Because many people think that cosmetics are chemical products, not pure natural, which is bad for the skin. And now there are a lot of negative news about cosmetics on the Internet, which makes some people dare not use it again. In fact, most media reports of the vast majority of cosmetic adverse events are caused by the quality of this part of the cosmetics, such as illegally added substances prohibited by the national cosmetics regulations, such as glucocorticoids, antibiotics, mercury, fluorescent agents, etc. , Consumers have long-term use without knowing it, which has caused adverse reactions: some of them are caused by the parties using “three noes” cosmetics or fake and shoddy products. Formal cosmetic ingredients are compliant and safe. As long as they are used reasonably, serious adverse reactions will not occur. Some people will have cosmetic allergies, which has a great relationship with their personal skin quality. After contacting some cosmetics, local reactions such as redness, itching, etc. In order to avoid this situation, people with sensitive skin are best at Test before using the new product, try it in a small area behind the ear, observe for 1-2 days, and use it if there are no adverse reactions. As long as the products meet the national quality inspection requirements, they can be used with confidence. Moreover, before the cosmetics go on the market, they also have to pass the safety test prescribed by the state, so there is no need to worry that cosmetics will cause general damage to the skin.

Deep vein thrombosis is related to three major factors

Deep vein thrombosis is the most common clinical peripheral vascular disease, often occurring after surgery for other diseases. Its formation is related to three major factors: stagnation of venous blood flow, blood hypercoagulability and damage to the vein wall. Venous blood flow is slow&nbsp. In various operations, due to spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, it is easy to cause peripheral vein expansion and venous flow rate slow; or due to anesthesia, the muscles of the lower limbs are completely paralyzed, losing contractility, postoperative Because of incision pain and other reasons for bed rest, the muscles of the lower extremities are in a relaxed state for a long time, causing blood flow to stagnate, thereby inducing deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. Hypercoagulable state of blood is the main cause of venous thrombosis. Various large-scale operations have caused the enhancement of the aggregation ability of platelets with high coagulation; postoperative serum profibrinogen activator and plasmin inhibitors both have increased levels, thereby reducing fibrinolysis. After splenectomy, due to the sudden increase of platelets, blood coagulability can be increased, and blood concentration can be increased by burns or severe dehydration. It can also increase blood coagulability. Injury of the venous wall can easily cause venous thrombosis due to the following three conditions: (1) Mechanical injury: local venous contusion, laceration or fracture fragment fracture. Femoral neck fractures damage the common femoral vein, and pelvic fractures can often damage the common iliac vein or its branches, which can be complicated by iliac femoral vein thrombosis. (2) Chemical injury: intravenous injection of various irritant solutions and hypertonic solutions, such as various antibiotics, organic iodine solutions, hypertonic glucose solutions, etc., can stimulate the lining of the vein to varying degrees, resulting in phlebitis and veins Thrombosis. (3) Infectious injury: suppurative thrombophlebitis is caused by the infection focus around the vein, which is relatively rare, such as infective endometritis, which can cause septic thrombophlebitis of the uterine vein. &nbsp.&nbsp.

Vitiligo is not painful and itchy, can it be treated without treatment?

As we all know, vitiligo is a common skin disease. Although vitiligo does not cause some obvious discomfort to the body when it occurs, it still causes a lot of trouble for people. Therefore, it must not be left unchecked. It must be discovered and treated early to kill the vitiligo at the budding stage. What harm can vitiligo cause to human body? Vitiligo patients are weak against ultraviolet rays, and the incidence of skin cancer is higher than that of ordinary people. This is because the melanin in the skin epidermis of the vitiligo is missing, and the melanin is an important barrier to prevent ultraviolet rays from damaging the skin, which makes the vitiligo patients vulnerable to ultraviolet rays. Vitiligo is often accompanied by other autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes, thyroid disease, adrenal insufficiency, and scleroderma. In addition to the above adverse effects on the body, vitiligo can also cause harm to the mental health of patients. Removing some hidden dangers to physical health, vitiligo also plays a negative role in mental health. We all say that this is an era of looking at the face. Vitiligo patients are more or less affected by it, which has a serious impact on learning, employment, marriage, family, socializing and so on. There are still many people in today’s society who have misunderstandings and discrimination against patients with vitiligo, and these self-esteems are a devastating blow to patients. This will cause some people to suffer from a series of mental illnesses and may suffer from depression. In summary, the Tianjin Vitiligo doctor reminds you to detect and treat vitiligo as soon as possible. During this period, the cooperation of the patient and the support of his family are also very important.

What are the causes of azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a relatively common male disease. The harm caused by azoospermia to male friends is also more serious, and it will also affect the normal fertility of men. Therefore, we must understand the causes of the disease and do the right treatment Then, what are the causes of azoospermia? Let me know about it with me. What are the causes of azoospermia? 1, genital injury: external injury leads to testicular injury or torsion, spermatic cord torsion, etc., or trauma due to hernia repair surgery, prostate surgery, etc., can also affect testicular function, resulting in sperm production disorders. 2. Bilateral cryptorchidism: In this case, the testis does not reach the scrotum, and stays in the abdominal cavity. Because the temperature is much higher than the scrotum, there is no way to produce sperm, and azoospermia can also occur. 3. No testis: Testis is the only place to produce sperm. Without testes, there is no way to talk about sperm. 4. Obstruction of the vas deferens: mainly refers to obstruction of the sperm duct and clogging of the vas deferens. The reasons are also complicated. Some are due to congenital defects, some are due to surgical injuries, and some are due to secretions caused by inflammation that block the vas deferens . Through the introduction of the above articles, I believe that everyone should have a better understanding of the causes of azoospermia. There are still many reasons for azoospermia. Everyone must pay attention to the common sense of azoospermia in daily life. Do a good job of prevention.

Are you a hyperplastic scar?

Hypertrophic scars are more common in trauma that is only deeper than the dermis. The difference between the pathological tissue of hypertrophic scars and normal scars is only the thickening of collagen fibers in the deep part of the scars, which is irregularly arranged, or in a wave shape, or entangled into a rope. Hypertrophic scars mostly occur after deep burn wounds heal. Reticulated proliferative scars are also common at the sutures around the skin graft after skin grafting in third-degree burn wounds. In addition, the most common is that any incision scar after suture also belongs to this type. Hypertrophic scars are characterized by protruding surface, irregular shape, unevenness, flushing and hyperemia, solid and tough. Feeling of burning and itching. The characteristics of hypertrophic scars are: early local swelling, hardening and congestion, its tissue structure is covered by a layer of atrophic epithelial cells on the surface, the middle layer is dilated by blood vessels, and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells, the bottom layer is less collagen fibers and a lot Of connective tissue hyperplasia. This kind of scar is higher than the surface of the skin, thickened and hardened in the early stage, and the capillaries are red or dark red. The base of the scar is generally not adhered to deep tissue, can be pushed, and has less contractility. Most of them will not cause serious dysfunction, but it often affects beauty on the face and exposed parts, so it is often necessary for treatment. The shape and size of hypertrophic keloids vary according to the condition of the injury: the surgical incision is often strip-shaped. Scratching, which can be caused by injection, can be cord-shaped or small. The hypertrophic keloids are mostly horizontal strips on the front chest , There are often typical crab-footed branches, which are called butterfly spots. Those who occur after scald or burn, their size and thickness are closely related to the area and depth of the injury. The deeper the injury, the thicker the hypertrophic keloid. Large area damage It can cause motor dysfunction due to scar contracture. Occurrence at the joint site can cause limb contracture, limited movement, and even affect normal work and life. Hyperplastic keloids occur on the face and can be disfigured. Patients with hypertrophic keloids manifest as an obvious family Hereditary. Hyperplastic keloids have significant body parts, strong sternum, shoulder deltoid, mandible, auricle, etc. As the disease progresses, hypertrophic keloids go beyond the original damage range and gradually infiltrate the surrounding normal skin . Therefore, the scar is always an imperfect replacement for the damaged tissue. From a mechanical point of view, its resistance is weakened. From a nutritional point of view, it causes obstacles to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients. From a functional point of view, it causes deformities and dysfunction of damaged tissues. From an aesthetic point of view, it creates a shape Of destruction.

Kidney “4 fears”, advise you to know early

1. Fear of not drinking water. Water is an important participant in the metabolism of the human body. Sufficient water supplementation can help the normal metabolism and physiological activities of the human body. At the same time, the kidney can also generate urine in time to take away metabolic wastes and toxins. If there is insufficient drinking water, the kidney’s metabolic capacity will weaken, the body’s toxins will accumulate, and the damage to the kidneys will increase, which will eventually cause kidney disease. 2. Fear of staying up all night Chinese medicine believes that the kidney is water in the five elements, and staying up all night to injure the body will eventually damage the kidney health. In addition, staying up late every day for a long time, the body can not get effective rest, all organs and tissues are in a state of fatigue, metabolic waste and toxins will increase, increasing the burden on the kidneys. And staying up for a long time will reduce the endocrine system and immunity, and external pathogens are easy to invade, which will damage the kidneys. 3. Fear of holding back urine Many people will hold back urine habits due to work and study. But holding urine for a long time is extremely bad for the kidneys. Urine is prone to breed various bacteria and cause inflammation of the urinary system. Once the urine flows back to the ureter and kidney, it will cause kidney inflammation and even uremia. 4. Fear of drug abuse is one of the important means of treating physical diseases. There are a variety of drugs on the market today. If you do not blindly abuse drugs under the guidance of a doctor, it is easy to cause kidney damage. As the saying goes, “it is a drug that divides into three,” especially drugs with nephrotoxicity, such as antibacterial drugs, anesthetic drugs, antitumor drugs, antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, iodide contrast agents, etc.

Will laser treatment of genital warts leave scars? How to treat without scars

Generally, in the work, physical methods are used for treatment, such as laser, freezing, electrocautery, etc. And this type of treatment generally expands, that is, to expand its area for treatment. When we were removing the warts, we damaged the underlying dermis. Then, once the dermis is damaged, during the recovery process, there will be accumulation of fibroblasts, which will form a scar. In the course of our work, the treatment of patients is targeted, and a local medication treatment for HPV virus, including bubble washing of these drugs. Let the drug penetrate into our spine layer and basal layer, kill the HPV virus and the squamous cells invaded, so that the wart body is withered and shed. In this process of damage, it is the entire epidermal structure of the injury. So, after the treatment, there will be no scars. The National Pure Chinese Medicine patent formula adopted by Nanjing Youjia Viral Wart Medical Research Institute definitely belongs to the “nemesis” of condyloma acuminatum. ① Principle: Chinese medicine is taken orally and externally at the same time. It is used against the latent habit of HPV virus. . ②Advantages: Less pain, the warts dry out and fall off on their own in 3-5 days. No scars are left after recovery, and they can be restored to the skin tissue structure before the disease. It can also completely remove the HPV virus, so that patients can really recover. The most important point is that we protect the interests of patients, sign treatment, relapse after treatment, and give a full refund. ※ Health column: My country ’s national academic journal “Chinese Sex Science” published a research paper: exploring a new method of patented Chinese medicine prescription for treatment of huge perianal condyloma acuminatum

Common problems of patients after varicose veins of lower extremities

1. How long can I eat after the operation? Our department uses a unique laryngeal mask anesthesia, which is not only convenient and safe, but also greatly reduces the patient’s pain; so it is generally possible to eat for 2 hours after surgery; the diet is easy to choose light and digestible food 2 2. How long can I get out of bed after the operation? Our department uses minimally invasive surgical therapy; its operation time is short, the trauma is small, the side effects are small, and the recovery time is fast; therefore, it can get out of bed 6 hours after surgery. 3. Why does the ankle feel numb after the operation? This is because the operation has damaged a saphenous nerve in the lower leg. It mainly controls the skin sensation on the inner side of the lower leg. It accompanies the great saphenous vein in the part of the lower leg. When the great saphenous vein is removed by surgery, it is easy to damage the nerve. There will be numbness on the inner side of the lower leg, which is generally not harmful. Depending on the degree of injury, it takes about six months to recover. Now the laser minimally invasive surgery carried out by our department has greatly reduced the chance of saphenous nerve injury. 4. Why do you insist on wearing elastic stockings after surgery, how long is it appropriate to wear? Insist on wearing elastic stockings not only can reduce the swelling of the lower extremities, but also prevent the recurrence of varicose veins; elastic stockings can generally be worn for 1 to 3 months. 5. When will the stitches be removed after the operation? You can remove the thread about 10 days after the operation. You can take a bath on the second day after the thread is removed. 6. Will varicose veins relapse after surgery? There is a certain recurrence rate for any treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities, but this often occurs in patients with more serious disease. As long as early treatment is performed and maintenance is maintained after surgery, the recurrence rate is very low. 7. What is the cost of varicose vein surgery? The total cost of the lower limbs of simple varicose veins is about 13 to 14 thousand, and the total cost of a single lower limb is about 12 thousand (after the urban social security checkout, the out-of-pocket cost is about 35 thousand). If accompanied by venous ulcers, eczema, superficial vein thrombosis, etc., the cost will increase accordingly.