What occupations are prone to pneumoconiosis

Many people know that pneumoconiosis is an occupational disease with very serious hazards, but most of them don’t know what occupation is related to pneumoconiosis. For example, the occupation of pneumoconiosis is related to inhalation of large amounts of silica and dust. , The following is mainly to introduce to you what are the occupations that are prone to pneumoconiosis? 1. Mining workers: coal mining work, and coal miners and metal mine miners are prone to pneumoconiosis, such as rock drilling, blasting, pillars, During transportation, there will be a lot of silica dust and dust. The consequences of long-term inhalation will produce pneumoconiosis. The main operating environment of mining is the environment that produces mining. 2. Metal smelters: Metal smelters need to perform smashing, sintering, etc. during the work process. These types of work will inhale some free dust during the work process, and they are engaged in the occupation of ore crushing, screening and transportation. Both can cause pneumoconiosis. 3. Institutional manufacturing workers: The institutional manufacturing industry is engaged in sand casting, modeling, sand cleaning and sand blasting of castings, and some electric welding workers, who are always in contact with dust and dust, and contact with these will inevitably lead to suffering For pneumoconiosis, it is recommended that people engaged in these occupations take a good job in the prevention of pneumoconiosis, pay attention to protection during the work process, and avoid inhaling too much dust. 4. Workers in the building materials industry, and refractory materials, glass, cement, and those engaged in mining, crushing, grinding, screening, mixing and other related occupations in the production of stone will inhale a large amount of dust and dust during the work process. Engaging in asbestos mining, transportation and textile work will also increase the probability of pneumoconiosis. If your occupation is prone to pneumoconiosis, you must be careful in the process of work, try to protect yourself, and inhale this dust and dust as little as possible. After all, pneumoconiosis is not a disease that can be completely cured. There is no cure, but severe pneumoconiosis can be life-threatening.

Strange disease in the United States-valley fever, travel in deep mountains is easy to get sick, and the death rate is high and difficult to rescue

I saw a piece of news in the past two days: The Chinese Consulate General in Los Angeles has received three consecutive reports of Chinese citizens suffering from Valley Fever. Three of them were young people in the Phoenix area. Two of them died and one was receiving treatment. . The name “valley fever” is extremely strange to most people. It is an extremely rare respiratory disease in my country. It is almost difficult to see in clinical practice. It is caused by the inhalation of Coccidioidomyces gracilis in the air. Coccidioides gracilis belongs to a kind of soil fungus, which survives in the soil of the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Coccidioides crassipes most easily reproduce in the soil after rain, and spread into the air in hot, dry climates. Animals and humans can be infected by inhaling dust that contains tiny fungal spores. In 2017, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported more than 14,000 confirmed cases of valley fever, more than six times the number reported in 1998. Most people who have been exposed to coccidioidomycetes will not have any symptoms. Some people will experience symptoms similar to a cold within 1-3 weeks after inhaling coccidioidomycetes, including fatigue, cough, fever, shortness of breath, headache, night sweats, and muscles. Or joint soreness, upper body or leg rash, etc., usually recover within a few weeks or months. In all people infected with coccidioidomycetes, 5-10% of patients may develop severe infection or chronic changes in the lungs, and about 1% of patients may develop from the lungs to other organs or the central nervous system, resulting in infections Sexual shock, multiple organ failure or central nervous system symptoms. The good news is that, unlike the new coronavirus, which is not as contagious, valley fever does not spread from person to person, but anyone, regardless of age, may suffer from valley fever. As the symptoms of valley fever are not obvious in the early stage, the chances of being misjudged and misdiagnosed are high. If the diagnosis, treatment and control of the condition are not made in time, the condition may deteriorate sharply and even endanger life. For patients with unknown diagnosis, when the application of antibiotics and antiviral therapy is ineffective, the complement fixation test to detect anti-coccidial IgG antibodies is the most useful test. In October 2018, in the Affiliated Hospital of Ningbo University School of Medicine, a fungus was isolated from the bronchoscope alveolar lavage fluid of a patient with persistent high fever who had not been treated with antibiotics. The fungus was identified as crude/Posadas coccidioides by a mass spectrometer. bacteria. Why is the disease caused by Pulmonary Coccidia infection called valley fever? There is an ancient legend. In the Grand Canyon of Arizona in the southwestern United States, different ethnic Indians once lived. They lived in peace with nature and thrived. Until 1540, this tranquility was broken, and Spanish expeditions arrived here in search of the legendary 7 golden cities. They used heavy machines to dig deep underground. After some time, some of the gold diggers began to experience unexplained fever, body aches, rashes, and joint swelling. Many people showed hideous and desperate expressions before they died. The gold prospectors were convinced that they had alarmed the gods who had lived in the deep underground. Does “God” really exist? Many years later, researchers at the University of Arizona School of Medicine found the answer. Due to constant digging, the spore bacteria that were originally buried in the ground were exposed and floated in the valley air, and those who became ill just inhaled the coccidioides And got this kind of “valley fever” disease. Hugo said: Nature is a kind mother and a cold butcher. A lot of facts tell us that if we do not have awe of nature, destroying the environment will inevitably be punished by nature.

Discussion on breathing problems (1)

Zha, female, 44 years old, has bronchial asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and has lived in high altitude areas for a long time. The patient had no history of allergies and repeatedly asked why he had asthma and whether it was related to the long-term life in the plateau area. In addition to regular use of inhalation preparations, what should be paid attention to. How long does the inhaled medicine need to be used and how to follow up? I feel that local medical resources are limited and it is not easy to go out for medical treatment. The main cause of your asthma is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has nothing to do with life at high altitude. Only by controlling GERD can asthma be controlled. The main treatment is not to use inhaled preparations, but to treat the primary GERD. It is important to reduce the level of gastroesophageal reflux. Try not to sleep in the supine position, sleep at 20-30°, eat small and frequent meals, enhance gastric motility and promote gastric emptying. General treatment cannot solve gastroesophageal reflux, and endoscopic sphincter spray pressure therapy is required, but the current effect is uncertain. Although inhaled preparations have a certain effect on alleviating asthma, for your asthma, unless you have an acute attack of wheezing, inhaled preparations are not the main thing. It is recommended to consult a specialist in gastroenterology.

Titanium dioxide-used in sunscreen products, daily necessities, medicines, food are safe

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Langzhongtianxia&nbsp.Imei Taohuayuan Academy Part 1: Titanium dioxide is listed as a second-class suspicious carcinogen in the EU! So, can titanium dioxide cause cancer? After understanding the previous article, now, we have another article, I hope it can be explained more clearly. &nbsp. Science is constantly updated, sometimes faster than political figures turning their faces. According to reliable scientific evidence, titanium dioxide is safe and does not cause cancer. Titanium dioxide, widely used in many different industries because of its unique and useful quality, is a bright white pigment. &nbsp. It is mainly used in everyday products such as paint, plastic, paper and ink. &nbsp. In some cases, nano-sized titanium dioxide is used as an ingredient in products such as cosmetics and sunscreens. As with all nanoparticles, the use of nanoscale titanium dioxide has caused some authoritative research institutions to worry about whether titanium dioxide may be a carcinogen. Current scientific evidence indicates that it is safe to use products containing titanium dioxide: decades of industry research, as well as independent research by various parties, have found no evidence of the potential cancer risk of titanium dioxide for humans. Studies have shown that exposure to titanium dioxide has little or no impact, and European regulatory agencies and countries around the world have also approved the safe use of titanium dioxide in food and sunscreen. &nbsp. Titanium dioxide is a ubiquitous natural substance on the ground. &nbsp. It has a wide range of functions and is produced around the world. It is also used in all aspects of human life, such as paint, plastic, food, cosmetics and even medicine. &nbsp. Titanium dioxide (also known by its chemical name TiO2 or food colorant E171). IARC’s view on TiO2 and cancer: In 2006, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is insufficient evidence to suggest that titanium dioxide can cause cancer in humans. &nbsp. also published a special book detailing the survey results, published in 2010. However, IARC did conclude that titanium dioxide “may cause cancer in humans by inhalation” (category 2b). The European Union has also issued an official authorization regulation that classifies titanium dioxide as a potential category 2 carcinogen that may cause cancer by inhalation according to EU Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 on the classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) of substances and mixtures Thing. What does this stand for? Representing titanium dioxide, it has found insufficient evidence to cause cancer in humans, but there is sufficient evidence of cancer risk in animals. This conclusion is mainly based on the evidence that it caused precancerous respiratory cysts in two chronic inhalation studies in rats conducted in 1985 and 1995. Here, by the way, let everyone know what else is under the “carcinogen 2b” list? Including coffee, kimchi, bacon, aloe are on the list. In addition, the evidence that titanium dioxide causes cancer is also a little weak, because the rat lungs have a unique high sensitivity after inhalation, but this phenomenon has not been found in humans. &nbsp. In May 2016, the French National Agency for Food, Environment and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) proposed that if titanium dioxide is considered to be inhaled into the lungs alone, titanium dioxide should be classified as a class 1 carcinogen. &nbsp. The meaning of this classification is really more serious, indicating that the substance may actually have carcinogenic effects on humans. However, regarding the matter of titanium dioxide, we don’t need to worry too much. For the study of toxicology, the dose will be considered originally, the drug is poison, the dose is only. If you ingest a large amount or high level of a chemical substance, even oxygen, it is actually toxic to humans. High levels of oxygen (greater than 75%) can cause symptoms of hyperoxia. Symptoms include cramps, nausea, dizziness, hypothermia, amblyopia, difficulty breathing, bradycardia, fainting and convulsions, which can lead to death. &nbsp. This characteristic is hyperoxia, which causes pneumonia. &nbsp. In addition, it is possible that the nanoparticles of titanium dioxide can be eaten and then absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Is this part safe? It seems safe now. The European Food Standards Agency (EFSA) reassessed the use of titanium dioxide in food in 2016 and found it to be safe. The report pointed out that oral absorption of titanium dioxide

Should children with allergic rhinitis detect allergies to some foods, should they be strictly avoided?

Patients with allergic rhinitis test allergens and sometimes detect allergies to some foods. The most common food allergies are peanuts, nuts, fish, shrimps and crabs, eggs, milk and plant seeds. Allergic reactions caused by food are usually systemic, such as urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Only a few people with food allergies only show allergic rhinitis and asthma. The main cause of allergic rhinitis is inhalation of the nose, and there are very few allergic rhinitis caused by ingestion. After all kinds of food debris or particles that can cause allergic rhinitis are spread into the air, they are inhaled into the nasal cavity, causing symptoms of allergic rhinitis, sneezing, stuffy nose, runny nose, and itchy nose. Inhaled food allergens are commonly wheat and soybeans. Eggs, seafood and other foods that produce aerosols during cooking can also be caused. The food allergens examined in the hospital may not be accurate. Patients with allergic rhinitis should pay more attention to observation in their lives to see if they are related to contact or eating certain foods. There is no need to absolutely avoid taboos. For children, milk, eggs and other foods are the main source of high-quality protein, which is essential for their growth and development. Blindly avoiding allergic rhinitis strictly avoids the growth and development of children, which is more than gains. (The above recommendations are only for patients with simple allergic rhinitis. If they are combined with asthma, urticaria and other systemic allergic diseases, it is another matter, and the opinion of the specialist should be followed.)

Under the new crown epidemic, can atomization inhalation treatment be carried out

The purpose of nebulized inhalation therapy is to deliver therapeutic doses of drugs to the targeted site. For patients with lung disease, compared with other drug delivery methods, atomized drug delivery can achieve a higher local drug concentration and reduce systemic adverse effects. In the absence of special treatment drugs, nebulization therapy is also a viable treatment approach. 1 What are the indications of nebulization treatment? Indications for nebulized inhalation therapy include pediatric bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis, acute bronchiolitis, chronic persistent bronchitis, infant wheezing induced by viral infections, cough variant asthma, acute laryngitis or laryngotracheitis, bronchiectasis , Pneumonia, etc. can choose nebulized inhalation therapy. In the treatment of new coronavirus (2019-nCOV) infection pneumonia, the guide recommends alpha-interferon inhalation therapy. However, during atomization treatment, it must be noted that on the one hand, inhalation can help the treatment, but on the other hand, it can also cause cross-infection between doctors and patients and between patients and patients due to the aerosol pollution of indoor air. Therefore, when performing nebulized inhalation therapy on patients with new coronavirus infection pneumonia, the following principles should be followed: nebulized special dosage forms should be selected for nebulization; when selecting nebulized drugs, pay attention to the adverse reactions of various nebulized drugs; Nebulized drug storage devices, breathing tubes, nebulized masks and other equipment should be used exclusively by people and use disposable consumables; medical personnel should pay attention to strict personal protective measures when nebulizing coronavirus-infected children. Mist inhalation (MDI) device is preferred for aerosol inhalation in children with new coronavirus infection combined with mist storage tank (also can be replaced with MDI connector and extension tube). However, this model requires children to actively cooperate, so it is only suitable for older children. If you are under 5 years old, you can only choose pressure atomization. In order to avoid cross infection in the hospital, you can choose home atomization, provided that you need to buy a household atomizer. It is best to be pressure type. There is no specific medicine for pneumonia infected by new coronavirus. All treatments are symptomatic to solve the symptoms. If your child has a cold or cough, follow the doctor’s instructions to use nebulized drugs, and nebulize at home. It can also relieve symptoms quickly. The safety data is good and worth recommending! The pressure atomizer can inhale the fine particles of the medicine for inhalation to 1-5 microns in diameter. In this case, the medicine is directly to the lower airway, reaching the affected area, fully absorbed, and the effect is better. & nbsp. The types, dosages and treatment courses of the aerosol treatment drugs used for each disease are different. This requires professional guidance from a pediatrician. & nbsp. Many parents will stop using it after seeing the effect of atomization, and have not insisted on enough treatment. In fact, nebulization treatment also requires a certain course of treatment. How long it takes is better, you need to follow the doctor’s advice. When used in nebulization, the dosage of the drug is small and the safety is high. The child generally does not rely on it. There will be no serious adverse reactions for a long period of treatment.

With regard to montelukast and inhalation therapy, the latest asthma guidelines for 2020 are changed in this way

The Global Asthma Initiative (GINA) was updated online yesterday. The focus of Huang Yisen’s concern is Montelukast which was just black boxed by the FDA last month. , Can it still be used? 》 & Nbsp. How will GINA adjust and update the use of montelukast in 2020? & nbsp. In 2020, GINA added that the US FDA requires a black box to warn that the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast has psychiatric neurological side effects, and requires doctors to weigh the risks and benefits of patients before prescription. & nbsp.GINA also pointed out that the therapeutic effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) is weaker than inhaled glucocorticoids, especially for acute attacks. & nbsp. Montelukast is still suitable for asthma patients who are unwilling or unable to use inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS); for those who cannot tolerate the side effects of inhaled glucocorticoids; for those with allergic rhinitis Asthma patients. & nbsp. There is no new content about the use of Montelukast in children. In the intermittent wheezing caused by the virus in young children, some studies have found that pre-intervention treatment with montelukast can reduce symptoms and reduce medical treatment, especially for children with a positive asthma prediction index. & nbsp. But remind parents to pay attention to the sleep and behavior changes brought by Montelukast. In summary, Huang Yisen reminds asthma patients that if they meet the indications, montelukast can of course continue to be used, but it needs to pay attention to its neuropsychological side effects. However, if children are a little excited or lose their temper, they can’t rely on the side effects of medication. & nbsp.2020 GINA’s recommendations for inhalation therapy during the new crown epidemic & nbsp. The new crown epidemic now, GINA has also added medicine guidance for inhalation therapy for asthma patients during the new crown epidemic. & nbsp. During the new crown epidemic, maintenance medication for asthma patients cannot be reduced or stopped at will. Especially for inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS), random reduction or withdrawal will bring potential risks. & nbsp. Nebulized inhalation therapy, there is a potential risk of viral particles can be transmitted to other patients or medical personnel through aerosol. (Huang Yisen believes that family atomization can continue). & nbsp. You can use aerosol plus aerosol can to replace atomization. Whether in a hospital or at home, you should make sure that the mask of the canister is not shared with others. ————————————————– —————————— Huang Jianfeng, deputy chief physician of Pediatric Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University (National Children’s Medical Center) (original). Welcome to forward and help more people. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.Huang Jianfeng & nbsp. & nbsp.Deputy chief physician of the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Pediatric Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University (National Children ’s Medical Center) Diagnosis and treatment and lung function evaluation. He is a member of the Children’s Pulmonary Function Collaboration Group of the Respiratory Group of the Pediatric Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, a member of the Expert Committee of the China Children’s Asthma Action Plan of the National Telemedicine and Internet Medical Center, a member of the Allergy Doctors Branch of the Shanghai Medical Association, and a young member of the Shanghai Allergy Specialty. Published more than ten papers including SCI, etc., and participated in the compilation of “Children Asthma Clinic”, “Practical Internet of Things Medicine” and other books. & nbsp.