Urine color “yellow” indicates a problem with the body? Nephrologists refute rumors: normal phenomenon

Hello everyone, I am a nephrologist. With the rapid development of mobile Internet, the media has risen rapidly in recent years. But the Internet is a big dye tank, no, I saw a so-called health master on the Internet the other day, and introduced on the Internet, “If your urine is yellow or turns yellow, what is wrong with you, What to use to soak in water…” In this regard, as a nephrologist, you must stand up to tell the truth and tell the truth. Please note that the normal color of our human urine should be yellowish or transparent or colorless and transparent. Next, I will explain my reasons. First look at where our urine comes from? ●Urine is actually composed of excess water, electrolytes, and toxins. Every moment our body has a large amount of blood entering the kidney through the renal artery, and then filtered by our glomeruli to form raw urine. This is the first process. This raw urine adds up to about 180L a day, and the original The electrolyte composition in urine is the same as plasma, and 99% of it is water. ●After the first process is completed, the contents of these raw urine (which contains glucose, amino acids, electrolytes, bicarbonate, etc.) will be reabsorbed back into the blood when they reach the renal tubules and collecting tubes, so the final Urine is about 1.5L. This is also the urine output of a normal adult. Of course, this amount is only an approximation. If you intake less water today, your urine output will naturally decrease. If you consume a lot of water, your urine output will naturally be more. The ins and outs of our human urine. ●Note that if our urine is less than 400ml a day, it is oliguria, and if it is less than 100ml, it is anuria, which indicates that the body may be in a disease state, and the kidney may be damaged because if our urine is less than 500ml/d, The waste produced by our body’s metabolism cannot be completely discharged from the kidneys. The opposite is also true. If our body’s urine is more than 2500ml a day, we call it polyuria. If it is more than 4000ml a day, it is diarrhea. This kind of polyuria often suggests that the body may be in a disease state or take some Special drugs. Why is urine yellow? ●Under normal circumstances, our fresh urine is colorless or clear, light yellow or amber, the focus is coming, because the color of urine is affected by urogenogen, urobilin, and urinary porphyrin, so it appears pale The yellow color is normal. If there is little water intake within a day, and the urine may show a deep yellow color after a lot of sweating, this is actually a normal phenomenon, because the urine is concentrated. However, if the urine color changes abnormally under pathological conditions, as follows: ①Red: This is more common is hematuria, the reason is that there are red blood cells in the urine, which can be roughly divided into gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria Two kinds. The most common diseases of hematuria are urinary stones, glomerular diseases, urinary tumors, etc. In this case, it is best to go to the hospital in time to find the cause of hematuria. ②White: I have also introduced to you that in general, urine does not appear white, so the most common type of urine is purulent urine and chyluria. The purulent urine is more commonly a urinary tract infection, and the common way people talk about it is purulent. Chyluria is mainly caused by diseases such as filariasis, tuberculosis, etc. This is due to the fact that the chylous fluid absorbed by the intestine fails to flow into the blood through the normal lymphatic vessels and flows back into the urine. The appearance may look like white milk. If the urine chyle test can be positive, it is also necessary to go to the hospital in time for such urine. ③Blue-green: There are more factors affecting the urine color, such as food pigments, urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, obstruction of the biliary tract, some special drugs or chemical reagents (such as propofol , Methylene blue, phenol, boric acid, etc.), if it appears for a short period of time, you can drink more water and urinate to observe. If there is no relief, it is more indicative of pathological factors, and you need to go to the hospital in time to determine the cause. To sum up, don’t look at a little urine, it can not only reflect the metabolism of our body, but also the related auxiliary examination of urine can effectively guide clinical medication and treatment. Therefore, we must not only know why the urine is yellow, but also know that when there is abnormal urine color, we should go to the hospital in time to find out the relevant reasons, so as not to delay the treatment of the disease. Please note: when the body has

Signs of impaired renal function, 4 signals detected early

The initial symptoms of kidney disease are often hidden and difficult to find. This requires us to do regular physical examinations, especially urine tests. If the following 4 signs appear, it is likely that kidney function has been damaged. Signs of impaired renal function. Early detection of 4 signals 1. When the eyelid and lower extremity edema and renal insufficiency, the metabolic capacity for sodium is reduced, which easily leads to the retention of water and sodium metabolism. Excess water accumulates in the subcutaneous tissues, and symptoms such as eyelid edema in the morning and edema of the lower limbs after fatigue can appear. Press and hold the skin of the ankle with your hand. If you press one pit and the elasticity is very poor, it is usually edema. 2. Proteinuria and hematuria When the kidney is damaged, the ability to recover protein is reduced, which makes protein easily appear in urine. People who already have kidney disease also need to regularly test urine protein levels to assess kidney function. If inflammation, stones, tumors or blood vessels rupture in the kidneys, red blood cells will be excreted in the urine to form hematuria. Some foods or medicines may also cause urine to turn red, which is pseudo-hematuria, so it cannot be judged by urine color alone, and a urine test is required. Urine test is positive, the urine contains a lot of non-dissipating foam, which is proteinuria. If the number of red blood cells in the urine exceeds the standard, it is hematuria. 3. Increased creatinine Creatinine is a product of muscle metabolism, which is mainly filtered through the glomeruli and excreted from the body. When the muscle is not consumed vigorously, the amount of creatinine produced by the human body is relatively constant. Urine creatinine is 7-18 mmol/d for men and 5.3-16 mmol/d for women; blood creatinine for men is 53-106 μmol/L for men and 44-97 μmol/L for women. Increased blood creatinine and urinary creatinine for unknown reasons may indicate impaired renal function. 4. Fatigue, weak waist and knees From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine, the kidneys contain the body’s yang and energy. Chronic kidney disease can easily make the kidneys weak, causing fatigue, weakness in the waist and legs, frequent nocturia, and cold limbs. It is also easy to affect the spleen and lungs, leading to phlegm and stasis, at the same time causing chest tightness, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, indigestion and so on.

What is a bladder tumor? Symptom analysis of benign bladder tumor

Many patients who do not understand cancer diseases often ask what is bladder cancer? Experts tell us that bladder cancer is a tumor disease that occurs in the majority of men. But this does not mean that there is no such thing as a bladder tumor in the female group. This kind of tumor is generally a tumor in the urinary system, and it is also the most common type of tumor in today’s medical field. Therefore, the current medical methods for bladder tumors will be relatively advanced. At this time, not only to find a professional cancer hospital for treatment, but also to cooperate with the love of the loved ones. Such a two-pronged approach will also be very good for the treatment of patients.  After we know what a bladder tumor is, we must also have a certain understanding of the symptoms of benign bladder tumors to distinguish it from malignant tumors, which are early symptoms of cancer, so as to avoid misdiagnosis. First, hematuria occurs early in the disease of bladder tumors. Note that this hematuria is painless and intermittent. And after a period of time, there may be relief or urinary blood stop. At this time, patients often mistakenly think that they have been cured. But this is not the case. Urine and blood may still appear. And with the increase of malignancy, the tumors of patients with bladder tumors will show symptoms of necrosis and ulcers. If the infection is complicated and the tumor is large, urinary urgency and urinary pain may also occur. Because bladder tumors are located near the bladder neck or when the volume of the tumor becomes larger, difficulty in urinating may occur. If a mass is found in the lower abdomen, most patients with bladder tumors who go to the cancer hospital for treatment will have advanced disease.   Therefore, for this disease of bladder tumor, it is recommended to find and treat as soon as possible. Generally, the treatment for this type of bladder tumor is to remove it by surgery. There will be a considerable period of time after the resection to cooperate with the treatment. There will also be a high chance of recurrence, so patients and their families must actively cooperate in the fight against cancer. I also wish that all patients with bladder tumors can recover quickly.

What are the common symptoms of male bladder tumors?

Bladder tumor is one of the more common tumor diseases in men. The bladder wall of men is divided into mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer from inside to outside. Fat muscle cells and membrane covering the top of the bladder are divided outside the muscular layer. Two side walls and front wall. The line between the two ureteral openings is the bottom line of the triangle. The triangle is the main part of the bladder lumen. Most bladder tumors occur in the triangular area, both side walls and neck. So what are the common symptoms of male bladder tumors? The following editors will introduce to you:    Common symptoms of male bladder tumors generally include:    First: hematuria. Hematuria is the most common first symptom of bladder tumors in men. 85% of patients with bladder tumors have recurrent episodes of painless intermittent visible hematuria. Patients with bladder tumors may have more or less bleeding, with blood clots in severe cases. Patients with bladder tumors have hematuria sooner or later during the entire course of bladder tumor onset. About 68% of gross hematuria is full hematuria, and 28% is terminal hematuria. 4% is the initial hematuria.   Second: Frequent urination and urgency. If the tumor cells invade the triangular area of ​​the bladder, bladder irritation can appear earlier, and it is not early if the patients with bladder tumors develop dysuria. If patients with bladder tumors suddenly have unexplained dysuria, it is a symptom of early bladder cancer.   Third: pain. If the tumor is extensively invaded, and deeper, patients with bladder tumors may experience pain, which is exacerbated when the bladder contracts and urinates. If the patient’s tumor is located in the bladder neck, it can cause urethral infarction and even urinary retention. If the tumor invades the urethra, patients with bladder tumors may develop hydronephrosis and ascending infection. Patients with severe bladder tumors may cause sepsis and uremia, which are also early symptoms of bladder cancer.   Fourth, upper urinary tract obstruction. When the tumor invades the patient’s ureteral opening, it causes dilation of the renal pelvis and ureteral effusion, and even infection, and causes varying degrees of backache, back pain, fever and other symptoms in patients with bladder tumors. Symptoms of acute renal failure can occur if bilateral ureteral openings are invaded.

The three secrets of nephritis are clear in advance, so don’t panic!

Nephritis is a troublesome disease, and it must be treated in time once it becomes infected. Therefore, in addition to the necessary treatment, there are some small things that patients must know about nephritis. Here are some small secrets about nephritis. Interested friends, let’s take a look. 1. Hematuria does not mean nephritis. Some patients feel that if their urine does not appear red, it means they are in good health and there is no symptom of hematuria. In fact, hematuria visible to the naked eye is actually caused by urinary tract infection, and hematuria of latent nephropathy is usually microscopic hematuria invisible to the naked eye. Only through inspections and laboratory tests can we understand the specific situation of this disease. Therefore, if the patient has symptoms such as fatigue and puffiness, but he has not seen hematuria with the naked eye, don’t be careless. It is better to go to the hospital for examination. 2. Inflammation treatment should be thorough Nephritis is a latent nephropathy, the cause of which is often unclear, but studies have shown that nephritis is often caused by certain bacteria or viruses, especially upper respiratory tract infections or similar viral infections. Because these are beyond the body’s ability to withstand emergency reactions, there is an urgent need to regulate the secretion of corticosteroids. Eventually, it will cause aggravation or relapse of nephritis. Therefore, if tonsillitis recurs, it is best to remove it in time to avoid nephritis. 3. Don’t ignore patients with puffy nephritis who usually know that edema generally occurs at the position of the eyelid. This is more common when you get up in the morning, but this situation should not be distinguished because the reason is that if you drink too much water the night before or Lack of sleep can also cause eyelid edema the next day. When this happens, patients need to distinguish carefully, because if the eyelid edema caused by nephritis is not easy to resolve, under normal circumstances, the eyelid edema can usually resolve quickly. The above is the relevant knowledge about the secret of nephritis. I believe that after reading the above content, you have a general understanding of this problem. These are the three knowledge points that patients with nephritis or patients with suspected nephritis need to pay attention to, but this It is only a small part of it. Therefore, the only thing a nephritis patient can do is to monitor his body at any time. If there is any abnormality, he needs to immediately ask a doctor or go to the hospital for related examinations.

What should I do with you? My urinary stones

Urinary stones are referred to as urolithiasis, which is a granular substance formed by concentrated urine. This stone can be found in any part of the kidney, bladder, ureter, and urethra, but kidney and ureter stones are common. The causes of stones are not only life and rest ~ but also age, gender, occupation, diet composition and structure, climate, metabolism and genetics, etc. can also cause stones. Therefore, some people in a family must not suffer, some people will suffer. Generally speaking, between the ages of 20 and 50 are the most susceptible to illness, and there are more men than women (it does not mean that women are not allowed to suffer). Classification of kidney stones and ureteral stones are generally manifested as lumbar and abdominal cramps, often accompanied by gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria, often suddenly unprepared, especially after physical labor, hematuria will increase. In severe cases, it may cause masses in the upper abdomen or waist, or anuria due to obstruction. The main symptoms of bladder stones are pain in the lower abdomen, frequent urination and hematuria. In severe cases, urinary incontinence and urinary retention will occur, this time it is not possible to go to the hospital! Urethral stones are divided into two categories, primary and secondary, which are commonly seen in secondary urethral stones. The urethral stones usually come from the bladder. At this time, the patient’s perineal area produces severe pain, and later dysuria is accompanied by hematuria. Of course, if the stone is small, it will be discharged with urine, if it is large, it will only be treated in the hospital~ Check 1, B-mode ultrasound or color ultrasound: you can find stones more than 0.3mm; 2, abdominal X-ray: you can find More than 90% of positive stones; 3. CT: can find stones that can not be found by color Doppler ultrasound, and the size and location of the stones are often accurate. Prevention first, pay attention to the diet structure. For different patients with urinary stones, the diet should also be different. For example, patients with calcium oxalate stones should eat less foods with high calcium oxalate content, such as spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, and strawberries. Second, exercise more. As the saying goes, zhi (zhi) moves (shi) to make people progress. Appropriate exercise is helpful to prevent the occurrence and recurrence of stones. Boys and girls with good physical strength can also “jump” in place. Third, the most convenient and effective method comes-drink plenty of water. Drinking more water can increase urine output and wash your “inner”, which is conducive to the discharge of salts and minerals. In short, drink more water if you are sick!

Some medical names read very literary, such as the Nutcracker Syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome refers to a series of clinical syndromes caused by the left renal vein “shuttle” between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, and the compression of the gap between the abdominal aorta and the spine, resulting in narrowing of the lumen. The syndrome is also called [Left Renal Vein Compression Syndrome], and it is mostly manifested as hematuria, proteinuria, low back pain, and varicocele. The nutcracker syndrome is more common in children and adolescents, and is more common in male dolls. The incidence rate of male and female is about 24:5. &nbsp. Clinical manifestations 1. Hematuria: Hematuria is the most common symptom of nutcracker syndrome. Different levels of hematuria require different treatments. For example, if you have reached severe anemia, then only blood transfusion treatment is performed. However, under normal circumstances, it shows microscopic hematuria after activity, and the red blood cells in the urine are non-glomerular. In 98% of normal people, the pressure difference between the left renal vein and the inferior vena cava &lt.ImmHg (1.33kPa), hematuria may occur when the pressure difference is ≥3mmHg, but it is not hematuria and the mucosa of the calyx dome has inflammation, edema, and side branches The circulation is not related to other factors. 2. Pain: Mainly manifested as pain in the waist or abdomen, and it will radiate to the buttocks and the middle and back of the thighs, but it may also be part of the genital vein syndrome. The pathogenesis of pain is not completely clear. It may be caused by the continuous contraction of small arteries at the renal cortex resulting in decreased renal blood flow, vascular inflammation caused by increased pressure of the left renal vein, renal congestion, and long-term chronic hematuria. pain. 3. Postural proteinuria: refers to proteinuria that only occurs in a specific posture (such as standing, walking, or exercising). It can disappear with the change of posture. Proteinuria generally does not exceed 1g/d. Nutcracker syndrome can cause orthostatic proteinuria, which is more common in school-age children and adolescents, especially in the short term, the body’s rapid increase or slender body, the incidence rate is as high as 10%. The pathogenesis of orthostatic proteinuria may be upright when the internal organs sag, the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery are compressed, and the angle becomes smaller, resulting in compression of the left renal vein and blocked renal congestion, resulting in glomerular filtration Excessive increase, excess reabsorption capacity and proteinuria. 4. Erectile dysregulation: The nutcracker syndrome may be accompanied by erectile dysregulation. The patient feels dizzy, nausea, and chest tightness after sitting up or standing. If the symptoms are serious, it will affect normal life and study. The pathogenesis may be related to dysregulation of vasomotor mediators in patients. When standing upright, the patient’s venous system of the lower extremity contracted and the radiation was slow, the amount of returned blood flow decreased, and the cardiac output decreased, causing insufficient blood supply to the brain and causing symptoms. 5. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is mainly manifested as repeated or persistent fatigue without obvious causes, such as fatigue, dizziness, and decreased concentration. Moreover, the symptoms of fatigue are not relieved after rest, and in severe cases, it will cause a decline in mobility. The pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome may be due to the increased pressure gradient between the left renal vein and the inferior vena cava, resulting in congestion of the vascular bed in the kidney, which affects the renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone systems. 6. Reproductive varicose veins: Testicular and ovarian vein blood flows back to the left renal vein. Under the action of the Nutcracker syndrome, due to the high pressure of the renal veins, the backflow is blocked and congestion is caused, resulting in reproductive varicose veins. The main manifestation of male babies is different degrees of left varicocele, which will develop into severe in most cases, and the improvement is not obvious after lying down. Children and adolescents generally show discomfort on the left side of the scrotum. Earthworm-like masses can be touched in the scrotum; female dolls show symptoms of dysmenorrhea, difficulty in urination, difficulty in sexual intercourse, pelvic pain and increased menstruation. Treatment of NCS depends on the clinical manifestations and severity of left renal venous hypertension, and the choice ranges from conservative treatment to nephrectomy. Treatment methods include conservative treatment, surgical treatment and interventional treatment. 1. Conservative treatment: nutritional support, reduction of strenuous exercise, prevention of colds, etc., regular review of blood, urine routine and renal vascular color Doppler ultrasound. For the baby with mild hematuria, conservative treatment is recommended, especially for those under the age of 18, it is best to choose conservative treatment for at least 2 years. With the increase of age, the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta gradually increases, and hematuria is relieved due to the increase of fat and other tissues. During conservative treatment, patients can be asked to increase nutrition and avoid strenuous activities

Some medical names are very literary, such as the Nutcracker Syndrome

“Ma Ma! Ma Ma! My urine is a red murmur?” “Oh! Really, I’m afraid to take you to see it! Yao, what are you uncomfortable for?” ” There is still some pain in my belly, and the lumbar pole is still uncomfortable.” “Hey, fart is a little baby, where is the lumbar pole. Take a walk, go to the hospital to see what’s going on?” After our urology Eason Fan Dalin’s inspection , Diagnosed with [Nutcracker Syndrome]. It’s not Walnut syndrome. Don’t remember the kidnapping. So what is nutcracker syndrome? What are the symptoms? What treatment should be? Look at it seriously-we, Fan Eason, lifted his dark circles and vomited blood to sort out the “previous life and present life” of the nutcracker syndrome. What is the nutcracker syndrome? Nutcracker syndrome refers to a series of clinical syndromes caused by the left kidney vein “shuttle” between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, and the compression of the gap between the abdominal aorta and the spine, resulting in narrowing of the lumen. The syndrome is also called [Left Renal Vein Compression Syndrome], and most of them are hematuria, proteinuria, low back pain, and varicocele. The nutcracker syndrome is more common in children and adolescents, and is more common in male dolls. The incidence rate of male and female is about 24:5. (Doctors have emphasized countless eight courses. Once you feel uncomfortable, go to the doctor as soon as possible, don’t delay~)&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. What is the clinical manifestation? 1. Hematuria: Hematuria is the most common symptom of nutcracker syndrome. Different levels of hematuria require different treatments. For example, if you have reached severe anemia, then only blood transfusion treatment is performed. However, under normal circumstances, it shows microscopic hematuria after activity, and the red blood cells in the urine are non-glomerular. In 98% of normal people, the pressure difference between the left renal vein and the inferior vena cava &lt.ImmHg (1.33kPa), hematuria may occur when the pressure difference is ≥3mmHg, but it is not hematuria and the mucosa of the calyx dome has inflammation, edema, and side branches Whether the circulation is formed is related to other factors (quietly telling you that vigorous exercise may induce or aggravate hematuria). 2. Pain: Mainly manifested as pain in the waist or abdomen, and it will radiate to the buttocks and the middle and back of the thighs, but it may also be part of the genital vein syndrome. The pathogenesis of pain is not completely clear. It may be caused by the continuous contraction of small arteries at the renal cortex resulting in decreased renal blood flow, vascular inflammation caused by increased pressure of the left renal vein, renal congestion, and long-term chronic hematuria. pain. 3. Postural proteinuria: refers to proteinuria that only occurs in a specific posture (such as standing, walking, or exercising). It can disappear with the change of posture. Proteinuria generally does not exceed 1g/d. Nutcracker syndrome can cause orthostatic proteinuria, which is more common in school-age children and adolescents, especially in the short term, the body quickly increases or the body is thin and long, the incidence rate is as high as 10%. The pathogenesis of orthostatic proteinuria may be upright when the internal organs sag, the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery are compressed, and the angle becomes smaller, resulting in compression of the left renal vein and blocked renal congestion, resulting in glomerular filtration Excessive increase, excess reabsorption capacity and proteinuria. 4. Erectile dysregulation: The nutcracker syndrome may be accompanied by erectile dysregulation. The patient feels dizzy, nausea, and chest tightness after sitting up or standing. If the symptoms are serious, it will affect normal life and study. The pathogenesis may be related to dysregulation of vasomotor mediators in patients. When standing upright, the patient’s venous system of the lower extremity contracted and the radiation was delayed, the amount of returned cardiac blood was reduced, and the cardiac output was reduced, causing insufficient blood supply to the brain and causing symptoms. 5. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is mainly manifested as repeated or persistent fatigue without obvious causes, such as fatigue, dizziness, and decreased concentration. Moreover, the symptoms of fatigue are not relieved after rest, and in severe cases, it will cause a decline in mobility. The pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome may be due to the increased pressure gradient between the left renal vein and the inferior vena cava, resulting in congestion of the vascular bed in the kidney, which affects the renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone systems. 6. Reproductive varicose veins: Testicular and ovarian vein blood flows back to the left renal vein. Under the action of the Nutcracker syndrome, due to renal vein high pressure, the backflow is blocked and congestion is caused, resulting in reproductive varicose veins. The main manifestation of male baby is varying degrees of left varicocele, mostly

The relationship between the “nutcracker phenomenon” of the kidney and allergic purpura

In the clinic, there is also a normal kidney condition-“nutcracker phenomenon”, which is misdiagnosed as impaired renal function. [Disease identification] In this case, hematuria and proteinuria will also appear, but it is not purpura kidney! The “nutcracker phenomenon” of the kidneys often exists before the onset of allergic purpura, and often does not require treatment, and most children will naturally disappear when they reach adolescence. However, some less experienced doctors will misdiagnose as a kind of kidney damage, and the patients will not be effective for many years. Parents are reminded to find a professional pediatric doctor for treatment. The nutcracker phenomenon refers to the compression of the left renal artery between the aorta of the lower abdomen and the superior mesenteric artery. The main symptoms are hematuria and proteinuria, and asymptomatic gross hematuria is easier to find. It often occurs when the growth rate of puberty increases rapidly and the vertebral body is overstretched. The consequence is often repeated hematuria. Exercise can be an inducement, as well as lower back discomfort and back pain. Symptoms are often relieved after aging or the establishment of collateral circulation. For patients with nutcracker phenomenon, it is recommended to use surgical treatment for individual patients with severe needs. The drugs are ineffective, the diet is irrelevant, and it is not suitable for exercise. It is more suitable to rest when there is hematuria. Finally, answer the questions of most patients about how to prevent kidney damage. At present, there are no special drugs for this disease. The best protective measures are early detection, early treatment, and targeted solid-state adjustment measures. Most patients with purpura can achieve complete recovery. If you have any questions about this article or the disease, please feel free to follow us on WeChat and search more: gmxzd1

What should I do if I find hematuria? You should all know this knowledge

Recently, several hematuria patients were consulted, and combined with the medical history of these patients, I will talk about the knowledge about hematuria. These patients have several things in common: 1. Longer medical history, most of them are young people, and a short period of half a year, a long history of three to five years; 2. No obvious symptoms, most of the physical examination found , Some patients have gross hematuria, and some patients only have microscopic hematuria. 3. Mainly based on simple gross hematuria, no proteinuria, low blood pressure, good renal function, and no obvious abnormalities in urinary color Doppler ultrasound. 4. The patient feels very anxious and does not know what the cause of hematuria. Seek medical advice everywhere and did not get a clear answer, which seriously affected his personal life. The definition of hematuria is very simple, which means that the red blood cells in the urine are found by naked eyes or microscopy. What needs to be explained is that the urine test finds that the urine is purely occult blood, and no red blood cells cannot be called hematuria. This situation is mostly a false positive result. There is no any significance. There are many causes of hematuria, the common one is kidney disease, including glomerulonephritis, hereditary nephropathy such as Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane nephropathy, adolescents should also consider the nutcracker phenomenon, hematuria after exercise, in addition to stones, urinary tract Infection, prostatitis, and urinary system tumors of the elderly can basically cover all causes of hematuria. The discovery of hematuria needs to consider the possibility of the above diseases, based on medical history and further examination to confirm the diagnosis. Judging from the several patients received, the possibility of chronic glomerulonephritis is basically considered. The main symptom is asymptomatic hematuria, without proteinuria. The phase of urine red blood cells has been checked many times, and there is no obvious abnormality in urinary color Doppler ultrasound. So for this kind of chronic glomerulonephritis, which belongs to patients with asymptomatic hematuria, how should it be treated in the future? First of all, let’s be clear that there is no specific drug for the treatment of asymptomatic hematuria. From the current research, for patients with asymptomatic hematuria without proteinuria, the prognosis is generally good and no special treatment is required. . What patients should do is regular outpatient follow-up, regular review, and monitoring of changes in the condition; no need to worry too much, clear diagnosis, and treat the condition optimistically.

Interpretation: bladder injury

The bladder is in the pelvic cavity, and it is generally not easy to be injured. However, when the bladder is full, it can cause open or closed bladder injury under the action of external force; when performing obstetrics and gynecology or rectal cancer surgery, it is easy to damage the bladder if it is careless; when undergoing transurethral resection of prostate tumors as a speculum operation At the time, the bladder may be perforated due to the stimulation of the obturator nerve and strong spasm of the adductor muscle. 1. The cause is divided into open injury, closed injury and medical injury according to the cause. According to pathology, it is divided into: contusion and bladder rupture (experitoneal and intraperitoneal). 2. Auxiliary examination Routine blood tests showed increased white blood cells, urine routinely showed red blood cells covered the visual field, and urine occult blood test was positive. As a result of urine absorption, blood biochemical examination showed that urea nitrogen and creatinine increased. 1. During the catheterization of the intravesical water injection test, it was found that the bladder was empty or had only a small amount of hematuria; The external leakage can confirm the diagnosis of bladder rupture and the type and degree of rupture; 3. Cystoscopy can confirm the diagnosis of bladder contusion; 4. Type B ultrasound can detect the shape of the bladder. If there is no bladder rupture, the complete bladder can be detected. If the bladder ruptures, the bladder can not be filled, and the bladder shape will also change; 5. Computer tomography (CT) examination CT examination; 6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination; 7. Urethral catheterization if there is no urethral injury , The catheter can be put into the bladder smoothly. If the patient is unable to urinate and the urine is hematuria, it should be further understood whether there is a bladder rupture. The catheter can be retained for the injection test, and the withdrawal volume is significantly reduced than the injection volume, indicating that there is a bladder rupture. 4. Clinical manifestations 1. Shock: Sometimes, patients with bladder injury may have hemorrhagic shock due to pelvic fracture. 2. Abdominal pain: When the peritoneum ruptures, full abdominal tenderness, rebound pain, and muscle tension are accompanied by mobile dullness. When the peritoneum ruptures, pain, tenderness and muscle tension in the lower abdomen, the digital rectal examination can touch the fullness of the anterior wall of the rectum. The mild contusion of the bladder wall has only lower abdominal pain and a small amount of terminal hematuria. 3. Hematuria and difficulty urinating: After the bladder ruptures, urine flows into the abdominal cavity or around the bladder. 4. Urinary fistula: When the bladder rupture is connected with the body surface and rectum, it can cause urine leakage, bladder rectal fistula or bladder vaginal fistula. V. Treatment 1. Systemic treatment: When severe peritonitis is caused by bladder rupture combined with pelvic fracture, multiple organ damage or extravasated urine, shock symptoms of varying degrees will appear. Blood transfusion should be performed in time to supplement blood volume with sedative pain medication . At the same time, antibiotics should be used as early as possible to prevent infection. &nbsp.&nbsp.2. Non-surgical therapy: patients with bladder contusion only need short-term catheter drainage and antibiotics to prevent infection, and the injury can usually heal itself within a few days. When the peritoneal bladder rupture is small, cystography shows only a small amount of urine extravasation, and the patient has mild symptoms. If the injury is within 12 hours and there is no urinary tract infection, use a large-diameter catheter to continue catheterization for 10-12 days. Keep the urinary catheter open. At the same time, antibiotics are used to prevent infection, and the ruptured mouth can usually heal itself. &nbsp.&nbsp.3. Surgical therapy: Surgical therapy is required for most patients with bladder rupture.

What is the relationship between urine color and gynecological diseases

 Urine is composed of different substances such as urine color, urinary cholin, and urinary urinary. These components are the products of body metabolism and form a certain proportion. Therefore, under normal circumstances, urine will maintain a certain concentration, so urine color is also relatively fixed. When urine color is abnormal, people can observe certain diseases from their urine, so to a certain extent, urine color is not only a healthy barometer but also a “signal flare” for diseases.   First, the “rainbow” world in urine   The color of urine is not static, it will change with the amount of drinking water, diet or disease. If you drink enough water, your urine will be light yellow; if you are a little dehydrated, your urine will darken. The yellow color in urine comes mostly from aging blood cells, which will be decomposed after undergoing a series of body metabolism, and finally come to the urethra as a pigmentation agent and eventually be excreted from the body. The less water in the bladder, the urine The darker the color, so the color of morning urine is generally darker.  Second, let’s take a look at what problems the urine color shows.  The color of normal urine can vary in depth due to different drinking, sweating and activity levels, generally from light yellow to deep amber. When the human body is metabolized abnormally or suffers from a certain disease, the color of urine will show a special change.   1. Yellow-brown urine: common in obstructive jaundice, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis A, arsenic, chloroform and other poisoning.   2. Red urine: You can see the urine in red with your eyes is called gross hematuria. Urine contains a lot of red blood cells. There are many causes of hematuria, common in urogenital inflammation, stones and tumors. Such as various types of nephritis, renal tuberculosis, acute cystitis, urethritis, stones and malignant tumors in the above parts. Systemic diseases such as leukemia, scarlet fever, and congestive heart failure often cause hematuria.   3. Hemoglobinuria: refers to the presence of free hemoglobin in the urine. Because there is no red blood cells or only a small amount of red blood cells in the urine, the urine is clear and red wine-like. Commonly seen in malaria, broad bean disease, blood transfusions of incompatibility, hemolytic anemia, paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and abdominal bleeding.   4. Dark red hematuria: seen in bilirubinuria, often hepatitis A.   5, milky urine: also known as chyluria, this is due to the inability to absorb chyme from the intestine, causing chyle reflux into the urine. There are congenital factors that cause chyluria, such as abnormal congenital lymphatic valve function; there are also secondary factors, such as common filariasis and urinary pyogenic infection.   3. Is female urine yellow a gynecological reminder?   Normal urine color is usually light yellow, but I believe many friends have found that they often have yellow or yellowish brown urine, which is urine yellow. The gynecologist explained that the cause of urinary yellow in women may be related to diseases in addition to the common conditions caused by drinking too little water and taking medicine. For example: some women have urine yellow after the same room, and the urine has an unpleasant smell. This situation is sometimes caused by condoms. In most cases, this urine yellow is generally caused by diseases of the reproductive system. , Vaginitis and other inflammations are the most common. Therefore, if women find urinary yellow, it is best to be vigilant to see if they have gynecological diseases or other problems.

Clinical manifestations and treatment of bladder tumors

Yesterday I talked about bladder tumors. In fact, some scholars often use auxiliary examination methods. What about his clinical manifestations and treatment? Did you really smell cancer? Today we will talk about it. Other auxiliary examinations 1. Cystoscopy: is the most important method for diagnosing bladder tumors. Can directly observe the relationship between tumor growth site, size, number, morphology, basal condition and ureteral opening, bladder neck, and can simultaneously perform tumor biopsy and random biopsy of bladder mucosa to determine tumor differentiation and the presence of carcinoma in situ. 2. X-ray examination: excretory urography can understand whether the renal pelvis and ureter have tumors and renal function. If there is a tumor in the upper urinary tract, the bladder tumor may be implanted. Hydrops or unclear visualization of the kidneys and ureters, indicating that the tumor has infiltrated the ureter orifice and caused obstruction. Cystography showed filling defects, and the irregular rigidity of the bladder wall showed deep tumor infiltration. CT and MRI examinations can show the depth of tumor invasion and pelvic metastasis. 3. B-mode ultrasound: B-mode ultrasound is getting more and more attention. It can display bladder tumors of more than 0.5 cm, and can be dynamically observed. Transurethral ultrasound scanning can accurately show the depth and extent of tumor infiltration into the bladder wall. The direct acoustic image of a bladder tumor can appear as bulging into the bladder cavity or infiltrating into the bladder wall. 3. Clinical manifestations The early and most common symptoms of bladder tumors are intermittent, painless, and gross hematuria throughout. It is usually hematuria during the whole course, which is worse at the end. There are also very few patients with microscopic hematuria or only a small amount of terminal hematuria. The degree of hematuria is inconsistent with the size, number, and malignancy of the tumor. Non-epithelial tumors have mild hematuria. Patients with bladder tumors with necrosis, ulcers, co-infection, or large tumors (especially in the triangular area) may have symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, and dysuria. Difficulty urinating and urinary retention may occur when the tumor is located near the bladder neck or when the tumor is large. When the pelvis is extensively infiltrated, there is lumbosacral pain and edema of the lower extremities. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are highly malignant and the course of the disease is short; children with rhabdomyosarcoma often have dysuria as the main symptom. Because most patients with lumps in the lower abdomen are already in the late stage of the disease. Fourth, the treatment is mainly surgical treatment. Surgical treatment is divided into transurethral surgery, bladder incision tumor removal, partial bladder resection and total bladder resection. Different treatment methods should be selected according to the location of the tumor, the depth of invasion, the number, the degree of malignancy, and the patient’s general condition. Radiation and chemotherapy are adjuvant treatments. The latest surgical methods in our hospital: transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt), transurethral bladder tumor holmium laser enucleation; laparoscopic total cystectomy + ileal bladder replacement, laparoscopic total cystectomy + in situ new bladder Surgery. &nbsp.

Do I have kidney failure if IgA nephropathy occurs? Brave to provide you with the answer

There are many types of chronic kidney disease, and the pathological type of nephritis is the most common. Among them, more than half of the patients with nephritis were diagnosed with IgA nephropathy. The majority of people with this type of kidney disease are young people, basically between 20-30 years old, so we have to make us pay more attention to prevention. Due to the lack of knowledge about kidney disease, many kidney friends did not understand their pathological type when they first diagnosed the disease, and the inadequate prevention and treatment of the disease led to unsatisfactory treatment and delayed the disease. What is IgA nephropathy? What are the signs before the onset? Young people should pay attention to IgA nephropathy is a primary glomerular disease, IgA is immunoglobulin A, pathological examination can find IgA or IgA deposition in the mesangial area. There are many types of lesions, which can be manifested as focal stage lesions, or mesangial hyperplasia, or crescentic lesions. A clear diagnosis requires further examination. Early symptoms: gross hematuria is the most typical. It cannot be said that all patients with gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria are IgA nephropathy. However, before the onset of IgA nephropathy, there were repeated gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria, as well as fever and infection. More common is patients with repeated tonsil inflammation, there is hematuria for hours or even days, and there is also a small amount of proteinuria, and some patients have high blood pressure. The probability of being diagnosed with IgA nephropathy is greater. Repeated symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections indicate that the patient’s own immune system has problems, resistance is reduced, and disease resistance is poor, resulting in kidney disease. What is the risk of developing IgA nephropathy to renal failure? Compared with other pathological types of kidney disease, patients with early IgA nephropathy have a lower risk of developing renal failure. Patients with renal insufficiency are at greater risk, especially those with pathological type in Lee type III disease have a poorer prognosis. How to delay the development of renal function and try to reverse the occurrence of renal failure? 1. Pay attention to the control of proteinuria and hematuria. The first step to stabilize kidney function is to lower proteinuria and hematuria. Although hematuria is the main symptom, proteinuria has a greater impact. Patients who fall below 0.5g generally have a lower risk of renal failure. For the treatment of proteinuria, the treatment schemes taken at different stages are also different: the urine protein quantity is less than 1g, and hormone therapy is generally not selected. The RAS blocker treatment is commonly used to achieve the combined effect of reducing protein and blood pressure; the urine protein quantity is greater than 1g_3.5g, in addition to RAS blocker treatment, some patients consider increasing hormone therapy to eliminate immune inflammation and delay the progress of renal function. For patients with a quantitative urine protein greater than 3.5g, in order to lower the protein as soon as possible, hormone shock therapy can be considered, and the medication regimen should be adjusted after remission to delay the occurrence of renal failure as much as possible. Second, hypertension should be reduced to 130/80mmHg. Most patients are young people, and blood pressure should be controlled at a low point. It is best to stabilize below 130/80mmHg. The impact on the glomerular artery will be greatly reduced. Individual elderly patients can be appropriately relaxed, but not more than 140/90mmHg. For blood pressure lowering treatment, you can take RAS blockers such as commonly used drugs such as puli and sartans. For patients who have developed renal insufficiency, pay attention to monitoring blood potassium and serum creatinine when taking it. A low-fat diet helps stabilize blood pressure levels. 3. Controlling the development of pathology itself. We have mentioned several types of lesions. Relatively speaking, focal stage lesions are more difficult to treat, and mesangial proliferative nephritis is easier to treat. Crescent nephritis depends on glomerulosclerosis. degree. Regardless of the type, to delay renal function, it is necessary to fundamentally repair the damaged glomeruli and other nephrons. Some of the damaged cells cannot be reversed. Cells that have not yet undergone sclerosis should be protected in time and “rescue” as much as possible. Kidney cells with less damage are actively treated. Regardless of the type, the chance of renal failure is larger. The sooner it is discovered and actively treated, the greater the chance of reversal.

Bladder tumor

Bladder tumors are common tumors in the urinary system and abnormal growth of the bladder wall. Papillary tumors and squamous cell carcinomas are more common, showing painless gross hematuria. After tumor necrosis and infection, bladder irritation appears. 1. The etiology of bladder tumors is very complicated and not completely clear. However, it is mainly affected by the following substances: 1. Chemical carcinogens: At present, β-naphthylamine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, etc. have been confirmed as bladder cancer substances. These substances are widely used in the dye, textile, printing, rubber and plastic industries. Long-term exposure to such carcinogens is extremely prone to bladder cancer. However, due to individual differences, the incubation period of bladder cancer is very long. And smoking is 1.5 to 4 times more dangerous than non-smokers (benzopyrene in smoke is also a carcinogen). 2. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: Molecular biology research believes that certain factors can cause the activation of cancer genes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which can cause cancer. 3. Other: Abnormal metabolism of tryptophan and niacin can be the cause of bladder cancer. Schistosomiasis Egypt, leukoplakia of the bladder, glandular cystitis, urolithiasis, urinary retention, etc. may also be the cause of bladder cancer. Second, auxiliary examination laboratory examination 1. Urine examination: hematuria or terminal hematuria, and urine P53 test was positive. 2. Urine shed cytology test: It is an important screening diagnostic method, simple and easy to perform. Tumors with high malignant degree and poor cell differentiation have a high positive rate, which is also an effective method for monitoring cancer recurrence and high-risk population screening. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is more sensitive. 3. Nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22): It is a new type of inspection method that has just appeared in recent years, mainly to check the content of nuclear matrix protein in tumor shed cells in urine. 4. Hyaluronidase (HA) and hyaluronidase determination (HAase): Increased HA and HAase can be found in urine. 5. Bladder tumors and ABO antigen, flow cytometer, tumor chromosomes, salivary enzymes, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes can have a deeper understanding of biological characteristics such as tumor malignancy, infiltration trend and prognosis.

Learn about bladder tumor in 1 minute

Bladder tumors are common tumors in the urinary system and abnormal growth of the bladder wall. Papillary tumors and squamous cell carcinomas are more common, showing painless gross hematuria. After tumor necrosis and infection, bladder irritation appears. 1. The etiology of bladder tumors is very complicated and not completely clear. However, it is mainly affected by the following substances: 1. Chemical carcinogens: At present, β-naphthylamine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, etc. have been confirmed as bladder cancer substances. These substances are widely used in the dye, textile, printing, rubber and plastic industries. Long-term exposure to such carcinogens is extremely prone to bladder cancer. However, due to individual differences, the incubation period of bladder cancer is very long. And smoking is 1.5 to 4 times more dangerous than non-smokers (benzopyrene in smoke is also a carcinogen). 2. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: Molecular biology research believes that certain factors can cause the activation of cancer genes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which can cause cancer. 3. Other: Abnormal metabolism of tryptophan and niacin can be the cause of bladder cancer. Schistosomiasis Egypt, leukoplakia of the bladder, glandular cystitis, urolithiasis, urinary retention, etc. may also be the cause of bladder cancer. Second, auxiliary examination laboratory examination 1. Urine examination: hematuria or terminal hematuria, and urine P53 test was positive. 2. Urine shed cytology test: It is an important screening diagnostic method, simple and easy to perform. Tumors with high malignant degree and poor cell differentiation have a high positive rate, which is also an effective method for monitoring cancer recurrence and high-risk population screening. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is more sensitive. 3. Nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22): It is a new type of inspection method that has just appeared in recent years, mainly to check the content of nuclear matrix protein in tumor shed cells in urine. 4. Hyaluronidase (HA) and hyaluronidase determination (HAase): Increased HA and HAase can be found in urine. 5. Bladder tumors and ABO antigen, flow cytometer, tumor chromosomes, salivary enzymes, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes can have a deeper understanding of biological characteristics such as tumor malignancy, infiltration trend and prognosis. Other auxiliary examinations 1. Cystoscopy: is the most important method for diagnosing bladder tumors. Can directly observe the relationship between tumor growth site, size, number, morphology, basal condition and ureteral opening, bladder neck, and can simultaneously perform tumor biopsy and random biopsy of bladder mucosa to determine tumor differentiation and the presence of carcinoma in situ. 2. X-ray examination: excretory urography can understand whether the renal pelvis and ureter have tumors and renal function. If there is a tumor in the upper urinary tract, the bladder tumor may be implanted. Hydrops or unclear visualization of the kidneys and ureters, indicating that the tumor has infiltrated the ureter orifice and caused obstruction. Cystography showed filling defects, and the irregular rigidity of the bladder wall showed deep tumor infiltration. CT and MRI examinations can show the depth of tumor invasion and pelvic metastasis. 3. B-mode ultrasound: B-mode ultrasound is getting more and more attention. It can display bladder tumors of more than 0.5 cm, and can be dynamically observed. Transurethral ultrasound scanning can accurately show the depth and extent of tumor infiltration into the bladder wall. The direct acoustic image of a bladder tumor can appear as bulging into the bladder cavity or infiltrating into the bladder wall. 3. Clinical manifestations The early and most common symptoms of bladder tumors are intermittent, painless, and gross hematuria throughout. It is usually hematuria during the whole course, which is worse at the end. There are also very few patients with microscopic hematuria or only a small amount of terminal hematuria. The degree of hematuria is inconsistent with the size, number, and malignancy of the tumor. Non-epithelial tumors have mild hematuria. Patients with bladder tumors with necrosis, ulcers, co-infection, or large tumors (especially in the triangular area) may have symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, and dysuria. Difficulty urinating and urinary retention may occur when the tumor is located near the bladder neck or when the tumor is large. When the pelvis is extensively infiltrated, there is lumbosacral pain and edema of the lower extremities. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are highly malignant and the course of the disease is short; children with rhabdomyosarcoma often have dysuria as the main symptom. Because most patients with lumps in the lower abdomen are already in the late stage of the disease. Fourth, the treatment is mainly surgical treatment. Surgical treatment is divided into transurethral surgery, bladder incision tumor removal, partial bladder resection and total bladder resection. Different treatment methods should be selected according to the location of the tumor, the depth of invasion, the number, the degree of malignancy, and the patient’s general condition. Radiation and chemotherapy are adjuvant treatments. The latest surgical methods in our hospital: transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt), transurethral bladder tumor holmium laser enucleation; laparoscopic total cystectomy + ileal bladder surgery,

Clinical manifestations and treatment of bladder injury

Yesterday I talked about the cause and examination of bladder injury, so what is the clinical manifestation and how to treat it? Today we will talk about it. 1. Clinical manifestations 1. Shock: Sometimes, patients with bladder injury may have hemorrhagic shock due to pelvic fracture. 2. Abdominal pain: When the peritoneum ruptures, full abdominal tenderness, rebound pain, and muscle tension are accompanied by mobile dullness. When the peritoneum ruptures, pain, tenderness and muscle tension in the lower abdomen, the digital rectal examination can touch the fullness of the anterior wall of the rectum. The mild contusion of the bladder wall has only lower abdominal pain and a small amount of terminal hematuria. 3. Hematuria and difficulty in urinating: After the bladder ruptures, urine flows into the abdominal cavity or around the bladder. There is intention to urinate but cannot urinate or only a small amount of hematuria. 4. Urinary fistula: When the bladder rupture is connected with the body surface and rectum, it can cause urine leakage, bladder rectal fistula or bladder vaginal fistula. 2. Treatment 1. Systemic treatment: When severe peritonitis is caused by bladder rupture combined with pelvic fracture, multiple organ damage or extravasated urine, shock symptoms of varying degrees will appear. Blood transfusion and blood transfusion should be added in time, and sedative pain medication . At the same time, antibiotics should be used as early as possible to prevent infection. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.2. Non-surgical therapy: patients with bladder contusion only need short-term catheter drainage and antibiotics to prevent infection, and the injury can usually heal itself within a few days. When the peritoneal bladder rupture is small, cystography shows only a small amount of urine extravasation, and the patient has mild symptoms. If the injury is within 12 hours and there is no urinary tract infection, a large-diameter catheter can be used for continuous catheterization for 10-12 days. Keep the urinary catheter open. At the same time, antibiotics are used to prevent infection, and the ruptured mouth can generally heal itself. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.3. Surgical therapy: Surgical therapy is required for most patients with bladder rupture.

Urinary stones

Dr. Little Red Riding Hood often hears the patients with stones suffering from hoarseness. Today we will show you the urinary stones that hurt you to roll. Urinary calculi are referred to as urolithiasis. The granules formed by concentrated urine deposits can be found in any part of the kidney, bladder, ureter, and urethra, but kidney and ureter stones are common. The causes of stones are not only life and rest ~ but also age, gender, occupation, diet composition and structure, climate, metabolism and genetics can also cause stones. So some people in a family will suffer from stones, some will not suffer from stones. Generally speaking, between 20 and 50 years old are the most susceptible to illness, and there are more men than women. Classification of kidney stones and ureteral stones generally manifests as cramps in the waist and abdomen, often accompanied by gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria, and often occurs suddenly without preparation, especially after physical labor. In severe cases, it may cause masses in the upper abdomen or waist, or anuria due to obstruction. The main symptoms of bladder stones are pain in the lower abdomen, frequent urination and hematuria. In severe cases, urinary incontinence and urinary retention will occur, this time it is not possible to go to the hospital! Urethral stones are divided into two categories, primary and secondary, which are commonly seen in secondary urethral stones. The urethral stones usually come from the bladder. At this time, the patient’s perineal area produces severe pain, and later dysuria is accompanied by hematuria. Of course, if the stone is small, it will be discharged with urine. If it is large, it will only be treated in the hospital ~ Check 1, B-mode ultrasound or color ultrasound: you can find stones above 0.3mm; More than 90% of positive stones; 3. CT: can find stones that can not be found by color Doppler ultrasound, and the size and location of the stones are often accurate. Prevention first, pay attention to the diet structure. For different patients with urinary stones, the diet should also be different. For example, patients with calcium oxalate stones should eat less foods with high calcium oxalate content such as spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries. Second, exercise more. As the saying goes, exercise) makes people progress, and proper exercise is conducive to preventing the occurrence and recurrence of stones. Boys and girls with good physical strength can also “jump” in place. Third, the most convenient and effective method comes-drink plenty of water. Drinking more water can increase urine output and wash your “inner”, which is conducive to the discharge of salts and minerals.

Implementation of risk and assessment of microscopic hematuria examination

& nbsp. Today we will continue to talk about hematuria under the mirror. A lot has been introduced a few days ago. Today I will talk about the risk of inspection and the implementation of assessment. Risks of diagnostic tests & nbsp. Routine cystoscopy and CT urography for all men and women over 35 years of age are not only expensive, but also produce certain adverse reactions. Of the patients who underwent cystoscopy in the outpatient clinic, 50% had difficulty urinating and 3% had urinary tract infections. In addition, nephropathy caused by phlebography accounts for more than 2% of the general population, and more than 20% to 30% of high-risk patients. Compared with plain radiographs, the radiation dose of diagnostic CT scans is much higher. The researchers estimate that the next 2% of malignant tumors may be secondary to iatrogenic CT radiation exposure, especially when the CT exposure target is less than 40 years old. For women under 40 years of age, CT scan evaluation of microscopic hematuria has a higher risk and a very low benefit. Implementation of microscopic hematuria evaluation Due to the high incidence of microscopic hematuria and the low risk of urinary tract cancer, urological evaluation of microscopic hematuria should not be routinely performed. A U.S. survey report revealed that 64% of patients with microscopic hematuria do not routinely undergo urinary evaluation. Another large cohort study showed similar results. Only 13.9% of patients with microscopic hematuria underwent imaging examination, 13.7% of patients underwent cystoscopy and 5.7% of patients underwent complete evaluation. The evaluation rate of female patients is significantly lower (only 3.8% of female patients).

Clinical suggestion of IgA nephropathy, under what circumstances should renal puncture be considered? Don’t resist

When clinical clues suggest IgA nephropathy, different countries and different scholars have different criteria for grasping the indications of renal biopsy. Foreign patients with asymptomatic hematuria generally do not advocate active renal puncture. Therefore, the international KDIGO guidelines recommend that patients with glomerular hematuria need to review and monitor blood pressure, proteinuria and renal function regularly, but some scholars believe that as long as There are no contraindications, and patients with clear glomerular hematuria should be mobilized for renal puncture because hematuria caused by certain etiologies (such as thin basement membrane nephropathy) does not require treatment at all. It is generally believed that for patients with clinically suggestive IgA nephropathy, renal biopsy is of greater significance in the following cases: 1. The 24-hour urine protein quantity is greater than 1 gram; 2. There is an increase in blood creatinine at the onset; 3. Hematuria is obviously accompanied by an increase in blood creatinine in a short period of time; 4. Hematuria is accompanied by hypertension; 5. Glomerulopathy suspected to be secondary to systemic diseases; 6. Suspected to be associated with other glomerular diseases. Some scholars believe that if the renal biopsy is performed according to the standard of 24-hour proteinuria greater than 1 gram, some patients who need active treatment may be missed. For example, some patients have a 24-hour urine protein of about 0.5 grams, but renal pathology shows that it has been moderate Degree (Lee classification) injury, advocated in units with more mature renal biopsy technology, as long as there is persistent proteinuria accompanied by microscopic hematuria, kidney biopsy can be considered.