How much do you know about testosterone (T)?

By measuring the hormone levels of six sex hormones, you can understand the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis and the basic state of the ovary, which can be used to diagnose and differentially diagnose diseases related to endocrine disorders. The six sex hormones are mainly to determine the hormone levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), and according to The value of various hormone levels to judge the patient’s condition. What does it mean for patients to get confused about these cumbersome data when they get the test form? Today, the editor will give you one of the popular science testosterone (T) What is testosterone? Testosterone, called English Testosterone, is secreted by male testes or female ovaries, and adrenaline also secretes a small amount of testosterone. Testosterone is a steroid hormone that has the effects of maintaining muscle strength and mass, maintaining bone density and strength, refreshing and improving physical fitness. (Overview of testosterone) What is the normal value of testosterone? Whether men or women, testosterone is very important for health, including refreshing and improving physical fitness, enhancing libido, strength, immune function and other effects. Generally, the amount of testosterone in men is 20 times that of women. The normal testosterone value of adult males is between 14nmol/L and 25.4nmol/L. Normal testosterone in adult women Normal testosterone in adult women is between 1.3 nmol/L and 2.8 nmol/L; Normal testosterone in pregnant women is between 2.7 nmol/L and 5.3 nmol/L. Clinical application of testosterone 1. Detection and functional evaluation of male testis and prostate-related diseases Testosterone is the most active male hormone secreted by testicular stromal cells, which can intuitively evaluate the functional status of testis. Testosterone is an evaluation index of male gonadal function, used to diagnose male precocious puberty, testicular tumor, testicular feminization, primary or secondary hypogonadism and other diseases. It can also be used to monitor the course and prognosis of androgen therapy. The prostate is an androgen-dependent organ. Testosterone is especially important for the growth of normal prostate epithelium. Testosterone is converted into DHT in target organs such as prostate and epididymis. It binds with androgen receptors to play a biological role. Testosterone Testosterone plays an extremely important role in the normal physiology and cancer of the prostate. 2. Diagnosis of female ovarian and adrenal cortex-related diseases, assessment of sex hormone levels Female androgens mainly come from the peripheral transformation of hormone precursors by ovaries, adrenal cortex and non-endocrine tissues. When women develop ovarian masculine tumors, there will be progressive and androgen excess symptoms and elevated serum androgens in the short term. Testosterone can also be used as an evaluation index for the efficacy of polycystic ovary syndrome. The serum testosterone value in patients shows a mild to moderate increase, which is not only the result of long-term non-ovulation, but also the reason for further affecting ovulation; adrenal hyperplasia tumors can cause The increase in serum testosterone value can be used for screening of related diseases; in addition, the serum testosterone level can also be used for the differential diagnosis of female hirsutism, hyperprolactinemia and the monitoring of the treatment process of androgen-related endocrine drugs. 3. Related diseases that cause non-specific changes of testosterone assist in the diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary hyperfunction, increased secretion of gonadotropins, thereby promoting increased testosterone and adrenal secretion of testosterone, such as pituitary tumors, brain tissue hyperplasia, etc.; when the body has hyperthyroidism, liver Diseases such as sclerosis, hypothyroidism, and severe malnutrition can cause changes in the amount of sex hormone binding proteins, which can affect the concentration of testosterone in the serum.

What are the symptoms of uterine cysts?

Uterine cysts are common in women between the ages of 20 and 40. Many women are troubled by uterine cysts. Uterine cysts directly endanger women’s health and family life. Many reasons are because women do not understand uterine cysts and do not know clearly. Today, please ask experts to explain the knowledge of uterine cysts. What are the symptoms of uterine cysts?   Uterine cysts are clinically manifested as lower abdominal pain, lower abdominal discomfort, increased leucorrhea, yellow leucorrhea, leucorrhea odor, menstrual disorders, and usually a firm and painless swollen in the lower abdomen, sometimes There will be pain in intercourse. When cysts affect hormone production, symptoms such as irregular vaginal bleeding or increased hairs may appear.   Cysts and torsion occur, there are severe abdominal pain, dysphoria, difficulty breathing, decreased appetite, nausea and fever. Larger cysts can cause compression near the bladder, causing frequent urination and difficulty urinating. Especially when these symptoms are more serious, bleeding is frequent and occur at the same time, women are more likely to have uterine cysts, and the harm of malignant uterine cancer is greater. Therefore, experts warmly remind the majority of patients to seek medical treatment in a timely manner after diagnosis of uterine cysts, so as not to aggravate the condition and cause irreparable losses.  Experts pointed out that patients with uterine cysts must develop good habits in diet, which is not only conducive to the treatment of uterine cysts, but also conducive to strengthening physical fitness. Uterine cysts should be treated immediately when they find that the growth rate of uterine cysts is fast. Sudden paroxysmal colic in the lower abdomen, gynecological examination or B-ultrasound suggesting that the uterine tumor is reversed, treatment measures should also be taken in time. Weak, easy to catch a cold or be infected by bacteria, so pay special attention to hygiene during this period.  The above is a detailed introduction of the symptoms of uterine cysts, hoping to attract the attention of female friends. If you have symptoms of uterine cysts, you must go to the hospital in time to avoid delaying the condition, so as not to cause harm to your health, and to avoid other gynecological diseases from taking advantage of it.

What should I do if I encounter a blocked fallopian tube?

The fallopian tube is not only an indispensable channel in the process of female pregnancy, but also a very fragile channel. Factors such as inflammation and infection can easily involve the fallopian tube and cause the fallopian tube blockage problem. In all female infertility, it is caused by the fallopian tube problem Infertility accounts for about 40% of the proportion. How should women treat tubal blockage?      For tubal blockage, in fact, female friends need not worry. With the continuous development of medical technology for treating infertility, the treatment of tubal blockage is actually It is no longer a problem.   First of all, it is usually recommended that female patients be treated with dredging surgery first, and use dredging surgery to help the fallopian tubes recover, and then the female friends can become pregnant through the same room. However, due to the major disadvantages of tubal dredge surgery, firstly, it may not be successful during the operation, and secondly, it is very easy to re-clog even after the successful dredge. The opportunity for women to become pregnant after dredge is only half a year. Most of the successful pregnancy is re-clogging. Therefore, when encountering the problem of tubal blockage, many patients now choose to be test-tube babies, because test-tube babies help patients solve difficult pregnancy problems through in vitro fertilization, so they do not need to After the fallopian tube, the fallopian tube blockage will naturally not affect the process of female pregnancy.

Girls should not remove body hair at will

  Late spring and early summer, the weather has shown hot, some women have put on a camisole, exposed navel dress, cropped trousers, denim skirt, deducing a different style of summer. But there are also some women who can’t calmly put on short sleeves, shorts, and short skirts because they are worried about their body hair being too thick. For this reason, some people bought hair removal creams and razors and tried every means to remove their thick body hair. Experts recommend that women with thick body hair especially accompany repeated acne attacks at the same time, do not rush to shave body hair, you should first go to the hospital for examination. Because behind the thick body hair is often hidden an unknown gynecological endocrine disease-polycystic ovary syndrome, and according to incomplete statistics in the city, its incidence rate is as high as 8-14%. Women with heavy body weight may suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome. Thick body hair is mainly related to genetic factors and excessive androgens in the body, and changes in some living conditions and habits. Some recent research results show that excessive body hair is not only related to life after birth, but also to certain nutrients during the fetus and infants are insufficiently absorbed, and there is a certain relationship between overfeeding after birth. However, some women’s body weight is caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. If it is caused by polycystic ovary syndrome, the onset of hirsutism is often caused by internal factors through external factors, that is, the individual’s characteristics are not suitable for living conditions or ways. Including genetic background and inadequate nutrient absorption during fetal and infant periods. Exogenous causes of excessive feeding and usually bad lifestyle habits after birth. These bad habits in life will cause the internal factors formed during the fetus and infant period to burst out, resulting in dense female hair.   Bad habits mainly include irregular diet, overeating after hunger, fried foods that have eaten oil, excessive intake of fat, unreasonable combination of various nutrients in the diet, and poor exercise. Women should not have thick hairs. It should be noted that some body hairs are thick and related to family inheritance. For example, there are many hairs on the limbs, which are influenced by genetic factors. These women do not need to be too anxious. In the same area, the same family or even the same family No matter men and women, their hair growth can be different between morning and evening, speed, length, and how many. The difference between individuals exists and belongs to the normal physiological range. However, if there are many long, thick and dark hairs in the areas where women should not grow hair, or the hair is distributed in a male type, such as the periphery of the lips, the lower jaw, the midline of the front chest, the inside of the thighs, around the areola, etc., There are different levels of hair distribution, eyebrows are thick and dark, and pubic hair develops toward the abdomen or even the umbilicus. This phenomenon should be paid attention to, and most of them are related to excessive androgens in the body.  Don’t shave thick body hair   Treatment of thick body hair, first of all, we must rule out diseases that can cause abnormal increase of androgen in the body, such as functional tumors of the ovary, decreased thyroid function and other endocrine diseases. B-ultrasound can find enlarged ovaries, enhanced medullary echo, multiple small follicles, etc., should consider the common gynecological endocrine disease-polycystic ovary syndrome. After the inspection, according to the individual situation, give medical treatment. At the same time, the medical treatment should change the unhealthy lifestyle, eat less high-fat and high-calorie foods, such as potato chips, cream cakes, western fast food, carbonated drinks, and should eat more whole grains ; In addition, exercise coordination.  Remind female friends that they should never shave off their body hair for beauty. They must know their physical condition before deciding.

Passionate orgasm makes women healthier

 Orgasm is a human instinct produced after long-term biological evolution. The human body is naturally capable of initiating and assuring orgasm. Therefore, the orgasm response is not harmful to women’s health. The results of modern scientific research have shown that orgasm can improve the body’s functional state and is beneficial to physical and mental health.  If you have sexual intercourse many times a day, and each time you have sexual intercourse, women have no sexual response or very weak sexual response, even if the number is more, it will not have much impact on the body, but the vagina has experienced physical stimulation of penis in and out several times. If you can achieve orgasm every time, body reactions such as pelvic congestion will gradually subside within 20 to 30 minutes after orgasm, and the body will return to its normal state. Afterwards, if orgasm is initiated again, there will be no adverse effects on the body. If the female sexual desire is fully aroused every time during intercourse, and enters the plateau period, but can not reach orgasm, pelvic congestion will exist for a long time, about 4 to 6 hours to subside, over time, it may cause long-term pelvic congestion or even congestion, resulting in Abdominal bloating, pain or dysmenorrhea. In short, if you have sex many times a day, only women who are always in a plateau and cannot achieve orgasm may cause pelvic congestion, which has an adverse effect on physical health. Nor will it cause any significant adverse health effects. And the worry or fear of having sex life many times a day may cause abnormal sexual function and psychology, which is more harmful to people’s physical and mental health.

Can epilepsy be completely cured?

  Can epilepsy be completely cured? Everyone should pay special attention to the harm of epilepsy during the rehabilitation of epilepsy patients. I believe that most people have seen the situation of epilepsy patients. However, because many patients cannot bear this pain, they give up treatment, especially It is in the diet, to develop a good habit of scientific diet, incorrect diet will induce repeated seizures.  Can epilepsy be completely cured? Girls who are angry should be careful about the appearance of epilepsy. Can epilepsy be completely cured? Although male epilepsy is currently higher than female, why does anger also cause female epilepsy? But because of female anger, the incidence of epilepsy is not rare. It is said that women are naturally careful and prone to anger. As everyone knows, behind the anger of women, it is also easy to cause epilepsy. Some women get sulky after a quarrel, which will cause the whole body to twitch, collapse to the ground, and induce epilepsy. Some women usually have large mood swings, and anger, anger, suffocation, etc. can easily induce seizures. Why does anger also cause female epilepsy? With time, patients are prone to cause qi and blood stasis, stasis, phlegm Heart, qi and blood dysfunction, visceral dysfunction, etc., cause sudden and transient brain dysfunction. The treatment of epilepsy for women is not complicated. As long as you maintain an optimistic and healthy mood in your ordinary life and then cooperate with the treatment, the condition of epilepsy can be easily controlled.  In fact, among the factors that cause epilepsy in life, men and women have some of the same factors. But the irritability of women to be mentioned here is also an important factor leading to seizures in women. Therefore, female friends should maintain a positive and optimistic attitude and maintain a good mental state, which can not only prevent seizures, but also prevent other diseases. The above is an introduction to epilepsy. If the above symptoms occur, you must go to the hospital for treatment in time. Because epilepsy is a chronic brain disease caused by a sudden abnormal discharge of brain neurons, which causes transient impairment of brain function. If it is not treated in time, the harm will become more and more serious. It is best to take care of the patient actively during epilepsy. It is best to keep the patient in a proper posture to avoid foreign bodies entering the respiratory tract.

How to detect female ovulation disorder early

 Ovulation disorder, also known as non-ovulation, is one of the main causes of female infertility, accounting for about 25%-30%. In addition to causing infertility in women, ovulation disorders can also cause symptoms such as menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, hairiness, and obesity, which can cause huge harm to women’s physical and mental health. Therefore, it is very necessary to prevent ovulation disorders as early as possible. But how do women find ovulation disorder early?    1. First of all, you should recall whether your menstruation is normal, whether there are irregularities or amenorrhea.   In the past, whether there were chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis, anemia, and digestive malabsorption, whether they had surgery, previous sexual development, and whether there were occupational toxic substances, etc., so as to make a preliminary guess whether there may be diseases that affect ovulation.   2. A gynecologist checks the development of the genitals and whether the ovaries are enlarged. 3. According to the secondary sexual characteristics such as body shape, posture, hair, voice, breast development, and whether there are deformities in the neck and extremities, etc., the above memories can be used to preliminarily infer the causes of ovulation disorders, such as short stature and secondary sex Signs of dysplasia, and from the future menstruation may be ovarian dysplasia. Tall body and dysplasia of second sex may be caused by abnormal sexual function of central nervous system. Increased hair throughout the body may be due to too much androgen secreted by the ovaries or adrenals. Milk discharge in the nipple may be too much prolactin in the blood.   4. By measuring basal body temperature, checking cervical mucus, endometrial biopsy and hormone determination, to indirectly predict the presence or absence of ovulation.   5. Finally, a series of endocrine function tests and X-ray imaging, chromosome analysis and laparoscopy can be used to determine the cause of ovulation disorder.  Reminder: Once women have checked out the ovulation disorder, they should receive treatment in time to avoid delaying the best time for treatment, thereby increasing the difficulty of treatment.

Obviously there is not much hair loss, but why is the hairline getting higher and higher?

We often say that 100 hair loss per day belongs to normal metabolism. However, there are still many male friends who are troubled, obviously there is not much hair loss, but the hairline is moved up, and even baldness, and women have a lot of hair loss every day. Today we will talk about the reasons for this phenomenon. A normal person has about 150,000 hairs, and normal hair also has a regular physiological cycle: 1. The growing period (average about 2 to 6 years)   accounts for about 90% of all hairs, most of our hair is in continuous Growing state. It is difficult to lose hair during this period, if you want to pull it hard, your scalp will feel pain. 2. The degeneration period (on average about 2 to 3 weeks) accounts for less than 1% of all hair. The growth rate slows down, and the hair roots will advance toward the surface of the skin, but the hair is still not easy to fall off. 3. Rest period (average about 2 to 3 months) &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. accounts for about 10% of all hair. At this time, the hair has completely stopped growing, the root position is very shallow, and the hair is easy to fall off. The hair that falls easily when we comb our hair is all hair in rest period. When the hair falls out, new hair will grow back in the hair follicles, and so on. Generally, there are about 150,000 hairs on the human head, and about 10,000 hairs are in the easy-to-shed stage in the resting period, so it is estimated that it is normal for an adult to lose about 100 hairs a day. But this does not apply to all situations, as long as your hair follicles are healthy, if the amount of natural hair is less, and the damaged hair follicles cause hair loss, this situation may cause the hair growth rate to not catch up with the speed of falling, even if it only falls every day. Drop 50 roots, for a long time, one day may be bald. Why do men have more hair loss and more severe symptoms than women? Summarize the following three reasons. 1. In fact, regardless of men and women, most of the hair loss is caused by androgens. Androgens and 5α-reductase on the top of the head synthesize dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to attack fragile hair follicles. Male androgens are mainly produced by the testes, in order to maintain the characteristics of males. The daily secretion content is 5mg. Females also contain a small amount of androgens, which are mainly synthesized by the adrenal glands and ovaries and converted from androstenedione. The content of 0.1-0.4mg. This shows why men have more hair loss than women. 2. There are a lot of aromatase in women, aromatase can prevent the synthesis of androgen and 5α-reductase, so the hair loss condition of women is generally not as serious as that of men. 3. Men’s hair is short, it is difficult to visually find a lot of hair loss, and hair loss may be unconsciously already very serious. And women’s long hair will always fall within our visual range, such as pillows, clothes, and sewers. Hair Loss Solution: Medication/Initial Hair Loss-Oral (finasteride) + topical (minoxidil) finasteride is a male-only oral drug that can prevent and reduce the synthesis of androgens and 5α-reductase The presence of dihydrotestosterone to prevent DHT from attacking our hair follicles can be taken under the guidance of a doctor. The main role of minoxidil is to open potassium channels, stimulate the normal development of hair follicles, dilate capillaries, and transport enough nutrients to our hair. Men can use 5% solubility, women recommend 2% solubility, it is best to consult a doctor before use. The above applies to patients with early hair loss, that is, when the hair follicles are not closed and atrophy. Mid to late alopecia-no effect of drug use. In patients with scalp exposed, scalp hair follicles should be closed and atrophy. Only hair transplantation can solve the problem of scalp exposure. Hair transplantation also requires sufficient hair follicles in the back pillow, so hair loss must be Treat it as soon as possible, and when the hair loss reaches level 7 or above, no way can save it!

There are a few “disease” that really don’t need attention, it may be a fake disease!

1. The term cervical erosion (picture 1) is too scary. The term “erosion” is a very bad association, and it is also easily associated with cervical cancer. In fact, this is just a naming mistake in the history of medicine. This fatal disease name has been deleted from medical school textbooks more than ten years ago and changed to “ectopic cervical epithelium.” In fact, it is nothing but a cervical canal cell to the outside. It is a physiological phenomenon, not a disease, so there is no indexing, and there is no need for treatment. 2. Uterine fibroids: (Figure 2) According to statistics, about 20% of women over the age of 30 have uterine fibroids, that is, one out of every five women is successful. The word “tumor” is too reminiscent of cancer! In fact, this “tumor” is not another “tumor”, uterine fibroids are benign, malignant rate is only 0.4-0,8%. In menopause, most of them can be significantly reduced or even disappeared. However, if the fibroids are large during pregnancy, or after repeated abortions, it is best to remove them in time to face the adverse effects of pregnancy. 3. Mammary gland lobular hyperplasia: After a physical examination, 8 out of 10 women had “mammary gland lobular hyperplasia”. “Will mammary gland hyperplasia become breast cancer?”, “What medicine can you take to cure the hyperplasia?” Mammary gland hyperplasia is common in women in their 20s who have never had children and women before and after menopause. During these two periods, women’s breasts will have pain due to changes in hormones in the body, sometimes they may feel some masses, sometimes breasts will become larger, etc. These are actually normal physiological processes. The answer is: don’t worry, this disease doesn’t need treatment. Because mammary gland hyperplasia does not increase the incidence of breast cancer and does not translate into breast cancer, then you are afraid of what it does. 4. Pelvic effusion: “Pelvic effusion” is to say that there is water in the stomach. It also sounds terrible. In fact, the human pelvis, peritoneum, omentum, and intestinal surface secrete some liquid. These fluids are used to lubricate and protect the pelvic and abdominal organs. Therefore, almost every woman will have different degrees of pelvic effusion, generally women are below 3 cm. Below 3 centimeters can be regarded as an acceptable range. At the end of ovulation, menstruation, or just after menstruation, the effusion may increase slightly. If there are no other uncomfortable symptoms, such as abdominal pain, fever, white blood cell increase, etc., there is no need for treatment. &Nbsp.

Does uterine cyst affect pregnancy?

  Uterine cysts are a type of ovarian tumor that can cause infertility. Infertility is very harmful to any woman, which has a certain impact on women’s body and mind. Uterine cysts are a kind of female gynecological diseases. Among the many diseases that affect women’s fertility, will uterine cysts affect pregnancy?   Uterine cysts are a rare disease and are easily overlooked clinically. It can be divided into congenital and acquired uterine cysts, the former comes from the middle renal tube and the vice middle renal tube, which mostly occur in the posterior wall of the uterus or the bottom of the uterus. The latter are mostly secondary to benign diseases or interstitial from the serosa Cells develop. Women’s uterine cysts mainly contain nanocysts and clever cysts. Generally, cysts are painful. The cysts are on both sides or one side of the uterus. The nanocysts are the cervix, which mainly affects the menstrual cycle and menstrual period. The impact of pregnancy depends mainly on the location and size of the cyst. Some locations have an effect on pregnancy, so sperm and egg need to be implanted in the endometrium after they are combined into a fertilized egg. If the cyst occurs at the time of implantation, it will inevitably affect the conception. Even if you are pregnant, it may cause pregnancy. Adverse effects.  Treatment of uterine cysts is not difficult. Generally, it is necessary to check which type of bacterial infection caused the uterine cysts. After the inspection is clear, the infection will be treated accordingly. For cysts that are not suitable for regression, you can puncture them first, and then burn them with laser, freezing and other methods. Treatment generally does not affect fertility, but if a scar is formed on the cervix, it will affect the natural delivery. Therefore, the patient’s friends also need to choose the treatment of uterine cysts carefully.  The above is the impact of uterine cysts on female fertility. You can see that uterine cysts are very serious. Therefore, women who are already ill should receive treatment as soon as possible. If you have a uterine cyst, you don’t have to be nervous. It can still be cured after timely treatment. As long as the uterine cyst is cured, infertility will be resolved.

How to treat premature ovarian failure?

  What is premature ovarian failure? When a woman has a series of menopausal symptoms such as hypoovarian reserve and amenorrhea before the age of 40, it belongs to premature ovarian failure. At present, the number of patients with premature ovarian failure is showing an increasing trend, and the trend of rejuvenation is becoming more and more obvious. Many women in their twenties have also encountered the predicament of premature ovarian failure. What should I do when faced with premature ovarian failure?      Face premature ovarian failure needs attention. First of all, female friends should be aware that premature ovarian failure and poor lifestyle are closely related, so not only healthy women, but also women with premature ovarian failure Should pay attention to the improvement of lifestyle, do not stay up late, do not eat junk food, diligent exercise… Comprehensive physical fitness is very helpful for the improvement of ovarian function.  Secondly, most of the premature ovarian failure is also related to some gynecological diseases, such as ovarian cysts, ovarian inflammation, etc., so female friends must actively treat gynecological diseases to avoid the factors that continue to cause erosion of ovarian function.  After ovarian function declines, the level of estrogen in women will decrease, so it is appropriate to supplement estrogen at this time to help improve ovarian function, and at the same time adjust the balance of estrogen demand of other organs of the body. However, it should be noted that estrogen cannot be supplemented casually, it must be supplemented under the guidance of a doctor.  For women with premature ovarian failure and fertility needs, they should get pregnant through ovulation induction therapy or test tube baby treatment in time, otherwise the ovarian decline will become more serious and there will be no chance of having children.

How long can seizures stop pregnancy

Many people have experienced love, marriage, and childbirth. This is the power of love, and it is also a natural process. The family is happy, but there are often so many people who yearn for these beautiful things, but it is not expected. Such as diseases, such as female epilepsy patients, because female epilepsy patients often choose the epilepsy drugs to control the disease, but many epilepsy drugs still have certain side effects, and family members are often worried about affecting the child’s healthy development. So I can’t get pregnant for a long time. So how long do female patients need to stop taking epilepsy drugs to have normal births? In the clinic, after treatment, the patient is treated with epilepsy drugs, and if the effect is controlled, there is no abnormality in the re-examination of the EEG, and the drug can be slowly stopped. The drug has not relapsed within six months to one year. Moreover, there is no abnormality in the EEG review, and when the physical condition is also good, you can basically prepare for pregnancy. Epilepsy treatment generally requires extra attention to the treatment plan for female patients with epilepsy. Because of the particularity of women’s physiological conditions, for female patients who want to have children, the estrogen and progesterone in the body will have a slight impact on the drugs used to treat the disease. In the course of clinical treatment, the genetic factors and idiopathic conditions of the patient are excluded. Most female patients can normally have babies after the condition is stable. However, doctors generally do not recommend premature pregnancy and childbirth. Because of long-term medical treatment, there will be some residues in the patient’s body, which affects the quality of the female patient’s egg and affects the healthy development of the fetus after pregnancy. More than half a year after the control of drug discontinuation, consider fertility problems. There are also women who are pregnant during treatment, please pay attention to contact the attending doctor in time, make targeted drug adjustments, and pay attention to taking folic acid and vitamin k during pregnancy to reduce the teratogenic rate. At the same time, pay attention to timely pregnancy tests and contact epilepsy doctors and obstetricians for joint treatment to prevent fetal abnormalities. And need to pay attention to whether the patient’s condition is suitable for pregnancy, and stop pregnancy when necessary, which requires female patients to take contraceptive measures when the epilepsy condition is not effectively controlled to reduce accidents. Warm reminder: Pregnant women with epilepsy need to pay special attention not only during pregnancy, but also during childbirth to avoid discomfort or seizures during childbirth. As far as conditions permit, try to have epilepsy diagnosis experience or a hospital that can control the disease in time to give birth To ensure the smooth progress of the birth process.

[Lanzhou Longda Men’s Hospital] Gynecological diseases are all the troubles caused by too long foreskin.

  【Lanzhou Longda Men’s Hospital】Gynecological diseases are caused by excessive foreskin. Men’s health, since you have always been with you, don’t let go, don’t pay for your health for a while, people can take a proper rest, and don’t spare health at the expense of success. The patient’s body and mind were severely damaged, and many men felt overwhelmed and sad about the foreskin disease. In the middle of the night, a healthy past is an inertial memory of foreskin patients. The patient does not want to struggle for the past, but must work hard for future happiness.  【Lanzhou Longda Men’s Hospital】Gynecological diseases are caused by excessive foreskin. Some hazards of too long foreskin 1. Easy to cause female infection: women in some special stages are more sensitive to carcinogens, and foreskin fouling causes cervical infections, which is easy to cause cervical cancer. In addition, because the foreskin is too long, it will cause premature ejaculation, so Will prevent women from reaching orgasm, thereby reducing the quality of sex life.   2. Induced foreskin balanitis: There are abundant sebaceous glands in the foreskin and secrete a lot of sebum. Excessive accumulation leads to the appearance of foreskin. Foreskin is very suitable for the growth of bacteria, so it causes penile head and foreskin balanitis.  3. Impaired kidney function: Due to inflammation of the penis, it can cause urethral opening or anterior urethral stricture, causing difficulty in urination. Long-term difficulty urinating, kidney function will be damaged, which is one of the effects of excessive foreskin.   4. Influencing sexual life: Since the glans mucosa is usually hidden under the foreskin, the friction and irritation usually received are less, making the glans mucosa’s nerves feel too sensitive, and it is easy to cause premature ejaculation, thus affecting sexual life. Recommended reading: too long foreskin will not affect the development of male penis    5, there is a risk of cancer: too long foreskin and phimosis, may cause penile cancer. Modern scientific research shows that smegma is a carcinogen. According to investigations, 85-95 patients with penile cancer are all phimosis or prepuce. 【Lanzhou Longda Men’s Hospital】Gynecological diseases are all the troubles caused by excessive foreskin. Gynecological diseases are all the troubles caused by excessive foreskin.    1. It affects the harmony of sexual life. Lushun’s treatment of male diseases doctors said that those who have too long foreskin and phimosis will not only cause foreskin balanitis due to unhygienicness, too long foreskin to wrap the glans will reduce the sensitivity of the glans to stimulation, cause impotence and premature ejaculation, and affect the sexual life between couples Harmonious and happy.   2. Induce cervical cancer. The husband’s foreskin is too long or phimosis, and it is easy to bring the foreskin into the female reproductive tract during sex with a female partner. Due to chronic and long-term stimulation of the cervix and endometrial epithelium, it is easy to cause cervical infection and serious cervical cancer.   3. Cause gynecological inflammation. Lushun treatment phimosis doctor pointed out that the main effect of excessively long foreskin or phimosis on women is that it is easy to cause genital tract infections. During sexual intercourse, the man brings the smegma into the female reproductive tract, which can cause inflammation of the female reproductive organs, such as trichomonas vaginitis, mycoplasma, and chlamydia infection.   [Reminder] “Gynecological diseases are the scourge of too long foreskin.” If the foreskin is too long, it will cause great harm to its own health or women’s health, so it should be actively treated. For the treatment of excessively long foreskin, the current better solution is to perform circumcision. If you still have questions after reading the above, “”” can answer you in detail through online consultation and communication.

Remind women to see 6 symptoms need to see gynecology immediately

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Pelvic pain. After a woman ovulates, dysmenorrhea will soon disappear. But if the pain persists for too long, see a doctor. The doctor will check for benign uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and also check for pelvic infections. If pelvic pain comes quickly and quickly, it may be a ruptured ovarian cyst with bleeding. In addition, pelvic pain with vaginal bleeding may also be a sign of ectopic pregnancy. Of course, pelvic discomfort has little to do with ovarian cancer. If you feel bloating, pelvic pressure, frequent urination, and symptoms last more than two weeks every day, you should have an ovarian cancer test.   Irregular bleeding. There are many cases of abnormal bleeding, including prolonged menstruation, menstruation twice a month, sex bleeding, etc., the cause may not be serious, such as premenopausal symptoms or uterine fibroids, uterine polyps and so on. If you have sex every time you bleed, you may have an infection, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases. If it is a menopausal woman, vaginal bleeding is a potential signal for uterine cancer. Of course, any period of vaginal bleeding should be checked.   Abnormal discharge. The vagina secretes odorous discharge, accompanied by itching, burning sensation, or bloody secretions. The common infection types of these symptoms are cervical infection, bacterial vaginitis, or trichomoniasis. It is easy to cure, of course. Ask your doctor to check and rule out sexually transmitted diseases.   Itching. Itching in the vagina without secretions is probably due to irritation of the skin after using soap or personal care products. If the skin changes, treat it with care. A skin disease called sclerosing can itch the vulva and form white spots. The white spots will gradually grow into a piece, and the skin will eventually become thin and wrinkled. Without treatment, it will affect urination or sex life.   Vaginal dryness. Lactating women or menopausal women will have vaginal dryness, but the symptoms will ease after lactating women resume ovulation. Menopausal women not only have vaginal dryness and atrophy, but the vaginal wall will also become thinner. The pain in sexual life is obvious, and it is easy to be infected.   Ulcers or lumps. Women with powdery tumors and skin pits in the groin can feel a lump to the touch, and pregnant women with varicose veins may also feel a lump in the vulva, which is not a problem. However, some ulcers of the vulva may be herpes or cancer. Symptoms of canceration of the vulva include wart-like masses, red, flat, but long-lasting ulcers. Melanoma may also occur in the vulva, such as brown, bulging moles in the groin. It should be noted that melanoma does not occur in areas where the sun is not exposed.

What should women do if they encounter “diffuse hair loss”?

What should women do if they encounter “diffuse hair loss”? In real life, there are many male bald men and many women with baldness, but women do not have so many hair loss problems. Men don’t pay attention to the obvious hair loss problem. If you don’t pay attention, there will often be a big problem. The big problem that women face is “female diffuse hair loss.” This type of hair loss often starts from adolescence, thick hair will gradually become thinner, gradually fade from dull and shiny to dull and dull, if at this time there is greasy scalp at the same time, menstrual disorders, it can be sure that the male hormone is the cause . Over time, the scalp growth environment will become poor, and the hair will become thinner and thinner. After understanding the forming factors of women’s “diffuse hair loss”, how can this phenomenon be prevented? First, you must maintain an optimistic attitude. When you meet many of these girls, especially those who suffer from love, they are entangled in the hair disaster every day. The tea is not fragrant, the sleep and sleep are uncomfortable, the work is unintentional, the depression is all day long. on. Second, administer the right medicine: reduce the androgens through regular hospitals if the hormones are too high; deficiency of qi and blood can be regulated through health care and physiotherapy; nutritional deficiencies quickly balance the diet, nutritional deficiencies caused by digestive problems must adjust the gastrointestinal tract; mental stress must find channels To release yourself; if parents, grandparents, cousins, cousins, cousins ​​and cousins ​​also have hair loss, such family problems, you have to recognize the reality, maintain and delay hair loss, from the early days, the sooner the better! Third, this type of hair loss must be strictly prohibited from dyeing and scalding once. It is dozens of times more destructive than the normal hair girl. You can’t stand this toss, don’t touch it! Fourth, choose big-name shampoos, mainly weakly acidic, supplemented by alkaline, cross-use; Fifth, comb the scalp thoroughly, dredge the meridians of the head, and promote blood circulation to the capillaries of the head. Add oil to the body to supplement the hair follicles!

Will Tintin’s size affect Apricot’s quality of life?

Many people think that Xing’s life satisfaction is closely related to Tintin’s size. In fact, this is the same as everyone’s tall, thin and fat, everyone has obvious individual differences, but it has not caused much impact on normal work and life. Similarly, the size of Tintin will not affect the quality of life of apricot couples: 1. Thick Tintin will not affect the quality of life of apricots. Because women’s private parts are very flexible, they can deliver normally, that is to say, women’s private parts are extremely tolerant. Of course, the horizontal extension ability of female private parts exceeds the vertical extension. However, unless the difference between the two is so great that it causes the long drive to touch the cervix outside, it rarely causes pain. Since this situation is relatively rare, and the depth of entry can be controlled by both parties, the coarse Ding Ding will not affect the quality of life of the apricot. 2. Tiny Tintin is not very important for the apricot experience on both sides. Female sensitive nerves are mainly distributed on the surface and outer 1/3 of intimate parts. In Xing’s life, the pleasure of both parties mainly comes from the stimulation caused by friction. The depth is not a sensitive area, so it doesn’t help them get much pleasure. Many Tintin’s small men only make their partners unsatisfied, mainly due to lack of experience and skills and lack of relevant knowledge. At the same time, some women will blame the problem because Tintin is too small when they are not satisfied, which will inevitably cause a serious blow to men’s psychology. This will also lead to a discordant life between the two parties.

Come out with a smile, a cough and urinate? Take you to understand stress urinary incontinence!

When I was in the clinic, I often met some female patients, saying that they laughed a lot, coughed hard, and walked a little faster, and they shed some urine when they urinate, which is very distressing. Some of them are serious, and they dare not even dare to go out. It can be said that it has affected daily life and social interaction. So this article focuses on this more common disease-stress urinary incontinence. The vast majority of stress urinary incontinence are women, which is related to the female anatomy. Data show that 23-45% of the female population have varying degrees of urinary incontinence. The main clinical manifestation is that when doing exercises to increase abdominal pressure (including laughing, coughing, talking loudly, etc.) urine will flow out uncontrollably. The following factors are relatively clear risk factors and need attention. 1. Fertility: The more births, the greater the probability of the disease. People with older reproductive age are more likely to have the disease. Transvaginal delivery is more likely than caesarean section. 2. Age: With the increase of age, the prevalence of female urinary incontinence gradually increases, and the high incidence age is 45-55 years old. The reason is related to pelvic floor relaxation, estrogen reduction, and degeneration of urethral sphincter. 3. Obesity: This is a very clear risk factor that can cause and aggravate urinary incontinence. Losing weight can reduce the incidence of the disease. 4. Smoking, physical activity, hysterectomy, etc. Some of these factors have been shown to be related to the occurrence of the disease, but some studies have shown no obvious relationship, so they can only be summarized as possible related risk factors. Regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis and typing, some inspection methods will not be detailed here, focusing on how to treat and self-manage. 1. Weight control: highly recommended, needless to say, everyone understands. 2. Pelvic floor muscle training: highly recommended, suitable for various types of stress urinary incontinence. Specific methods: Continuous contraction of pelvic floor muscles (lifting anus) for 2-6 seconds, relaxation and rest for 2-6 seconds, so repeated 10-15 times as a group, training 3-8 groups per day, lasting more than 8 weeks or longer . This method is simple and easy, and it can also enhance the female sexual experience. 3. Biofeedback, electrical stimulation therapy, magnetic stimulation therapy: these all need some equipment for treatment, with upper pelvic floor muscle training can achieve better results. 4. Duloxetine: 40 mg each time, twice a day for at least 3 weeks. More effective within 4 weeks of medication. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and constipation. 5. Estrogen: The use of estrogen is for local vaginal use, not oral. In this disease, oral estrogen cannot reduce urinary incontinence, and there is a risk of inducing and aggravating urinary incontinence. 6. Surgery: If the above methods are not effective, you need to consider surgery, and there are many surgical options. This needs to be decided according to the specific situation. Remind you, if you really find yourself suffering from urinary incontinence, the way you can intervene is to control your weight and pelvic floor muscle training. Other methods, such as drugs, need to be diagnosed and used under the guidance of a doctor. I hope everyone is in good health, happy life, and stay away from disease. &nbsp. Want to learn more related knowledge, make your life healthy and colorful? Then please follow me!

How much do you know about progesterone (P)?

By measuring the hormone levels of six sex hormones, you can understand the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, and understand the basic state of the ovary, used to diagnose and differentially diagnose diseases related to endocrine disorders. The six sex hormones are mainly to determine the hormone levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), and according to The value of various hormone levels to judge the patient’s condition. What does it mean for patients to get confused about these cumbersome data when they get the test form? Today, the editor will give you a detailed introduction to one of the popular progesterone (P). What is progesterone? Progesterone (P) is a natural progesterone secreted by the luteal cells of the ovary. It has a significant morphological effect on the endometrium stimulated by estrogen in the body and is an essential hormone for maintaining pregnancy. What is the difference between progesterone and progesterone? Progesterone can also be called progesterone, English is Progesterone. Progesterone generally emphasizes the progesterone produced by the body itself. Progesterone emphasizes exogenous progesterone, which is a kind of medicine. The normal value range of progesterone is the normal value of male progesterone. The normal value of male progesterone is between 0.1 ng/ml and 0.84 ng/ml. The normal value of female progesterone The range of normal value of female progesterone changes according to the different stages in which the woman is, and is not a fixed value. In the follicular phase, the normal value of female progesterone is between 0.6 nmol/L and 1.9 nmol/L; in the ovulatory phase, the normal value of female progesterone is between 2.4 nmol/L and 9.4 nmol/L; after ovulation, The normal value of progesterone in women is between 20.7 nmol/L and 102.4 nmol/L. The clinical application of progesterone to screen for pregnancy-related diseases Progesterone is a necessary sex hormone to maintain pregnancy. Progesterone can cause secretion of the endometrium proliferated by the action of estrogen, cervical mucus becomes viscous, and it can suppress the mother’s immune response and prevent miscarriage. During ectopic pregnancy, due to thin fallopian tube muscle layer, poor blood supply, fewer trophoblast cells and low vitality, low corpus luteum stimulation leads to dysplasia of the corpus luteum, resulting in decreased progesterone secretion. Patients with early threatened miscarriage have poor embryonic development, the role of ovarian corpus luteum changing into gestational corpus luteum is also reduced, and the concentration of progesterone produced by trophoblast cells and gestational corpus luteum is also reduced. Progesterone can also directly reflect the function of the corpus luteum, which can diagnose ovulation, corpus luteum dysfunction, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, abnormal pregnancy, placental function, infertility, etc.

How can sperm traverse this river due to hydrosalpinx?

   Fallopian tube hydrops is a kind of fallopian tube disease, mostly caused by inflammation of the fallopian tube and inflammation of other reproductive organs. In most patients, the causes of hydrops are mostly related to the following factors. Hydrosalpinx may be related to these factors 1. A lot of pelvic effusions due to unclean sex are caused by inflammation of the internal genitals, inflammation of the appendix, pelvic inflammation, etc. These inflammations can also lead to the appearance of hydrosalpinx in women In the internal genitalitis, appendicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, unclean sex life is the main cause of disease. 2. Pelvic inflammation After the pelvic inflammation occurs, the genital tract will interact with the surrounding tissues. If female chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is not treated in time, it will also cause inflammation in the fallopian tubes. Pregnancy. 3. Chronic salpingitis If chronic salpingitis is not treated or cured for a long time, it can cause mucosa and adhesions in the fallopian tube, resulting in blockage of the fallopian tube, which leads to secondary infertility. Non-blocking in the lumen of the fallopian tube will increase the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Chance, when the umbrella end of the fallopian tube sticks due to inflammation, hydrops may also occur, but the patient may not have obvious symptoms. 4. Abortion and abortion can be divided into medical abortion and spontaneous abortion. Medical abortion does not require surgery and has less damage to the uterus, but if the remaining embryo is in the uterus, it will still cause intrauterine infection and damage the endometrium, resulting in fallopian tubes. Stagnant water.   5. Fallopian tube empyema    There are also some cases of hydrops in the fallopian tube that are formed due to the transformation of the fallopian tube empyema, and the pus gradually turns into a clear water sample fluid, which slowly forms hydrops.  Precautions for tubal hydrops    1. Women in normal life should also pay attention to their vulva and personal hygiene, especially menstruation, and pay attention to infections from sanitary ware and toilets.   2. Increase physical exercise in daily life, enhance physical fitness, resistance, immunity, and reduce the chance of germ invasion. Strengthen nutrition and hygiene during menstruation, after abortion, after childbirth, and pay attention to your own health.   3. During sexual life, you should pay attention to the personal hygiene of yourself and your partner. Both sides of the house should wash the external reproductive parts to prevent the smooth invasion of germs. If women have vaginal bleeding symptoms, they should stop their sexual life.   4. Female patients with acute fallopian tube injury should take a semi-recumbent position to rest and prevent and restrict the flow of inflammatory fluids due to changes in body position.   5. Once a woman suffers from fallopian tube effusion, she should abide by the principles of treatment, adopt a positive attitude, and thoroughly treat it, control the condition as soon as possible, and prevent it from becoming chronic.

Will hydrosalpinx cause infertility? What are the symptoms?

   Fallopian tube hydrops is caused by pelvic infection caused by tissue adhesion in the pelvic cavity, the distal end of the fallopian tube is blocked, and the uterine serous exudate is gradually accumulated in the lumen of the fallopian tube. It is a common type of chronic fallopian tube inflammation.   Experts pointed out that hydrops of the fallopian tube will affect the sperm, egg and fertilized egg passing through the fallopian tube, which greatly reduces the chance of female pregnancy and even leads to infertility. Why is the fallopian tube hydrops Fallopian tube hydrops is a member of the pelvic inflammatory disease, mainly because of inflammation of the fallopian tube, the fallopian tube is blocked and blocked, and the inflammatory fluid secreted into the fallopian tube is trapped in the fallopian tube lumen , After a long time, the formation of hydrosalpinx.   Fallopian tube hydrops often occur after infection with Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as after miscarriage, unclean sex, and improper uterine cavity manipulation, and also due to appendicitis and appendix perforation. Symptoms of hydrosalpinx   The clinical manifestations of hydrosalpinx are the vaginal discharge of clear fluid from time to time, symptoms of lower abdominal pain, infertility, and even the possibility of acute abdominal pain after exercise or sudden change of body position requiring surgery.  Irregular menstruation    Fallopian tubes may also cause women to have irregular menstruation, causing women to have excessive menstruation, or symptoms such as increased menstrual cycle, causing greater damage to women’s health.  Dysmenorrhea  Oviductal fluid will directly cause women to have more intense dysmenorrhea symptoms. The closer to the menstrual period, the stronger the pain will be. It will not be relieved until the onset of menstruation, which often makes women miserable. Infertile tubal hydrops due to obstruction, blockage and adhesion of the lumen of the fallopian tube will prevent the egg from passing through this channel to meet the sperm normally, directly endangering the normal fertility function of the female patient, and causing women to have difficulties in fertility or Is infertile. And the fluid in the fallopian tube will be discharged into the uterine cavity from time to time. Even if the fertilized egg has the luck to reach the uterine cavity, it may be “run” or “killed” by these liquids, and these liquids will affect the quality of the baby’s “bed”. Keep your baby from resting in bed.  Ectopic pregnancy    This situation is more concerned about, women suffering from hydrosalpinx will cause ectopic pregnancy, mainly because the fertilized egg will not reach the uterine cavity, and implanted in the female fallopian tube to grow and form an ectopic pregnancy.  Expert reminder: induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, medical abortion, induced labor, unclean sexual intercourse, etc., may cause problems in the fallopian tube. Therefore, women should love themselves. When the above symptoms occur, they need to be alert to the presence of hydrops, and strive to go to the hospital for early examination and clear treatment in order to avoid serious infertility.