How to distinguish “cauliflower-like” STDs?

The previous article introduced condyloma acuminatum, which is a venereal disease “cleansing oneself”. It is also possible to stay away from it, and not only to “clean oneself”. Condyloma acuminatum is a sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). 90% are related to HPV6 and 11 infections. Condyloma acuminatum is often mixed with multiple HPV types, and the wart body is often cauliflower-like. When there is discomfort in the private parts, or although there is no conscious discomfort, but there are abnormal skin changes such as “small red rash” or “cauliflower”, is it possible to have genital warts? What aspects can help us to judge or exclude? The following is a simple idea of ​​how to judge whether you have condyloma acuminatum~ First, we can ask ourselves from the epidemiological situation or ask him: Are there many sexual partners? Is sex safe? Is the partner infected? Have you been in close contact with a person infected with genital warts? (When the newborn is an infected person, whether the mother is an HPV infected person). Secondly, the clinical manifestations of condyloma acuminatum: (1) Incubation period: Infectious diseases usually have a certain incubation period. The incubation period of condyloma acuminatum is generally 3 weeks to 8 months, with an average of about 3 months. This period usually has no obvious symptoms or signs. (2) Symptoms and signs: males are more likely to occur in the foreskin, glans, perianal and scrotum, females are more likely to occur in the labia, perineum, cervix, etc., passive anal sex can occur in the perianal, anal canal and rectum, oral sex can occur Appears in the mouth. In the early stage of the skin lesions, small papules appear locally, with needles reaching the size of mung beans. It can be single or multiple, and gradually increase, increase, spread and spread around, and develop into vegetations of different shapes. The color can range from pink to deep red, off-white, brown and black. A small number of patients develop large-volume warts due to low immune function or pregnancy, called giant condyloma acuminatum. Generally, the disease has no conscious symptoms. A small number of patients may feel itching, foreign body sensation, etc., and may also experience ulceration, bleeding or infection due to friction. The disease can cause the patient’s psychological burden, such as anxiety. The acetic acid white test has a certain role in judging the disease, but the test is not a specific test. Its sensitivity and specificity are unclear. False positives may occur when there is local inflammation, thickening of the epidermis, or trauma. Thirdly, laboratory examinations mainly include histopathological examination and nucleic acid detection: 1) Pathological examination: Take a small amount of condyloma acuminata skin for pathological examination. The characteristic pathological tissue image of condyloma acuminatum can be used as an important basis for a clear diagnosis and can be compared with other Differential diagnosis of skin diseases requires professional doctors. 2) Nucleic acid amplification test: Under the operation of professional doctors, HPV can be detected and typed by nucleic acid amplification experiment, which is a more reliable method to diagnose HPV infection. The test usually requires a comprehensive analysis of clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics to diagnose condyloma acuminatum. In short, the diagnosis of condyloma acuminata is generally based on a comprehensive analysis of medical history, clinical symptoms, physical examination and laboratory examinations. With the development of society, people’s sexual behavior and sexual concepts change, the incidence of condyloma acuminatum is gradually increasing. When encountering related problems, it is still recommended to go to a regular hospital for formal diagnosis and treatment.

How to prevent infection of genital warts

Condyloma acuminatum is a skin proliferative damage disease caused by human infection with HPV virus. For preventive measures for this disease, we need to analyze its transmission route and make daily prevention from different angles to better avoid infection. The disease. So, today we will follow Nanjing Youjia Virus and Wart Medical Research Institute to understand this problem.  1, self-cleaning and self-cleaning    The disease is a sexually transmitted disease, and most patients with condyloma acuminatum are infected because of a history of unclean sex. Therefore, the fundamental way to prevent genital warts is to cleanse yourself and avoid sexual contact with people other than your fixed partner or high-risk groups. This is the most effective key to preventing the disease.  2, personal hygiene  In addition to sexual contact, a small number of patients have also experienced indirect contact infections due to contact with bath towels, towels, toilets and other items used by other people with condyloma acuminatum infection. Because these items may be contaminated with HPV from other infected people, they are also contagious. Then, when dealing with high-risk groups or people who have been diagnosed with condyloma acuminatum, you should pay attention to the separate use of personal daily necessities to avoid indirect infection.  3, special population    women get condyloma acuminata during pregnancy. Although it does not affect the continued pregnancy, cesarean section is generally recommended. Because during the normal delivery, the baby’s respiratory tract may be infected in the birth tract, causing neonatal laryngeal papillomatosis. Therefore, this point is also a precaution to prevent neonatal disease, and it is hoped that people infected during pregnancy should pay attention to it. Warm reminder: Condyloma acuminatum is a preventable and curable sexually transmitted disease. As long as the infected person does not carry an immune system disease (such as AIDS, systemic lupus erythematosus, kidney disease) or take hormone drugs for a long time, it can generally be cured. Yes, don’t worry too much. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.

How do you get genital warts

   Although condyloma acuminata is one of the eight most important venereal diseases in our country, not everyone is aware of it. As a result, some people are still stunned when they check out genital warts, and they don’t know how they got the infection or how they got the disease. So, today I will give you a popular science on how adults usually get genital warts.  1, direct contact    condyloma acuminatum is common in young and middle-aged men and women aged 18-50, especially young people who are sexually active or have many sexual partners. They are a high-risk group. Because the HPV virus that causes genital warts is mainly transmitted through sexual contact, people who have more sexual partners or have disordered sexual life, whether the people who have sex with are healthy, whether they carry HPV or suffer from genital warts, these are still unknown . Therefore, such a person has a great risk of infection. In clinical practice, most people infected with HPV are infected with the HPV virus because of a history of unclean sex.  2, indirect contact  In addition to sexual contact, there are a small number of patients who did not have unclean sexual contact, but found that they had condyloma acuminata. In this case, most people live with an infected person. In normal life, the infected person may be infected with HPV virus on items such as bath towels, towels, and toilets. If healthy people use it again, the infection may occur. This situation belongs to indirect contact transmission.   In summary, adults suffering from condyloma acuminatum are mainly caused by these two conditions, and some people are more special, for example, neonates suffer from laryngopapillomatosis through mother-to-child transmission. Regardless of the infection, the confirmed patient should come to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible. Only by correct treatment can the disease recover faster.

What are the AIDS test papers

 Types of AIDS test: blood test strips and saliva test strips.   The types of AIDS test papers currently on the market are mainly divided into two categories, among which blood test papers mainly include Abbott HIV test papers and Akcome HIV test papers. The types of saliva AIDS test strips appear to be relatively monotonous. Among them, the most widely used is the American AIDS test strips, which are favored by many high-risk groups and AIDS patients. Experts pointed out that since the first case of HIV was diagnosed, the global research on HIV has a history of more than 30 years, and it has indeed achieved very significant breakthroughs in these years. Among them, the research and development of AIDS test papers has been promoted. The self-test of AIDS has set a new milestone for HIV prevention. According to the author of this site, the AIDS test paper is a new generation of detection reagent developed using colloidal gold immunochromatography technology, which can detect HIV-1/2 specific antibodies in serum or plasma samples, so as to accurately determine patients Whether the body contains HIV, and then know whether the patient is HIV-infected.   AIDS test strips have many advantages, and the accuracy rate of different AIDS test strips is 99.99%.    Different AIDS test strips have higher accuracy and convenience to use in different situations. However, these common HIV test strips have the following advantages when used: all operation time is 15 minutes, all testing procedures are simple, the test results are very fast and accurate, and all of them are equipped with quality control controls. , There is no need to use additional agents during the detection process. It is worth mentioning that you can complete all the testing processes independently at home, and you no longer have to go to the professional CDC for testing as in the past. This not only reduces the psychological torture of suspected infected persons, but also provides quick results. It is highly efficient, and has gained more favorable time for timely treatment of the infected.

What are the ways of transmission of AIDS

1. Touch communication: including touch between the same and different. , There is a greater risk of infection. There are a lot of viruses in the semen or vaginal secretions of HIV-infected people. During the activity (), due to the conflict of the intercourse site, it is easy to cause the slight damage of the genital mucosa. At this time, the virus will enter the uninfected It is worth mentioning that because the intestinal wall of the rectum is more easily damaged than the vaginal wall, the risk of anal sex is greater than that of vaginal sex. 2. Blood transmission: including: ① Transfusion of HIV-contaminated blood or blood products. ② Intravenous drug addicts sharing HIV-contaminated, unsterilized needles and syringes. ③ Sharing other medical equipment or daily utensils (such as sharing with an infected person) Toothbrushes, razors) can also be infected through damaged parts, but rare. ④ Syringes and needles are incompletely or unsterilized, especially if children’s immunizations fail to achieve one person, one needle and one tube, it is more dangerous. Stomatology equipment, birth delivery equipment, surgical equipment, and needles for acupuncture treatment are not sterilized or not sterilized. Knives, needles, and bathroom pedicure knives for haircuts, beauty treatments (such as eyebrow tattoos, ear piercing), tattoos, etc. are not disinfected. Share razors, razors, or toothbrushes with others. Use without HIV antibodies. Blood or blood products from blood donors, as well as bone marrow transfusion and organ transplantation under similar circumstances. When rescuing a bleeding wounded, the rescuer’s damaged skin touches the wounded’s blood.  3. Mother-to-child transmission: also known as perinatal transmission, that is, a mother who is infected with HIV infects the fetus or baby with HIV before delivery, during labor and shortly after delivery. It can pass through the placenta, or through the birth canal during labor, or through breastfeeding.

I am just an ordinary person suffering from AIDS

When I saw Wu Yue, the day had just begun. &nbsp. I came down from the dangling green leather train and was blown through by the first cold wind of the town. &nbsp. He wore a brightly colored down jacket, which was very eye-catching in the dull winter. Wu Yue naturally greeted me, reminding me to fasten my seat belt, as if to pick up an ordinary friend. &nbsp. The warm-up topic I prepared hasn’t been used up yet, Wu Yue couldn’t help asking me first, why did you find him? Is it because he disclosed the identity of his AIDS infected person on the Internet, and is it easier to contact? &nbsp. I said yes, no. &nbsp. The word “AIDS” seems to be very close to everyone from the data point of view, but even on the Internet, it is difficult to see several patients with public identity, even if there are, most of them are anonymous or trumpet. This group always seems to be secretly communicating in the corner of the Internet, and there are very few people who are active in the status of “infected”. I want to know how much courage it takes and what it means. “What about you, why would you stand up?” Wu Yue told me because everyone was hiding in the corner. He hopes to let more people understand AIDS and the group of infected people. &nbsp. “Everyone does not stand up, then I stand up.” &nbsp. Infection is an accident with a memory filter. &nbsp. “You know, first love is always very different.” &nbsp. Speaking of this love affair, Wu Yue’s face is different. &nbsp. Back then, he was still in his third year in this small city. In an age of ignorance and longing for love, I met my first boyfriend on QQ. The other party is two years older than him, looks pretty good, and is still in college at a prestigious school. The two characters were also very speculative and quickly confirmed the relationship. &nbsp. In Wu Yue’s description, the other party’s image is almost perfect, and the sentiment is also very sincere. Like other young couples, they are always sticky when they are in love. Even if they are thousands of miles away, they come back to see him with snacks in two days. &nbsp. “It’s the kind of green-skin train you took when you came, and it would take at least a dozen hours to come over.” &nbsp. It was probably the spring in life, whether it is wind or rain, it is delicate , Gentle. &nbsp. Sexual relations then seem to be a matter of course. Comrades (male gays), the degree of sexual openness is much higher than that of the general group. Out of trust in love and each other, they did not take security measures. &nbsp. Then, the situation turned sharply, and the other party suddenly cut off all contact with him. The bond between people is vulnerable when fragile. Wu Yue couldn’t figure out why the other party didn’t say goodbye. Until the summer vacation of his freshman year, because of another illness, he found out that he turned out to be an AIDS infected person. In general, taking blocking drugs within 72 hours of high-risk sexual behavior can effectively block viral replication, thereby preventing infection. But due to the late discovery, Wu Yue missed the opportunity to block. After the diagnosis, he chose to break up with his second boyfriend. At that time, they had not had sex, and everything was still too late. &nbsp. Even in public, he does not shy away from the word “sex”. Many people simply label AIDS patients with “promiscuity”, but the infection is not because of “promiscuity”, but because of the lack of protection measures, especially under the catalysis of love, talents who lack sex education will be out of trust , Easy to have high-risk sex with the other party. &nbsp. Human desire is also natural. “Sex” is not the original sin, “sickness” is. &nbsp. Wu Yue said that it was not until he made a decision that he vaguely guessed why the first love left. Perhaps it was because of “love” that he could not speak, and he could not accept that he spread the disease to the other party. &nbsp. But what makes people fate is that after many years, when they meet their second boyfriend, they already have a partner beside them, and the partner of the other party happens to be the carrier. &nbsp. The other party asked him, why didn’t you say you were the carrier? Have you ever thought about it, I don’t mind. &nbsp. Wu Yue was silent for a while, and then talked about his first boyfriend. Although he told me that he couldn’t remember his face, this memory will not fade. &nbsp. Wu Yue choked with tears.

The latest epidemic situation news: There is another cluster of infections in our country, can the epidemic be countered

Let ’s first review the recently confirmed local cases. On May 10, Jilin Province announced that 11 new cases of locally diagnosed new coronary pneumonia were reported in Shulan City. These new cases are very similar to the newly diagnosed 45-year-old laundry workers. Strong correlation, including her family members such as husband, elder sister, second sister, third sister and third brother-in-law, and other close contacts. On the same day, the Hubei Provincial Health Commission also notified a newly confirmed case in Wuhan, breaking the 35-day history of no newly confirmed cases in Wuhan. Therefore, according to the national classification standards, Shulan City, Jilin Province was adjusted from medium risk to high risk, and the risk level of Dongxihu District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province was also upgraded from low risk to medium risk. Will there be a counterattack in China? According to the epidemiological investigation results of this new case, the source of this case has not been clarified for the time being, but they are not related to overseas, and are all local cases. The most likely possibility at present is to be associated with asymptomatic infection Contact. Although our country has fully resumed work and resumed production, there are still reports of asymptomatic infections, which is also the focus of our country’s current epidemic prevention. Although new local cases have appeared in Jilin and Wuhan this time, the author believes that the possibility of a counterattack in the epidemic is very low because China has formed an effective prevention and control mechanism to deal with the new crown epidemic. Judging from the cases found in Jilin Province, the country ’s response rate is also quite rapid. The 254 close contacts have been identified in the shortest time, and they have been isolated and observed. It can be said that the transmission chain of the new coronavirus has been basically cut off. It is unlikely that there will be a large-scale spread, which reminds the author that Harbin ’s new crown epidemic situation, which has also made the whole country extremely uncomfortable, was basically stable under the effective prevention and control of the country. The focus of prevention and control in China at this stage Although the possibility of countering the epidemic in China is unlikely, because the situation of the new global epidemic is still grim and the hidden dangers of asymptomatic infected people in China are still present, China still needs to strengthen prevention and control. Three aspects: 1. With the opening of schools in all grades, the school is undoubtedly the most densely populated place, and the immune system of adolescents and children is not yet mature, and the awareness of epidemic prevention and control is relatively weak, so it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of the school. This country is also under implementation. From May 5th to 8th, the State Council Joint Defense Joint Control Mechanism Liaison Group conducted in-depth investigations at various resuming schools in Wuhan for four consecutive days, and discovered potential safety hazards as early as possible. 2. Asymptomatic infected persons The exact number of asymptomatic infected persons in the country is still unclear. Although experts estimate that there are only a few, the pressure for epidemic prevention and control still exists, and the possibility of small-scale outbreaks will not be ruled out again. Therefore, you still haven’t relaxed too much. You should still wear masks when going out, do not gather, and do good hand hygiene, and regularly disinfect the rooms and items. 3. Overseas imports In addition to our country, the new crown epidemic situation in other regions of the world is still very serious. In the future, the pressure of overseas imports will still exist. Therefore, China should strengthen the monitoring of foreign immigrants. The new coronavirus is the enemy of all mankind. To defeat the new coronavirus, it requires the cooperation of people all over the world. While we can help foreign countries as much as we can, we must also carry out domestic scientific prevention and control. The new coronavirus is the enemy of all mankind. To defeat the new coronavirus, it requires the cooperation of people all over the world. While we can help foreign countries as much as we can, we must also carry out domestic scientific prevention and control. The anti-epidemic achievements made by our country have been witnessed by all countries in the world. Recalling the 512 Nurses Day, I would like to pay tribute to all nurses and all front-line anti-epidemic medical personnel! (Part of the picture source network in the article, the copyright belongs to the original author, thank you for the picture author, if you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me, I will delete it.)

These lessons must be learned

According to an official report: Since the newly diagnosed new cases of local new coronary pneumonia in Harbin on April 9, except for the case, the other cases have been related to Han (formerly infected with new coronary pneumonia, imported abroad) and the confirmed cases on April 9 A certain, asymptomatic infected person Wang Mou, Cao Mou, Li Mou and April 10 confirmed case Chen Mou related. As of 24:00 on April 17, there were 50 patients in Harbin (32 confirmed cases and 18 asymptomatic infections) related to the spread of the local epidemic caused by Han, a 22-year-old female student who returned to Harbin from the United States. How did the prevention and control of the epidemic in Harbin fail? What are the lessons learned from this? 1. Environmental Infection According to an investigation, Han Mou, a 22-year-old female student who returned to Harbin from the United States, was a former infection of new coronary pneumonia (imported abroad). Cao was separated from his home by Han. He was a neighbor upstairs and downstairs. The two sides did not meet and lived together in the same building. Cao may be exposed to the environment polluted by Han (such as elevators) and cause illness. 2. After the infection of relatives and friends, Cao infects her boyfriend Li and her mother Wang Mouling and her boyfriend Guo Mouming. 3. After dinner infection, Guo Mingming and Wang Mouling had dinner together with Chen family. 87-year-old Chen Mou and two sons participated in dinner together and were diagnosed with infection. Chen’s two daughters were subsequently diagnosed. 4. Cross-infection in the hospital Chen Mou was hospitalized in the Second Hospital of Harbin City and the First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, which caused many patients, accompanying staff and nurses in the same ward of the two hospitals to be infected. & nbsp.