In general, people think that they are sick and have low resistance and need to supplement nutrition, but polycythemia vera is different. True red is also known as “hyperemia”, patients not only can not over-feed, but also need a light diet to control weight. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat consultation platform: zkxk9999 So, what other foods in the daily diet are suitable for patients with polycythemia? ① Edible cactus edible method: take one cactus, peel off the thorns, wash and chop, take 1 egg, remove the shell and mix well with the cactus, fry and eat. The number of bowel movements may increase after use, but not more than 3 times a day. Efficacy: The cactus is medicinal bitter cold, can promote qi and blood circulation, clear heat and detoxify, heat stasis and blood stasis, impaired veins, and has obvious curative effect. ② Black fungus is usually common, and the method of eating is relatively simple. Efficacy: Auricularia auricula is a medicinal Gan Ping. It is rich in carbohydrates, inorganic salts, sulfur, magnesium and vitamin B. It has nourishing yin, nourishing body, promoting blood circulation and resisting cancer. It can dilute platelet aggregation and reduce blood viscosity. ③White radish White radish is rich in lignin, which can improve the activity of macrophages, engulf mutant cells, and enhance immunity in the body. Polycythemia vera itself will cause the patient’s total blood volume to increase. If the method of supplementation is taken, it is easy to counteract, increase the burden on the patient’s body, and even increase the condition. Therefore, true red patients should control their diet and actively cooperate with treatment. More patient communication help can pay attention to WeChat public account: Zhenhong
Xiebeilu studio WeChat add369456 Platelets are very important substances in the blood, its role is very large, it is an effective substance to prevent serious bleeding from the wound. Once the wound is bleeding heavily, platelets can play the role of coagulation, block the wound, prevent excessive blood loss . The content of platelets in the blood has a certain reasonable range, too high or too low will affect health. When the body’s resistance and immunity decline, it is prone to inflammatory diseases. Especially chronic inflammation, this kind of disease usually does not make people have obvious symptoms, so it will ignore such disease problems. There are many symptoms of chronic inflammation. For example, the nose often bleeds and the blood circulation is not smooth. The frequent occurrence of fever and cold is also caused by chronic inflammation. So does chronic inflammation cause platelet elevation? Platelet hyperplasia is a myeloproliferative disease, which is characterized by bleeding tendency and thrombosis, peripheral blood platelets continue to increase significantly, the function is not normal, and bone marrow megakaryocytes proliferate excessively. Because the disease often has repeated bleeding, it is also called hemorrhagic thrombocytosis, and the incidence is not high. It is more common in people over 40 years old. Platelets are exfoliated from the cytoplasm of mature meganucleus in bone marrow. They are diverse in shape, inconsistent in size, easy to adhere, aggregate and destroy. They are very important in forming white platelet plugs, releasing platelet factors, and promoting blood clotting and blood clot contraction. The significance of is one of the important indicators for the study of hemostasis and coagulation disorders. Platelets are one of the coagulation factors. If the platelets are much higher than normal, it is a pathological manifestation. If the increase in platelets is accompanied by an increase in white blood cells, and the content of anticoagulant factors decreases, the blood viscosity increases or the blood flow decreases. Wait slowly. This may be a pre-thrombotic state. If it is the state mentioned in the appeal, you need to go to the hospital in time, because the pre-thrombotic state is only a manifestation of the disease. It can be inherited or acquired. of. The common causes of thrombocytosis are mainly the following: 1. Reactive thrombocytosis is found in infections, post-surgery, malignant tumors, post-splenectomy, acute blood loss or iron deficiency, trauma, non-infectious inflammation, etc. These causes lead to platelet-promoting Increased release of growth factors (such as thrombopoietin, interleukin-6) leads to increased platelets. 2. Spontaneous thrombocytosis is seen in myeloproliferative diseases, such as polycythemia vera and early myelofibrosis, chronic myeloid leukemia, etc. 3. Primary thrombocytosis Pathogenesis may be related to thrombopoietin and thrombopoietin receptor changes and downstream pathway activation. 50% of patients with primary thrombocythemia have JAK2V617F gene mutation, 3% to 5% of patients have MPL gene mutation, and 15% to 25% of patients have CALR gene mutation.
Primary thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disease, but the disease progresses slowly or even hidden in the early stage of the disease, and it cannot be discovered in time. However, as the disease progresses, some patients will develop acute leukemia. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat consultation platform: zkxk9999 hemorrhage and thrombosis are the main complications and hazards of thrombocytosis, which directly affects the life expectancy and quality of life of patients. However, primary thrombocytosis often develops into a chronic process, and its severity is also different: high risk : Age >. 60 years old or ET-related thrombosis, bleeding or platelets >. 1500×109/L Medium risk: age 40-60 years old, no high risk factors Low risk: age <. 40 years old, no high risk factors and treatment of primary The purpose of thrombocythemia is to reduce the occurrence of complications. Therefore, the following treatment methods are common: -ET patients should be screened for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and smoking history, and treated accordingly. -All patients with ET should be given aspirin unless there are contraindications. -The purpose of treatment is to restore the number of platelets to normal. -Reducing cell therapy is needed in the high-risk group. The first-line treatment is hydroxyurea + aspirin. Young or pregnant patients choose interferon therapy. -In the low- and medium-risk group, in clinical trials or symptomatic ET patients (progressive splenomegaly, or severe microvascular symptoms, aspirin cannot be improved, or uncontrolled bleeding due to increased platelet count), cell reduction therapy is performed. -Patients with uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors consider cell-reducing therapy. Although the above treatments for thrombocytosis have a certain effect, they also have the problem that the limitation of the effect is easy to repeat. In particular, chemotherapy drugs often require long-term application, and their side effects are inevitable. Therefore, it is necessary for patients to combine Chinese medicine Differentiation and treatment, increase efficacy and reduce toxicity. More patient exchanges and help can pay attention to WeChat public account: Thrombocytosis Patient Association
Polycythemia vera is not common in daily life, and many patients do not know much about the disease. They think that the high red blood cell value is true red. In fact, the characteristic of true red is not only that the red blood cells are too high, and only checking the blood routine can not confirm the true red! Director Shi Shurong’s consultation on WeChat zkxk9999 consultation: physical examination blood routinely found that red blood cells and hemoglobin are high, more than 180 hemoglobin, but my body has no symptoms at all, is it true polycythemia? Medical Answer: General blood routine examination of red blood cells and hemoglobin is abnormally high, and may be suspected of polycythemia, but whether it can be diagnosed as polycythemia vera, simple blood routine examination can not be finalized, in addition to the patient’s physical manifestations, but also with Comprehensive analysis of other relevant inspection results. So, what abnormalities do people with polycythemia have? First of all, patients with signs and symptoms are more common in the middle-aged and elderly people, often found due to headaches, limb numbness and other symptoms. Routine blood tests: mainly red blood cell count, hematocrit, increased red blood cell volume and hemoglobin, hematocrit is 60% male and 55% female patients often have an absolute increase in red blood cell volume. Therefore, these patients can not do red blood cell volume check. About 50% of patients are accompanied by increased white blood cell and platelet counts. Bone marrow elephant: Early patients with red blood cells often exhibit iron-deficient morphological features, low pigment in small cells, and late bone marrow fibrosis, which can have significant large and small unevenness and teardrop-shaped red blood cells. In advanced patients, intermediate and late granulocytes can be seen, and about 23 patients can have increased basophils. Giant blood platelets are often seen in peripheral blood smears. Bone marrow examinations are often hyperproliferative in three lines and may have reticular fibrosis. The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase level is increased in about 70% of patients, the serum VitB12 concentration is increased in 40% of patients, the serum VitB12 binding protein is increased in 70% of patients, most patients have elevated uric acid and histamine levels, and arterial PO is usually more normal People are low. Whole blood viscosity often increases. Serum EPO levels are reduced or normal low values. Patients with normal PT, aPT and normal fibrinogen platelet counts of 1000X109L may have acquired VWD similar to type II VWD), with extended bleeding time, ⅧC: normal VWF, reduced activity of co-factors of ristocetin, and large VWF. The number of aggregates is reduced or missing. Some patients have deficiency of antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C and protein S. The above is about the common symptoms of polycythemia vera, and the examination of blood and bone marrow. Finally, it is emphasized that the late stage of true red disease is very harmful to the health of patients. Therefore, once the diagnosis is confirmed, it must be actively treated without delay! For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Vaginitis • A common gynecological disease characterized by increased vaginal secretions. • May have abnormal vaginal secretions, vaginal itching, burning sensation, etc. •&Nbsp. Mainly through oral or vaginal topical medication treatment According to statistics, 95% of women have had vaginitis in their lifetime, such a high proportion of diseases, there are many misunderstandings about it, some of them are harmful! Today, the editor will take you closer to the symptoms and harm of vaginitis of various types of vaginitis and the symptoms of trichomonas vaginitis: leucorrhea increases, milky or yellow, sometimes purulent leucorrhea, often foamy. Harm: Trichomonas urethritis can be complicated. Trichomonas can swallow sperm, which can cause infertility and affect sexual life. Symptoms of mycotic vaginitis: itching of the vulva, burning of the vulva and vagina, and leucorrhea increased as tofu-like. Hazard: Not easy to cure, easy to repeat, and cause premature delivery, fetal infection and deformity. Symptoms of bacterial vaginitis: leucorrhea increases, off-white, thin, foamy. Hazards: Induced genital infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, peri-nephritis, sexual pain, etc. Symptoms of non-specific vaginitis: the vagina feels falling, burning, with pelvic discomfort and general fatigue. The vaginal discharge is purulent, serous, and smelly. Harm: Causes vaginal adhesions, vaginal empyema, or uterine empyema, easily causing pelvic inflammatory disease, premature rupture of membranes, and chorioamnionitis. Vaginitis is a very common gynecological disease, so female friends must have a certain understanding of the disease, strive to be able to detect its existence in the early stages of the disease, and take active and timely treatment.
Blood diseases are diseases that originate in the hematopoietic system, or affect the hematopoietic system with abnormal blood changes, and are characterized by anemia, bleeding, and fever. The hematopoietic system includes blood, bone marrow mononuclear-macrophage system, and lymphoid tissue. All diseases involving pathology and physiology of the hematopoietic system and whose main manifestations belong to the category of hematological diseases. What are the diseases of blood disease? In general, medicine is divided into four categories according to different types of diseases: (1) Red blood cell diseases: iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, thalassemia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia , Drug-induced hemolytic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute hemorrhagic anemia, anemia of chronic disease, hemochromatosis, etc.; (2) leukocyte disease: leukopenia, agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, acute Leukemia, chronic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), infectious mononucleosis, infectious lymphocytosis, hemophagocytic syndrome, multiple Myeloma, etc.; (3) Hemorrhagic diseases: simple purpura, allergic purpura, immune thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, acquired coagulation disorders, etc.; (4) Myeloproliferative diseases: polycythemia vera, primary thrombocythemia, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. Through the above content, do you all understand what exactly is a blood disease, and the main classification of blood system diseases? In life, everyone should distinguish in time or better to understand some of its symptoms. That’s okay, because this way we can ensure that we don’t have any diseases here, but everyone should actively protect our bodies.
Abnormal proliferation of bone marrow tissue can occur under special circumstances. Generally, bone marrow tumors with abnormal proliferation of clonal erythrocytes are called polycythemia vera, abbreviated as true red. Director Shi Shurong’s micro-signal zkxk9999 true red is a chronic disease, mainly manifested in the increase in the number of red blood cells in the peripheral blood and the increase in blood viscosity. Patients are often accompanied by increased white blood cell and platelet counts, hepatosplenomegaly, or bleeding, thrombosis and other complications may occur Disease, some can progress to acute leukemia or bone marrow fibrosis. There are three points to note in the treatment of this disease: 1. Control the number of red blood cells. Commonly used interferon can also be supplemented with other oral chemotherapy drugs. 2. To control the tendency of thrombosis caused by erythropoiesis, you can take aspirin and other anticoagulant drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis. 3. If the disease is to be cured, the only way is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. When interferon is used to treat this disease, the general dose is 3 million units, which is injected subcutaneously once a day, and then gradually reduced to the long-term maintenance according to the number of red blood cells. Injecting interferon to treat true red pays attention to two points: ① At the same time, hepatoprotective drugs are added, because the drug hurts the liver; ② The first three shots generally respond when interferon is injected, showing fever, muscle and joint pain, and oral supplementation can be added in advance Pain relieves symptoms. Finally, it is emphasized that true red treatment focuses on relieving symptoms, avoiding thrombosis, inhibiting malignant cloning, delaying or reducing the occurrence of long-term complications such as myelofibrosis and leukemia, thereby improving the quality of life and prolonging survival. For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
Hu Guisheng Assistant WeChat: dd326751 From the current point of view, the distribution of thrombocytosis in China is extremely wide, and there are many reasons for thrombocytosis, whether it is in life or study, it has brought great impact to people. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent and treat in time, what are the causes of thrombocytosis? 1, Physiology: Exclude the errors of detection equipment and medical staff, even the content of platelets in the blood of normal people is constantly changing In general, it is lower in the morning, slightly higher in the afternoon, lower in spring, and slightly higher in winter. At the same time, sweating, water shortage, inflammation and other factors may cause platelet elevation. 2. Clonalness: The neoplastic proliferation of megakaryocytes and their prophase cells is a chronic myeloproliferative disease, the cause of which is unknown. At this time, not only the normal proliferation mechanism of platelets is out of control, platelet increases, but also the function and morphology of platelets are abnormal and prone to occur. Complications such as thrombosis and bleeding. 3. Secondary: There are many factors that cause thrombocytosis. Among them, malignant tumors include hematological malignancies: chronic inflammation, acute inflammatory infection: acute blood loss, iron deficiency anemia, hemolytic anemia, etc. will cause platelet increase. 4. Familial: Due to chromosomal dominant genetic disease, mutation of TPO gene and increase of thrombopoietin are relatively rare, it also indicates that the occurrence of thrombocytosis may be related to the family history of this disease in some cases, and also reminds Everyone should be familiar with the existence of members of the family in order to take timely measures to prevent it. 5. Defects in platelet function: Functionality of platelet degrades its adhesion and aggregation functions, and also reduces the third factor of platelet, serotonin reduction and abnormal release function. Some patients will have abnormal coagulation mechanism and increased capillary fragility. Primary thrombocythemia is a type of myeloproliferative disease. It is characterized by abnormal proliferation of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and a marked increase in platelet count. The main clinical manifestations are bleeding and thrombosis tendency. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, targeted treatment must be taken in time!
Vaginitis • A common gynecological disease characterized by increased vaginal secretions. • Related to infection, dysbacteriosis, hormone levels, etc. • May have abnormal vaginal secretions, vaginal itching, burning sensation, etc. •&Nbsp. Mainly through oral or vaginal topical medication. According to statistics, 95% of women have had vaginitis in their lifetime. Such a high prevalence rate, there are many misunderstandings about it, and some of them are harmful! Washing is healthier? →Some are too optimistic, not painful or itchy, no treatment? →Some unfounded pregnancies will not get vaginitis… 8 most common misconceptions about vaginitis (1) ▼Q1 will you not get vaginitis without sex? wrong! Is this suggesting that an unclean sex life is the “culprit” causing vaginitis? Will the elderly and infants have vaginitis? Positive solution: The “criminal culprit” of vaginitis is actually that the balance of the microecology and immune function of the vagina is broken, giving the pathogenic bacteria an opportunity, similar to the pathogenic principles of influenza, imbalance of intestinal flora and other diseases. Both young and old can get it, but the incidence of women of childbearing age is relatively highest. Q2 No pain or itching without treatment? wrong! Do you think vaginitis can heal itself? Slightly OK, but not necessarily. Painless or itchy may be just the beginning. After a long delay, there will still be odor, itching, pain, abnormal leucorrhea and other symptoms. Positive solution: The simplest self-examination is to observe whether the secretions are normal, such as the amount, color, and smell of leucorrhea: 1. Most bacterial vaginosis has increased leucorrhea and has a smell; 2. Mycotic vaginitis leucorrhea will be white and thick , It is curd-like or okara-like; 3. Trichomonas vaginitis will increase leucorrhea, leucorrhea is thin purulent, yellow-green, foamy, and smelly. If abnormalities are found, treatment should be started as soon as possible to avoid prolonged procrastination, which will lead to difficult treatment and repeated attacks.
Everyone knows that the main role of platelets is to stop bleeding and coagulation, and there is a risk of bleeding if the platelets decrease. However, in the hematology department, patients often see a doctor because of bleeding, check the blood routine, and find that the platelet value is seriously high, what is the matter? Why is the platelet value high and bleeding? Director Shi Shurong’s micro signal zkxk9999. In fact, bleeding and thrombosis are the main clinical hazards of patients with thrombocytosis. As for why there is bleeding in thrombocytosis, the following specific analysis: First, although there are many platelets, but the function is defective. Thrombocytosis is a myeloproliferative tumor. The excessive proliferation of bone marrow megakaryocytes leads to an increase in platelet values. The platelet adhesion and aggregation functions of these excessively proliferated platelets are reduced, the release function is abnormal, and the platelet third factor is reduced. , Serotonin reduction, etc. In short, platelets are not normal platelets with perfect hemostatic and coagulation mechanisms, but functionally defective platelets! Secondly, some patients with ET have abnormal coagulation function such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V and factor Ⅷ decrease, which may be caused by excessive consumption of blood coagulation; third, the patient is older and vascular factors are known The majority of patients with thrombocytosis are middle-aged and elderly, and often have degenerative changes in blood vessels, which are prone to form thrombosis, causing infarction of the distal blood vessels and bleeding in the infarcted area. Increased capillary fragility is also one of the causes of bleeding! It is worth noting that thrombocytosis is a myeloproliferative disease. Patients may have bleeding and thrombosis, so when embolism occurs, pain, numbness, or other related manifestations in the corresponding parts may occur. For more thrombocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: xxbzd999
Primary thrombocythemia is a disease caused by the clonal proliferation of a single abnormal pluripotent stem cell. The number of pathogenic megakaryocytes, the average megakaryocyte number increased, and platelet production can reach 15 times the normal rate. 【Brain Burn】Why does primary thrombocytosis occur? The main phenotype of this disease is expressed in the megakaryocyte-platelet line. The cause is unknown. It may be related to the abnormal response of the abnormal clone to the regulator of the megakaryocyte-platelet line. It may also be caused by the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells that are mainly inclined to the megakaryocyte-platelet line. Histological examination and in vitro culture of megakaryocytes have shown that megakaryocyte progenitor cells in the bone marrow of this disease are abnormally expanded. The megakaryocyte clone-forming units (CFU-MEG) of bone marrow and blood cultured in vitro of the patient are significantly increased compared with normal people or controls of secondary thrombocythemia, which may be accompanied by the abnormal size of CFU-MEG clones and nuclear nuclear replication. CFU-MEG often grows when the source growth factor is added. A few cases were also accompanied by an increase in granulocyte-monocyte colony forming units and erythrocyte colony forming units. When the number of megakaryocytes and the average megakaryocyte capacity increased. Platelet production can reach 15 times the normal rate. The lifespan of platelets is usually normal. In a few cases, shortening may be caused by the destruction of platelets by the spleen. The mechanism by which platelet mass increase causes bleeding and thrombosis is not certain. It is generally believed that abnormal platelet function is the main cause of bleeding, and some patients may have one of the reasons for the decrease in coagulation factors. The significant increase in the number of platelets leads to high-aggregation thrombosis. Intrinsic platelet defects are manifested by decreased serotonin in platelets, decreased platelet adhesion function, and decreased platelet aggregation function induced by ADP and epinephrine. The proliferation of megakaryocytes in this disease is not only in the bone marrow, but also can involve extramedullary tissues, and megakaryocyte cell-based hyperplasia can appear in the liver, spleen and other tissues. Due to the low malignancy and slow growth rate, the liver and spleen are often moderately enlarged. In simple terms, most of the bone penetration results of primary thrombocytosis are abnormalities of megakaryocyte hyperplasia. General laboratory examination items including bone penetration and genetic results (positive) can basically confirm the diagnosis. The main purpose of the treatment is to reduce the platelet value, alleviate the risk of complications and prevent the disease from developing to other bone marrow proliferative tumors and malignant hematological tumor diseases, such as leukemia and MDS. If you have any questions about this article or the disease, please feel free to follow us on WeChat and search more about MPD patients: xejb120
Uterine fibroids are a common uterine disease in women, and now the incidence of uterine fibroids is on the rise. Uterine fibroids can cause a series of symptoms, such as irregular menstruation, abdominal pain, and even severe cases can cause infertility. So how do female friends identify uterine fibroids? Self-recognition of uterine fibroids depends on these three points. 1. Whether there is abdominal pain. Most of the uterine fibroids are accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, lower back, or sacral tail. If these parts are often painful, you should pay attention. With the increase of uterine fibroids, it will press on the nearby organs and tissues, and the torsion, rupture, or even degeneration of the pedicles will cause abdominal pain. 2. Whether there is abnormal leucorrhea Normal leucorrhea is a small amount of slightly viscous, egg white-like secretions, will increase in four or five days before and after ovulation, no odor. When suffering from uterine fibroids, the amount of leucorrhea will increase, and even bloody leucorrhea will appear, and some patients will have a large amount of purulent discharge, and even discharge of carrion-like tissues, accompanied by odor. 3. Whether there is an increase in menstrual flow If the above-mentioned conditions are accompanied by an increase in long-term menstrual flow, you must be more alert to the possibility of uterine fibroids. If uterine fibroids grow under the mucous membrane or between the muscle walls, there will be excessive menstrual flow, prolonged menstrual periods or irregular vaginal bleeding. The main reason for the increase in menstrual flow is that with the growth of uterine fibroids, the endometrial area will increase. Because estrogen will act on the endometrial hyperplasia, and uterine fibroids hinder the uterine contraction and affect the blood circulation. Intimal hyperemia. Due to long-term bleeding, patients often have varying degrees of anemia.
“Doctor, I heard that if I draw some blood, I can see if there is cancer in my body. I want to check it.” There are really a lot of people who come to consult and screen for tumors in this way. The “blood” they say is actually blood “tumor marker”. As far as lung cancer is concerned, there is no tumor marker that has a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for lung cancer, but it must be paid attention to when it is increased. Yes, these blood indicators are high, you may have a combination of multiple tumor markers for lung cancer detection, if significantly increased several times or even thousands of times, the possibility of cancer is extremely high. For lung cancer, if blood CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), carbohydrate antigens CA125, CA153, cytokeratin fragments (CYFRA211, lung squamous cell carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), At the same time, it is much higher, or several of these blood indicators are significantly increased. It is necessary to consider the possibility of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma). Yes, these blood indicators are high, you may have lung cancer. If the blood test indicates: blood neuron specific enolase (NSE), gastrin releasing peptide precursor (Pro-GRP), creatine kinase BB ( CK-BB), chromogranin A (Cga) increased at the same time or multiple, mainly to consider small cell lung cancer. It should be noted that blood tumor markers may have different normal reference values in different hospitals. Do not directly compare them, so as not to scare yourself; also note that if the blood tumor markers increase slightly, don’t be nervous, choose a date Recheck once, if you still get higher, you have to consult an oncologist.
Thrombocytosis is more common in middle-aged and older people, but in clinical hematology, many children have thrombocytosis. Then, according to the different causes and performances of thrombocytosis, their harm to the human body is also different. The following will explain one by one: Director Shi Shurong’s micro-signal zkxk99991. What is the standard for increasing the number of platelets? Note: When the automatic blood cell analyzer prompts an increase in the number of platelets, peripheral smear microscopy should be further performed. The purpose is to prevent the instrument from misrecognizing broken red blood cell fragments as platelets, except for pseudoplatelet increase; at the same time, the platelet morphology can be observed as the etiological diagnosis. Provide clues. 2. What is thrombocytosis? Divided into primary thrombocytosis (Essentialthrombocytosis, ET) and reactive thrombocytosis (Reactivethrombocytosis, RT). (1) Primary thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disease. It is rare in pediatrics due to abnormal single or polyclonal hematopoietic stem cells or biological abnormalities of TPO. (2) Reactive thrombocytosis is caused by various blood or non-blood diseases stimulating the generation of megakaryocytes, and is a common secondary thrombocytosis in pediatric clinic. 3. What are the common causes of reactive thrombocytosis? Reactive thrombocythemia refers to an increase in platelet counts caused by internal and surgical diseases other than hematological diseases in the absence of hematological diseases such as myeloproliferative or myeloproliferative disorders. Common causes include: acute infections, inflammatory reactions, malignant tumors, etc. After these conditions have resolved, the platelet count will return to normal. What are the common conditions that may cause reactive thrombocytosis? (1) recent trauma; (2) recent surgery; (3) previous surgery to remove the spleen; (4) recent fever, infection, inflammation, etc.; (5) recent loss of weight, sweating, fatigue, etc. Performance, suggesting that there may be malignant tumors! 4. What are the diagnostic criteria for thrombocytosis? The complications of thrombocytosis are mainly thrombosis and hemorrhage. It usually occurs when there is a significant increase in platelets. The chance of hemorrhage of primary thrombocytosis is much higher than the incidence of thrombosis. The clinical manifestations of secondary thrombocytosis are mostly benign. The above complications are rare. Report. The diagnostic criteria for primary thrombocythemia are as follows, which can be diagnosed by satisfying the first 3 or Articles 1 and 3-5: (1) The platelet lasts more than 450×109L; (2) The presence of pathogenic mutant genes (such as JAK2 or MPLTpo receptor mutation); (3) Excluding other myeloproliferative diseases (especially CML, MDS, true red, or myelofibrosis); ⑷ No incentive for thrombocytosis and normal iron storage; ⑸ Increased bone marrow megakaryocytes, abnormal morphology, reticular fibers usually do not increase . 5. How to treat thrombocytosis? Among them, secondary thrombocytosis is mainly based on the treatment of primary disease. When the platelets are 1000×109L and there are risk factors, low-dose aspirin, dipyridamole and other anti-blood can be given… For the treatment, hydroxyurea and interferon are conventional drugs, but because of the inevitable side effects, long-term application is not recommended. At the same time, patients can cooperate with targeted TCM syndrome differentiation to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity! For more thrombocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: xxbzd999
Not long ago, the unit organized a physical examination, and Xiao Bei, who was thin, was found to have high blood fat. Everyone was surprised to hear this news, because when it comes to high blood fat, they often think that this is a “patent” for fat people. Unexpectedly, thin people will also have high blood fat, and there are also many people who hear that thin people suffer from high blood fat. in. Hyperlipidemia is an important factor that triggers cardiovascular disease and must be vigilant. There is no inevitable connection between high blood fat and fat. The increase in body blood fat mainly refers to the increase of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood. The causes of increased blood fat are external and internal. The external factors are mainly dietary factors. Excessive intake of foods high in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, such as animal fats and internal organs, egg yolks of various eggs, squid, shellfish, cream, butter, lard, etc., can easily lead to increased blood lipid in humans . The internal cause refers to the increase of cholesterol synthesized in the body due to genetic or disease, or abnormal cholesterol metabolism in the body, which leads to hyperlipidemia. Therefore, high blood fat is not necessarily related to body fat and thin. It may be more common in people who are overweight, but it is not uncommon for thin people to suffer from this disease. High blood lipids in lean people tend to be more serious Clinically, the characteristics of high blood lipids in lean people are often low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among them, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol. When it is increased, it can directly cause damage to the vascular endothelium, causing degeneration, necrosis, and shedding of endothelial cells. After endothelial injury, the increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids and platelets will be deposited in the endothelial injury, and gradually form atherosclerotic plaques to block blood vessels and cause coronary heart disease. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is called “good” cholesterol, which can fight atherosclerosis and reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Thin people with high blood lipids mostly have “bad” high cholesterol and “good” cholesterol low, so they are more dangerous and more susceptible to cardiovascular disease. In addition, many patients with high blood lipids will have no clinical symptoms for a long time after the disease, and people with thin body often mistakenly think that they must be “missed” with high blood lipids, and they are generally not too restrained in life and diet, so When symptoms appear, they tend to be more severe than others. Therefore, experts remind that thin people must also pay attention to their blood lipids to prevent cardiovascular diseases. There are three “magic weapons” for lowering blood fat. There are three “magic weapons” for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia-reasonable diet, regular exercise and lipid-lowering drugs. Reasonable diet, mainly pay attention to low-fat diet, do not eat fat and lard, eat less animal liver, limit meat intake, use less butter, eat less cream, drink low-fat milk, usually cooking vegetable oil instead of animal oil, No more than 2 egg yolks per week. Eat more vegetables and fruits, such as eggplant, mushrooms, fungus, kelp, celery, cucumber, spinach, carrots, winter melon, garlic, apples, grapes, hawthorn, oats, soybeans, fish and other foods. There are different degrees of lipid-lowering effect, you can eat more. Regular exercise can also effectively prevent hyperlipidemia. Studies have found that exercise has a positive effect on the body’s lipid metabolism, can increase the activity of lipoproteinases, accelerate the operation, decomposition and excretion of lipids, and can facilitate lipid metabolism in favor of Healthy development. Patients can choose walking, jogging, swimming, Tai Chi, Chinese Tongluo, twisting Yangge, climbing, cycling and other sports. As long as they persevere and maintain a certain amount of exercise, they can achieve the purpose of preventing high blood fat and reducing cardiovascular disease. When diet regulation and proper exercise cannot solve the problem of high blood lipids, patients should take hypolipidemic drugs in time under the guidance of doctors. Western medicines such as statins and fibrates, and Chinese medicines such as Tongxinluo capsules. Tongxinluo Capsules have a blood-protecting effect. The medicine contains five unique insect-like ingredients. Among them, a variety of enzymes, hirudin, etc. can clear the increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood and fight against aggregation Of blood platelets, blood flow is smooth, atherosclerotic plaques cannot be formed, and cardiovascular diseases will not occur. Tongxinluo capsule also has a vascular protection effect, which can prevent the increased “bad” cholesterol and other lipids from damaging the vascular endothelium, and can repair the damaged endothelium. It can also relieve vasospasm and ensure the smooth supply of blood supply to the heart. . In addition, Tongxinluo capsule also has the protective effect of heart and brain ischemia, because atherosclerotic plaque can lead to ischemia and hypoxia of the heart and brain, and the heart and brain are particularly sensitive to hypoxia, once the ischemia and hypoxia can easily lead to heart and brain Cells and heart and brain microvessels
The course of primary thrombocytosis is slow, the early symptoms are not obvious, and even many patients are asymptomatic for a long time. This directly leads to the fact that many patients cannot find the disease early, and when the symptoms are obvious, the difficulty of treatment increases. Director Shi Shurong’s WeChat signal zkxk9999 Some patients may say that if they didn’t go to a medical examination, they didn’t know that they had the disease. Can it be found only by blood routine? In fact, any disease will be manifested by physical signs, even if the bone marrow and blood in the body are deep. Although thrombocytosis progresses slowly, but his body is very “honest”, there will always be some signs to remind you of the existence of the disease! People with mild illness often have dizziness and fatigue, and some patients may also be accompanied by splenomegaly and a small number of patients with hepatomegaly; heavier patients may have bleeding or thrombosis: bleeding is spontaneous and easy to repeat Attacks, about two-thirds of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding are common, some patients are epistaxis, bleeding gums, hematuria, skin and mucous membrane ecchymosis, purpura is rare. The incidence of thrombosis is less than that of bleeding. It is commonly seen as limb numbness, pain, or even gangrene, and erythematous limb pain after thromboembolism; embolism of splenic and mesenteric vessels can cause abdominal pain and vomiting. Embolism of the lung, brain, and kidney causes the corresponding clinical symptoms. In summary, remind everyone that primary thrombocytosis is a myeloproliferative disease, which is very harmful to human health. If the above symptoms are found in the body or the platelet value is abnormally increased during the examination, relevant examinations should be done in time to identify the condition as soon as possible and take targeted treatment. For more thrombocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: xxbzd999
Leucorrhea is the “wind vane” for women’s gynecological health. When there is an abnormal increase in leucorrhea, most women will associate with diseases such as gynecological inflammation. About 10% of patients who have been treated for leucorrhea have normal physiological leucorrhea and no treatment is needed. Women may wish to compare the following situations to distinguish whether their leucorrhea is physiological or pathological. In four cases, leucorrhea is a normal physiological phenomenon. 1. Before ovulation. Leucorrhea is most affected by the level of estrogen in women. Before ovulation, due to the increase of estrogen levels, it promotes the proliferation of cervical gland epithelial cells, the secretion of cervical mucus increases, the content of sodium chloride in mucus increases, it can absorb more water, making the leucorrhea increase, the quality is thin, the color Clear, the appearance is like a clean egg, which is normal. 2. During pregnancy. When a woman is pregnant, it will secrete more thick mucus under the influence of hormone levels. In addition, as the uterus swells, the pelvic cavity and vagina are compressed, which causes the adjacent blood vessels to dilate and congest. It also causes vaginal mucosal exudate to increase, but it does not need to treatment. 3. During sexual excitement or sexual intercourse. Normal sex life or sexual excitement will stimulate the production of vaginal secretions, causing the phenomenon of leucorrhea, which is a normal physiological response. 4. After taking estrogen drugs and birth control pills. Related to changes in estrogen and progesterone levels in the body. 5. Stress causes endocrine disorders. Mental state has an important impact on the health of the body. Excessive mental stress often causes neurological disorders. For women, it is easy to cause endocrine disorders, which leads to increased leucorrhea. Although leucorrhea caused by endocrine disorders does not require excessive gynecological treatment, the situation of endocrine disorders must be corrected in time to avoid causing other diseases and symptoms. Some leucorrhea increase is the “signal” of gynecological diseases inflammation of reproductive organs, such as vaginitis, cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and so on. Leucorrhea is milk-like in color and becomes thin foamy or white tofu-like, medium to large, without itching, and may be suspected as vaginitis; leucorrhea is mucus milky or purulent yellowish, sometimes with bloodshot, may It is cervicitis; the leucorrhea is increased, the color is yellow, the quality is thin, and it is accompanied by abdominal pain. Infectious gynecological diseases. Leucorrhea is white cheese-like, thick, slightly sweet, and some itchiness in the genitals may be Candida infection; leucorrhea is yellow-green, thin with foam, accompanied by malodor and itchy genitals, may be trichomonas vaginalis infection; Leucorrhea is mixed with white lump-like substance, like tofu dregs, and accompanied by itching, it is likely to be fungal vaginitis; leucorrhea is gray, with a fishy smell, and is more common in bacterial vaginosis. Severe gynecological diseases. The bloody leucorrhea may be benign lesions such as cervical polyps, submucosal fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and senile vaginitis; the severe cases may be malignant tumors such as cervical cancer and endometrial cancer; the placement of an intrauterine device It can cause a small amount of bloody leucorrhea; continuous outflow of watery leucorrhea with a strange smell, usually advanced cervical cancer, vaginal cancer or submucosal fibroids with infection; paroxysmal discharge of yellow or red watery leucorrhea, which may be the fallopian tube cancer. Therefore, bloody, watery leucorrhea is likely to be a manifestation of serious gynecological diseases, it is best to see a doctor immediately. Gonorrhea. Increased leucorrhea, yellowish color, purulent, accompanied by increased leucorrhea, yellowish color, purulent, with vulvar burning, and even urinary pain, frequent urination, difficulty urinating, etc. Be careful of gonorrhea attacks. Gonorrhea is a relatively serious sexually transmitted disease, and it is necessary to go to the STD department in time. Whether it is physiological or pathological leucorrhea, women should do gynecological health care and prevention of gynecological diseases, such as a comprehensive gynecological examination every year, maintain a good attitude, and learn to adjust work and life.
Leucorrhea is a “wind vane” for women’s gynecological health. When there is an abnormal increase in leucorrhea, most women will associate with diseases such as gynecological inflammation. Experts point out that about 10% of patients who have been diagnosed with leucorrhea have normal physiological leucorrhea without treatment. Women may wish to compare the following situations to distinguish whether their leucorrhea is physiological or pathological. In four cases, leucorrhea is a normal physiological phenomenon 1. Before ovulation. Leucorrhea is most affected by the level of estrogen in women. Before ovulation, due to the increase of estrogen levels, it promotes the proliferation of cervical gland epithelial cells, the secretion of cervical mucus increases, the content of sodium chloride in mucus increases, it can absorb more water, so that the leucorrhea increases, the quality is thin, the color Clear, the appearance is like a clean egg, which is normal. 2. During pregnancy. When a woman is pregnant, it will secrete more thick mucus under the influence of hormone levels. In addition, as the uterus swells, the pelvic cavity and vagina are compressed, which causes the adjacent blood vessels to dilate and congest. treatment. 3. During sexual excitement or sexual intercourse. Normal sex life or sexual excitement will stimulate the production of vaginal secretions, causing the phenomenon of leucorrhea, which is a normal physiological response. 4. After taking estrogen drugs and birth control pills. Related to changes in estrogen and progesterone levels in the body. 5. Stress causes endocrine disorders. Mental state has an important influence on the health of the body. Excessive mental stress often causes neurological disorders. For women, it is easy to cause endocrine disorders, which in turn leads to increased leucorrhea. Although leucorrhea caused by endocrine disorders does not require excessive gynecological treatment, the situation of endocrine disorders must be corrected in time to avoid causing other diseases and symptoms. Some leucorrhea increase is a “signal” of gynecological diseases inflammation of reproductive organs, such as vaginitis, cervicitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Leucorrhea is milk-like in color and becomes thin foamy or white tofu-like, medium to large, without itching, and may be suspected as vaginitis; leucorrhea is mucus milky or purulent yellowish, sometimes with bloodshot, may It is cervicitis; the leucorrhea is increased, the color is yellow, the quality is thin, and it is accompanied by abdominal pain. Infectious gynecological diseases. Leucorrhea is white cheese-like, thick, slightly sweet, and some itchiness in the genitals may be Candida infection; leucorrhea is yellow-green, thin with foam, accompanied by malodor and itchy genitals, may be trichomonas vaginalis infection; Leucorrhea is mixed with white lumpy substance, like tofu residue, and accompanied by itching, it is likely to be fungal vaginitis; leucorrhea is gray, with a fishy smell, more common in bacterial vaginosis. Severe gynecological diseases. The bloody leucorrhea may be benign lesions such as cervical polyps, submucosal fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and senile vaginitis; the severe cases may be malignant tumors such as cervical cancer and endometrial cancer; the placement of an intrauterine device It can cause a small amount of bloody leucorrhea; continuous outflow of watery leucorrhea in Taomi, and the smell is strange, usually advanced cervical cancer, vaginal cancer or submucosal fibroids with infection; paroxysmal discharge of yellow or red watery leucorrhea, may be the fallopian tube cancer. Therefore, bloody, watery leucorrhea is likely to be a manifestation of serious gynecological diseases, it is best to see a doctor immediately. Gonorrhea. Increased leucorrhea, yellowish color, purulent, accompanied by increased leucorrhea, yellowish color, purulent, with vulvar burning, and even urinary pain, frequent urination, difficulty urinating, etc. Be careful of gonorrhea attacks. Gonorrhea is a relatively serious sexually transmitted disease, and it is necessary to go to the STD department in time. Whether it is physiological or pathological leucorrhea, women should do gynecological health care and prevention of gynecological diseases, such as a comprehensive gynecological examination every year, maintain a good attitude, and learn to adjust work and life.
Cerebral hemorrhage refers to bleeding caused by rupture of blood vessels in the non-traumatic brain parenchyma, accounting for 20% to 30% of all strokes, and the acute mortality rate is 30% to 40%. Most of them are caused by the rupture of blood vessels in arteriosclerosis, so some people also call it hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. Hemorrhage of small arteries in the internal capsule area is the most common clinically. So, what are the causes of cerebral hemorrhage? 1. Hypertension: Hypertension is the most important cause and risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage. Under the influence of long-term high blood pressure, the blood vessel wall of the small blood vessel in the brain undergoes glassy change, which causes the blood vessel wall to be weak. When the blood pressure suddenly rises, it is easy to rupture and cause cerebral hemorrhage. 2. Emotional emotion: Emotional emotion is another important cause of cerebral hemorrhage. It is caused by rapid heartbeat and sudden increase in blood pressure due to anger and emotional excitement. 3. Alcoholism: Drinking alcohol is another risk factor for cerebral hemorrhage. Especially alcoholism can cause increased blood pressure or changes in coagulation mechanisms and accelerated cerebral blood flow to promote cerebral hemorrhage. Many people are not alcoholics. They just drink more than usual during the holidays or happy events. They may endanger their lives or leave a permanent disability. 4. Increased abdominal pressure: Excessively increased abdominal pressure can cause cerebral hemorrhage. Most patients in the bathroom are caused by excessively increased abdominal pressure. Especially those with hypertension and constipation, excessive breath holding during bowel movements suddenly increase abdominal pressure and cause cerebral hemorrhage. 5. Smoking: Long-term smoking can promote arteriosclerosis and increase the fragility of blood vessels. Under special circumstances, heavy smoking can cause changes in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, which can lead to cerebral hemorrhage. 6. Taking a hot bath: Taking a hot bath causes cerebral hemorrhage, which is also a common occurrence in the bathroom. It may be caused by vasodilation and accelerated cerebral blood flow when taking a hot bath. 7. Climate change: easy to occur in winter and autumn. This is because the weather in winter is cold, blood vessels contract and blood pressure rises, while the summer weather turns hot, blood vessels dilate and blood pressure drops. But in summer heat stroke, increased sweating can also cause cerebral hemorrhage. What are the “signals” before cerebral hemorrhage? 1. Severe headache: There is no obvious cause for this kind of headache. Many people start with intermittent headaches, but then they turn into persistent headaches. 2. Dizziness is uncomfortable: the degree of dizziness is different, roughly because of sudden sudden rotation, standing unstable, strenuous lifting of feet, or even falling to the ground. 3. Numbness on one side: Numbness of the face, arms, and fingers will appear before many cerebral hemorrhage occurs, especially the ring finger! If at the same time there is fatigue in the upper or lower limbs, the situation is even more critical. 4. Blindness in front of eyes: Suddenly darkened in front of the eyes, or one eye appears unclear, blurred, or even double-images, these are the precursors of disease, should not be careless. 5. Hard tongue root: Suddenly feel the stiff tongue root, tongue swell, unclear speaking, even tongue headache, difficulty swallowing. 6. Frequent choking: Inexplicably choking during drinking or eating, which is also a precursor to cerebral hemorrhage in many people. 7. Yawning: Some patients also introduced that they would yawn without restraint regardless of time and place. In fact, this is a sign of hypoxia in the brain. 8. Decreased grip strength: The arm suddenly loses grip strength. For example, when holding an object, it obviously feels held, but falls to the ground. Sometimes accompanied by speech that is unclear. 9. Daytime sleepiness: Some people will have symptoms of drowsiness before the onset of cerebral hemorrhage. Even in the daytime when the spirit is very good, the drowsiness is obvious, and there is a feeling of being very tired and not sleeping enough. 10. Sudden forgetfulness: If you have completely forgotten about the past, but it gets better after a few hours, when you forget it, you will be nervous and embarrassed. You must consider the precursors of acute cerebrovascular disease. How to prevent cerebral hemorrhage?  . 1. People with high blood pressure must take their medicines on time and monitor them regularly. 2. Pay attention to the combination of work and rest, arrange work reasonably, ensure enough sleep, avoid excessive fatigue, and form good exercise habits. 3. The diet should be light. Eat less foods with high animal fat or cholesterol content. Eat more fruits, vegetables and fish. 4. It is strictly forbidden to smoke and drink alcohol. Tobacco can accelerate the development of arteriosclerosis, which is more harmful to hypertension and can cause vasospasm. 5. Keep the stool smooth, avoid excessive bowel movements, eat more vegetables and fruits, drink more water, and soften the stool, so as not to suddenly increase blood pressure. 6. Pay attention to seasonal changes, protect against cold and summer heat, increase or decrease clothing appropriately, high temperature has a certain effect on the body, avoid obstacles to vasomotor function, blood pressure fluctuations increase
Increased muscle tone in early infants may not necessarily be cerebral palsy. Attention should be paid to distinguish between the temporary increase in muscle tone and the pathological increase in muscle tone in infants: 40%-80% of high-risk newborns and infants within 3 months may have dystonia in the first year after birth. These dystonias can be improved in the short term (1 week) after early intervention (including limb movement, touch, etc.). This is a temporary increase in muscle tone in infants, not a manifestation of neurological developmental disorders or sequelae of brain injury. Muscle tone is high only during passive activity, and can be observed when it is not high during autonomous activity: the sense of touch has a great influence on the assessment of muscle tone, and some infants are more sensitive. The examination shows that the muscle tone increases during passive activity and the muscle tone does not appear when relaxing High, muscle tone is normal during active activity, there is no abnormal posture, and motor development meets the level of its monthly age, and there are no obvious high-risk factors. This kind of situation may be related to the infant’s oversensitivity of perception, which can be followed up and observed to guide parents to strengthen sensory adaptation training and active exercise practice, and follow up regularly. Pay attention to the influence of mood and environment on muscle tone: muscle tone is greatly affected by emotion, and it will increase when the child cries. Therefore, the muscle tone should be checked when the baby’s mental state is good to avoid crying in the child Under alarm or sleep state. Cold, pain, tension, anxiety, fear, etc. can increase muscle tone, pay attention to repeated inspection to confirm the elimination of interference factors. If parents find that the baby has high muscle tone problems during self-examination, it is recommended to ask a doctor in the neurology department or the child rehabilitation department as soon as possible to help diagnose whether there is a possibility of brain damage, especially the baby itself has high risks of premature birth, jaundice, asphyxia and hypoxia, intracranial hemorrhage, etc. Factors of parents should pay special attention and attention. Parents find that the baby’s high muscle tone is not such a terrible thing. Facing positively and correctly, and seeking appropriate and correct interventions can help the baby well. Early correct and active rehabilitation intervention treatment can allow more than 90% of infants with abnormal motor development to achieve normalized function and avoid cerebral palsy.