What behavior is easy to cause condyloma acuminatum

   Condyloma acuminata is a kind of sexually transmitted disease with a high incidence rate, which has plagued countless patients, and it is easy to relapse after treatment.   One, sexual behavior. Research and statistics show that the incidence and recurrence rate of condyloma acuminatum in multiple sexual partners are significantly higher than those of a single partner. Within a certain range, the age of sexual life is also a risk factor for condyloma acuminatum, and the age of first intercourse is less than 19 years old The incidence and recurrence rate of male commercial sex workers have increased significantly. Male commercial sex workers are a high-risk group of genital warts.   Second, contraceptive measures. The results of many studies have shown that condoms can block HPV infection, so insisting on using condoms can prevent the occurrence of genital warts. Another study showed that the incidence of genital warts in women who took contraceptive “medicine” was higher than those who did not take “medicine”.   3. Immune function. Data show that individuals with low immunity, such as kidney transplantation, malignant tumors, diabetes, AIDS, immunosuppressive chemotherapy and glucocorticoids, have significantly increased the incidence and recurrence rate of condyloma acuminatum, and the size of the wart body is also larger. .   Fourth, age and gender. Age is an independent risk factor for genital warts. 80% of patients with genital warts occur in young people aged 16 to 34, and the peak age of onset is 20 to 25 years. The average age of onset is 22 years for men and 19 years for women. The ratio of male to female is about 1:1.4. Another study found that women younger than 25 years old are a risk factor for anogenital warts.   5. Smoking. Because smoking can reduce the body’s resistance, smoking is also an independent risk factor for genital warts. Studies have shown that the incidence of condyloma acuminata in smokers is more than three times higher than that of non-smokers, and the incidence increases with the age of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At the same time, smoking can promote the recurrence of condyloma acuminata.   Six, drinking. Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for the onset and recurrence of many venereal diseases including condyloma acuminatum. Because drinking affects the activity of the body’s T lymphocytes and inhibits the body’s immunity. At the same time, alcohol can inhibit the central nervous system, reduce anxiety, enhance libido, increase high-risk sexual behavior, and to a certain extent increase the occurrence and recurrence of condyloma acuminatum.   Seven, marriage and pregnancy status. Data show that the incidence of condyloma acuminata is higher in divorced, married couples separated, widowed, and unmarried than in the normal control group, because high-risk sexual behaviors are prone to occur in these situations. Pregnant women have a higher incidence of condyloma acuminatum, and the recurrence rate is relatively high, which is related to changes in endocrine function during pregnancy.   8. Suffer from other venereal diseases. Condyloma acuminatum is closely related to other sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc. The first reason is that patients with condyloma acuminatum have dangerous sexual behaviors that can also lead to other sexually transmitted diseases. The second is that some STD pathogens destroy the mucosal barrier and reduce the body’s ability to resist HPV. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.

How does genital warts cause? Detailed explanation of the 3 causes of genital warts

Core tip: With the openness of people’s sexuality, many people accidentally contracted various venereal diseases, and condyloma acuminata is one of them. Condyloma acuminatum is very harmful. Each of us must pay attention to the disease of condyloma acuminata. Therefore, we need to understand the cause of condyloma acuminata and do a good job in the prevention and treatment of condyloma acuminata.   Condyloma acuminata is a sexually transmitted disease that endangers people’s physical and mental health, and brings many problems to the lives and work of many patients. The spread of condyloma acuminatum is very powerful, and patients with this disease often feel itching in the lower body. Some patients with genital warts do not know how they contracted the disease after contracting the disease. Therefore, it is recommended that everyone know more about the causes of genital warts, and do a good job in the prevention of genital warts in life. At the same time, after discovering that genital warts must be targeted for the cause of the disease, then, how is genital warts caused? Detailed explanation of the 3 causes of genital warts, let’s have a simple understanding and understanding of this problem.   First, smoking and drinking can easily lead to the occurrence of genital warts. Alcohol and tobacco are important risk factors for the onset and recurrence of various sexually transmitted diseases including condyloma acuminatum. Because tobacco and alcohol affect the activity of T lymphocytes in the body, it suppresses the body’s immunity. At the same time, alcohol can inhibit the central nervous system to a certain extent, reduce anxiety, enhance libido, increase high-risk sexual behavior, and increase the occurrence and recurrence of condyloma acuminatum.  Second, the investigation shows that the occurrence of genital warts is inseparable from human papilloma virus, because humans are the only carriers of human papillomavirus, and it is precisely because this virus causes genital warts.   Third, the decline of the body’s immunity is also one of the main causes of genital warts. If you have AIDS, diabetes, malignant tumors, or people who are using glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive chemotherapy drugs, the probability of suffering from condyloma acuminata will be greatly increased.   In addition, poor sex life is also the main cause of condyloma acuminatum, which is spread through sexual contact. Therefore, it is recommended in daily life that everyone must not enter into unclean sex, otherwise the incidence of condyloma acuminata will be greatly increased, and the risk of contracting condyloma acuminata will be very high. I hope everyone must pay attention to prevention in their daily lives. .

How to confirm the authenticity of genital warts

  1. Because pseudocondyloma is not a sexually transmitted disease, it does not have the characteristics of transmission. After the patient is infected, it will not be transmitted to sexual partners.  2. Pseudo-condyloma acuminata generally occurs in young and middle-aged men and women, and condyloma acuminata disease can harm people of any age, so the harm of pseudo-condyloma acuminata is very small.  3. Judging by symptoms, most patients will have caviar and a few polyp-like papules at the site of infection, and sometimes itching.  What are the pathogenic factors of condyloma acuminatum?   1. Immune function is low. Such as malignant tumors, lupus erythematosus, kidney transplantation, chemotherapy, and glucocorticoids, the incidence and recurrence of condyloma acuminatum are doubled, and the wart body is also large.  2, bad habits    smoking and drinking can reduce human immune function. A survey found that smoking for more than ten years significantly increased the incidence of genital warts. Moreover, alcohol can inhibit the central nervous system, reduce anxiety, and increase the infection rate of pathogenic bacteria. At the same time, the use of condoms after drinking decreases, violent sexual behaviors increase, and the chance and degree of genital damage increase, which also increase the incidence of the disease. And recurrence rate.  3. Too many sexual partners    If there are too many sexual partners, it will greatly increase the risk of condyloma acuminata. Sexual behavior is an important factor leading to the onset and recurrence of genital warts. The more sexual partners, the higher the chance of onset and recurrence. Male sex workers have a higher incidence and recurrence rate than homosexuals. The incidence and recurrence rate of people younger than 19 years of first sexual intercourse is higher than that of others.  Experts remind: Condyloma acuminatum is mostly infected by direct sexual contact. It is extremely harmful and it is more common in teenagers. It has wide transmission routes, is highly contagious, and is prone to repeated attacks. Therefore, the treatment of condyloma acuminata must be combined with prevention and treatment. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.

Take you to find the cause of rheumatoid, so as to actively prevent rheumatism

  Long-term heavy physical labor often causes people to have joint pain, but most people just stick on plasters or rest for a while and keep busy. No one thinks of rheumatoid arthritis, which causes the disease to be delayed and severely disabled.   Joint pain is mostly a normal phenomenon of the first offender of rheumatoid, but because most people do not know the cause of joint pain, it leads to neglect of examination and blind selection of treatment, which makes the condition worse. This has to warn us that we must understand the cause of rheumatoid, actively prevent the disease and protect our health. So, what is the main cause of rheumatoid disease?   ▶Immune, infection, genetic and other factors can induce rheumatoid 1. Immune factor:    Because the infection invades the joint cavity, stimulates the synovial membrane or plasma cells, produces rheumatoid factor, and causes immunity The function of the system is reduced, leading to the occurrence of rheumatoid.  2 Infectious factors:   Many microorganisms are pathogens that induce rheumatoids, including a variety of bacteria, mycoplasma, chlamydia, and viruses.  3 genetic factors:   In the families of rheumatoid patients, the disease incidence is 2-10 times higher than that of the general population. Among the close relatives of rheumatoid patients, the positive rate of rheumatoid factor is also 2-3 times higher than that of the general population.  4 sex hormones:    the incidence of rheumatoid in women is significantly higher than that in men. Studies have shown that the ratio of the incidence of rheumatism to men and women is 1:2 to 4, and the condition is reduced during pregnancy.  5 psychological factors:    people who are emotionally stimulated or who are psychologically depressed for a long time, the incidence of rheumatoid is significantly higher than that of normal people, and people who are already ill are prone to attacks after mental stimulation. These all indicate that the disease is related to their own psychological factors.  ▶Deteriorating living environment and bad living habits can induce rheumatoids.    Rheumatoid disease is more often associated with bad living habits and poor living environment.  1 Cold and humid:   Cold and humid is one of the important factors that induce rheumatoid. If you live in a humid environment for a long time, the internal environment of the body will be unbalanced, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines will increase, causing an inflammatory response, which will induce rheumatism.  2 Smoking:    Smoking doubles the risk of rheumatoid in men, but it does not increase the risk of rheumatoid in women.   If you want to avoid getting rheumatoid or prevent rheumatoid disease from getting worse, you must develop good living habits and improve your current living environment. It is recommended that the majority of patients have a reasonable diet, maintain a good mental state, and not be too tired to stay up late, so as to effectively prevent rheumatoid disease.  Rheumatoid standard treatment method  There are many pathogenic factors for rheumatoid, but if you don’t get regular treatment after suffering from rheumatoid, it will be very harmful. In order to prevent affecting normal work and life, the editor recommends that the treatment of rheumatoid should follow the principle of “early detection and early treatment”.

What causes the high recurrence rate of genital warts

Condyloma acuminatum is a very common sexually transmitted disease, which has caused great health damage to patients. Many patients have been treated again and again, but they always relapse continuously. The impact and harm are great, so everyone must pay attention. Li Xingchun, an authoritative expert from Nanjing Shengbei, concluded that the high recurrence of acute eczema is due to 6 major factors: 1. Immune function. Data show that individuals with low immunity, such as kidney transplantation, malignant tumors, diabetes, immunosuppressive chemotherapy and glucocorticoids, have significantly increased the incidence and recurrence rate of condyloma acuminatum, and the size of the wart body is also larger. .   2. Marital pregnancy status. Data show that for divorced, separated husbands and wives, widowed, unmarried people, the incidence of genital warts is higher than that of normal controls, because high-risk sexual behaviors are prone to occur in these situations. Pregnant women have a higher incidence of genital warts, and the recurrence rate of genital warts is relatively high, which is related to the changes in endocrine function during pregnancy.   3. Sexual behavior. According to clinical investigations, the incidence and recurrence rate of condyloma acuminatum in multiple sexual partners are significantly higher than those of a single partner. Within a certain range, the age of sexual life is also a risk factor for condyloma acuminatum. The age of first intercourse is younger than 19 , Its incidence and recurrence rate have increased significantly. Male commercial sex workers are a high-risk group of genital warts.   4. Age and gender. Age is an independent risk factor for genital warts. 80% of genital warts occur in people aged 16 to 34, and the peak age of onset is 20 to 25 years. The average age of onset is 22 years for men and 19 years for women. The ratio of male to female is about 1:1.4. Another study found that women younger than 25 years old are a risk factor for anogenital warts.   5. Drinking. Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for the onset and recurrence of many venereal diseases including condyloma acuminatum. Because drinking affects the activity of the body’s T lymphocytes and inhibits the body’s immunity. At the same time, alcohol can inhibit the central nervous system, reduce anxiety, enhance libido, increase high-risk sexual behavior, and increase the occurrence and recurrence of condyloma acuminatum to a certain extent.   6. Smoking. Because smoking can reduce the body’s resistance, smoking is also an independent risk factor for genital warts. Studies have shown that the incidence of condyloma acuminata in smokers is more than three times higher than that of non-smokers, and the incidence increases with the age of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At the same time, smoking can promote the recurrence of condyloma acuminata.   Therefore, if you have condyloma acuminatum, you must go to the hospital for treatment in time, and you must not delay the disease, which will lead to more serious complications, and the consequences will be unimaginable. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.

Hyaluronic acid filling rumors-easy to form induration! The formed induration can only be taken out with a knife!

A very small number of people with hyaluronic acid (HA, also called hyaluronic acid) will develop inflammatory granulomas and/or nodules after 4 weeks of filling. When granulomas or nodules are superficial or large, they will feel indurated on the skin surface Or clumps, the cause is related to various factors such as allergies, foreign body reactions, injection methods, infections, aseptic abscesses or biofilm formation. &nbsp. According to retrospective studies, after hyaluronic acid is filled, the incidence of foreign body granuloma is only 0.02-0.4%, with an average incidence of 0.01-0.1%, and the incidence of delayed nodules per patient is 1.0%. It is an adverse reaction with a very low incidence, and even if it occurs, most of it does not affect health. &nbsp. Since the incidence is so low, why are there so many complaints on the Internet? &nbsp. I didn’t speak online because there were no hardcores! &nbsp.When people encounter troubles or problems, they will ask for help from various sources, looking for the best solution, looking for people in the same way, and then feel that many people have this problem, so they think it is very common and common! If it were very common and common, there would not be millions of people filled with hyaluronic acid regularly every year. In addition, according to the “Global Method for the Prevention and Management of Delayed Adverse Reactions of Hyaluronic Acid Fillers” published in April 2020 by Wolfgang G. Philipp-Dormston, MD, etc., the treatment of delayed nodules of hyaluronic acid fillers cannot be dissolved by hyaluronic acid alone. Enzymes require combination therapy. In case of infection, antibiotics, oral antihistamines (H2 receptor antagonists), and topical steroids can improve the symptoms of late-onset nodules, but cannot treat the cause. Oral antibiotics, intralesional injection of antibiotics, oral steroid hormones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can all treat late-onset nodules. &nbsp. When these treatments are ineffective, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and steroids can be injected into the skin lesions. &nbsp. Surgical resection (commonly known as surgical removal) is the last choice when medical treatment fails. In other words, not all nodules need to be surgically removed. Only a very small number of indurated nodules that are ineffective in medical treatment need to be surgically removed. What is removed is not cross-linking agent residues, but also complex cell tissue structures. &nbsp.&nbsp.Main references 1.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.RodJ.Rohrich,MD,&nbsp.EricaL.Bartlett,MD,1&nbsp.and&nbsp.ErezDayan,MD,PracticalApproachandSafetyofHyaluronicAcidFillers,PlastReconstrSurg2172.2019Jun.7172. 2.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.MasatoMochizuki.NoriyukiAoi.KoichiGonda,etal.,EvaluationoftheInVivoKineticsandBiostimulatoryEffectsofSubcutaneouslyInjectedHyaluronicAcidFiller,PlasticandReconstructiveSurgery.142(1):112–121,GulmasLesteMule,NoriyukiAoi  part1.Possiblecauses.&nbsp.PlastReconstrSurg.&nbsp.2009.123:1842–1863.&nbsp.4.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.JeongMinLee&nbsp.and&nbsp.YuJinKim, ForeignBodyGranu

Three misunderstandings about gastric cancer

 1. Stomach disease is a problem of middle-aged and elderly people. Stomach pain in young people must be caused by improper diet.   error. Although the incidence of gastric cancer is relatively high in the middle-aged and elderly group, according to reports from many domestic hospitals, the incidence of gastric cancer in young people under 35 has reached 6%-11%, and the degree of malignancy is relatively high. Because young people are under pressure from studying and working, resting, eating irregularly, and the incidence of gastric diseases such as gastric ulcers is not low. Therefore, when there is unexplained upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, dull pain, fullness, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting , Poor appetite, drowsiness, fatigue, progressive weight loss and anemia, tarry stools or even hematemesis, remember to go to the hospital for examination in time.   2. Stomach disease is my chronic problem for many years, just take some medicine by myself.   error. 80% of patients with early gastric cancer have no symptoms, and a few symptomatic ones are also atypical symptoms, which are easily confused with some gastric diseases such as gastritis and gastric ulcer. Therefore, do not pretend to judge the disease based on past experience and symptoms, and buy medicine to solve it by yourself. This is very unscientific and is very likely to interfere with the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.  3. I have suffered from gastric ulcer and most of my stomach has been removed, and it is impossible to get gastric cancer again.   error. After most of the stomach is removed, it is still possible to get stomach cancer, which is medically called remnant stomach cancer. The cause of cancer in the remnant stomach is the loss of the function of the pylorus. The bile and pancreatin in the duodenum can dissolve epithelial cells and accelerate cell division. The bile and intestinal juice are mainly alkaline, which can easily damage the barrier function of the gastric mucosa; The increase of nitrite-producing bacteria in the remnant stomach increases the concentration of carcinogenic nitroso compounds; irritation during anastomosis and high tension ligation may also become carcinogenic factors. Gastric cancer should not be taken lightly due to gastrectomy. Patients after benign gastric disease should strive to have gastroscopy once a year within 5 years after surgery, and do not refuse to take a biopsy for pathological examination.

What happens if I have prostate cancer?

Suffering from prostate cancer is a very unfortunate thing for a man, but fortunately fortunately, prostate cancer has a much better prognosis than other cancers. I have seen many prostate cancer patients who were completely cured after radical surgery. Some patients lived with cancer for a long time, the longest one lived for 17 years. If a person discovers prostate cancer when he is in his 70s, then after active treatment, it is very likely that he will live to his 80s. The average age of Chinese men is less than 80. From this perspective, prostate cancer is not that scary. If prostate cancer can be detected early, it is likely to be completely cured. Is prostate cancer rare? Let’s take a look at the incidence of prostate cancer. Many people think that prostate cancer is a misfortune. In fact, the incidence of malignant tumors in the population is very high. Fortunately, I think it is very appropriate to describe prostate cancer. Throughout the global incidence of prostate cancer, there are obvious ethnic and geographic differences. In Australia, the Caribbean and other regions, there are high incidence rates, while the incidence of prostate cancer in Asia and North Africa is relatively low. Many people in China feel that the incidence of prostate cancer is not so high, but in the world, the incidence of prostate cancer ranks second among all malignant tumors in men, and it has become the first in recent years. There are more than 100 countries in the world, and the highest incidence of male malignant tumors is prostate cancer. Due to the large population in Asia, lung cancer is the highest incidence rate among men in Asia, especially in China. Therefore, lung cancer is now the most common malignant tumor among men in the world, but it is only one percentage point higher than prostate cancer. Celebrities suffering from prostate cancer In China, prostate cancer has become the most common malignant tumor in the urinary system. The incidence of prostate cancer in my country is quite different between urban and rural areas, especially in some large cities. A set of data in 2009 shows that the incidence of prostate cancer in the urban population in my country is 4 times that of the rural population. the above. At present, the average incidence of prostate cancer in large cities has reached 20/100,000, and the proportion is even higher in some large cities. For example, Shanghai has reached 32.23/100,000 in 2009. The reason for this difference between urban and rural areas is not entirely because urban people are more likely to get prostate cancer. Another very important reason is that rural medical conditions are poor, and many people get prostate cancer until they die. Survival period of prostate cancer The overall survival period of prostate cancer is relatively good, and there are still some individual differences. The survival time of prostate cancer is mainly related to the clinical stage of the tumor, Gleason score, PSA, treatment methods and the general condition of the patient. A survey on the survival time of 317 prostate cancer patients in my country showed that the overall survival rates of prostate cancer patients at 5, 10 and 15 years were 73.1%, 51.8% and 35.3%, and the disease-specific survival time was 85.1% and 72.9% respectively. And 72.9%. Among these 317 patients, 36 received radical prostatectomy and their 10-year disease-specific survival reached 100%, and 57 patients received radiotherapy, and their 10-year disease-specific survival reached 78 %. Generally speaking, if the tumor is found earlier and the tumor is confined to the prostate cancer, the healing is very good, because this kind of tumor can basically be cured by surgery. If the tumor breaks through the prostate and metastases, Its lifetime will decrease. The 5-year survival rate for T1 stage prostate cancer can reach 100%, but the 5-year survival rate for T4 stage prostate cancer is more than 40%. Another very important factor is the pathological type of the tumor. In prostate cancer, we use the Gleason score to indicate that the higher the score, the worse the prognosis of the tumor, and the lower the score, the better the prognosis of the tumor. Staging of prostate cancer Generally speaking, the recovery of prostate cancer is very good. Therefore, if prostate cancer is found, choosing an appropriate treatment method according to the specific situation can effectively extend its survival. What are the current treatments for prostate cancer? Prostate cancer nuclear magnetic examination 1. Waiting for observation and active monitoring. Prostate cancer is a relatively inert cancer, which means that it increases

Attention! Mole removal on the street can easily induce malignant melanoma.

Most people don’t know the prevalence of melanoma, so when they have melanoma, they don’t know what causes it. Malignant melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocytes. It is highly malignant, prone to distant metastasis, and has a poor prognosis. Song Jianmin introduced that the onset of malignant melanoma can be any part of the head, face and body, but it is more common in the extremities, especially the feet. According to survey data, the incidence of malignant melanoma only accounts for about 5% of skin malignant tumors, but its mortality rate accounts for 75%. In recent years, the incidence of malignant melanoma has increased year by year worldwide. Take the world’s highest incidence in Queensland, Australia as an example. In the 1960s, the incidence of skin malignant melanoma was 15/100,000, and by the 1990s, the incidence had exceeded 280/100,000. Improper mole removal can also induce malignant melanoma. At present, the exact cause of malignant melanoma is still unclear, and the malignant transformation of poorly structured moles is one of its high-risk factors. In life, most moles on the surface of human skin are benign, but it does not rule out the possibility of malignant transformation. Clinically, about 60% of malignant melanomas develop from benign moles. Relatively speaking, the incidence of malignant melanoma is mainly middle-aged and elderly, and there is no obvious gender difference. From a worldwide analysis, white people have the highest incidence rate, followed by yellow people and brown people, and black people have the lowest incidence rate. Damage (such as chronic friction of moles) and repeated sun exposure may also be susceptible factors for the disease. Although most of the malignant melanomas come from the malignant transformation of moles, it does not mean that most moles will become malignant melanomas. The malignant transformation of moles only accounts for a very small part of the moles. However, unclear understanding of moles and improper handling can indeed cause malignant transformation of moles and induce malignant melanoma. Be especially vigilant when moles grow bigger. Almost everyone has benign moles. Although most malignant melanomas evolve from benign moles, most people’s moles can live with their owner for a lifetime. Malignant changes will not occur. For these benign moles, if you consider it from a cosmetic point of view, you can go to a regular medical institution for mole removal, or you can ignore them for life, but you must pay attention to observation. The clinical manifestations of malignant transformation of benign moles are generally enlarged, accompanied by symptoms such as breakage, pus, fluid, and increase in number. Although benign moles have turned into malignant melanomas at this time, they are still painless and difficult to attract patients’ attention. This is also the main reason why many people in the clinic have reached the advanced stage and missed the best chance of treatment. At the same time, due to the low incidence of malignant melanoma, many patients do not know where to go after getting the disease. Even in basic medical institutions, the misdiagnosis rate is high. If detected early, malignant melanoma is easy to treat, and it can even be treated in outpatient surgery. Unfortunately, most patients have reached the advanced stage when they see the doctor and metastases have occurred. At this time, as a doctor, you can only take some palliative treatment to relieve the suffering of the patient. Advanced malignant melanoma has a high degree of malignancy, develops quickly, and is prone to distant metastasis. Since malignant melanoma is not sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as far as current medical technology is concerned, doctors really have no good solutions for malignant melanoma. However, if the disease is caught early, the outcome is very different. Statistics show that 82%~85% of patients are in the early stage when they are first diagnosed, and the five-year survival rate of these patients is more than 90%. 10%~13% of patients have tumors involving local tissues but no distant metastasis (medium-late stage). The five-year survival rate ranges from 50% to 80%. Only 2% to 5% of patients are late at the first visit, and the five-year survival rate is less than 10%. Therefore, the key to malignant melanoma is early detection and early treatment. More than 90% of early patients can survive for a long time. Surgery is of great significance for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Whether it is for patients with early melanoma, or for patients with locally advanced stage, or even distant metastases, if it is possible to completely remove all the lesions through surgery, surgery should be done as much as possible. Specifically, for early patients, the margin is the most important thing in surgery. According to the infiltration-depth thickness in the pathology report, the scope of resection was expanded. When the maximum depth of the lesion is ≤1.0mm, the resection range is 1cm. When the depth is 1.01~2mm, the margin is 1~2cm. The depth is >2

How to deal with patients with hereditary vitiligo?

   Many patients have heard that vitiligo is inherited, and they are particularly worried that their children will be troubled by vitiligo when they are born. But in fact, patients don’t have to worry too much, the genetic problems of vitiligo can also be prevented, so we must first learn more about the disease of vitiligo. So, how do you deal with patients with hereditary vitiligo?    Clinical studies have shown that vitiligo is indeed hereditary, but patients do not have to worry about it, because the genetic probability of vitiligo is very low. However, although the hereditary probability of vitiligo is very low, there is still a possibility of heredity. Therefore, patients should not be indifferent, have a correct attitude, actively face the disease and promptly treat and care for the early recovery of health.   The heredity of vitiligo can be reduced. As long as the patient actively cooperates with treatment and develops good living habits, the hereditary probability of vitiligo will be reduced. And if you have vitiligo, try not to find someone who also suffers from vitiligo to get married. This is because if both parties have vitiligo, then the probability of a child inheriting vitiligo will increase a lot. Patients must be aware that heredity and disease are two concepts. Genetics does not mean disease. Medical investigations have shown that hereditary vitiligo can only develop vitiligo when it interacts with external environmental factors. Therefore, if patients are afraid of their own If the child inherits vitiligo, then take care of the child’s life to avoid some unfavorable factors that induce vitiligo.   Vitiligo is hereditary, and everyone should pay attention to this. However, vitiligo can be prevented. As long as the patient’s own vitiligo treatment is completed, it will not be passed on to the next generation. Therefore, the most urgent thing is to go to a regular hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Once you have recovered, you don’t have to worry about the genetic problems of vitiligo.

Oral cancer has attracted the attention of many people. What is oral cancer?

Not long ago, a piece of news that eating betel nut would cause oral cancer was swiped in Moments. Oral cancer, an uncommon disease, is gradually becoming known. Surprisingly, it is not far away from everyone! What should I do to prevent oral cancer? Chronic diseases closely related to lifestyle have now become the main factors affecting the health of Chinese residents. The first “health” in the “three reductions and three health” special actions that my country focused on last year refers to “healthy oral cavity.” Oral health is not only an aesthetic problem, nor is it just a toothache problem. It is closely related to other chronic diseases. For example, oral diseases can cause heart disease and other diseases. Recently, oral cancer, which is relatively “hot” in the news, has attracted the attention of many people. What is oral cancer? Oral cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in the oral cavity, most of which are squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically, oral cancers include gum cancer, tongue cancer, soft and hard palate cancer, jaw bone cancer, mouth floor cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, salivary gland cancer, lip cancer, maxillary sinus cancer, and cancers that occur in the skin and mucous membrane of the face. It is one of the more common malignant tumors of the head and neck 1. Oral cancer is not far from everyone. Many people have oral ulcers, and oral ulcers are one of the precursors of oral cancer. According to statistics, less than 1% of people in my country have healthy teeth, which is the reason for the rapid increase in the incidence of oral cancer. Another data shows that by 2014, the mortality rate of oral cancer in my country has increased by about four times in the past 40 years, and the number of patients has increased from 81 per million people per year to 202 per million people per year. Sick, about 10,000 people die from oral cancer each year. This number is still growing, and there is no slowing down. It can be seen that it is very necessary to pay attention to personal daily oral health. 2. Which food is most likely to induce oral cancer? In India, where the incidence and mortality of oral cancer are the highest, many people have the habit of chewing betel nuts. The International Cancer Research Center (IARC) has identified betel nut as a primary carcinogen. In addition to oral cancer, betel nut chewing can also cause oral precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia, oral submucosal fibrosis, severe abrasion of the occlusal surface, periodontal disease, etc. The reason why chewing betel nut can lead to oral cancer is because of betel nut. The betel nut alkaloids, betel nut tannins, betel nut-specific nitrosamines and reactive oxygen species are cytotoxic. These substances have long-term, repeated contact and friction with the oral cavity, irritating the oral mucosa, causing inflammation of the oral mucosa and affecting oral fibroblasts and epithelium The growth of cells greatly increases the incidence of oral cancer. Studies have shown that 66% of betel nut chewing patients have oral mucosal lesions, of which 13% suffer from oral submucosal fibrotic lesions, leukoplakia is 3.9%, and lichen planus is 5.2%. However, only 1.5% of those who do not chew betel nut suffer from oral mucosal lesions. It can be seen that the long-term adherence to chewing betel nut on the oral cavity should not be underestimated. Third, other factors affecting oral cancer The pathogenic mechanism of oral cancer is still unclear, but long-term smoking, alcohol abuse, eating very hot food, chronic inflammation and oral cavity People with some oral mucosal diseases in the mouth belong to high-risk groups of oral cancer. Smoking is one of the high-risk factors for oral cancer. For example, in India in South Asia, the incidence of oral cancer is very high; drinking is also one of the important factors. Wine itself is not carcinogenic, but it can be used as a solvent for carcinogens or promote carcinogens to enter the oral mucosa. It can be said that alcohol is The “catalyst” of oral cancer

Talking about the influence of Chinese medicine on “hypertension”

Hypertension is a common disease with a high incidence nowadays, and due to its gradual development, it has begun to “younger”. From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine, hypertension is within the scope of syndromes such as “vertigo”, “headache”, and “liver wind”. The formation of hypertension is a long-term pathophysiological process, which is not a single factor, but is caused by the interaction of various factors such as body, spirit, diet, seven emotions, and labor desire. The physique yin and yang are prosperous or declining, the endowment is insufficient, and the loss of viscera is the internal cause of the disease. High mental stress, excessive fatigue or strong mental stimulation are common factors of the disease. Eating fat and sweet, excessive tobacco and alcohol, or addiction to salty taste and accumulating dampness and producing phlegm, helping Yang and transforming fire are also factors that cannot be ignored. For traditional Chinese medicine, the treatment of hypertension focuses on the word “conditioning”. By adjusting the balance of yin and yang of the viscera, it can improve the state of visceral disorders and repair the functions of various organs to achieve the purpose of treatment. Not only can it alleviate the condition, but also without the side effects of chemicals, and can achieve the effect of strengthening the body and benefiting the body. The culture of traditional Chinese medicine in my country has a long history. From ancient times to the present, many famous doctors and prescriptions have relieved people from illnesses and worries. Generally speaking, neither traditional Chinese medicine nor Western medicine has a competitive or comparative relationship. They are all about treating diseases, and only the method that suits them is the best.

Will scoliosis be inherited?

Will scoliosis be inherited? This is the most frequently asked question by patients. In fact, all diseases have a certain family inheritance. Many diseases come from genetic inheritance, but scoliosis is not an inherited disease, inheritance is only one of the factors. Parents are patients with scoliosis, and children may not have scoliosis, but the chances of children getting scoliosis are much greater than normal. Genetics is only one factor that causes scoliosis. Among them, neurofibromatosis scoliosis is the most hereditary of scoliosis. If one parent has neurofibromatosis, the child often has neurofibromatosis, and the child is prone to scoliosis. Congenital scoliosis is the result of a combination of genetic factors and environmental factors. On the basis of genetic factors, air pollution and water pollution in the surrounding environment are likely to cause a high incidence of congenital scoliosis. Relevant studies have shown that the incidence of congenital scoliosis is high in impoverished areas in the west and low in developed coastal areas.

Sexual dysfunction-the unspeakable hidden in antidepressant treatment

From the perspective of sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressants, the science and evidence-based drug selection are discussed. Sexual Dysfunction (SD) is not only one of the symptoms of depression, but also a common adverse reaction caused by antidepressants [1]. However, because of the patients’ avoidance of this, the clinical attention is not enough, and it has become unspeakable for depressed patients. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction (Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction) during antidepressant treatment can affect the stages of sexual function. In men, it is manifested as delayed ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. Loss of libido and anhedonia may occur in both men and women [2]. It seriously affects the quality of life of patients and increases non-compliance with treatment. Stopping the drug or continuing to take the drug to endure sexual dysfunction may aggravate the secondary depression and anxiety [3]. Studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) during drug treatment The incidence of sexual dysfunction is relatively high (50%~70%). The main increase in norepinephrine or dopamine uptake, as well as 5-HT2 receptor antagonists and other drugs have almost no negative effects on sexual function [3]. Specifically, the incidence of agomelatine sexual dysfunction is the lowest, and the incidence of agomelatine 50mg/d in healthy adult men with sexual dysfunction is only 4.8% [3], bupropion has sexual function The chance of obstacles is also relatively small 18% (sertraline and fluoxetine are about 27%) [5], followed by mirtazapine [6,7]. Paroxetine has the highest incidence of sexual dysfunction (61%) [5], followed by venlafaxine (60%) and duloxetine (46%) [3]. TCAs and MAOIs affect all three phases of the sexual cycle, while SSRIs and SNRIs affect orgasm more than sexual desire and arousal. The incidence of sexual dysfunction caused by commonly used antidepressants in descending order is as follows: TCAs≈MAOIs>paroxetine>venlafaxine>duloxetine>sertraline≈fluoxetine>mirtazapine>amphet Trone> agomelatine. 01 Neuro-biochemical mechanism of sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressants ● Serotonin Serotonin inhibits the arousal of sexual desire and the excitement of orgasm to a certain extent. Therefore, all drugs that cause increased serotonin (such as SSRIs/SNRIs) will cause a certain degree of sexual dysfunction [3]. It is currently believed that SSRIs block the reuptake of 5-HT receptors on the side of the hypothalamus, leading to an increase in the concentration of 5-HT in the brain. Animal model studies have found that blocking of different receptors and subtypes will have different effects on sexual behavior. Stimulating 5-HT1A will reduce the threshold of sexual desire arousal and excitement, while 5-HT1B, 5-HT2 (including 5-HT1A) HT2A and 5-HT2c) and 5-HT3 will have inhibitory effects. The incidence of sexual dysfunction is slightly different due to the difference in the effect of drugs on different 5-HT receptor subtypes. ● Dopamine Dopamine can increase sexual impulse and libido, and it can also affect erection through the neurons of the hypothalamus and the parasympathetic nucleus of the spinal cord. At the same time, dopamine is also an inhibitor of prolactin release. The high levels of prolactin caused by SSRIs can reduce libido, and the release of dopamine can counter this inhibitory effect [3]. ● Nitric oxide NO is an important substance that causes penile erection. Recent studies have found that certain SSRIs can affect the activity of nitric oxide synthase [3]. 02 Treatment of sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressants ● If the natural regression occurs at the beginning of treatment, you can observe for a period of time to see if it resolves naturally, but it usually takes several weeks. The problem may also persist throughout the treatment period [8]. ● Reducing the dose of antidepressants The sexual dysfunction caused by antidepressants is dose-dependent. Gradually reducing the dose may be beneficial to some patients, especially those with other adverse reactions [8]. ● Interval medication The so-called interval medication refers to stopping the medication for 2 to 3 days during the treatment period in order to have the expected sex life, and then continue medication. Intervals of sertraline and paroxetine have achieved good results. But fluoxetine has a long half-life, that is

“Doctor, is adrenal cancer common?”

Many patients with adrenal tumors and their family members will ask similar questions: “Doctors, are there many people who have adrenal tumors?” “How can I get it right?” “I didn’t know about this disease before…can it be cured? “Tumor is what we often call cancer. Adrenal tumors are often benign tumors that occur in the adrenal glands of the human body. After the onset, there will be swelling of the body, increased nocturia, and increased blood pressure after the onset of the disease. With the development of science and technology and the continuous advancement of human examination technology, the doctor’s diagnosis and treatment level has been continuously improved under such a general environment. There are quite a few cases of adrenal tumors that are accidentally discovered by patients during physical examinations. Few people specifically target them. It has a physical examination, so it is called Incidentaloma. In terms of whether it is common or not, adrenal cancer is a relatively rare clinical disease. The incidence of adrenal cancer is basically in the single digits per 1 million population. With the exception of southern Brazil (the special region of southern Brazil, the incidence of adrenal cancer is higher than the global average Level 10 times or more). The ratio of male to female for adrenal cancer is about 1:2-1:3. There are slightly more females than males. The age of onset is bimodal: childhood and middle age (after the age of 40) are the most common age groups for adrenal cancer. It should be noted that some adrenal tumors are malignant, and are divided into two types: [malignant pheochromocytoma] and [adrenocortical carcinoma] according to the different location of the disease. [Malignant pheochromocytoma] The incidence rate is 2-8 people per 1 million people per year. It is characterized by rare and slow growth. [Adrenocortical Carcinoma] The incidence rate is 0.5-2 persons per 1 million people per year, and the incidence is high in children (generally under 12 years old) and in the 40-50 years old age group. Among them, adrenal cortical carcinoma accounts for 2%-3% of adrenal incidental tumors. If you ask: What is the cause of adrenal tumors? From the current clinical summary, the causes of adrenal tumors can be roughly divided into three aspects: 1. Genetic factors Generally speaking, people with family history of adrenal tumors are more likely to get the disease. 2. Abnormal endocrine adrenal tumors may be caused by excessive autonomic secretions such as thymoma, pancreatic tumor and melanoma. 3. Environmental factors. Modern people are under a lot of pressure, and many bad habits will destroy the body’s resistance over time, or long-term activities in some polluted environments will give birth to this disease. Although adrenal tumors are benign most of the time, don’t be careless, other complications will occur if you delay it for a long time. Regardless of any tumor, it must be treated promptly after the onset of disease. Delays can easily lead to aggravation of the disease. Early intervention is the best policy. Tip: During the treatment of adrenal tumors, you must pay attention to your diet, especially not eating spicy and irritating foods.

Why do Chinese people have more and more diabetes? Doctor: 5 reasons cannot be ignored

Diabetes is a real disease of wealth. In the past, the incidence of diabetes was high in some “rich countries” in the West. With the gradual improvement of living standards, the incidence of diabetes in my country is still increasing year by year and tends to be younger and younger. According to my country’s epidemiological statistics, there are currently approximately 109.6 million people diagnosed with diabetes in my country who have diabetes. In the past 30 to 40 years, the incidence of diabetes in China has risen sharply. According to epidemiological survey data in different periods, in 1980, the prevalence of diabetes in adults in my country was less than 1%, and in 2005, this proportion reached 5.5%. Three years later, the prevalence of diabetes in my country It rose to 9.7%. In 2013, this value rose further, reaching 10.3%. According to the World Health Organization’s statistics, the total prevalence rate of diabetes among adults is 9.1%. That is to say, since 2008, the prevalence rate of diabetes in my country has exceeded the world average level, and it has been a constant. Gradually rising trend. Why are the Chinese people increasingly more likely to develop diabetes? Today we will analyze several reasons. The pathological cause of diabetes is the disorder in the body’s metabolic utilization of blood sugar, which is usually related to insufficient insulin secretion and insulin resistance in body cells. However, the reasons for insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic islet cell function and other physiological conditions that cause blood glucose metabolism disorders are also closely related to many factors. The increase in age, family genetic factors, etc., are some uncontrollable factors. Some of the factors in diet, exercise, and environment are also important factors that lead to increased blood sugar and eventually develop into diabetes. Therefore, the reason why the incidence of diabetes in Chinese people is increasing. In the case of uncontrollable factors such as factors, the following reasons are also worthy of our consideration and attention. Eating better and better Long-term overnutrition is one of the main causes of diabetes. Excessive dietary intake is the source of excess nutrition. Life and life have gradually improved. Everyone’s life has passed the better. You can eat whatever you want, so a large number of “gluttonous” people with unrestrained diet have appeared. A long-term high-fat, high-sugar, and high-calorie diet will keep the body’s lipid and blood sugar metabolism in a high-load operation process for a long time. The long-term increase in the body’s metabolic burden is like a long-term overloaded machine. One day , There will be a problem with a certain component. This problem may be high blood pressure or high blood uric acid. The occurrence of diabetes is also closely related to long-term high-calorie diet and overnutrition. While moving less and less, eating better and better, more and more people are sedentary. Diet and activity levels are the two most important aspects of maintaining a balanced energy metabolism in the body. However, the current situation is that while everyone is improving their living standards and eating better and better, there are many friends who move less and less. This kind of “movement” does not necessarily have to be exercise, activity, physical labor, and other physical activities. They are all important ways to strengthen physical consumption and improve body energy metabolism. However, due to the gradual development of society, physical labor or There are fewer and fewer active people, but more and more sedentary people. If in daily work, there is no amount of activity, and there is no deliberate strengthening of exercise, it is more likely to cause an imbalance in body energy metabolism , And the imbalance of energy metabolism is the main reason for the disorder of blood glucose metabolism. Therefore, Chinese people eat more and less and move less and less, so the long-term excess energy will eventually lead to the increasing incidence of diabetes year by year. More and more obese people Obesity is an important risk factor leading to diabetes. As the incidence of diabetes increases year by year, in fact, the proportion of obese people in my country is also showing an upward trend year by year. According to my country’s survey data, the proportion of overweight people in my country (BMI greater than 23 but not more than 27.5) in 2000 was 37.4%. The increase was 39.2% in 2005 and 40.7% in 2010. In 2014, the proportion rose to 41.2%; the proportion of obesity (BMI over 27.5) increased from 8.6% in 2000 to 10.3 in 2005

“Reunion” superhero “Black Panther” died at the age of 43! Fighting with colon cancer for 4 years

Superheroes have to bow their heads in the face of illness. On August 29, 2020, American film actor Chadwick Bosman died of colon cancer at his home in Los Angeles at the age of 43. The movie “Black Panther” starring Dvik Bosman has been nominated for 7 Oscars including Best Picture. Dwick Bosman had struggled with the disease for 4 years before his death, but the superhero eventually lost to colon cancer. What kind of cancer is colon cancer? What causes colon cancer? What are the manifestations of colon cancer? Is this cancer so bad? 1. Colon cancer The colon is divided into four parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon, most of which are fixed on the posterior wall of the abdomen. The arrangement of the colon is exactly like the English letter “M”, enclosing the small intestine. The diameter of the colon is 6 cm from the beginning and gradually decreases to 2.5 cm at the end of the sigmoid colon. Colon cancer refers to malignant tumors of the digestive tract derived from colon epithelium. The incidence of colon cancer from high to low is sigmoid colon, cecum and ascending colon, descending colon and transverse colon. The incidence of colon cancer is higher in urban areas than in rural areas, and males are higher than females. The incidence of colon cancer is at a low level before the age of 35, and the incidence increases rapidly after the age of 35, and the incidence increases with age. The American Cancer Society recommends that bowel cancer screening be started at the age of 45, and it is strongly recommended that adults over the age of 50 have regular bowel cancer screening. 2. What is the cause of colon cancer? The cause of colon cancer is not clear. Most colon cancers evolve from adenomatous polyps, and polyps go from hyperplasia to adenoma and then to cancer. Current observations show that the predisposing factors for colon cancer include: about 5% to 20% of colon cancers are hereditary colon cancer; unhealthy diet: insufficient dietary fiber, high-fat diet, too much fried food, lack of vitamins, especially lack of vitamins A, C, E and β-carotene, etc.; long-term mental stress, long-term smoking, long-term inactivity, obesity, etc. are common causes of many cancers; ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, colonic adenoma, rectal polyps The probability of getting colon cancer will also increase. 3. What are the manifestations of colon cancer? Weight loss is a manifestation of many cancers, and the typical manifestation of colon cancer is also weight loss, because after colon cancer, digestive function declines, causing the inability to absorb nutrients, and the result is a significant weight loss. In the early stage, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, anemia, fatigue, abdominal pain may occur; intestinal obstruction may occur, dry stools are prone to intestinal obstruction; sometimes blood in the stool, diarrhea, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, etc. may also occur; fatigue, fatigue, shortness of breath And other symptoms. If transferred, jaundice, difficulty breathing, dizziness and headache will occur. 4. The risk of colon cancer is the same as that of most cancers. Early detection and early treatment have good results. Patients with very early colon cancer have the best treatment effect, usually through colonoscopy; early colon cancer can be cured by surgery; middle and late colon cancer A comprehensive treatment plan for cancer patients, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, can achieve radical cure for some of them. In patients with early colon cancer, the 5-year survival rate can reach 90%, but there is a certain risk of recurrence, which is about 1.2% to 4.9%. In patients with advanced colon cancer, after comprehensive treatment such as surgery and chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rate is 50% to 78%. Although the underlying cause of colon cancer is not very clear, the predisposing factors are still relatively clear. Therefore, to prevent colon cancer, the main reason is to reduce the predisposing factors, such as quitting smoking, reducing fried fatty foods, increasing dietary fiber, fruits and vegetables, maintaining exercise, weight control, Maintaining a good attitude is good for preventing colon cancer, and even for preventing all diseases.

What is Gastric Cancer: Three Misunderstandings to Get Out of Understanding Gastric Cancer

 The stomach is a very important and indispensable part of our body’s system organs, so I must be familiar with stomach cancer. What exactly is stomach cancer? How is it defined in clinical medicine? Gastric cancer can mainly occur in any part of the stomach, but it is more common in the antrum of the stomach, especially in gastric diseases on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Moreover, gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor diseases in China, and the incidence of gastric cancer in my country ranks first among all kinds of tumors! It can be seen that stomach cancer is indeed a disease that seriously threatens people’s health.   But in real life, even right next to us, many patients with gastric cancer will have no symptoms when they are diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. Because they didn’t feel unwell before, they didn’t get the test. So, is stomach upset equal to stomach cancer? Is stomach okay equal to stomach cancer? The following will take you to understand the three major misunderstandings of correct understanding of gastric cancer. Knowing the misunderstandings of gastric cancer. As long as you have stomach problems, you just need to take medicine. In fact, about 80% of patients with early gastric cancer are asymptomatic. A small number of gastric cancer patients who have symptoms can easily be confused with some gastritis, gastric ulcers and other gastric diseases. For stomach cancer. Therefore, I would like to remind all my friends here, don’t judge your own disease based on your past experience and symptoms, and buy medicine to solve it by yourself. This is very likely to interfere with the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.   Understanding the Misunderstandings of Gastric Cancer II. After surgical removal of part of the stomach, there will be no more gastric cancer.    After most of our stomach is removed, it is still possible to get gastric cancer. This is currently called remnant gastric cancer in clinical medicine. The carcinogenesis of the remnant stomach is caused by the damage of the barrier function of the gastric mucosa, the increased concentration of carcinogenic nitroso compounds in the remnant stomach, the stimulation during anastomosis and the high tension ligation. Therefore, gastric cancer should not be taken lightly because of gastrectomy. It is recommended to have a gastroscopy every year for five years after surgery. Understanding the Misunderstandings of Gastric Cancer Three Young people always have stomach pains because of improper diet. Although the incidence of gastric cancer is higher among middle-aged and elderly people, according to the current research data from many domestic hospitals, the incidence of gastric cancer among young people under the age of 35 It has been as high as 6 to 11%, and the malignant degree of gastric cancer is relatively high. Because young people are under pressure from studying and working, resting, eating irregularly, and the incidence of gastric diseases such as gastric ulcers is not low. Therefore, when there is unexplained upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, dull pain, fullness, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting , Poor appetite, drowsiness, fatigue, progressive weight loss and anemia, tarry stools or even hematemesis, remember to go to the hospital for examination in time. In summary, we know what gastric cancer is, and we also know that to correctly understand gastric cancer, we must avoid the above three misunderstandings. In short, it is not a trivial matter to have gastric disease. We must prevent the slightest failure and control the spread of the disease. Finally, it brings irreparable damage to our health.

Breast cancer should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible

   Breast cancer is a type of malignant tumor that occurs in breast tissue. It is the malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. The incidence rate in my country exceeds 45/100,000, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year. It has the following characteristics: rapid growth, easy to metastasize, and after metastasis, the risk is greatly increased, easy to relapse, and will cause the patient’s organ damage and eventually death.   Although the incidence of breast cancer is on the rise, with the improvement of treatment methods, the prognosis is getting better and better. The mortality rate of breast cancer in my country has remained stable, with a 5-year survival rate of 83.2%, which is a malignant tumor with a good prognosis.  Breast cancer risk factors  According to researches, the prevalence of breast cancer is related to genetic factors, endocrine conditions, living habits and other breast diseases. Among first-degree relatives with a history of breast cancer, the incidence is about 2-3 times that of the general population. People with early menarche (earlier than 12 years old), late menopause (older than 55 years old), short menstrual cycles (<25 days), long-term oral contraceptives or receiving hormone replacement therapy are also at higher risk.   In addition, overnutrition, obesity, fat diet, excessive drinking, long-term or a large dose of ionizing radiation will increase the chance of disease. The symptoms of breast cancer patients are mostly not obvious. The symptoms of early breast cancer are usually the following:   1, breast masses (mostly single, hard, irregular edges, and painless masses with poor mobility);   2 , Nipple discharge (mostly bloody discharge);   3, breast skin abnormalities;   4, nipple or areola local abnormalities mainly.  Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer  Early detection and early diagnosis of breast cancer is the key to improving curative effect. 1. Mammogram X-ray examination of breast mammography is the most important method in breast cancer screening. It is also the first choice and the easiest non-invasive detection method for diagnosing breast diseases, with high resolution, good repeatability, and retention. The images taken can be compared before and after, regardless of age and body shape. It can not only diagnose benign and malignant, but also help doctors find lumps that are not found in early clinical examinations.   Breast cancer mammography can be divided into two categories: direct signs and indirect signs: direct signs include: localized masses, clusters of microcalcifications, localized dense infiltration, distortion of breast structure, and asymmetry of breasts on both sides. Indirect signs include: skin thickening or retraction, abnormal nipple and areola, peritumoral edema, and abnormally thickened blood vessels.  2, B-ultrasound examination   B-ultrasound examination is also one of the important examination methods for breast cancer. It can clarify the size, location, shape and boundary of the tumor, whether the tumor is solid or cystic. It can make up for the insensitivity of mammography to dense breast masses or deep masses and cystic masses.   The accuracy of B-ultrasound for breast cancer can reach 80%-85%, combined with Doppler blood flow map, the accuracy can reach 95%. Moreover, it is not affected by age and physiological status, and can be checked repeatedly; it can be used for positioning or needle biopsy of suspicious tumors, and can specifically measure the diameter of the tumor, which is convenient for clinical staging, surgical planning and prognostic evaluation. It has been classified as breast disease Routine inspection.  3. Breast self-examination    Breast cancer self-examination should be performed once a month, and the best time is 7-10 days after the end of the menstrual cycle. Women who have menopause can choose a fixed time every month for self-examination.  The standardized treatment of breast cancer is a comprehensive treatment based on surgery.  Surgery plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. With the deepening of research, the current scope of breast cancer surgery is getting smaller and smaller, and the scope of indications for breast-conserving surgery has broadened. With the development of technology and the development of sentinel lymph node biopsy technology, it is also possible to know in advance whether the patient has axillary lymph node metastasis. For patients without metastasis, the axillary lymph node dissection can be avoided and surgical trauma can be reduced. At the same time, combined with adjuvant therapy such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, endocrine, etc., control the condition as much as possible.

Why is the incidence of hemorrhoids low in Indians? Doctor: It’s mainly related to their movement habit

Speaking of hemorrhoids, although it is not a serious illness, it can also make people feel restless when they occur. Especially in my country, there is a saying of “ten people with nine hemorrhoids”, which shows the high incidence of hemorrhoids in my country. But what is strange is that according to the World Health Organization survey, the incidence of hemorrhoids is very low among Indians living in the geographical vicinity of my country. Is this true? Causes of hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids is a chronic disease with a long forming cycle, and there are many reasons for the onset of hemorrhoids. In summary, they are mainly related to several factors such as physiology, intestinal diseases and life and occupation habits. Since we humans walk upright, and the rectum and its branch vessels do not have venous valves, venous tissue fluid can easily accumulate in the tail of the anorectum under the action of gravity, which will cause varicose, hyperplasia and other diseases of the anal mucosal venous plexus. Hemorrhoids, which is a physiological factor in the formation of hemorrhoids. In addition, modern people’s life pressure increases, mental stress, many people will have constipation or repeated intestinal infections, which will increase the pressure of the intestinal cavity. Over time, it is easy to cause abnormal congestion of the rectal tail veins and form hemorrhoids. The most important thing is people’s bad living habits, irregular diet and bowel movements, like reading mobile phones and newspapers when defecate, and long defecation time, etc., will promote the occurrence of hemorrhoids. Other occupations that require long periods of sitting or standing, such as teachers, white-collar workers, long-distance bus drivers, etc., are also the cause of hemorrhoids due to frequent standing or sitting and lack of exercise. &nbsp.Indians rarely get hemorrhoids. The most important thing is that Indians also walk on two legs. Physically speaking, they are no different from us, so their low incidence of hemorrhoids has nothing to do with physiological factors. I think this is related to another movement habit of Indians, which is related to the low incidence of hemorrhoids. It is a toilet habit that is more unbearable in our opinion. It is the habit of using the left hand to clean without toilet paper after the bowel movement. Stool on the anus, then rinse with water. Although this action will make the left hand very dirty, it will make the anus cleaner. Due to the many wrinkles on the anus, it is actually difficult to clean the stool adhered to the anus thoroughly with toilet paper after defecation. This can easily cause bacteria to multiply and induce anal inflammation. After a long time, hemorrhoids will be formed. But Indians’ strange toileting habit has reduced their incidence of hemorrhoids. Summary It can be seen from the above that the reason why Indians have a lower incidence of hemorrhoids than ours is mainly related to this movement and the lifestyle habit of washing after toilet. If we want to reduce the occurrence of hemorrhoids, we can actually start by changing our living habits, such as not reading mobile phones or newspapers when going to the toilet, to prevent long bowel movements; eating more cellulose-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits to avoid long Sit or stand for a long time, increase exercise, drink plenty of water to prevent constipation; pay attention to relieve work and life pressure, relieve emotions, and avoid long-term mental tension. Reference: Li Sheng. Overview of the onset and treatment of hemorrhoids[J]. Chinese Medical Guide, 2014, 12(1): 43-44 (Part of the pictures in the text are sourced from the network, and the copyright belongs to the original author. I would like to express my gratitude to the picture author. , If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)