Many diseases may have a certain relationship with heredity! Hereditary disease refers to a disease that is wholly or partly determined by genetic factors. It is usually congenital and can also be acquired. Such as congenital stupid type, multi-finger (toe), congenital deaf-mute, hemophilia, etc. These genetic diseases are completely determined by genetic factors, and only after a certain time of birth, the onset of disease, sometimes after several years, more than ten years or even several Ten years later, obvious symptoms will appear. What we often hear about: Congenital deafness, high myopia, thalassemia, red-green blindness, hemophilia, hirsutism of the external auditory canal, bronchial asthma, type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, epilepsy, congenital Heart disease, peptic ulcer, varicose veins of lower extremities, glaucoma, kidney stones, spina bifida, anencephaly, cleft lip, cleft palate, deformity, albinism, some tumors, etc. These diseases are all genetic diseases. As a cardiovascular doctor, we still talk about my cardiovascular related diseases. 1. What the hospital sees We can always meet a family in the hospital. When the father or mother has high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, the possibility of children or siblings having these diseases is very high. . I personally met an uncle who had 6 brothers and sisters, 2 of whom had a heart stent, 1 had a heart bypass, 2 had a cerebral infarction, and 1 had a cerebral hemorrhage. All have cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Studies have shown that hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and genetics have a clear relationship. 2. Genetically-related diseases 1. Familial hypercholesterolemia The prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia is 0.18-0.32%. It is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that leads to abnormal metabolism of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is manifested by high levels of low-density lipoprotein, and early appearance of senile rings or characteristic xanthomas in multiple parts of the body, and early coronary heart disease. These people under the age of 40 years may have an old ring, or flat yellow tumors may form on the eyelids. There are two types: homozygous and heterozygous. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia often has the symptoms and signs of coronary heart disease around the age of 10, and the descending aorta, abdominal aorta, thoracic aorta, and pulmonary artery trunk are prone to severe atherosclerosis, heart valves and heart Membrane plaques can also form on the surface of the membrane, and most of them die of cardiovascular disease before the age of 30. Male heterozygotes can suffer from coronary heart disease when they are 30 to 40 years old, and the onset age of female heterozygotes is about 10 years later than that of men. 2. Type 1 diabetes suggests that genetic defects are the basis of type 1 diabetes. This genetic defect is manifested in the abnormality of HLA antigens in the sixth pair of human chromosomes. Research tips: Type 1 diabetes has the characteristics of familial incidence-if your parents have diabetes, then you are more likely to suffer from this disease than people without this family history. Type 1 diabetes often occurs in childhood or adolescence, and the onset is generally more rapid. Symptoms such as thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, fatigue, and weight loss, and rapid weight loss are very obvious. Some patients have ketoacidosis for the first time. . The third characteristic of type 1 diabetes is that it will eventually be treated with insulin without exception, so type 1 diabetes was originally called insulin-dependent diabetes. Three, three high and cardiovascular disease and genetic are related 1. Hypertension and hypertension are polygenic inherited diseases, parents have hypertension, and the probability of their children suffering from hypertension in the future is as high as 45%; one parent suffers from hypertension The probability of children suffering from high blood pressure is 28%, while the probability of children with normal blood pressure of parents is only 3%. 2. People with diabetes and a family history of diabetes have a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes than those with a negative family history. The parents have diabetes, and their children are 15 to 20 times more likely to have diabetes. 3. Hyperlipidemia has found that a considerable number of patients with dyslipidemia have one or more genetic defects. Abnormal blood lipids caused by genetic defects are mostly family-clustered and have a marked genetic tendency. 4. Cardio-cerebrovascular disease The basis of cardio-cerebrovascular disease is atherosclerosis. The latest “Practical Cardiology” writes that atherosclerosis has a family inheritance and is an independent risk factor. Modern medical research proves that, except for injuries, almost all diseases are related to genes. Different human genotypes have different sensitivities to environmental factors. Sensitive genotypes can cause diseases under the influence of environmental factors. 4. Genetic genes cannot be changed, but they must still be prevented. Prevention is effective and it is necessary that some people say that human gene recombination is not over
Biotherapy is a broad concept, involving all methods of treatment using biological macromolecules. Tumor biotherapy refers to the use of bioengineering technology to obtain biological products to achieve the purpose of treating malignant tumors, which is different from the three major treatment methods of traditional surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The relationship between tumor immunotherapy, targeted therapy and biological therapy is inclusive. Biological therapy is a large framework, which includes immunotherapy and targeted therapy. The traditional anti-cancer model has been difficult to develop, and with the development of biomedicine, biotherapy plays an increasingly important role in anti-tumor. Common biological treatment methods include: 1. Targeted drug therapy Targeted therapy is a corresponding drug designed for targets such as differentiation group molecules, membrane receptors, signal transduction molecules, protease molecules, gene molecules, and angiogenesis. Including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule TKI. The successful application of molecular targeted therapeutic drugs is a major breakthrough in tumor biotherapy. Merlot was successfully launched in 1997, increasing the treatment efficiency of patients with CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma to 90%. Herceptin was successfully launched the following year, saving countless Her-2 positive breast cancer patients in more than 20 years. Since then, small-molecule TKI-targeted drugs for lung cancer have sprung up, from gefitinib to osimertinib, and from crizotinib to laratinib. Targeted drugs have made a splash in lung cancer treatment. The combination of some monoclonal antibody-targeted drugs and chemotherapy has also greatly improved the effectiveness, such as bevacizumab for lung cancer and cetuximab for bowel cancer. In addition to targeting drugs for anti-tumor angiogenesis, no genetic testing is required. Before using other targeted drugs, precise genetic testing must be performed to determine whether the targeted drugs are available. 2. Immunotherapy Cancer immunotherapy has been hot in recent years. In fact, broad immunotherapy is divided into active immunotherapy and passive immunotherapy. The role of immunotherapy is to repair loopholes in the immune system, help immune cells recognize cancer cells and eliminate cancer cells. Passive immunization representative methods CAR-T, TCR-T, active immunization representative methods CTLA4 and PD1/PDL1 immune checkpoint inhibitors. The PD1 immunotherapy drugs used clinically in the past two years are only a branch of immunotherapy. In addition, tumor vaccines also belong to the category of active immunotherapy for tumors. At present, the development of global cancer “therapeutic vaccines” is blossoming everywhere, but there is still a long way to go for clinical use. 3. Gene therapy tumors are related to mutations in normal cells. Such mutations are often related to mutations and inactivation of certain genes in normal cells that monitor the biological response steps of normal cells. Gene therapy uses adenovirus as a carrier to transfer normal genes Into the human tumor cells, correct or compensate for genetic defects and abnormalities, in order to achieve the purpose of controlling tumor proliferation. Jinyousheng (P53 injection) was approved for head and neck cancer in 2003. As the earliest gene therapy, the results of clinical trials are quite controversial. So far, cancer gene therapy is almost in the scientific research stage.
Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and their families have a question: why do they have chronic myeloid leukemia? It is generally believed that the incidence of chronic granules is related to these factors: ionizing radiation, chemical pollution, and genetic factors. However, in the same living environment, only a few people have been diagnosed with chronic granules. What is the pathogenesis of this group of people? Director Shi Shurong consulted WeChat zkxk9999 slow granulogenesis: non-genetic, mostly chromosomal variation. In previous research, it has been found that chronic myeloid leukemia is caused by the translocation and exchange of the 9th and 22nd pair of chromosome end gene loci in humans. The formation of a new bcr-abl fusion gene, encoded into a specific protein, a tyrosine kinase, which leads to disease, causing a rapid rise in white blood cells and splenomegaly. The cause of the chromosomal mutation is not yet clear, but what can be determined is that it has nothing to do with inheritance. Based on the pathogenesis of slow granules, the curative effect of targeted drugs is “gratifying”. Targeting drugs for fusion genes of slow granule patients, namely tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have a clear effect and a significant effect, allowing the quality of life and survival of slow granule patients. The period has been significantly extended. However, during the treatment period, due to individual differences, it is necessary to constantly adjust the medication plan according to the patient’s condition, medication response and efficacy. Therefore, patients with slow-grain must carefully review and monitor in order to pass the medication to make the fusion gene The expression reached the expected goal, and even received withdrawal. In addition, some patients with slow-grained drugs have had various degrees of side effects during the treatment, which may even affect the final efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended that slow-grain patients can intervene in traditional Chinese medicine to increase the effectiveness and reduce toxicity! For more knowledge about chronic myeloid leukemia disease or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: mbxb120
Behind the improvement of leukemia treatment effect and survival rate, molecular biology technology is also constantly improving and improving, and the understanding of molecular genetic changes of leukemia cells is also deepening. According to the current medical research reports that there are at least 10 fusion genes in leukemia, it has been recognized that most leukemia patients have chromosomal structural aberrations, including: one, two deletions, three repeats, four inversions, and translocations. The structural changes of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes produce new fusion genes that encode fusion proteins. Some genes are transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. When the gene changes, it directly affects the downstream signal transmission pathways, resulting in enhanced cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, resulting in a leukemia phenotype. These kinds of common genes are abnormal, which will affect the first kind of leukemia treatment and prognosis. The BCR-ABL fusion gene can appear in more than 95% of chronic myeloid leukemia. Or it is accompanied by acute shower, and the prognosis of the patient is related to the type of fusion gene; the second, the PML-RARa fusion gene unique to acute promyelocytic leukemia, is induced by all-trans retinoic acid in patients with APL The prognosis of remission therapy is considerable; the third, the abnormality of MLL-related fusion genes, often indicates that the prognosis of leukemia patients is poor, and the mortality rate is high. … In summary, some typical leukemia fusion genes in clinical are more specific molecular diagnostic markers, and can be related to the effect of treatment and the prognosis of patients. Divided in detail, the fusion gene has certain significance for the diagnosis of each leukemia patient, the evaluation of the treatment effect, the subsequent prognosis and the survival time. Early identification of abnormal gene loci can promptly formulate treatment strategies as soon as possible, thereby improving patient prognosis! If you have any questions about this article or the disease, please feel free to follow us on WeChat and search for leukemia patients: dxbby120
The metabolism of the hair, the old hair is “born, old, sick, dead”, and the new hair grows, which is in accordance with the laws and logic of nature. Therefore, the relevant content of normal physiological hair loss will be introduced later. Let me talk about the meaning of another level today. Why is there hair loss? Recently, I have translated a popular science video about the causes of hair loss in the United States. It is very easy to understand. The point of view is basically the current view of the western medical community on the problem of hair loss. I would like to share with you. Hair loss is called androgeneticalopecia AGA in medical terms: also known as seborrheic alopecia, male pattern alopecia, hereditary alopecia. “Science351” Matsumura and others have pointed out that androgens are the main reason for inhibiting hair growth in the scalp and causing hair loss. This type of hair loss accounts for more than 95% of the total hair loss. Others are post-partum hair loss, alopecia areata, pathological hair loss (chemotherapy, syphilis, AIDS), weight loss and diet, etc. When men enter the development of their second sex at the age of 18, a large amount of testosterone is secreted. The hair loss of many men with hair loss is from 18 years old to 22 years old, which is a peak period of hair loss. Female hair loss is also affected by hormones, but it is more complicated than men’s. Women are affected by both androgens and estrogen. Simply put, women with low estrogen will lose hair, and women with high androgen will lose hair . Genetic genes are also the root cause of this type of hair loss. Hormone levels do have a very close cause to hair loss, but this is not enough to explain all hair loss problems, because we have found in the clinic that some people have serious hair loss, but hormone levels are completely normal. ; Some people have problems with hormone levels, but they just don’t have hair loss. How do you explain this type of situation? To be honest, there is not a very clear research on this issue in the medical community. The mainstream view is genetic determinism. Because not all hair follicles are affected by DHT, DHT exists in the blood, so it will exist throughout the body, but why does hair loss only occur on the top of the head and the forehead? Why doesn’t eyebrows, back of head, and beard lose hair due to DHT? The main reason is that the characteristics of hair follicles are different. Some hair follicles are naturally tolerant to DHT, while some hair follicles are inevitably more susceptible to DHT. These factors are not health factors, but more are gene expression problems. The scalp blood circulation is strong and weak. The scalp blood supply research shows that the scalp subcutaneous blood flow in normal people is 10 times more than that in other parts. The blood flow in the hair loss area of AGA patients is 2.6 times less than that in normal people. & nbsp.Tips: Enhancing blood circulation to the head is indeed good for hair health, and it is beneficial to comb more hair or massage the scalp. This is why there are special drugs on the market. The name of the ingredients of the drug is called minoxidil. In 2014, the British Journal of Dermatology controlled and double-blinded the effect of minoxidil on androgenetic alopecia patients. The study found that participants ’hair growth increased and hair keratin-related genes increased effectively. Treats hair loss in the area above the head caused by androgens. Finally, I will summarize the conclusions 1. The main reasons for hair loss are two points, the problem of genes and hormones, of which genes are the root cause. No matter what you do, people who carry the hair loss gene still have a hard time escaping the doom of hair loss. 2. Because the genes cannot be changed, the effective method for treating hair loss is generally to start with the regulation of hormones. However, hormone regulation is also related to many external factors. If you want stable effects, you need to maintain it for a long time. 3. Which gene, how to express hair loss, and how to cause hair loss, there is no final conclusion in the medical profession. If this cannot be determined, gene therapy to completely cure hair loss will not be discussed. 4. Finasteride, minoxidil and hair transplant surgery are effective methods developed by humans to improve hair loss. The principle of finasteride is to prevent testosterone from becoming dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The principle of minoxidil is mainly Because of the differentiation of hair follicle hormones and vasodilation, hair transplant surgery is a technique of surgical plastic surgery, which can achieve the regeneration of hair loss. At present, the best treatment is still finasteride, minoxidil and hair transplant surgery.
A couple came out of the clinic this morning. They are very married. Because they are rich, both of them have high blood pressure. The registration today is not for them, but for their sons. The child is 15 years old, and this son is biological at first glance, chubby and chubby; because he has high blood pressure, he recently said on the Internet that high blood pressure is a genetic disease, and he is very worried that his son has high blood pressure. Fat measures a blood pressure. After measuring the blood pressure, this guy’s blood pressure was 138 / 90mmHg. I said so small, this blood pressure is too high, because the normal ideal blood pressure is 120/80, this age should be the first point, adults higher than 120/80 are considered normal high values, children 138/90 are basically high blood pressure Too. The couple said, “We are just worried that he will pass it on to him, so hurry and look at it today. Recently, he was given around 130 at home. What can I do? Is there any way to treat it? We all blame our inheritance. I said : Do n’t worry too much, just take control now; do n’t blame yourself. Parents give their children life, but they ca n’t choose our own genes. People with inherited hypertension have no right to blame our parents, they gave us Life, we ca n’t come to this world without them. Let ’s talk to you about whether high blood pressure is inherited, can it be prevented? High blood pressure and genetics have a certain relationship, this is an indisputable fact! Clinical statistics: we are in clinical I can always encounter such patients. I have high blood pressure for some reason. I can only say that my high blood pressure is ancestral. There is no way. Dr. Wang told them that it is inherited, not ancestral. Research shows that both parents have high blood pressure and high children The incidence of blood pressure is as high as 46%, and about 60% of patients with hypertension have a family history of hypertension. 1. One of the parents who developed hypertension before the age of 55, Double the risk of high blood pressure; 2. The risk of high blood pressure increased by 2.5 times for both parents who developed hypertension before the age of 55; 3. The risk of high blood pressure for children whose parents developed high blood pressure after the age of 55 There is no significant increase. That is to say, if one or both parents develop hypertension at a younger age, the risk of developing hypertension in the future is significantly increased. Hypertension is a genetic disease: studies have shown that almost all diseases and genes are genetic except for injuries. There is a relationship. Normal genes in the human body are also divided into different genotypes. Different genotypes have different sensitivities to environmental factors. Sensitive genotypes can cause diseases under the influence of environmental factors. There are four thousand types of genetic-related diseases There are many kinds, which are inherited by the father or mother through genes. Another kind of disease is a common disease, for example, high blood pressure is the result of the interaction of multiple genes and multiple environmental factors. That is to say, high blood pressure is not only related to genetics, but also to Many other factors are related. Because of the inheritance of high blood pressure, this also leads many people to be reluctant to prevent high blood pressure, because they feel that they cannot be avoided anyway, Is it necessary to prevent it? In fact, this is a wrong view. Hypertension is not only related to genetics: because we mentioned above, high blood pressure is not only related to genetics, but also related to multiple factors. Genetics cannot be changed, but lifestyle habits can be changed , Especially for people with genetics of hypertension family should emphasize healthy life. Simple understanding, genetics is a cause of high blood pressure, but if you do not have this gene but you are not healthy for a long time: high-salt high-sugar high-oil diet, Sedentary obesity, smoking, drinking, etc., can still get high blood pressure, this is the first generation of high blood pressure, and then you have the possibility of inheriting high blood pressure to your child. Genetic genes can not be changed, but high-risk factors can be removed : X If you carry a high blood pressure gene, but you live a healthy life, then you can certainly postpone the arrival of high blood pressure. For example, it might have been an unhealthy life. The blood pressure at 25 years old is high, but after working hard to live a healthy life, it may now be 55 years old. Elevated. This is the impact on blood pressure, and life will also affect blood pressure, health Life blood pressure may only be level 1, but if unhealthy life blood pressure may be level 2, it will take more medicine and take greater risks. In fact, inheritance is not only genetic inheritance, but also life inheritance. We live with our parents from an early age. We may have inherited the parents’ hypertension genes. At the same time, if the parents are on a high-salt high-oil high-sugar diet, the parents do not exercise, the parents are obese, the parents Smoking and drinking, then we are very likely to develop these habits, in the end I
If the anemia caused by the breakdown of the hematopoietic organs and bone marrow is called aplastic anemia, referred to as aplastic anemia, the bone marrow is like a factory that can produce a variety of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which are then released to the periphery Let them perform their functions in the blood. It can be seen that not only anemia is the reduction of red blood cells, but also the reduction of white blood cells and platelets during aplastic anemia, so aplastic anemia is also called “whole cytopenia”. The cause of aplastic anemia is currently unclear. There are two categories of congenital and acquired aplastic anemia. What is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation? Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be divided into isogenic and allogeneic. Isogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in humans refers only to transplantation between identical twin siblings, and the proportion is very small; allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation refers to transplantation between non-identical twins, which in the past was often limited to siblings with human leukocyte antigens. Kin-to-kind transplants now include unrelated blood donors from the “Chinese Bone Marrow Bank”, commonly known as non-kind hematopoietic stem cell transplants. What are the complications? 1. Infection 1. Bacterial infection doctors will give a broad-spectrum, sufficient amount of intravenous antibiotic treatment as soon as possible, and conduct timely etiological examination, carry out targeted drug program adjustments, kill bacteria, and control the disease. 2. Viral infections mainly include herpes-like viruses, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Common antiviral drugs include acyclovir and ganciclovir. 3. Fungal infections mainly include Candida albicans, Aspergillus and Mucor infections. Commonly used antifungal drugs include amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and posaconazole. 4. Graft-versus-host disease Graft-versus-host disease may lead to various degrees of organ damage and even endanger the life of the transplant recipient. Common initial symptoms include: rash or blisters, decreased appetite, diarrhea, bloating, blood in the stool, yellowing of the skin (jaundice) and brown urine. If the patient finds the above abnormality after surgery, he should go to the hospital immediately. 5. Relapse In some cases, stem cell transplantation may not work. The patient still relapses within a few years. Subsequent treatment for transplant recurrence is relatively difficult and the treatment effect is relatively poor. Special statement: The content of this site is for reference only, not as a basis for diagnosis and medical treatment.