Chongqing Dermatology Hospital, what are the predisposing factors for infant eczema? Infant eczema, known in Chinese medicine as “tinea milk” or “fetal sore”, is an allergic skin inflammation caused by a variety of internal and external factors, and is one of the most common skin diseases in infants. It mostly occurs on the cheeks, forehead, eyebrows and head of infants. In severe cases, the trunk and limbs can also be involved. The first skin lesions are symmetrically distributed erythema, and then papules, papules, and blisters gradually appear on it. The blisters are often broken due to scratching and friction, forming an exudative erosion surface, and yellow scabs can form when the blisters dry up. Consciously severe itching. Such as secondary infection may appear pustules and pustules, may be accompanied by local lymphadenopathy and fever. Infant eczema predisposing factors 1. Internal factors (1) Allergic physique: The incidence of eczema in children with parents or families with allergic diseases is higher than that of other people of the same age. (2) Gastrointestinal dysfunction: When the gastrointestinal tract is dysfunction, food is not fully digested and decomposed, but absorbed into the blood in the form of macromolecules, especially protein foods (milk, eggs, fish and shrimp, etc.) can be used as antigens Substance, and induce eczema. Therefore, if a child eats too much protein food, eczema can recur or worsen when a cold, cold, or diarrhea affects gastrointestinal function. (3) Chronic infection foci in the body: The presence of chronic infections such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites in children is also an important factor in the disease. (4) Immune function disorders: common severe infections. 2. External factors. Physical factors: such as cold, heat, excessive dryness, dampness and scratching, hot water washing, etc. may become inducing factors. Chemical factors: including soap, chemical fiber, woolen fabrics and detergents. Biological factors: such as pollen, fungal spores, dust mites, fur and secretions of small animals, etc. Food factors: “fat” such as milk, eggs, seafood, beef and mutton. Drug factors: drugs have the possibility of causing eczema drug eruption, but the common ones are mainly: piperazine, chlorothiazide, chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, sunscreen, chlorobutanol, halogenated hydroxyquinoline Cream, amoxicillin, nickel, penicillin, methyldopa, allopurinol, etc.
. . . Sudden limb twitches, falling to the ground, and foaming at the mouth in daily life are easy to recognize and pay attention to. However, there are many types of seizures, and often there are some abnormalities. “Small movements” are also one of the symptoms of epilepsy, especially the symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from those of adults, and it is easy to be ignored. The first peak of epilepsy before 1 year old Epilepsy is a disease of paroxysmal abnormalities in motor, sensory, consciousness, mental, and autonomic functions caused by paroxysmal abnormal discharges of brain neurons caused by various causes. The clinical manifestations of this disease are diverse, including limb twitching, paresthesias, and special behaviors. Pediatric epilepsy is a common chronic disease of the nervous system in childhood, with a prevalence of 3% to 6%. It should be noted that there are 400,000 new cases of epilepsy each year in my country, 40% of which are children under 15 years of age, 75% to 80% of the onset of the disease before the age of 18, and the first peak of epilepsy incidence between 0 and 1 year old. There are three main causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children: abnormalities of the mother during pregnancy or delivery, including fetal hypoxia, birth injury, etc.; fetal congenital development or congenital metabolic abnormalities; head trauma or brain inflammation. Most children with epilepsy can achieve satisfactory results through regular drug treatment. Parents of infants and young children need to be alert to stereotyped repetitive actions. “The symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from those of adults and are easily ignored.” Sudden seizures such as limb twitching, falling to the ground, and foaming at the mouth occur in daily life The form is easy to be recognized and valued, but there are many forms of epileptic seizures. For example, children often appear dazed, stopped, and repetitive unconscious movements are all symptoms of epilepsy. Sometimes children will also show auditory hallucinations, hallucinations, fear, repeated sucking, chewing, swallowing, groping, and inexplicable laughter. Since there can be no signs before the seizure, the interval of repetition of epilepsy symptoms in infants and young children is not the same, many seizure forms that seem to be “small movements” are easily overlooked and misdiagnosed. In addition, the clinical manifestations of epilepsy in infants and young children are mostly stereotyped and repetitive movements, often accompanied by abnormal eye movements. Therefore, once the infants and young children are found to have repetitive nodding, limb twitching, smirking and other abnormal behaviors, they should go to a regular hospital as soon as possible to avoid delays in their illness. Check for EEG to check epilepsy. The EEG is the most important examination method for diagnosing epilepsy. It uses electrodes and recorders to record the bioelectricity emitted by brain cells. The principle and method are similar to the electrocardiogram, which does not harm the human body. EEG can record the abnormal discharge of children with epilepsy, which is called epileptic wave firing or epileptiform discharge in medicine. This abnormal discharge can occur during epileptic seizures or between epileptic seizures. . EEG plays a very important role in the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy. At present, there are many types of EEG, and professional doctors will choose the appropriate EEG examination according to the child’s condition.
1. The importance of pediatric oral health care. A person has two sets of teeth, deciduous teeth and permanent teeth, of which 20 are deciduous teeth and 28 to 32 are permanent teeth. When a fetus is born, there are already 20 deciduous tooth germs and some permanent tooth germs in its jawbone. When a child reaches a certain age, these tooth germs will erupt in a certain time and sequence. Among them, deciduous teeth will Eruption begins at 6-8 months after the baby is born, and all come out at about 2 and a half years old. Permanent teeth will start to erupt at about 6 years old, and 28 will erupt at the age of 12-13. Of course, deciduous teeth and permanent teeth There are individual differences in eruption. Girls’ teeth will also erupt slightly earlier than boys’ teeth, which has a certain relationship with the child’s nutrition and development. Deciduous teeth play an important role in the growth and development of children, such as chewing function, pronunciation and language functions, and inducing the eruption of permanent teeth. At the same time, good oral health habits developed in early childhood are also vital to the protection of permanent teeth. . Therefore, attach great importance to pediatric oral health care, which is conducive to the growth and development of young children, and also has positive significance for his (her) lifelong health. 2. Key points of pediatric oral health care For pediatric oral health care, it needs to be based on the following two key points Points: 1. Diet and feeding infants, mainly rely on breastfeeding. Breast milk is rich in enzymes and antibodies. It is the most economical and hygienic natural food that is most suitable for the growth and development of young children. However, when breastfeeding, mothers should pay attention to the breastfeeding posture to avoid affecting the growth and development of the child’s maxillofacial region. With the growth of infants’ months of age, in terms of supplementary food, while taking into account the richness of the types, attention should also be paid to the needs of infants’ deciduous teeth to ensure that the infants eat suitable soft and hard foods, and use food to help the deciduous teeth. Eruption 2. Health care habits should help children develop good oral hygiene habits: First, before the baby’s deciduous teeth erupt, you can wrap your fingers with gauze, and put it in the baby’s mouth to scrub the gums and palate after breastfeeding or every night. Yes, after the baby’s deciduous teeth erupt, in addition to continuing to use the above methods, you can also give the child warm water or rinse the mouth after eating. Third, help the children to familiarize themselves with toothbrushing appliances as soon as possible, and help them brush their teeth. Children aged 1 to 2 , Parents can choose an appropriate position, fix the baby’s head position and clean the oral cavity. It is recommended to choose a finger toothbrush made of silica gel or a nylon toothbrush with soft bristles for easy use, easy cleaning of teeth and gum massage. Children after the age of 2 should try to encourage them to brush their teeth. Parents should give effective help and supervision. At the stage when children cannot spit out toothpaste better, fluoride toothpaste should be used cautiously until about 2 and a half years old. The deciduous teeth are long, and the child’s chewing function is becoming more perfect. Develop the habit of consciously taking oral care. 3. Seek doctors regularly and develop good medical habits. Parents should take their children to regular dental clinics or dental hospitals for oral health examination, consultation or diagnosis and treatment, and strive to achieve disease-free prevention and early treatment, pay close attention to the health of deciduous teeth and the eruption of permanent teeth, and protect children’s teeth Fourth, the following issues should be paid attention to in pediatric oral health care. As mentioned above, doing a good job in pediatric oral health care is very positive. While grasping the key points of oral health care, you should also pay attention to the following issues: 1. There will be discomfort when teeth erupt. Although tooth eruption in young children is a normal physiological process, the eruption of deciduous teeth may be accompanied by obvious discomfort, such as anxiety, Mild inflammation, pain, young children may like to bite, salivate, or have a fever. Parents do not need to be anxious. They can help their children to erupt their teeth by eating hard foods, use soft gauze dipped in warm salt water to wipe the gums and clean the mouth. 2. There will be differences in tooth eruption. There are certain individual differences in the eruption of deciduous teeth or permanent teeth. The baby’s deciduous teeth only start to erupt at about 1 year old, and the eruption time of permanent teeth can vary by 2-3 years. The above phenomena are normal. However, if the child is over 1 year old and has not erupted deciduous teeth, further examination is necessary. 3. Tooth eruption is closely related to development. It is necessary to closely observe whether the size, shape and position of the erupted permanent teeth are normal to avoid dental problems that may cause the child’s facial jaws. If developmental abnormalities are found, you should seek medical treatment or observe regularly, so as to carry out early medical intervention and pay attention to pediatric oral health care, so as to encourage children to form good oral hygiene habits in early childhood, which can reduce the eruption of deciduous teeth and is beneficial to the development of permanent teeth. Can help children
The birth of each newborn is the crystallization of the hard work of parents, and it is also a new hope for every family. They all hope that their babies can grow up healthy and safe, but there are always things that are unwilling, such as vitiligo. The disease does not distinguish between people and ages, and weak babies are the high-risk groups of vitiligo. Then, why are infants and young children prone to vitiligo? Immature immune system Medical clinical studies have shown that vitiligo is a kind of body immune system Vitiligo is a closely related disease. Many patients have vitiligo due to autoimmune system problems. Infants and young children are in the stage of growth and development, and the immune system is not yet fully developed. It is easy to give the disease a chance, so infants and young children appear. Vitiligo may be caused by an imperfect immune system. Lack of trace elements Some babies suffer from vitiligo, mainly because they cannot absorb enough nutrients in the mother’s body, resulting in poor physical fitness. Vitiligo is mainly due to the lack of melanin in the body, and the production of melanin requires various trace elements. Suffering from vitiligo means that the lack of trace elements in the body may be copper, zinc, iron, etc. The lack of these trace elements can lead to the occurrence of vitiligo in babies, so parents can appropriately Give supplements in your baby’s usual diet. Genetic factors: Although vitiligo is not a very obvious genetic disease, there is still a certain genetic probability. Some infants and young children suffer from vitiligo at birth. It may be a history of vitiligo at home. Therefore, if there is a genetic history of vitiligo at home, parents should Pay attention to the baby’s eating environment in daily life, and more care can reduce the probability of heredity. Newborns are relatively fragile, so parents should always pay attention to protect them. Therefore, when you find that your baby’s body is abnormal, you must seek the help of a professional doctor and hospital as soon as possible, and be responsible for your child’s health.
Sudden limb twitching, falling to the ground, and foaming at the mouth are easy to recognize and pay attention to in daily life. However, there are many forms of epileptic seizures. In many cases, some abnormal “small movements” are also symptoms of epilepsy. One said that especially the symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from those of adults, and it is easy to be ignored. The first peak of epilepsy before 1 year old Epilepsy is a disease in which paroxysmal motor, sensory, consciousness, mental, and autonomic functions are abnormal due to the paroxysmal abnormal discharge of brain neurons caused by various causes. The clinical manifestations of this disease are diverse, including limb twitching, paresthesias, and special behaviors. Pediatric epilepsy is a common chronic disease of the nervous system in childhood, with a prevalence of 3% to 6%. It should be noted that there are 400,000 new cases of epilepsy in my country each year, 40% of which are children under 15 years of age, 75% to 80% of the onset of the disease before the age of 18, and the first peak of epilepsy incidence between 0 and 1 year old. There are three main causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children: abnormalities of the mother during pregnancy or delivery, including fetal hypoxia, birth injury, etc.; fetal congenital development or congenital metabolic abnormalities; head trauma or brain inflammation. Most children with epilepsy can achieve satisfactory results through regular drug treatment. Parents of infants and young children need to be alert to stereotyped repetitive actions. “Symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from those of adults and can easily be ignored.” Said that sudden limb twitches, falling to the ground, and foaming at the mouth occur in daily life. The forms of epileptic seizures are easy to be recognized and valued, but there are many forms of epileptic seizures. For example, children often appear dazed, stopped, and repetitive unconscious movements are all symptoms of epilepsy. Sometimes children may also show auditory hallucinations, hallucinations, fear, repeated sucking, chewing, swallowing, groping, and inexplicable laughter. Since there is no sign before the seizure, the interval between repetitive symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children is not the same, many seizure forms that seem to be “small movements” are easily overlooked and misdiagnosed. In addition, the clinical manifestations of epilepsy in infants and young children are mostly stereotyped and repetitive movements, often accompanied by abnormal eye movements. Therefore, once the infants and young children are found to have repetitive nodding, limb twitching, smirking and other abnormal behaviors, they should go to a regular hospital as soon as possible to avoid delays in their illness. Check for epilepsy to check EEG. EEG is the most important examination method for diagnosing epilepsy. It uses electrodes and recorders to record the bioelectricity emitted by brain cells. The principle and method are similar to the electrocardiogram, and there is no harm to the human body. Electroencephalogram can record the abnormal discharge of children with epilepsy, which is called epileptic wave or epileptiform discharge in medicine. This abnormal discharge can occur during epileptic seizures or between epileptic seizures. . EEG plays a very important role in the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy. At present, there are many types of EEG, and professional doctors will choose the appropriate EEG examination according to the child’s condition.
A mother in Guangdong submitted an information disclosure application to relevant national authorities, hoping to learn about the procurement method and domestic pricing basis of the drug for treating spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease, which is 700,000 yuan per injection. For a while, it caused the attention and heated discussion of many netizens. What is spinal muscular atrophy? This is a genetic disease, but it is not a disease that only occurs in infancy. Adults can also get it, but it is called a rare disease because the incidence is low, about one in ten thousand. According to the patient’s age of onset and clinical course, the disease is divided into 4 types from severe to light. Infant period is type I, accounting for about 45% of all cases. It is also the most severe type of population. Due to muscle weakness, 6 babies It began to show abnormality gradually within a month, and eventually due to respiratory muscle weakness, most children died of respiratory failure within 2 years of age. Types II, III, and IV are less serious than type I. In type IV, which is onset in adults, although proximal limb weakness also appears, the progress is slower and life expectancy will not be shortened. These 3 medicines can treat SMA1, the imported Noxinassen Sodium Injection 2, and the other two have not been imported, including Roche’s Risdiplam and Novartis’s Zolgensma. The advantage is that the use of these drugs can cure this rare disease, but the disadvantage is that the price is so expensive that a well-off family will be discouraged, and the entire cost may be tens of millions. How should it be prevented? ’Let’s not talk about expensive or not? When there is no medicine, can I just wait for death if I get this disease? In fact, this is not the case. As mentioned above, the disease is divided into four types, and the fatality rate of type I in infancy is high. Therefore, for couples with financial conditions or families with such patients, genetic screening is recommended. Both the man and the woman should be screened. This gene is a negative inheritance. If both the man and the woman carry the disease-causing gene, they must have a childbirth. Pre-diagnosis is to diagnose whether the fetus is a child to decide whether the fetus will go or stay. If neither the man nor the woman has it, or if only one of them is carrying it, the fetus will not get sick, but it may be carried. This medicine is priced at 700,000 yuan per injection, is it reasonable? Spinal muscular atrophy is more difficult to detect during pregnancy examination. Although the incidence rate is only one in 10,000, it is still considered “common” among rare diseases. More rare diseases may not even have a name, and the number of cases is hundreds of thousands or even one in a million. The vast majority of pharmaceutical companies are not living bodhisattvas, and companies must survive. The research and development of drugs for rare diseases is much more difficult than anti-tumor, chronic disease and other drugs. It is normal to spend ten or eight years. After the drugs are successfully developed and marketed, the company is bound to make money from patients. People who use these drugs Very few. Under the circumstance that pharmaceutical companies set their own prices, the price is understandable. Is the Australian price of 200 yuan non-reference? The incidence rate in Australia is similar to that in the world, but their country has a small population of only 25 million people, and there are not many children born a year. If divided by 10,000, the incidence rate is very, very low, and Australia is a developed country. , The government can afford the cost of this drug. In fact, everyone does not need to worry and panic about this. Our National Medical Insurance Bureau is also actively negotiating to reduce the price of these life-saving drugs for rare diseases. On the other hand, we can also add these drugs to medical insurance as soon as possible, to the greatest extent Reduce the burden on the people. Sharing a way of looking at luck. As mentioned above, there are currently 3 drugs that can be used to treat spinal muscular atrophy. One is already on the market in China, and the other two are likely to enter the Chinese market in the future. Before entering the Chinese market, clinical trials are required. Everyone can pay attention to participating in clinical trials. Usually, participation in clinical trials is not only free of charge and treatment, but also a certain amount of financial compensation. However, this opportunity will only catch up at a certain time in the future, and it will become unfortunate “Lucky guy” in, this thing really can only depend on luck. The last thing I want to say is that the complaint should find the right department. Drug pricing is beyond the control of the Food and Drug Administration. The Price Bureau, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Medical Insurance Bureau are their counterparts. I believe this mother’s actions can change the status quo and make things worse. Many patients with rare diseases have benefited. A mother in Guangdong submitted an application for disclosure of information to relevant national authorities, hoping to learn about the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease drug Noxinasheng Sodium Injection
Infantile spasms is a kind of childhood epilepsy syndrome. As the name implies, infantile spasms generally start within one year of age, and the peak period is 4-7 months. Boys are relatively more common than girls. The typical form of seizures is a continuous series of tonic seizures, which are mainly manifested as arms forward, head and trunk forward flexion, that is, nodding, and the upper arms are retracted in a ball-like seizure form. Generally, the number of seizures is Ten times, there may be several or even dozens of seizures a day, sometimes accompanied by shouting. Most children with infantile spasms will be accompanied by delayed neuromotor development. Typical manifestations from EEG are peak rhythm disturbances, continuous high amplitude asynchrony, asymmetric slow waves, and multifocal Sharp waves and spikes. Therefore, for infantile spasms, a clinical diagnosis can be made by combining the age of onset, typical clinical onset characteristics, and typical EEG findings.
Why infants and young children suffer from AIDS We all know that HIV is usually transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood, etc. In fact, mother-to-child transmission is also one of the main ways of AIDS transmission. If a female patient is infected with HIV, it is very likely that HIV will be transmitted to the child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. This type of transmission is called vertical transmission. This is why many babies are already suffering from AIDS at birth. Therefore, it is best for women suffering from AIDS not to become pregnant, so as not to make their children suffer from diseases as soon as they are born. If you find out that you are suffering from AIDS after pregnancy, you can take anti-AIDS drugs at this time, which can effectively reduce the risk of AIDS in the baby. After the baby is born, the mother should never breastfeed the child, which will also HIV infected him. In order to avoid the tragedy of transmitting AIDS to their children, women must be tested for HIV before they become pregnant, and they can become pregnant only after they are confirmed to be healthy. Symptoms of AIDS in infants and young children After suffering from AIDS, the most obvious manifestation is the unexplained swelling of lymph nodes throughout the body. This is because the immune function of infants and young children is severely violated. Secondly, the skin of the child will be easily damaged, bleeding cannot be stopped, and symptoms such as herpes, purpura, hematoma, and blood spots will appear on the skin of the child. There are also some typical systemic symptoms such as colds, colds, loss of appetite, and fever. As the disease progresses, multiple organs of the child are damaged, various malignant tumors, hepatosplenomegaly, and breathing becomes very difficult.
This idea is only half right. Look at the views of the ancients and listen to the advice of Dr. Haishu. “Hundred Questions about Infants and Children” was written by Lu Bosi in the Ming Dynasty,  . It was written in 1506 . (One said it was written in the 15th century). In the book, the author discusses the concept of children’s health care, and believes that children’s health care should be emphasized, and it is the foundation of life health. The so-called health preservation is also called sanitation and hygiene, which means maintaining life. The significance of children’s health preservation is that  .In a healthy and disease-free state, .Through adjustment and maintenance, .enhance the physical fitness, .increase righteousness, .to enhance the ability to adapt to the external environment and the ability to resist diseases, reduce or reduce or To avoid the occurrence of diseases, .Help them to “be vigorous, .growth rapidly”, .establish good living habits. The concept of health preservation in the book is based on the “Huangdi Neijing”, “Theories on the Sources of Diseases”, and “Theories on the Sources of Diseases in Children”. The content is rich, and the important ones are now selected, and the analysis is as follows. A daily analysis, 1 congenital endowment, care in the womb, “Hundred Questions about Infants and Children” mentioned: “Infants are in the womb, they are endowed with the qi of Yin and Yang and the five elements to be generated. Nourish it, receive enough qi, and give birth naturally.” [Doctor Haishu said] The baby is raised in the mother’s body, which is a “gene duplication” from both parents’ families. Some diseases or physical constitutions have been formed, so when the internal organs are formed , Is closely related to the rise and fall of maternal qi and blood. The baby is nourished by the mother’s qi and blood, fully absorbs the essence of food, grows into a human shape, conceives in October, and gives birth at once! To
How is iron deficiency anemia treated? Iron deficiency anemia (also called nutritional anemia) is a common disease in infants and young children. It is caused by lack of iron necessary for hematopoiesis. According to the survey, the incidence of anemia in infants under 6 years old is 20%-40%. When the hemoglobin of infants under 6 years old (excluding newborns) is less than 110 g/l, it can be diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia. The main reasons for iron-deficiency anemia are: ① Infants and young children grow and develop fast, and their iron requirements increase, especially premature infants. ② Iron deficiency in the diet. After the baby is 3 to 4 months old, the iron from the mother has been exhausted, and the milk-based diet contains very little iron and cannot meet its growth needs. ③Excessive iron loss, such as small and chronic blood loss caused by anal fissure, intestinal polyps, hookworm disease, etc. ④Others such as diarrhea, acute and chronic infections, etc. How is iron deficiency anemia treated? The symptoms of children with anemia are usually: pale skin and mucous membranes, the most obvious in lips, nail beds, and oral mucosa; usually tired and less active; anorexia, and even heterophilia (like eating dirt, wall dust, etc.). Severe anemia may cause enlarged liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and enlarged heart. Moreover, before the onset of anemia, the child has manifestations of restlessness, hyperactivity, inattention, slow response, poor memory, and low IQ, but these manifestations often fail to attract the attention and attention of parents. When the hemoglobin is between 100 and 110 grams per liter, it can be treated by diet, that is, eat more iron-rich foods with high iron absorption rate, such as animal liver, lean pork, soybeans and soy products. Animal liver contains 25 mg of iron per 100 grams, and the absorption rate can reach about 22%; red meat, such as lean pork and lean beef, contains 2.4 mg and 3.2 mg of iron per 100 grams, respectively. The absorption rate can also reach 22%; animal blood contains 3 to 4 mg of iron per 100 grams, and the absorption rate is 12%. In addition, the iron content in soybeans and soybean products is not low, with 11 mg of iron per 100 grams of soybeans, and an absorption rate of 7%. You should also eat them regularly. It needs to be pointed out that although the iron content in egg yolk is relatively high, the absorption rate is only 3%, so eating more egg yolk is not the best food for preventing and treating iron deficiency anemia. When the hemoglobin is below 100～110 g/L, iron treatment is needed. Commonly used are ferrous sulfate and iron fumarate. Iron can stimulate the gastrointestinal mucosa and cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other adverse reactions, which can lead to patients who cannot tolerate it and stop treatment in the middle, and anemia cannot be corrected. In recent years, animal experiments have shown that taking iron for 2 days every 3 days or a week has the same effect as taking iron every day for iron deficiency anemia. The results after clinical application also confirmed the above-mentioned effects, and with few side effects, the treatment can be adhered to and the hemoglobin can be increased to more than 100 g/L. The dose of iron therapy for infants and young children every 3 days or 2 days a week should be based on the standard of 4-6 mg of elemental iron per kilogram of body weight (the same as the general therapeutic dose). Specifically, the dosage of ferrous sulfate is 0.15～0.30 grams per day for infants and 0.30～0.60 grams per day for children; the dosage of ferrous succinate is 0.15～0.30 grams per day for infants and 0.20～0.40 grams per day for children. The dosage of ferrous gluconate is 0.30～0.50 grams per day for infants and 0.60～1.20 grams per day for children. Taking vitamin C while taking iron can promote the absorption of iron, but avoid taking it with milk, tea, coffee at the same time, so as not to affect the absorption of iron. After treatment for about 4 to 6 weeks, the hemoglobin needs to continue to be taken for 4 to 6 weeks after it reaches the normal value to store a part of iron in the body to prevent infection or gastrointestinal diseases from affecting the absorption of iron and causing another anemia.
What is thalassemia? Thalassemia is a group of hereditary hemolytic anemia diseases, mainly due to a genetic defect that leads to insufficient blood supply protein production, a type of anemia where globin chain synthesis is lacking or insufficient. What are the symptoms of thalassemia? Thalassemia can be divided into three major types: mild, moderate and severe. Mild thalassemia generally has no obvious symptoms. Newborn children are not much different from normal infants and are more difficult to find. But it can be found through inspection, especially those with a family history should check in time. If you look closely, you can actually find that the patients with mild thalassemia have a concave nose bridge, widened eyebrow distance, and prominent cheekbones. Most patients with moderate thalassemia have pale appearance, loss of appetite, susceptibility to infection, easy fatigue, slow development and hepatomegaly, etc., most of them can survive to adulthood. Most can be found only a few months after the baby is born. With age, the symptoms become more obvious, the anemia is severe, the facial symptoms are obvious, and the liver and spleen are enlarged. Severe thalassemia mainly manifests as anemia within a few days of birth, and the condition develops rapidly. The typical symptoms are gluteal head, long bones can be fractured, and a few patients also have symptoms of cholelithiasis and lower extremity ulcers. Severe thalassemia can be complicated by acute pericarditis, secondary hemochromatosis, and secondary hypersplenism, posing a threat to the baby’s life.
The forms of seizures in which people suddenly twitch, fall to the ground, and spit foam in their mouths are easily recognized and valued, but there are many forms of seizures, and many abnormal “small movements” are also symptoms of epilepsy. One, especially the symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children is very different from adults, it is easy to be ignored. is the first peak of epilepsy before the age of one. Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal movement, sensation, consciousness, mental and autonomic dysfunction caused by paroxysmal abnormal discharge of brain neurons caused by various causes. The clinical manifestations of the disease are diverse, with limb tics, paresthesia, and special behaviors. Pediatric epilepsy is a common chronic disease of the nervous system in childhood, with a prevalence rate of 3% to 6%. It should be noted that there are 400,000 new cases of epilepsy in my country every year, 40% are children under 15 years old, 75% to 80% started before 18 years old, and 0 to 1 year old is the first peak of epilepsy. There are three main causes of children’s symptomatic epilepsy: mother’s abnormalities during pregnancy or childbirth, including intrauterine hypoxia and birth injury; fetal congenital development or congenital metabolic abnormalities; craniocerebral trauma or brain inflammation. Most children with epilepsy can achieve satisfactory results through regular drug treatment. Parents of infants and young children need to be alert to stereotypical repetitive movements. “The symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from those of adults and can be easily overlooked.” In daily life, seizures such as sudden limb twitching, falling to the ground, and foaming in the mouth The form is easy to be recognized and valued, but there are many forms of seizures, such as stunned children, movement stop, and unconscious repetitive movements, which are also a symptom of epilepsy. Sometimes children will also show auditory hallucinations, hallucinations, fear, repeated sucking, chewing, swallowing, groping, inexplicable laughter, etc. Because there are no signs before the seizures, the interval between the repetition of epilepsy symptoms in infants and young children is also different. Many seizures that seem to be “small actions” are easily overlooked and misdiagnosed.
. . . . When the child is in a long body, various functions are not fully developed, and it is easy to be troubled by diseases. In recent years, the incidence of vitiligo has been increasing, and the probability of children suffering from vitiligo has also increased. What are the specific reasons? What do parents need to pay attention to?  . . . .1. Genetic factors: The relationship between infant vitiligo and heredity is inseparable. The etiology of vitiligo is complex. Genetic factors are one of the important factors that induce vitiligo, but although vitiligo has genetic factors, it is not hereditary. Disease, it is the result of the combined action of genetic genes and external inducing factors, plus the main incidence of vitiligo is not infants and young children, the incidence of the disease is small, therefore, although infants and young children have the chance of vitiligo, as long as the parents control the outside world Environmental factors can prevent the occurrence of vitiligo in infants and young children.  . . . .2. Trauma caused: As parents, pay attention to the child’s wounds, they must be carefully bandaged to avoid the occurrence of similar reactions, causing greater harm to the child. Now in the summer, after the mosquito bites, the child’s scratching of the skin will also affect the vitiligo. Parents should pay attention not to let the child scratch, and always prepare anti-mosquito bite ointment.  . . . .3. Autoimmune factors: Vitiligo is an immune disease. The body of a child at a young age belongs to the stage of growth and development, and daily diet will affect the body of the child. Many children have problems with picky eaters and partial eclipses. Parents should correct them in a timely manner, and be careful not to let children eat too many snacks.  . . . . Vitiligo in children is a special disease group among patients with vitiligo. Because the children are still young and their physique and immune function are not yet mature, treatment of vitiligo needs to be treated differently. For children suffering from vitiligo, parents should not enter the treatment misunderstanding. Because the skin of children is delicate, medication must be careful to avoid the use of hormone drugs. Parents observe the changes of the disease at any time and regularly go to the hospital for examination and diagnosis. Pay attention to sunscreen every day.
Old mothers may have a common wish: May my baby sleep well tonight! In fact, this is not only your wish, but also your baby’s own wish. After all, I can’t sleep well and the baby feels very painful! (Pictures are from the Internet) But after all, the baby is too small to understand how to deal with the problem of sleeplessness, so I need my parents to help my baby! How to help? First of all, you have to understand the physiological characteristics of infants and young children’s sleep, the factors that affect the sleep of infants and young children, and how to cultivate good sleeping habits of infants and young children! Where can I learn this knowledge? Don’t worry, we have invited an infant sleep expert for you. Tonight, I’ll share with you the methods and techniques of “you can let your baby sleep well”~June 4, 2020 today (June 4, 2020 ) At 8 pm, Zhu Qingqing, a postgraduate student in the Shanghai Songjiang District Maternal and Child Health Hospital, a pediatrics (direction of child health), and an attending physician in the child care department, will tell you about “milk sleep, hug sleep, coaxing sleep, frequent nighttime wakeup…want to let the baby “Sleep and sleep”, it is very important to use the right method! “. These infants and young children have common sleep problems. Does your baby have them? A baby’s lack of sleep affects many things, and these factors that affect the baby’s sleep must be avoided! Do these things well and let “sleeping baby” become “angel baby” in seconds! On June 4th (Thursday), at 8-9pm tonight, press and hold the QR code in the picture to watch the live broadcast↓↓↓
. . . . A few days ago, such an incident occurred in Qingyuan, Guangdong. Two small babies were found to have cerebral hemorrhage, and the doctor only found out that the cause of the baby’s illness was actually bad with the child’s mother. Eating habits.  . . . . When inquired about the condition, the doctor found that his mother did not eat greens while confinement. The doctor understands that the baby may lack vitamin K. Finally, I did a head CT for my baby and found that she had a small amount of bleeding.  . . . . A few days later, another two-month-old baby girl was taken to hospital because of vomiting. Examination found that vitamin K is also lacking, and the situation is more serious. Fortunately, the cause was clarified in time. After treatment, both babies were safe and sound.  . . . . The 2-month-old baby girl suffered cerebral hemorrhage. The reason was that her mother would not eat green vegetables during her confinement? Many mothers do not understand. Also began to worry about his baby. In many places, mothers do not eat greens when confinement. Older people think that greens are yin, and they eat their injuries during confinement. In fact, if a maternal does not eat greens, when breastfeeding a baby, it is easy to cause the baby to consume insufficient vitamin K, which affects the synthesis of blood coagulation factors and leads to cerebral hemorrhage.  . . . . When referring to the vitamin family, we are familiar with vitamin c, vitamin b, and rarely know vitamin K. This vitamin is a natural anti-bleeding vitamin. It is an essential component of the synthesis of prothrombin and other clotting factors in the liver. The reason why our human hemorrhage can be stopped is mainly because the human blood contains thrombin element and the body supplements vitamin k, which is of great significance to the prevention and treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. Vitamin K is the most abundant substance among green leafy vegetables in food.  . . . . Now people all know the advantages of breastfeeding, but the biggest disadvantage of breastfeeding is that it is easy to cause vitamin K deficiency in babies. The content of vitamin K in breast milk is only 1/4 of that of cow’s milk. Compared with feeding with mixed formula, infants fed with breast milk alone are more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency.  . . . . Scientific research has proved that various dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, cabbage and milk are rich in vitamin K. Mothers who are breastfeeding should pay attention to a balanced diet. In addition to supplementing some meat, they should also eat more dark vegetables.  . . . . Of course, it doesn’t mean that if the mother does not eat greens during confinement, the baby will definitely have cerebral hemorrhage. This is related to the baby’s personal physique. If the baby has vitamin K deficiency, there will generally be some symptoms, such as vomiting, crying, convulsions, ugly face, etc. When abnormal conditions occur, parents should take the baby to the hospital in time.  . . . . In order to prevent vitamin K deficiency, now in our hospital, newborns will be prevented from injecting vitamin K after birth.  . . . . is mainly to prevent neonatal hemorrhage, especially cerebral hemorrhage. Vitamin K is conducive to blood clotting. Because the placenta does not have vitamin K, the liver of the newborn cannot produce enough vitamin K, so the newborn is prone to cause bleeding in the body due to lack of vitamin K. Injecting vitamin K into the newborn will not cause any damage to the baby’s body.  . . . . In the past, injecting vitamin k to newborns was not routine work.  . Now, in response to cerebral hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency in infants and young children, the hospital takes intramuscular injection of vitamin K1 as a prescribed action, and it also has a good preventive effect. Therefore, the injection of this needle can protect the health of mothers and babies.
& nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Infant diarrhea, also known as infantile indigestion, is an acute gastrointestinal dysfunction in infants and young children, with diarrhea and vomiting as the main syndrome. The highest incidence is in summer and autumn. The disease is treated properly and the effect is good, but if it is not treated in time and serious water and electrolyte disorders occur, it can endanger the life of children. Treatment plan: 1, to adjust the child’s diet to reduce the burden of the gastrointestinal tract, some parents do everything possible to feed their children chocolate, milk, eggs and other high-fat, high-protein foods, want to use this to make up for the loss caused by children’s diarrhea However, I do not know that this will increase the burden on the gastrointestinal tract and make the diarrhea not heal for a long time. At this time, it is appropriate to give the child some digestible foods, such as rice soup, sugar and salt water, or even temporarily ban eating, so that the gastrointestinal function can be restored to speed up the healing of the disease. 2. Pay attention to keeping the child’s abdomen warm. Children’s abdomen is prone to cold, while children with diarrhea, intestinal peristalsis has already increased. If the abdomen is cold again, the intestinal peristalsis will be faster, which will aggravate the condition. 3. Pay attention to protect the buttocks of the sick child. After using the toilet paper, gently wipe it with a soft toilet paper, or use a soft gauze dipped in water to wash it. After washing, you can apply some oily ointment to prevent red buttocks, and you should change the diaper in time to avoid feces and urine impregnated diapers and skin. Fracture caused by friction. Toilets, diapers, and contaminated clothing and sheets used by sick children should be washed and disinfected in time to avoid repeated infection or transmission to other people. & nbsp. & nbsp.
Original: Pediatrician Sun Fangzhou & nbsp. Recently, there was an incident of children eating fake milk powder in Chenzhou, Hunan. Parents mistakenly thought that they were eating the so-called “children ’s anti-allergic formula milk powder”. In fact, they are some children ’s solid drinks, and they do n’t understand children. Lack of relevant knowledge of vitamin D. For a long time in the past, vitamin D was not supplemented normally, and symptoms of rickets such as big-headed dolls appeared. I regret it. & nbsp. So what is rickets, what is the relationship between this disease and vitamin D, why do infants and young children need to supplement vitamin D, and what symptoms will vitamin D deficiency cause —-, pediatrician, I will tell you carefully today. & nbsp. & nbsp. Rickets is a medical abbreviation. Its full name is nutritional vitamin D deficiency rickets. Since there is the word vitamin D, naturally the disease is caused by the lack of vitamin D in children. The lack of D will cause calcium and phosphorus in the body. Abnormal metabolism mainly affects the absorption and utilization of calcium, resulting in a systemic chronic nutritional disease characterized by bone lesions. The text description of “Rickets” in Chinese is also very intuitive, and the image let everyone know that this disease is a skeletal deformity. & nbsp. Note: The pinyin of 佝偻 is gōulóu (when yǔlǚ is 伛偻), and can also be read as (gōulòu). Describe the back bending forward. Synonyms include hunchback and lingering. (Quoted from the same dictionary of modern Chinese) & nbsp. Rickets symptoms: early manifestations of infants less than 6 months old, the symptoms are not obvious, but the performance of mental excitement such as love trouble, sweating, and shaking his head. It is difficult to find, but by June to about 1 year old, early vitamin D deficiency is not corrected, it will enter the active phase, which is manifested by the changes in the skull and bones, the bregma is very soft, closed compared with the same age People are also very slow. The posterior occipital bone or the bone behind the top of the head, when pressed with fingers, has a clear ping-pong-like feeling (thin soft skull). A “square head” appears. From the top to the bottom, the frontal and parietal bones bulge, and the forehead bulge is clearly seen. The head circumference also increased significantly. & nbsp. The ribs are also abnormal, showing that the ribs and soft ribs can touch the round ridges, such as bead-like protrusions, especially the 7-10 ribs are the most obvious, called “beaded ribs.” At the same time, it will also form a blunt circular ring-shaped bulge on the wrist and ankle. It is called “hand and foot bracelet”. If it is close to 1 year old, if it does not improve the intake of vitamin D, it will form a “chicken breast-like” deformity with the sternum protruding forward. More serious rickets can cause knee inversion and knee valgus, so-called O-shaped legs and X-shaped legs. & nbsp. & nbsp. In the above early and active stage performance, early detection and diagnosis, under the guidance of professional pediatricians, given large doses of vitamin D oral treatment (intramuscular injection for those who have complications or can not be oral), can be corrected and Reducing the possible bone deformities in the future, the anti-rickets effect is also considerable. & nbsp. However, if the above performance is not taken seriously, and without regular intervention treatment, vitamin D continues to be inadequate, close to 2 years old or later, reaching the most serious sequelae of rickets, the above bone deformities will remain, Basically can not return to normal. & nbsp. & nbsp. So why does vitamin D deficiency cause bone diseases, what is vitamin D, and its relationship with calcium deficiency? Why are many babies born, pediatrics prescribe vitamin D to the children and require oral? & nbsp. Northern China has a shorter sunshine time than the south, and the prevalence of children’s rickets in the past is also higher than that of the south. The reason is that children in the north have less endogenous vitamin D than children in the south. The reason is that it is related to insufficient sunlight. & nbsp. Vitamin D is a group of biologically active fat-soluble steroid derivatives, mainly divided into vitamin D2 and vitamin D3, and the component of vitamin D that plays a major physiological role in the human body is vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) However, vitamin D3 cannot be produced by itself. It requires 7-dehydrocholecalciferol (7-DHC) in human skin to be converted by the photochemical action of ultraviolet rays in sunlight. Simply put, the formation of vitamin D3 must be based on the sun. Therefore, these endogenous vitamin D (vitamin D3) is synthesized by the skin’s light, which is converted by sunlight ultraviolet radiation (290-320nm wavelength). & nbsp. Children in the north have a longer winter time than the south, and the ultraviolet rays are weaker in winter. Due to the cold weather, infants and young children have a long time
Recently, the “Big Head Doll” fake special doctor milk powder incident broke out in Yongxing County, Chenzhou City, Hunan Province, which has attracted attention from all sides. The staff of the mother and baby store recommended solid beverages to parents of ordinary milk powder allergic babies, so that many babies developed eczema, weight loss, skull deformities resembling “big head dolls”, and non-stop head shots and other abnormalities. Why is there still a “big head doll” incident today? How should we choose infant milk powder? Why is there fake milk powder? This incident is not the same as the “Big Head Doll” incident more than a decade ago, because the victims this time did not eat inferior milk powder, but a solid drink instead of milk powder. The protein and nutrients contained in solid beverages are much lower than infant formula milk powder and special medical formula foods, which can not meet the nutritional needs of infants and young children, and will lead to nutritional deficiencies, just as inferior milk powder. So why is there such a phenomenon that beverages pretend to be milk powder sales? (1) The black-hearted merchants seek benefits for babies with special needs such as allergies, digestive and absorption disorders, and we will recommend infant formulas for special medical purposes, also known as “special medical milk powder”. Milk powder for infants and young children is not cheap now, and milk powder for special doctors is more expensive. At present, the price of special medical milk powder on the market is basically twice the price of ordinary infant milk powder, and the profit is higher than that of ordinary infant milk powder. Moreover, these solid beverages are not fake and inferior goods. If a baby eats for a long time and causes malnutrition and rickets, parents report it, otherwise it will be difficult to be monitored by the food control department. Moreover, this fake milk powder incident is not the first time that a solid drink has been disguised as a special doctor milk powder sales event. Even some doctors have recommended solid drinks to family members of children to obtain “rebates.” Such sales are fortune-telling! (2) Careless parents are easy to be deceived. Under the false propaganda and recommendation of maternal and child stores or some doctors, many parents are easily deceived by “health care”, “expert recommendation”, “anti-allergy”, “high nutrition” and so on. Parents do not have enough knowledge about infant milk powder, especially the special doctor milk powder, so they will give blackhearted businesses the opportunity. Moreover, some parents did not go to the hospital for examination in time when their children showed bad symptoms, and some of them were doubtful, but were fooled by the sales staff because they did not eat enough. What should parents pay attention to when choosing milk powder? (1) The most reliable way to buy milk powder through regular channels is to purchase from regular channels, such as large supermarkets and regular maternal and child stores, and choosing well-known brands of milk powder will be more secure. However, many parents are now more willing to buy milk powder through purchasing and micro-business introduced by acquaintances, especially imported milk powder. However, many people do not know that in accordance with national regulations, online sales of milk powder, including micro-commerce and purchasing, must obtain a business license (the business scope should have dairy products) and a food circulation license. And these certificates must be clearly displayed or have a link logo. Therefore, if you want to purchase milk powder through purchasing or online, you need to pay attention to whether the other party has obtained the relevant license. (2) Pay attention to the packaging logo When purchasing infant food, parents should pay attention to check the label logo, many brands have special anti-counterfeiting logos. In particular, when purchasing special medical formula foods, according to national requirements, the product packaging must indicate: the words “special medical use”, the national food note registration number of TY, and the “appropriate crowd reminder”. Check the relevant product qualifications on the official website of the Special Food Safety Supervision and Administration Department of the General Administration of Market Supervision to avoid buying fake special milk powder. Concluding remarks The country adopts pharmaceutical-level supervision of food for infants and young children. Parents should also be more cautious about what to give the baby. Now the network is very convenient, you can query product information, rather than listen to other people’s words. To protect children is to protect our hope and future, and we must not tolerate the evil-hearted businesses to harm our children. (Part of the picture source network in the article, the copyright belongs to the original author, thank you for the picture author, if you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me, I will delete it.)
Calcium supplementation is a national topic, especially infants, children, pregnant women, lactating women, and the elderly are at high risk of calcium deficiency. Calcium plays an important role in human bone formation, bone tissue reconstruction, muscle contraction, etc., so calcium deficiency It is a problem that everyone will worry about, and many people come to my orthopedic clinic to ask about how to supplement calcium. The most asked question is whether the sun can really supplement calcium? Mechanism: My answer is yes, the sun can supplement calcium, so why? Calcium deficiency in infants and young children will cause nutritional vitamin D deficiency rickets, mainly due to lack of vitamin D. The skin’s light synthesis is the main source of human vitamin D. Vitamin D in human skin is inactive and must be exposed to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Into active vitamin D. Reason: Active vitamin D participates in calcium and phosphorus metabolism and promotes calcium absorption. Therefore, the sun can supplement calcium. Ancient people or people in the early liberation period rarely had calcium deficiency, because at that time everyone had to farm outside the house to do farm work, and children also played outdoors; unlike modern people who lack outdoor activities, live in High-rise buildings block sunlight, atmospheric pollution, smog, and dust will absorb part of the ultraviolet rays, which will make the body’s own endogenous vitamin D production insufficient. Vitamin D is very low in food. Conclusion: So if you do n’t want calcium deficiency, it is recommended to get more sun exposure, but infants, the elderly, pregnant women and lactating women also need to supplement vitamin D to prevent calcium deficiency. Doctor Yao Jinghui, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University (Guangdong Orthopedics Hospital, Guangdong Orthopedics Research Institute), hopes to help everyone’s health!
The forms of seizures that occur in daily life, such as sudden body convulsions, falling to the ground, and foaming in the mouth are easy to recognize and value, but there are many forms of seizures, and many abnormal “small movements” are also symptoms of epilepsy. One, experts say that the symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from adults, and they are easily overlooked. Is the first peak of epilepsy before the age of one. Epilepsy is a disease of paroxysmal movement, sensation, consciousness, mental and autonomic dysfunction caused by paroxysmal abnormal discharge of brain neurons caused by various causes. The clinical manifestations of the disease are diverse, with limb tics, paresthesia, and special behaviors. Pediatric epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease common in childhood, with a prevalence rate of 3% to 6%. It should be noted that there are 400,000 new cases of epilepsy in China every year, 40% are children under 15 years old, 75% to 80% started before the age of 18, and 0 to 1 year old is the first peak of epilepsy. There are three main causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children: abnormalities during pregnancy or childbirth, including intrauterine hypoxia and birth injury; fetal congenital development or congenital metabolic abnormalities; craniocerebral trauma or brain inflammation. Most children with epilepsy can achieve satisfactory results through regular drug treatment. Parents of infants and toddlers need to be alert to stereotypical repetitive movements. “The symptoms of epilepsy in infants and young children are very different from those of adults and can be easily overlooked.” Experts say that in daily life, sudden limb twitching, falling to the ground, and foaming in the mouth This type of seizure is easy to be recognized and valued, but there are many forms of seizures, such as stunned children, movement stop, and unconscious repetitive movements, which are also a symptom of epilepsy. Sometimes children will also show auditory hallucinations, hallucinations, fear, repeated sucking, chewing, swallowing, groping, inexplicable laughter, etc. Because there are no signs before the seizures, the interval between the repetition of epilepsy symptoms in infants and young children is also different, and many seemingly “small actions” are easily overlooked and misdiagnosed. In addition, the clinical manifestations of infantile epilepsy are mostly rigid and repetitive movements, often accompanied by abnormal eye movements. Therefore, once it is found that infants and young children have repetitive nodding, limb convulsions, giggles and other abnormal behaviors, they should go to the regular hospital for examination as soon as possible to avoid delays. Checking Epilepsy to check EEG EEG is the most important method for diagnosing epilepsy. It uses electrodes and recorders to record the bioelectricity emitted by brain cells. The principle and method are similar to electrocardiograms, which do no harm to the human body. EEG can record the abnormal discharge phenomenon in children with epilepsy, which is called epilepsy wave emission or epilepsy-like discharge in medicine. This abnormal discharge phenomenon can occur at the time of epileptic seizure or at the interval between seizures. . EEG has a very important role in the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy. At present, there are many types of EEG, professional doctors will choose the appropriate EEG examination according to the condition of the child.