What are the western medical methods for AIDS

Western medicine    antiviral therapy is a commonly used method for the treatment of AIDS, HIV protease inhibitors have been developed, so antiviral therapy can play a relatively obvious effect. At present, the main antiviral drugs are divided into three categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Among them, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors can be combined with HIV reverse transcriptase to control the replication and transcription of the HIV virus. Common drugs include zidovudine, stanvudine, and lamivudine. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors can reduce the activity of HIV virus, thereby slowing down its replication. Common drugs are Delavirdine and Nevira. Protease inhibitors can prevent the replication of HIV virus. The main drugs are saquinavir and indinavir.  In Western medicine, immunomodulatory therapy is often used to treat AIDS. Through this method, the patient’s immune function is restored. Several commonly used drugs are thymosin, lentinan, aldesleukin, etc.  While treating AIDS, Western medicine also advocates early detection of infections and tumors, and treatment as soon as possible, so as to extend the life of patients. When a patient develops Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pentamidine can be used. This drug can not only inhibit DNA synthesis, but also control the oxidative phosphorylation process and kill Pneumocystis carinii. If a patient develops cytomegalovirus infection, they are usually treated with drugs such as ganciclovir and vidarabine, and pay attention to preventing disease recurrence. When patients have cryptococcal or dermatophyte infections, ketoconazole can be used for treatment, which can effectively inhibit bacterial activity and treat infections caused by fungi.

Consultation appointment Shi Shurong: Why did the doctor prescribe targeted drugs as soon as the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia was confirmed?

The current treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia is mainly based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (targeted drugs). The first-generation drugs commonly used in clinical medicine are imatinib, the second-generation drugs nilotinib and dasatinib, and the third-generation drugs are also available. Listed abroad. Different development periods require different medications and dosages. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat consultation platform: zkxk9999 why tyrosine kinase inhibitors can effectively treat chronic myeloid leukemia? The formation of Ph chromosome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia produces the BCR-ABL fusion gene, whose encoded product has sustained tyrosine kinase activity and activates downstream signaling pathways leading to the occurrence of CML. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI can be used as a competitive inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding to tyrosine kinase, or as a tyrosine analog, blocking the activity of tyrosine kinase, inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells and inducing tumors Cell apoptosis plays an anti-tumor effect. In the process of medication, the above drugs can competitively bind to ATP with BCR-ABL fusion protein, inhibit its tyrosine kinase activity and its downstream signaling to play an anti-leukemia effect. The treatment goal of chronic myeloid leukemia: first of all, the disease should be controlled in the chronic stage as much as possible to prolong the life of the patient. On the basis of prolonging survival, improving the quality of life and living like a normal person has become the demand of CML patients. It is our ultimate goal to “cure” CML without continuous remission without treatment. Slow-grain patients can self-examine and evaluate the treatment goals: first, complete hematological remission, that is, normal blood routine, symptoms and splenomegaly disappear; second, complete cytogenetic response within 12 months, that is, the Ph chromosome cannot be detected ; Get the main molecular response again within 18 months, namely BCR-ABL quantitative (IS, international standardization) &lt.0.1%, get the deepest molecular response as much as possible. It should be noted that slow-grain patients are not allowed to stop taking drugs when taking targeted drugs. Even if the evaluation of the therapeutic effect is the best response, they need to be gradually reduced according to the doctor’s instructions until the drug is stopped, so as to avoid sudden rebound and even worsen the condition. More patient communication assistance can follow the WeChat public account [Slow Grain Patient Association] mbxb120

MDS patients, don’t let immunosuppressants kill you

Shi Shurong’s studio WeChat xyk261 immunosuppressant has a wide range of types, each of which has a different mechanism of action, but their common characteristics are able to suppress immune cells and reduce inflammatory factors. There are several types of immunosuppressants commonly used in clinical practice. Specialists will select the appropriate immunosuppressant according to the characteristics of each drug and the actual situation of the patient.   Glucocorticoids are also called steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, that is, people often say “hormones”. The names of such drugs often carry a word “pine” or “dragon” at the end, such as prednisone, dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, etc. Hormones have a wide range of functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, anti-allergic, and immune system. It can effectively reduce inflammatory factors and suppress various immune cells.   Clinically, for those patients with strong immune response and severe inflammation, the use of hormones will have an immediate effect. However, it is precisely because the hormone has too much effect, so it is a “double-edged sword.”  Osteoporosis, necrosis of the femoral head, increased blood sugar, increased blood pressure, body fat, peptic ulcer, etc., are common adverse reactions of hormones. These adverse reactions often occur in patients who use hormones for a long time. Therefore, when the specialists use hormones, they will closely observe the condition, and once the condition is controlled, they will begin to reduce or stop the hormones in time. It is often accompanied by calcium supplementation and stomach protection during treatment to reduce side effects.  Recommend everyone to be very careful when using hormones. I once met an old woman who bought prednisone for a long time in a pharmacy. When the joint hurts, I took a few capsules, just like we usually eat sugar pills. After several years, not only the disease has not been cured, but bone Loose, severely deformed joints. There is also a patient with lupus erythematosus. After treatment in many hospitals and long-term use of large doses of hormones, the femoral heads were necrotic on both sides, and the femoral heads were changed at a young age. Many people have infections due to the use of hormones, and they may even be in danger of life.   Therefore, as a patient with MDS, in the treatment, do not blindly increase the amount due to the use of medicine, and you must consult a professional doctor to take medicine according to different personal conditions to avoid harm to your health.

Shi Shurong: This disease will recur repeatedly, damaging multiple organs throughout the body! Children should pay special attention!

Shi Shurong’s studio WeChat xyk261 clinically, allergic purpura is prone to repeated attacks. In severe cases, it is necessary to rest in bed and damage many organs! If not treated in time, it will seriously damage children’s health. So, how to prevent it? 1. Always be prepared for the onset of allergic purpura due to allergic drugs, such as prednisone, and people with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, you should go to the hospital for intravenous glucocorticoids. 2. Analgesics for gastrointestinal bleeding, people with stomach pain, can take ranunculus base, atropine, etc. 3. Drugs that reduce vascular permeability are generally adrenal hormones, vitamin C, rutin tablets, etc. Can effectively reduce bleeding, abdominal pain, joint pain and so on. 4. The use of immunosuppressive agents for allergic purpura patients with kidney damage can be rationally treated with immunosuppressive agents when the above treatment options are ineffective. Purpuric nephritis is a multiple chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents. It is caused by the accumulation of antigen-antibody complexes caused by allergens in the glomeruli. It is recommended to identify the allergens and avoid contact with allergens. Disease patients need to have their own dietary conditioning methods. Only with a reasonable and scientific dietary rehabilitation method can they better treat their own diseases.

Shi Shurong: Proper use of immunosuppressive agents for overdose and prone to infection, adjustments need to follow the doctor

Shi Shurong’s studio WeChat xyk261 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of malignant clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells, mainly manifested as abnormal hematopoietic function accompanied by a decrease in the number of peripheral blood cells. And it has a high risk of becoming acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. The exact pathogenesis of MDS is unclear, and abnormal immune regulation may be one of the important reasons. Immunosuppressants are a kind of drugs. Immunosuppressive drugs can inhibit the proliferation of cells related to the immune response in people’s bodies, and after eating immunosuppressants, antibodies in people’s bodies can reduce the immune response. This drug also has an inhibitory effect on the function of T cells. So what kind of infections will the excessive use of immunosuppressants cause?   1. This is the biggest killer after transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy will reduce the immune resistance, prone to and increase infection.   2. Surgical incision infection manifests as incision pain, redness and exudation.   3. Upper respiratory tract and lung infections manifested as cough, sputum, chest tightness and wheezing.   4. Urinary tract infections can manifest as frequent urination, urgency and urethral burning.   5. Various infections are generally accompanied by fever, with or without chills.   There are many kinds of free inhibitors, and cyclophosphamide is more commonly used in clinic. If cyclophosphamide is used in large doses, it can lead to amenorrhea, reduction of granulocytes, damage to liver function, and it is easy to merge with hemorrhagic cystitis. Cyclosporine A is also an immune system, which can cause hyperuricemia, and some patients will cause chronic kidney damage if taken for a long time. Therefore, in the adjustment, you need to follow the doctor’s advice. The diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes on adapting to people, time, and local conditions, and is reflected in “differentiation and treatment”. While taking traditional Chinese medicine, it can alleviate the side effects of Western medicine on the human body, regulate from the inside, and achieve the effect of reducing toxicity and increasing efficiency.

When taking statins for a long time, what drugs should be avoided? This article makes it clear for you

For friends who have high blood lipid problems or cardiovascular disease problems, statins are still one of the basic drugs and preferred drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Because it has a clear effect of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, it can also reduce the inflammatory response of the blood vessel wall and slow down atherosclerosis. Therefore, statins are very important for controlling blood lipids and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. An important class of drugs. Cardiovascular disease is a chronic disease. Therefore, when taking statins, if you do not use drugs and you cannot control blood lipids by living conditioning alone, you often need to take statins for a long time to strengthen the control of blood lipids. For long-term medication of chronic diseases, the safety of medication should be paid more attention than that of short-term medication. Many friends know that taking statins for a long time should pay attention to monitoring indicators such as liver function and blood sugar levels to control the adverse reactions. The incidence rate, but in addition to paying attention to the control of adverse drug reactions, it is also necessary to pay attention to the effects of drug interactions. During long-term use of statins, it is inevitable that due to other disease problems, there will be a need to take the same service The situation of drugs, and taking different types of drugs at the same time, we must pay attention to the possible effects of drug interactions and the incidence of adverse reactions. For statins, the main consideration is the effect of drug interactions, mainly considering the above two aspects. First, if the same-dose drugs affect the metabolic rate of statins, making the drug slower in the body, it will make the drug When the blood drug concentration in the body is further increased, and the blood drug concentration is increased, we should take into account the risk of overdose. Overdose will lead to an increase in the incidence of adverse drug reactions; another effect is the same drug It will accelerate the metabolic rate of the drug, so that the concentration of the drug in the body is reduced, thereby reducing the efficacy of the drug. For these two effects, for statins, the second situation usually does not cause a large risk of medication, and it can often be improved and avoided by adjusting the time of taking medication. Therefore, the first case should be considered. Taking the same medicine causes the blood concentration to rise, which leads to the risk of overdose. Statin drugs, especially atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin and other drugs are metabolized by liver drug enzyme CPY3A4, and some drugs, such as some of our commonly used anti-infective antibiotic drugs, such as erythromycin , Ketoconazole, itraconazole, etc., have a certain inhibitory effect on this liver drug enzyme. Therefore, if these drugs are taken with statins, the metabolism of statins will be affected and will increase. High blood drug concentration increases the risk of adverse reactions such as increased transaminase and muscle pain during medication. There are many such liver drug enzyme inhibitors, we focus on a few potent liver drug enzyme inhibitors: protease inhibitors: ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir macrolide antibiotics: carat Antimycotics of tyrosin, telithromycin, chloramphenicol (antibiotic): ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, nefazodone (antidepressant) The above drugs are just examples, everyone In terms of medication, to avoid drug interactions, be sure to read the instructions and consult your doctor carefully when taking the drug. At the same time, when taking atorvastatin, simvastatin and other drugs, if you want to take these liver drug enzyme inhibitors at the same time At the same time, you must pay special attention to the risk of taking medication at the same time. Generally, if there are alternative drugs for non-hepatic enzyme inhibitors, you can choose alternative drugs, and if there are no alternative drugs, if you are short-term medication, you may wish Stop taking statins first, and after taking these drugs, it is not too late to take statins. In addition to the above-mentioned related drugs, there is also a food that should be noted, that is, we often say grapefruit, furan coumarin contained in grapefruit is a medium-acting liver drug enzyme inhibitor, generally taking the above statins for a long time During the medication, also pay attention not to drink grapefruit juice or a large amount of grapefruit. It should be pointed out that not all statins will be metabolized by liver enzyme CYP3A4, such as pravastatin in statins, it is a statin that is not metabolized by liver enzymes. If it is necessary to take liver Drug Enzyme Inhibitor drugs, in the case of long-term use, statins