His complexion is getting more and more “black”, is the kidney disease worsening?

For patients in the early stage of kidney disease, renal function is slightly impaired, creatinine, uric acid and other indicators have not increased, glomerular filtration rate is normal, blood toxin levels are low, and abnormalities are not often seen. With the decline of kidney function, more toxins cannot be metabolized and deposited in the blood. Over time, they will slowly appear on the surface of the skin, and the skin will appear dark and dull. Renal failure and uremic dialysis patients are often more obvious. If the nephrologist finds that the skin becomes “black”, he should pay attention to the reexamination indicators. The key to correcting the “unsightly complexion” is to maintain the stability of kidney function and avoid further deterioration of the condition. The key to preventing renal function decline is to control these two indicators. 1. After correcting anemia in time, blood creatinine often starts to rise after renal insufficiency, which means that the level of toxins increases. At this stage, another important indicator that affects the condition is hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an important indicator for judging whether there is anemia, which will accelerate the arrival of kidney failure. Impaired renal function can lead to a reduction in the production of a substance-erythropoietin, which stimulates the bone marrow to reduce blood production, leading to the occurrence of renal anemia. The remaining kidney function itself has ischemia and hypoxia, which promotes the reduction of blood circulation and also aggravates anemia. Patients with anemia often look pale and sallow. To prevent anemia from accelerating the failure of remaining kidney function. It must be corrected in time. In the case of decreased hemoglobin, on the one hand, erythropoietin can be injected to increase the cells that stimulate hematopoiesis until the hemoglobin condition reaches the standard. On the other hand, actively supplement iron. Although renal anemia is not iron-deficiency anemia, most patients have iron deficiency after anemia. It is necessary to supplement iron and eat more iron-containing foods such as animal blood, animal offal, lean meat, etc. 2. Pay attention to the prevention and treatment of electrolyte disorders. The kidney has the function of regulating the balance of water, acid-base and electrolyte. The early compensatory function of renal function is still strong, and only the imbalance of water and sodium appears. The electrolyte and acid-base levels in the body are still relatively stable. However, after substantial damage to renal function, glomeruli, renal tubules and renal interstitium are all damaged, and electrolyte levels will also be metabolically disordered. Electrolyte disorders are mainly manifested as changes in trace elements such as calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The main manifestations are hyperkalemia, calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders, acidosis and so on. The increase of blood potassium, blood phosphorus and other indicators will also aggravate the increase of blood creatinine, uric acid, urea nitrogen and other toxin levels, which is not conducive to the metabolism of toxins. It will also cause more complications and threaten the remaining kidney function.

Kidney function improves, urine usually has 4 manifestations, if you have all, congratulations

Some patients often say: I have been sick for a long time and I have forgotten what it feels like to be healthy. To judge whether the condition is good or bad, the physical feeling is one aspect, and it can also be more accurately and intuitively assessed by checking the corresponding indicators. The key to the good and bad kidney disease depends on the condition of the kidney function, so what are the indicators for testing the kidney function? Urine-related examinations are one of the necessary items to assess kidney function. Some specific urine test indicators are “alarm signs” of kidney damage. On the contrary, stable indicators are also a portrayal of improvement. The 4 major indicators in the urine test will let you know your kidney function better! Urine white blood cells, red blood cells and urine routine test sheets from top to bottom can first see the two indicators of urine white blood cells, red blood cells and related inspection indicators. The appearance of white blood cells in the urine indicates the presence of infection, that is, inflammation of the kidneys, and more than 3 red blood cells under a high-power microscope are judged as hematuria. These two indicators are often used as one of the important indicators to initially judge nephritis. During the development of kidney disease, it is also an important indicator to judge whether the condition is stable. If the white blood cells in the urine are normal in the urine test, it indicates that the renal inflammation is effectively controlled and the damage to the kidney function is reduced. The reduction of urinary red blood cells indicates that the glomerular filtration function tends to be stable, and the leakage of red blood cells is reduced. Although simple occult blood does not affect renal function. However, if urine protein and occult blood exist at the same time, it will become one of the “culprits” that accelerate renal failure, so the treatment of occult blood is also very important. Urinary microalbuminuria or urine albumin-creatinine ratio is also a marker for evaluating glomerular damage. The main test is the leakage of albumin into the urine, which is more targeted than routine urine protein. In general, the presence of a small amount of albumin requires attention to the damage of kidney function, and the index response is more sensitive. Diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy are mainly based on the performance of urine microalbuminuria, rather than 24-hour urine protein quantification. If urinary microalbuminuria is continuously maintained below 150mg/g, it is a sign of improvement in renal function. Long-term maintenance below 30mg/g will help stabilize the condition and reduce the risk of renal failure. By the way, 24-hour urine protein quantification is a urine protein indicator that most kidney diseases will check. Compared with urine microalbuminuria, it is not as sensitive, but it is also a very important indicator of renal function. This indicator usually emphasizes more, so I won’t say more here. Next, let’s talk about an indicator that everyone is not very familiar with! Compared with the first two indicators, α1 microglobulin has not been observed and understood by many people. α1 microglobulin not only reflects the glomerular damage, but also an index to judge the degree of renal tubular damage. It is a marker of renal tubular damage. If this index can control the improvement, it means that the renal tissue units such as the glomerulus, renal tubules and renal interstitial have all improved, and the overall renal function has also stabilized. The amount of urine, especially nocturnal urine output, is also a very direct indicator for judging glomerular filtration function. For patients with renal insufficiency, urine is basically collected to observe urine output. Stable urine output is one of the signs of stable renal function, and for patients with renal failure or even uremia, if the urine output remains stable at more than 1000ml, the risk of dialysis is also very small, and there is still a possibility of improvement. Urine output is mainly divided into daytime urination and night urination. The condition of nocturia also reflects the quality of kidney function. In general, patients with kidney disease with high blood pressure and high blood sugar have excessive nocturia (more than 2 times) and low urine output (less than 1000ml), indicating poor renal function, which requires attention.

To judge the severity of kidney disease, don’t just stare at blood creatinine, there are three “gold standards”

After kidney disease occurs, the first question most nephrologists ask is: Doctor, is my condition serious? What are the general criteria for judging whether kidney disease is serious? Many people will habitually look at some indicators. A low indicator means not serious, and an elevated indicator means more serious. One of the indicators often used to judge the severity of kidney disease is blood creatinine. Nephropathy is generally divided into five stages according to the level of blood creatinine. Generally speaking, an increase in creatinine indicates a decline in the ability of the kidneys to detoxify and the condition is getting more and more serious. But sometimes creatinine alone is not necessarily accurate. Using creatinine to understand kidney disease is only suitable for the middle and late stages of kidney disease, but it cannot test the early stage of kidney disease. This is because the kidney itself is compensatory, and the early damage is relatively light, and it can still metabolize excess toxins normally. Basically, the gradual increase in creatinine occurs occasionally in stage 3 of nephropathy, but if treatment is being carried out at this time, the treatment time has been delayed. Therefore, to judge the severity of kidney disease, one can look at the creatinine value, but not just the creatinine index. In addition to blood creatinine, what other important situations should be paid attention to? These 3 points are also very important! Kidney disease “gold index”-urine protein level Urine protein and blood creatinine are both “famous” indicators in the nephropathy community, but the difference is that the level of blood creatinine depends on the face of kidney function. Urine protein and kidney function affect each other. The higher the level of urinary protein, the greater the effect on the glomeruli, the faster the progress of renal fibrosis and sclerosis, and the higher the risk of renal failure. To maintain stable renal function for a long time and delay the rate of renal failure, the urine protein level must be maintained below 1g, and individual kidney diseases must be maintained below 0.5g. The longer the urinary protein is at a lower level, the slower the progress of renal function, or even stop worsening, and the prognosis of the disease will not be too bad. Some patients left a message saying: Doctor, is my urine protein 2+ serious? There is no way to judge whether the kidney disease is serious or not from the index alone, but the severity of urine protein can be judged. At this time, kidney friends need to further check the 24-hour urine protein quantification or the urine protein-creatinine ratio to accurately determine the urine protein. Severity. There are two key aspects to keeping urine protein at a low level. One is the control of inflammation, and the other is the stability of the disease and whether there is relapse. The weather vane of kidney blood oxygen situation-blood pressure level The main reason for kidney fibrosis and sclerosis is the insufficient blood oxygen supply for kidney cells to survive, which leads to more and more kidney cell damage and renal failure. Hypertension is one of the factors that accelerate renal failure. The higher the blood pressure will cause the occurrence of arterial hypertension in the glomerulus, the higher the blood pressure, the stronger the destructive power of the kidney function and accelerate the occurrence of renal failure. Therefore, the higher the blood pressure, the more serious the condition. Generally, the blood pressure is controlled below 130/80, the less the effect on kidney function, the better the prognosis. For patients with essential hypertension, generally insisting on taking antihypertensive drugs is not a big problem. For patients with hypertension after nephropathy, in addition to taking antihypertensive drugs, they also need to cooperate with a low-salt and low-fat diet, and pay attention to monitoring the cardiovascular system. System diseases are more helpful to the long-term stability of blood pressure. Self-perception of physical symptoms In addition to some cold indicators, the patient’s own symptom perception is also an important criterion. Some patients still feel uncomfortable and have many symptoms despite the decline in various indicators, and it cannot be said that their condition has completely improved and is not serious. In addition to some indicators that affect the development of renal function, the treatment of kidney disease should also consider the patient’s quality of life. The development of kidney disease is relatively long, so maintaining a normal quality of life is also part of the treatment of kidney disease. If there is no edema, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, etc., the condition is not very serious, and long-term maintenance is fine.

To judge the severity of kidney disease, don’t just stare at blood creatinine, there are three “gold standards”

After kidney disease occurs, the first question most nephrologists ask is: Doctor, is my condition serious? What are the general criteria for judging whether kidney disease is serious? Many people will habitually look at some indicators. A low indicator means not serious, and an elevated indicator means more serious. One of the indicators often used to judge the severity of kidney disease is blood creatinine. Nephropathy is generally divided into five stages according to the level of blood creatinine. Generally speaking, an increase in creatinine indicates a decline in the ability of the kidneys to detoxify and the condition is getting more and more serious. But sometimes creatinine alone is not necessarily accurate. Using creatinine to understand kidney disease is only suitable for the middle and late stages of kidney disease, but it cannot test the early stage of kidney disease. This is because the kidney itself is compensatory, and the early damage is relatively light, and it can still metabolize excess toxins normally. Basically, the gradual increase in creatinine occurs occasionally in stage 3 of nephropathy, but if treatment is being carried out at this time, the treatment time has been delayed. Therefore, to judge the severity of kidney disease, one can look at the creatinine value, but not just the creatinine index. In addition to blood creatinine, what other important situations should be paid attention to? These 3 points are also very important! Kidney disease “gold index”-urine protein level Urine protein and blood creatinine are both “famous” indicators in the nephropathy community, but the difference is that the level of blood creatinine depends on the face of kidney function. Urine protein and kidney function affect each other. The higher the level of urinary protein, the greater the effect on the glomeruli, the faster the progress of renal fibrosis and sclerosis, and the higher the risk of renal failure. To maintain stable renal function for a long time and delay the rate of renal failure, the urine protein level must be maintained below 1g, and individual kidney diseases must be maintained below 0.5g. The longer the urinary protein is at a lower level, the slower the progress of renal function, or even stop worsening, and the prognosis of the disease will not be too bad. Some patients left a message saying: Doctor, is my urine protein 2+ serious? There is no way to judge whether the kidney disease is serious or not from the index alone, but the severity of urine protein can be judged. At this time, kidney friends need to further check the 24-hour urine protein quantification or the urine protein-creatinine ratio to accurately determine the urine protein. Severity. There are two key aspects to keeping urine protein at a low level. One is the control of inflammation, and the other is the stability of the disease and whether there is relapse. The weather vane of kidney blood oxygen situation-blood pressure level The main reason for kidney fibrosis and sclerosis is the insufficient blood oxygen supply for kidney cells to survive, which leads to more and more kidney cell damage and renal failure. Hypertension is one of the factors that accelerate renal failure. The higher the blood pressure will cause the occurrence of arterial hypertension in the glomerulus, the higher the blood pressure, the stronger the destructive power of the kidney function and accelerate the occurrence of renal failure. Therefore, the higher the blood pressure, the more serious the condition. Generally, the blood pressure is controlled below 130/80, the less the effect on kidney function, the better the prognosis. For patients with essential hypertension, generally insisting on taking antihypertensive drugs is not a big problem. For patients with hypertension after nephropathy, in addition to taking antihypertensive drugs, they also need to cooperate with a low-salt and low-fat diet, and pay attention to monitoring the cardiovascular system. System diseases are more conducive to the long-term stability of blood pressure. Self-perception of physical symptoms In addition to some cold indicators, the patient’s own symptom perception is also an important criterion. Some patients still feel uncomfortable and have many symptoms despite the decline in various indicators, and it cannot be said that their condition has completely improved and is not serious. In addition to some indicators that affect the development of renal function, the treatment of kidney disease should also consider the patient’s quality of life. The development of kidney disease is relatively long, so maintaining a normal quality of life is also part of the treatment of kidney disease. If there is no edema, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, etc., the condition is not very serious, and long-term maintenance is fine.

There are 3 criteria for “curing” kidney disease, all of which have been met, so there is no need to worry about uremia

1. Severe symptoms are completely relieved. When most patients find kidney disease, they often first have uncomfortable symptoms, and then check that the corresponding indicators have increased. In the early stage, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and insomnia are more common. In the middle stage, urine protein, edema, and blood pressure cause dizziness and headache. In the later stage, it includes skin itching, dysuria, abdominal swelling, chest tightness, and slow heart rhythm. These symptoms will make the body feel uncomfortable immediately and affect the quality of life. Therefore, if these symptoms are completely relieved after control, and the patient returns to a normal life, it is also one of the indicators of improvement. Second, the improvement of key indicators affecting kidney function. Some indicators have increased, which may seem “menacing”, but in fact, the harm to the kidneys is relatively small. But some indicators do not seem to be serious, but they are important “killers” that exacerbate kidney failure. For example, proteinuria, high blood pressure, anemia, etc., belong to the latter, each of which can “drink a pot” of kidney function, so stabilizing these indicators in time can directly delay the deterioration of various kidney functions. The main reason is It can reduce the damage of the glomerulus and preserve the survival of the remaining glomerulus and other cells. At the same time, it can also improve the symptoms caused by it, such as edema, dizziness, nausea, and inability to eat, killing two birds with one stone. Generally, if the urinary protein quantitative is maintained below 0.5g, the blood pressure is controlled at 130/80, and the hemoglobin in the anemia test is maintained above 110, the development of renal function will slow down a lot. Third, the number of recurrences is minimal. Micronephropathy is a disease that is prone to relapse, mainly related to the cause of the disease, and low immunity is an important aspect. Therefore, after the indicators are improved and the symptoms are relieved, the condition can be kept stable without recurrence is also an important part of whether the kidney disease is clinically cured. What should be paid attention to to prevent the recurrence of kidney disease? Do not stop the drug randomly, reduce infection, avoid overwork, and prevent complications, all of which can reduce the risk of recurrence. Also pay attention to the usual eating habits, including low-salt, low-fat and low-protein diets, a reasonable combination of diet; proper exercise; maintaining a good attitude will help consolidate the treatment results.

If these three points are not done well, kidney disease may recur

Kidney disease is an “old and stubborn” in the eyes of many people. Once it occurs, it seems to have to be with it for life, which makes kidney friends very worried. Why can some diseases recover after a period of treatment, and even the sequelae will not remain, but kidney disease is a “lifelong disease”? For most people, nephropathy is detected early enough, and standardized scientific treatment can preserve the remaining renal function, and the risk of uremia is very small. There are also a small number of patients whose final prognosis is worse, and kidney failure or even uremia cannot be ruled out. So why is it difficult to completely cure kidney disease? You must know these three points about kidney disease! 1. Don’t just think about simply reducing the indicators. Although there are some key indicators that have a greater impact on renal function at different stages of kidney disease, simply controlling these indicators cannot fundamentally solve the problem of worsening renal function. This must be understood. . For example, creatinine value is an indicator to measure kidney function and judge uremia. Many people feel that creatinine has dropped and the condition has stabilized and they will no longer be treated. It is true that the change of creatinine means the detoxification function of the kidney. But to maintain a stable condition and delay renal failure, it is certainly not enough to control creatinine. It can’t be lowered just to lower the index. This is why some patients have creatinine that drops for a while and then rises again. 2. It is difficult to stabilize the disease by drugs alone. For the relief of some symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, edema, etc., and the reduction indicators including urinary protein, creatinine, uric acid, blood pressure, etc., targeted medication can quickly relieve symptoms and reduce indicators. But this is only temporary. To maintain stability for a long period of time, not only do you insist on medication, but also actively cooperate with daily care. Including the management of diet, changing the habits of kidney injury, and paying attention to the good habits of protecting the kidney. In the long run, kidney function can last and be stable. The causes of kidney disease are also related to some daily kidney injury habits such as long-term high-protein diet causing obesity, three highs, etc., as well as staying up late, smoking, not exercising, etc. will affect the body’s immunity, and then quietly damage the kidneys. 3. Chronic kidney disease re-examination every three months or half a year requires long-term monitoring, even if all indicators are improved. After fibrosis of kidney cells, some will be filtered by blood and metabolized with urine, but some damaged parts will form scars on the surface of the kidney, just like scars after scratching. These kidney scars are more sensitive. If infection or other disease factors occur, they may cause relapse. Therefore, regular reexamination is an important “weapon” to avoid repeated illnesses, and kidney friends should not lose it. Therefore, the “stubborn” kidney disease is not terrible. What is terrible is that after a long time of treatment, it is in vain. Kidney friends should learn to treat the condition from shallow to deep. Don’t just look at the surface, it is not difficult to get better control of your condition.

Kidney function is not good, there are three items that must be checked!

Whether it is a daily physical examination or a routine examination for nephropathy treatment, to determine whether the kidney function is good or bad, you need to do some kidney-related examinations. Through the examination results, you can more accurately understand the condition of the kidney and the changes in the condition. Accurate examination results are the basis of treatment. There are many nephropathy examination items. Some patients have symptoms of discomfort for the first time, but the examination is not comprehensive, and the disease is not found in time, or the treatment is not timely, resulting in more and more serious illness and missed the best treatment. Time makes it difficult to reverse the condition. Nephropathy examination mainly includes two aspects: one to check blood and two to check urine, and different indicators reflect different kidney functions. Some inspections need to be reviewed multiple times, and some indicators can judge the results only once. Kidney function is not good, these three tests must be checked, no need to struggle! The three major examination items of urine examination are the routine urine examination. The indicators in the routine urine examination mainly reflect two aspects, inflammation and kidney problems. Nephropathy treatment-related indicators mainly include urinary red blood cells, white blood cells, urine protein, and urine specific gravity. High red blood cells and white blood cells indicate inflammation, specifically kidney inflammation or urinary tract inflammation, which needs further examination. The changes in urine protein and urine specific gravity can directly reflect the condition of the kidney. The presence of urine protein + is positive, and the increase in urine specific gravity indicates a problem with the kidney. Of course, the problem of transient urine protein should also be ruled out, that is, physiological factors such as eating too many high-protein foods, vigorous exercise before examination, etc. cause abnormal urine tests. Some patients in the early stage of kidney disease have no obvious symptoms, and there are often obvious abnormalities in the examination indicators, which are of great significance for the early treatment of kidney disease. Compare and see what happens to your test order? Urine morphological analysis sounds very high, what tests are they? Many kidney friends look at the test sheet and may have seen these indicators: tube type, crystal, bacteria, epithelial cells, etc. These tests have an important role in further determining the condition of kidney damage, such as a high rate of urine red blood cell deformation, mostly kidney The damaged glomerulus indicates glomerulonephritis. Urine protein in-depth inspection routine examination can find the presence of urine protein + sign, to clarify the situation of protein leakage, the degree of glomerular damage, the degree of impaired renal function, further urine related examinations are needed. Mainly include: 24-hour urine protein quantification, urine total protein creatinine ratio, urine albumin creatinine ratio and so on. The first two indicators have similar functions and can be replaced with each other, just check some of them. A large amount of protein leakage mainly reflects the impaired glomerular filtration function and the degree of glomerular lesions. In general, the more proteinuria, the more severe the damage to kidney function. The urine albumin creatinine ratio test is more accurate than the previous two tests. It can detect patients with kidney damage, but only mild proteinuria symptoms, such as diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy. If you have a long history of sugar friends and high blood pressure patients, you will find that there is foam in your urine and no symptoms, but you can’t find any problems in urine routine. Remember to check this indicator. Two routine blood tests include blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen. The kidneys are detoxifying organs. The increase in these indicators is a manifestation of increased levels of toxins in the body. It also indicates that the kidneys’ detoxification function is reduced. It’s half over. Hemoglobin Hemoglobin mainly plays the role of loosening blood oxygen to ensure normal blood flow rate. If abnormality occurs, most of them indicate anemia. In the middle and late stages of kidney disease, erythropoietin production decreases and spinal cord hematopoiesis decreases, and renal anemia occurs. A small number of patients often detect anemia first, and eventually diagnose kidney disease. Anemia will cause the degeneration of various functions of the body, in particular, it will cause a decline in immunity, which is not conducive to the stability and treatment of the disease. Renal function test In addition to the above tests, to further understand the examination of renal function, there are glomerular filtration rate, memory creatinine clearance rate, renal B ultrasound, electrolyte-related tests, etc. The abnormality of these indicators further indicates changes in renal function, and is particularly critical for the prevention of renal failure. More attention should be paid to the treatment.

Nephropathy urine loss must be renal failure? Don’t worry, there are chances to save if you do 2 points

Whether it is a daily physical examination or a routine examination for nephropathy treatment, to determine whether the kidney function is good or bad, you need to do some kidney-related examinations. Through the examination results, you can more accurately understand the condition of the kidney and the changes in the condition. Accurate examination results are the basis of treatment. There are many nephropathy examination items. Some patients have symptoms of discomfort for the first time, but the examination is not comprehensive, and the disease is not found in time, or the treatment is not timely, resulting in more and more serious illness and missed the best treatment. Time makes it difficult to reverse the condition. Nephropathy examination mainly includes two aspects: one to check blood and two to check urine, and different indicators reflect different kidney functions. Some inspections need to be reviewed multiple times, and some indicators can judge the results only once. Kidney function is not good, these three tests must be checked, no need to struggle! The three major examination items of urine examination are the routine urine examination. The indicators in the routine urine examination mainly reflect two aspects, inflammation and kidney problems. Nephropathy treatment-related indicators mainly include urinary red blood cells, white blood cells, urine protein, and urine specific gravity. High red blood cells and white blood cells indicate inflammation, specifically kidney inflammation or urinary tract inflammation, which needs further examination. The changes in urine protein and urine specific gravity can directly reflect the condition of the kidney. The presence of urine protein + is positive, and the increase in urine specific gravity indicates a problem with the kidney. Of course, the problem of transient urine protein should also be ruled out, that is, physiological factors such as eating too many high-protein foods, vigorous exercise before examination, etc. cause abnormal urine tests. Some patients in the early stage of kidney disease have no obvious symptoms, and there are often obvious abnormalities in the examination indicators, which are of great significance for the early treatment of kidney disease. Compare and see what happens to your test order? Urine morphological analysis sounds very high, what tests are they? Many kidney friends look at the test sheet and may have seen these indicators: tube type, crystal, bacteria, epithelial cells, etc. These tests have an important role in further determining the condition of kidney damage, such as a high rate of urine red blood cell deformation, mostly kidney The damaged glomerulus indicates glomerulonephritis. Urine protein in-depth inspection routine examination can find the presence of urine protein + sign, to clarify the situation of protein leakage, the degree of glomerular damage, the degree of impaired renal function, further urine related examinations are needed. Mainly include: 24-hour urine protein quantification, urine total protein creatinine ratio, urine albumin creatinine ratio and so on. The first two indicators have similar functions and can be replaced with each other, just check some of them. A large amount of protein leakage mainly reflects the impaired glomerular filtration function and the degree of glomerular lesions. In general, the more proteinuria, the more severe the damage to kidney function. The urine albumin creatinine ratio test is more accurate than the previous two tests. It can detect patients with kidney damage, but only mild proteinuria symptoms, such as diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy. If you have a long history of sugar friends and high blood pressure patients, you will find that there is foam in your urine and no symptoms, but you can’t find any problems in urine routine. Remember to check this indicator. Two routine blood tests include blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen. The kidneys are detoxifying organs. The increase in these indicators is a manifestation of increased levels of toxins in the body. It also indicates that the kidneys’ detoxification function is reduced. It’s half over. Hemoglobin Hemoglobin mainly plays the role of loosening blood oxygen to ensure normal blood flow rate. If abnormality occurs, most of them indicate anemia. In the middle and late stages of kidney disease, erythropoietin production decreases and spinal cord hematopoiesis decreases, and renal anemia occurs. A small number of patients often detect anemia first, and eventually diagnose kidney disease. Anemia will cause the degeneration of various functions of the body, in particular, it will cause a decline in immunity, which is not conducive to the stability and treatment of the disease. Renal function test In addition to the above tests, to further understand the examination of renal function, there are glomerular filtration rate, memory creatinine clearance rate, renal B ultrasound, electrolyte-related tests, etc. The abnormality of these indicators further indicates changes in renal function, and is particularly critical for the prevention of renal failure. More attention should be paid to the treatment.

How much weight gain during pregnancy? The United States, Japan, and China have different indicators. Which one is more scientific?

& nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Every woman who loves beauty will have a problem after pregnancy: how much weight should be gained during pregnancy, which can protect the nutrition of the fetus and not make your body fat? When it comes to how much weight gain during pregnancy is appropriate, there is no precise standard, and countries have different indicators. The American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends that for women who are underweight, that is, women with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5, the IOM guidelines recommend weight gains of 12.7 to 18.1 kg during pregnancy. Japan has set weight gain targets at 9 to 12 kg. In China, during pregnancy, it is more appropriate to gain weight between 12-15 kg. From the above three indicators, we can see that China takes the middle value, which is neither high nor low. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Some people think that women in Europe and the United States are tall, and it is normal for women to gain more weight during pregnancy. The Chinese are also Asians. Why not use Japan’s weight gain indicators? & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. At first, in order to worry about the fetus being too large and causing pregnancy complications such as eclampsia, some Japanese obstetricians recommended that pregnant women adopt a low-calorie diet to reduce the risk. Guidelines for the year. In the past, expectant mothers were told to ‘eat two people’, but now it is “try to have a smaller baby and raise him”. Therefore, Japan’s pregnancy weight gain index is relatively low, and pregnant women’s weight control is relatively strict, which has led to an increase in the number of newborns born with low height and low weight. Newborns with low birth weights are more likely to suffer from diabetes and hypertension when they grow up. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Based on the above factors, it is more appropriate to control the weight gain index at 12-15 kg. It not only guarantees the nutrition of the fetus in the stomach, but also does not cause the fetus to become obese, which is within the normal range. If the weight gain during pregnancy exceeds 15 kg, it is easy to cause many dangerous complications, such as chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pyelonephritis, thrombosis, expired pregnancy, and excessive fetal size. It is not conducive to the smooth delivery of the baby during childbirth and the recovery of the woman’s body after delivery. You need to adjust your diet and control your weight. & nbsp. If a pregnant woman gains less than 12 kg during pregnancy, she is underweight. It is easy to give birth to low-weight babies, which is also detrimental to the baby’s development. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Specific to how much weight gain each month, in the first three months, you need to gain 2 kg. In the middle of pregnancy, the weight gain is 5 kg, and in the late pregnancy, the weight gain is 5 kg. Such a weight gain rhythm is scientific, because the fetus needs these nutrient intakes. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp. Some pregnant mothers are puzzled and the baby is born, that is, 3 or 4 kg. Why do you have to gain so much weight during pregnancy? We can calculate a specific account: the full-term fetus is about 3 or 4 kg, the amniotic fluid does not exceed 1 kg, the uterus increases by about 1 kg, the placenta increases by 500 to 650 grams, the breast increases by about 500 grams, and the blood volume increases by about 1.5 kg. The lower body weight gain comes from the increase in fat reserves and interstitial fluid after edema. It should be noted that if a pregnant woman is too heavy or too light before pregnancy, the application of this weight gain indicator will increase or decrease according to her actual situation, and you do n’t have to be too specific about specific indicators. & Nbsp.