. . . In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder tumors, imaging examinations are indispensable, and X-ray imaging, ultrasound, computer-aided tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other examinations are excellent. Disadvantages. 1. X-ray examination . . . .X-ray examination of urinary system includes abdominal plain film, venous urography, retrograde urography, antegrade urography, cystography, urethra, angiography and lymph Contrast examinations. In the imaging examination of bladder tumors, intravenous urography and cystography are commonly used. Angiography can be applied to the interventional treatment of advanced bladder tumors that cannot be surgically removed. With the increasing use of CT, MRI and other examinations, the importance of X-ray examination has declined. 2. Ultrasound examination Ultrasound examination is widely used in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and postoperative follow-up of bladder tumors because of its advantages of quickness, no damage, low price, and ability to be repeated. Transrectal ultrasound is a special probe inserted into the rectum. Through a series of scans, tumors in the posterior wall of the bladder, triangle, and neck can be clearly displayed. In particular, pedicle tumors near the neck can be clearly observed, and the seminal vesicles can also be explored at the same time. 1. The condition of the prostate. Transurethral ultrasound is to put an ultrasound probe into the urethra and probe after the bladder is full. Due to the need for cystoscopy at the same time, patients will feel pain and need anesthesia. Color Doppler (CDFI) can display the hemodynamic changes of bladder tumor blood vessels, including tumor blood flow richness, peak velocity, resistance index, etc., which can provide more information for clinical diagnosis.  . . . . It should be noted that the clinical application of ultrasound has many advantages, but the final diagnosis of bladder tumor still needs to rely on cystoscopy and pathological biopsy. Some patients with bladder tumors have small lesions or do not protrude from the mucosal surface, so for patients with obvious hematuria and no abnormalities on ultrasound examination, cystoscopy must be performed to exclude bladder tumors. 3. CT examination CT is an important method for diagnosing bladder tumors and determining the clinical stage of the tumor. CT scans can not only detect lesions, determine the location, size and number of lesions, show the extent of tumor involvement in the bladder, but also show the invasion of the bladder by the lesions. The degree shows whether the lesion has invaded the adjacent tissue and whether there is lymph node metastasis. Compared with cystoscopy, CT examination is less invasive and time-saving. For those who are contraindicated in cystoscopy, it can be used as a candidate examination. It can also show the invasion of the tumor outside the bladder, which is helpful for clinical treatment. Fourth, MRI examination . . . . In the diagnosis of bladder tumors, MRI and CT have their own characteristics. MRI has the advantages of no X-ray radiation, no gas and bony artifacts, many imaging parameters, multi-slice imaging, high resolution of soft tissue, and the ability to observe the characteristics of blood vessels without the need for contrast agents with the aid of the flow void effect, but it also has The shortcomings such as high price, long scanning time and interference of motion artifacts, its spatial resolution and anatomical details are inferior to CT. MRI is generally used in patients with contraindications (such as contrast media allergy and worry about radiation exposure) on CT scans.
Premature ejaculation is a common male sexual function disease, which refers to a short time to enter the vagina, or a sexual life disorder that occurs when a woman does not reach orgasm and ejaculate in advance. If premature ejaculation occurs, you should go to the hospital for inspection and treatment in time. What are the inspection items for premature ejaculation? First, the medical history examination can initially understand the cause of the patient’s morbidity and has certain guiding significance for the treatment. The initial examination mainly includes the following items. 1) Personal physical exhaustion, physical weakness, or physical discomfort, the body will instinctively take protective measures to end sexual life as soon as possible to protect physical health, premature ejaculation at this time is inevitable. 2) Whether the male has a history of acute and chronic diseases, surgery, trauma or psychological trauma, and has taken certain blood pressure lowering drugs, etc. 3) Whether the male with bad habits has a long-term stay up late, inappropriate sexual experience, long-term masturbation II, professional Physical Examination Physical examination is a necessary factor for judging whether men suffer from premature ejaculation. It can be used to distinguish premature ejaculation from other sexual dysfunctions, especially erectile dysfunction. Professional physical examinations include penile, testicular and epididymal examinations, prostate examinations, and seminal vesicle ultrasonography examinations. 3. Laboratory tests 1) Urine examination If men are suspected of having urethritis, routine urine examination should be performed first to exclude the possibility of urinary tract infection. If there are other necessary deliberate urine urine tests, mycoplasma, chlamydia, etc., come Determine pathogenic bacteria. 2) Sex hormones six patients with premature ejaculation have a faster penile corpus cavernosal reflex than normal men. It may be due to the high testosterone content in the blood, which increases the excitability of the ejaculation center, and the threshold decreases. The ejaculation center is easy to be excited and premature ejaculation. 3) Prostate fluid examination By checking the PH value of prostatic fluid, the amount of lecithin, red blood cells, and white blood cells to determine whether men have prostate inflammation and the severity. Comprehensive scientific examination can help patients find out the true cause of premature ejaculation and treat the symptoms, so I hope that patients can actively cooperate with doctors.
Whether it is a daily physical examination or a routine examination for nephropathy treatment, to determine whether the kidney function is good or bad, you need to do some kidney-related examinations. Through the examination results, you can more accurately understand the condition of the kidney and the changes in the condition. Accurate examination results are the basis of treatment. There are many nephropathy examination items. Some patients have symptoms of discomfort for the first time, but the examination is not comprehensive, and the disease is not found in time, or the treatment is not timely, resulting in more and more serious illness and missed the best treatment. Time makes it difficult to reverse the condition. Nephropathy examination mainly includes two aspects: one to check blood and two to check urine, and different indicators reflect different kidney functions. Some inspections need to be reviewed multiple times, and some indicators can judge the results only once. Kidney function is not good, these three tests must be checked, no need to struggle! The three major examination items of urine examination are the routine urine examination. The indicators in the routine urine examination mainly reflect two aspects, inflammation and kidney problems. Nephropathy treatment-related indicators mainly include urinary red blood cells, white blood cells, urine protein, and urine specific gravity. High red blood cells and white blood cells indicate inflammation, specifically kidney inflammation or urinary tract inflammation, which needs further examination. The changes in urine protein and urine specific gravity can directly reflect the condition of the kidney. The presence of urine protein + is positive, and the increase in urine specific gravity indicates a problem with the kidney. Of course, the problem of transient urine protein should also be ruled out, that is, physiological factors such as eating too many high-protein foods, vigorous exercise before examination, etc. cause abnormal urine tests. Some patients in the early stage of kidney disease have no obvious symptoms, and there are often obvious abnormalities in the examination indicators, which are of great significance for the early treatment of kidney disease. Compare and see what happens to your test order? Urine morphological analysis sounds very high, what tests are they? Many kidney friends look at the test sheet and may have seen these indicators: tube type, crystal, bacteria, epithelial cells, etc. These tests have an important role in further determining the condition of kidney damage, such as a high rate of urine red blood cell deformation, mostly kidney The damaged glomerulus indicates glomerulonephritis. Urine protein in-depth inspection routine examination can find the presence of urine protein + sign, to clarify the situation of protein leakage, the degree of glomerular damage, the degree of impaired renal function, further urine related examinations are needed. Mainly include: 24-hour urine protein quantification, urine total protein creatinine ratio, urine albumin creatinine ratio and so on. The first two indicators have similar functions and can be replaced with each other, just check some of them. A large amount of protein leakage mainly reflects the impaired glomerular filtration function and the degree of glomerular lesions. In general, the more proteinuria, the more severe the damage to kidney function. The urine albumin creatinine ratio test is more accurate than the previous two tests. It can detect patients with kidney damage, but only mild proteinuria symptoms, such as diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy. If you have a long history of sugar friends and high blood pressure patients, you will find that there is foam in your urine and no symptoms, but you can’t find any problems in urine routine. Remember to check this indicator. Two routine blood tests include blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen. The kidneys are detoxifying organs. The increase in these indicators is a manifestation of increased levels of toxins in the body. It also indicates that the kidneys’ detoxification function is reduced. It’s half over. Hemoglobin Hemoglobin mainly plays the role of loosening blood oxygen to ensure normal blood flow rate. If abnormality occurs, most of them indicate anemia. In the middle and late stages of kidney disease, erythropoietin production decreases and spinal cord hematopoiesis decreases, and renal anemia occurs. A small number of patients often detect anemia first, and eventually diagnose kidney disease. Anemia will cause the degeneration of various functions of the body, in particular, it will cause a decline in immunity, which is not conducive to the stability and treatment of the disease. Renal function test In addition to the above tests, to further understand the examination of renal function, there are glomerular filtration rate, memory creatinine clearance rate, renal B ultrasound, electrolyte-related tests, etc. The abnormality of these indicators further indicates changes in renal function, and is particularly critical for the prevention of renal failure. More attention should be paid to the treatment. My name is Yang Yanfang. I am good at various glomerular diseases, such as IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, hematuria, proteinuria, lupus nephritis, and treatment of chronic renal insufficiency. I have more than 40 years of clinical experience. Welcome to pay attention to this account. For related questions, you can leave a message or private message. After reading it, I will answer your confusion in detail.
Whether it is a daily physical examination or a routine examination for nephropathy treatment, to determine whether the kidney function is good or bad, you need to do some kidney-related examinations. Through the examination results, you can more accurately understand the condition of the kidney and the changes in the condition. Accurate examination results are the basis of treatment. There are many nephropathy examination items. Some patients have symptoms of discomfort for the first time, but the examination is not comprehensive, and the disease is not found in time, or the treatment is not timely, resulting in more and more serious illness and missed the best treatment. Time makes it difficult to reverse the condition. Nephropathy examination mainly includes two aspects: one to check blood and two to check urine, and different indicators reflect different kidney functions. Some inspections need to be reviewed multiple times, and some indicators can judge the results only once. Kidney function is not good, these three tests must be checked, no need to struggle! The three major examination items of urine examination are the routine urine examination. The indicators in the routine urine examination mainly reflect two aspects, inflammation and kidney problems. Nephropathy treatment-related indicators mainly include urinary red blood cells, white blood cells, urine protein, and urine specific gravity. High red blood cells and white blood cells indicate inflammation, specifically kidney inflammation or urinary tract inflammation, which needs further examination. The changes in urine protein and urine specific gravity can directly reflect the condition of the kidney. The presence of urine protein + is positive, and the increase in urine specific gravity indicates a problem with the kidney. Of course, the problem of transient urine protein should also be ruled out, that is, physiological factors such as eating too many high-protein foods, vigorous exercise before examination, etc. cause abnormal urine tests. Some patients in the early stage of kidney disease have no obvious symptoms, and there are often obvious abnormalities in the examination indicators, which are of great significance for the early treatment of kidney disease. Compare and see what happens to your test order? Urine morphological analysis sounds very high, what tests are they? Many kidney friends look at the test sheet and may have seen these indicators: tube type, crystal, bacteria, epithelial cells, etc. These tests have an important role in further determining the condition of kidney damage, such as a high rate of urine red blood cell deformation, mostly kidney The damaged glomerulus indicates glomerulonephritis. Urine protein in-depth inspection routine examination can find the presence of urine protein + sign, to clarify the situation of protein leakage, the degree of glomerular damage, the degree of impaired renal function, further urine related examinations are needed. Mainly include: 24-hour urine protein quantification, urine total protein creatinine ratio, urine albumin creatinine ratio and so on. The first two indicators have similar functions and can be replaced with each other, just check some of them. A large amount of protein leakage mainly reflects the impaired glomerular filtration function and the degree of glomerular lesions. In general, the more proteinuria, the more severe the damage to kidney function. The urine albumin creatinine ratio test is more accurate than the previous two tests. It can detect patients with kidney damage, but only mild proteinuria symptoms, such as diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy. If you have a long history of sugar friends and high blood pressure patients, you will find that there is foam in your urine and no symptoms, but you can’t find any problems in urine routine. Remember to check this indicator. Two routine blood tests include blood creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen. The kidneys are detoxifying organs. The increase in these indicators is a manifestation of increased levels of toxins in the body. It also indicates that the kidneys’ detoxification function is reduced. It’s half over. Hemoglobin Hemoglobin mainly plays the role of loosening blood oxygen to ensure normal blood flow rate. If abnormality occurs, most of them indicate anemia. In the middle and late stages of kidney disease, erythropoietin production decreases and spinal cord hematopoiesis decreases, and renal anemia occurs. A small number of patients often detect anemia first, and eventually diagnose kidney disease. Anemia will cause the degeneration of various functions of the body, in particular, it will cause a decline in immunity, which is not conducive to the stability and treatment of the disease. Renal function test In addition to the above tests, to further understand the examination of renal function, there are glomerular filtration rate, memory creatinine clearance rate, renal B ultrasound, electrolyte-related tests, etc. The abnormality of these indicators further indicates changes in renal function, and is particularly critical for the prevention of renal failure. More attention should be paid to the treatment.
If a person falls from a height or receives a violent impact, the head is easily damaged, causing various types of brain trauma. Concussion is one of them. However, many people do not understand concussion. Concussion . . . . . . . . refers to the transient brain dysfunction immediately after the head is hit by external force. There are no obvious changes in pathological changes. Generally, there is no abnormality in lumbar puncture and CT examination, but the disorder of nerve tissue can be seen under the microscope. There are still many disputes about the mechanism of occurrence.  . . . . . . . . The clinical manifestations are transient coma, retrograde amnesia and headache, nausea and vomiting. No signs of positive signs were found on the neurological examination. It is the lightest type of brain injury that can be cured after treatment. It can occur alone, or it can coexist with other craniocerebral injuries such as intracranial hematoma. Care should be taken to make a differential diagnosis in a timely manner. How to judge whether it is a concussion?  . . . . . . . . The human brain is located in the skull and is smaller than the volume of the brain, protected by the meninges and suspended in the cerebrospinal fluid. When an accident occurs in the human body, the moment when the head is violently hit, the cerebrospinal fluid will move violently in the intraventricular chamber, the disorder of cerebral vascular motor function, the mechanical stretching or twisting of the brainstem, which will cause the dysfunction of the brainstem network structure. , The consciousness of the lighter is vague, the serious is completely unconscious, unconscious, as short as a few seconds or minutes, but not more than half an hour. After waking up, I can’t recall the situation when I was injured, but I can clearly remember what happened before the injury; at the same time, there are also symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, tinnitus, inattention, unresponsiveness, blood pressure, breathing, pulse The CT examination of the nervous system and brain is normal. In this case, it is usually diagnosed as a concussion. What should I do with concussion?  . . . . . . . . Even if the concussion is not serious, it is still a brain injury after all, and it cannot be taken lightly. First, seek medical attention immediately and observe the condition. After the injury, you can observe in the hospital for 24 hours to see the changes in consciousness, pupils, physical activity and vital signs. If you watch at home, you need to pay close attention to whether there is headache, nausea, vomiting and consciousness within 24 hours. If the symptoms worsen, you should seek medical treatment immediately and treat symptomatically. When the headache is severe, you need to rest in bed to reduce external irritation. During convalescence, patients with concussion need more rest, and most patients with concussion will return to normal within 2 weeks without affecting daily work and life. However, a small number of patients may also develop secondary intracranial lesions or other complications. Therefore, during symptomatic treatment, you should pay close attention to the state of the patient and carry out necessary inspections in time according to the situation.
The main screening items for prostate cancer are digital prostate rectal examination, serum PSA examination and prostate ultrasound examination. These three examinations are not expensive, and the examination process is very convenient and non-invasive. It is a very good way to screen for prostate cancer. Since the development of prostate cancer is relatively slow, some experts have questioned the necessity and scale of prostate cancer screening. This article mainly briefly introduces the screening method of prostate cancer and discusses the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening. Prostate cancer screening methods First of all, we must understand the relationship between prostate cancer screening and diagnosis. Screening cannot confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Screening only serves as a hint. If the screening result suggests that it may be prostate cancer, Then further examination is needed to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the final method of diagnosis of prostate cancer is prostate biopsy. 1. Digital rectal examination: A digital rectal examination is when a doctor passes a finger through the anus and touches the peripheral zone of the prostate in the rectum. If there is a tumor on the periphery of the prostate, it can be felt through the digital rectal examination. The advantage of digital rectal examination is that it is cheap, convenient, and can detect some low rectal cancer. Figure 1: The schematic diagram of the rectal finger examination of the prostate 2. The prostate specific antigen test: The prostate specific antigen is abbreviated as PSA, which is an important test index for prostate cancer. The American Urological Association recommends that men over the age of 50 should have a digital rectal examination and PSA examination every year. The incidence of prostate cancer in our country is not as high as that in Europe and the United States, so many people cannot guarantee to check PSA once a year. Regarding the indicators of PSA, the current consensus at home and abroad is that the total serum PSA> 4.0 ng/mL is abnormal. If PSA> 10 ng/mL, the possibility of prostate cancer should be highly suspected. Prostate biopsy should be further confirmed. If PSA If the value is between 4 and 10 ng/mL, do you need to perform a prostate biopsy, you need to refer to other indicators such as PSA free ratio. It should be noted that before the blood test for PSA, digital rectal examination, cystoscopy, and catheterization cannot be performed because these will affect the PSA value. Figure 2: PSA examination 3. Prostate ultrasound examination: If you want to check the prostate more accurately, it is best to do transrectal ultrasound examination, which can more accurately observe the inside of the prostate. If there is a tumor in the prostate, there is a certain probability Abnormalities can be found by ultrasound. Figure 3: Transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostate For prostate cancer screening, as long as the results meet the prostate puncture indications, a prostate biopsy can be performed to further confirm whether the diagnosis is prostate cancer. Benefits of prostate cancer screening Screening can diagnose more prostate cancer patients, but the biggest benefit of screening is to find those fatal prostate cancer patients. Severe prostate cancer patients will be detected early because of screening, and can be treated in time, so as to avoid the disease from entering the advanced stage. Question: Do we really need a large area for prostate cancer screening? Many people may think that it is better to find the disease than to find it. In fact, this kind of screening is also harmful. Let’s think about it. If the disease does not affect people’s lives, it will not cause suffering, and a person’s life span is limited. Before the death of a person, this disease will not affect people. Isn’t it significant that we screened out this disease? In the case of prostate cancer, there is a big difference between the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. 15-20% of men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime, while only 3% will be life-threatening. . Some routine autopsy reports suggest that 60% to 70% of elderly men are diagnosed with prostate cancer, but most of them are progression-free, which means that these people did not threaten his life before prostate cancer. Nor does it affect its quality of life. So for those prostate cancers that are not progressing and not life-threatening, do we really need to find them? Once detected, the patient himself knows that the disease will increase his psychological pressure, and most patients will choose treatment, and the treatment itself will bring a lot of pain to the patient and increase the medical burden, in other words It is these prostate cancers that did not need treatment. How to weigh the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening Previously we have proposed that prostate cancer screening can diagnose more patients with prostate cancer, and
&Nbsp. . said that in this era of harsh environment and worrying food hygiene, death syndrome and one of the common causes of male infertility. Such as environmental factors, drug factors, and disease factors can lead to the occurrence of dead sperm disease, and the reproductive health of men has encountered an unprecedented crisis. Once a man finds that he has this disease, he must go to a regular professional men’s hospital for examination and treatment in time to avoid delaying his illness. So, what are the tests for men suffering from death syndrome? Today, Lanzhou Longda Hospital (www.lzldyy.cn) takes everyone to have a deeper understanding. What are the examinations for Lanzhou men suffering from dead sperm? 1. Physical and medical history examination: doctors generally introduce no specific signs, secondary to prostatitis, seminal vesiculitis, orchitis and other inflammatory diseases. Relevant factors can be obtained, such as reproductive system infections, alcoholism, and high-temperature work. 2. Semen examination: The result of a semen examination by a male friend is the basis for the diagnosis of azoospermia. Generally 2 semen samples are collected after 2-3 days of abstinence. The amount of semen is also important (normal> 1.5mL). In clinical examination, the main reason for the small amount of semen is the ineffective collection of semen. Therefore, it is routine to collect 2 specimens. 3. Physical and chemical examination: including: semen microscopic examination. routine semen examination and prostate fluid examination. semen microbiology examination. blood sperm, seminal plasma antisperm antibody examination. semen biochemical analysis, etc. 4. Endocrine examination: For patients with azoospermia, serum FSH and T examination should be performed first. If both values are normal, no further endocrine examination is necessary. If the value of T is lower than the normal level, LH and prolactin should be checked. At present, some scholars believe that inhibin B is produced by testicular supporting cells and can more directly reflect the spermatogenic function of the testis than FSH. Therefore, inhibin B should also become a routine test for male infertility patients. If you have any questions, you can directly click on the online consultation or call the health hotline: 0931-4523019 for consultation and understanding. I wish you a speedy recovery! Lanzhou Longda Male Hospital Address: Industry and Trade Building, No. 1, Gaolan Road, Chengguan District, Lanzhou City. Lanzhou Longda Male Hospital Website: www.lzldyy.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .&bb.l.b. com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: www.lzldyy.cn .
. . The quality of male semen has a great relationship with fertility. If the quality of semen is abnormal, the number of sperm is small, the mobility is not enough, and the semen is not liquefied, etc. will affect male fertility. These indicators can be checked by semen examination, then semen What are the items to check? Let’s take a closer look. Today, Lanzhou Longda Hospital (www.lzldyy.com) will take you through a closer look. Semen examination items 1. Sperm survival rate: Observe the sperm survival rate 0.5-1 hour after sperm discharge. The normal sperm survival rate should be 80% to 90%. If a large number of sperm die, it is not enough, then the female The chance of getting pregnant is very low. 2. The number of spermatozoa: The amount of semen of normal people is 2～6ml. Male sperm is not less than 20 million per milliliter. If it is less than 20 million, it is classified as oligospermia. At the same time, the number of sperm will decrease, which will also affect the normal fertility problems of men. 3. Sperm motility: Sperm motility is also a necessary item for sperm examination, because if the sperm motility is reduced, it will not be able to meet the egg. And the sperm motility also reflects the quality of sperm. If more than 40% of the sperm have poor activity, it is more difficult for women to become pregnant. 4. Sperm morphology: The sperm morphology can be checked by instrument analysis. Normal sperm looks like tadpoles and consists of head, body and tail. If the head is found to be large, small or tapered, or the body is abnormal or tail Abnormalities, etc., belong to abnormal sperm. If the number of abnormal sperm is too much, it will affect fertility. For example, normal sperm ≤ 30%, abnormal sperm> 40%, can be called abnormal sperm disease. Warm reminder of Lanzhou Longda Hospital: In addition to the above items, semen should also check the color and transparency, pH, liquefaction time, etc., to determine whether the semen is normal, most men’s semen is relatively normal, if the male suffers from reproduction Inflammation of the urinary tract, or men working in high temperature for a long time, working in an environment with large ionizing radiation, often steaming in a sauna, etc., the quality of sperm will be poor, and need to be treated as soon as possible. If you have any questions, you can directly click on the online consultation or call the health hotline: 0931-4523019 for consultation and understanding. I wish you a speedy recovery! Lanzhou Longda Male Hospital Address: Industry and Trade Building, No. 1, Gaolan Road, Chengguan District, Lanzhou City. Lanzhou Longda Male Hospital Website: www.lzldyy.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .&bb.l.b. com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: www.lzldyy.cn .
Recently, I saw a news that a patient with a tumor in the spinal canal felt numbness and weakness in his feet three months ago. A CT examination in a local hospital was misdiagnosed as a lumbar disc herniation. The patient thought that he could play ball and go to work, and he did not care too much. Not long ago, I felt fatigue and pain in my feet, and I needed to walk on crutches, so I went to a local big hospital for medical treatment. After a physical examination by a doctor, when the patient soaked his feet a year ago, I noticed that my feet did not feel the temperature. He became agile, and his feet didn’t feel much of the hot hot water, and finally found a tumor in the spinal canal by a magnetic resonance imaging of the waist. Why do the editors have different results? In fact, there are many clinically similar cases. The first reason is that the incidence of tumors in the spinal canal is not as high as that of lumbar disc herniation, which is not well understood. Furthermore, there are many similarities between the symptoms of lumbar disc herniation and tumors in the spinal canal. The nerves of the waist are violated, causing pain in the waist, radiation pain in the legs, and numbness. The second reason is the examination. Although both CT and MRI are commonly used examination methods, the two are still very different. CT examination is fast and the bone structure is clear, but CT can not display the tumor in the spinal canal even if it is scanned; MRI The examination is time-consuming and shows that the soft tissue is clear, but when judging the disc disease and the intraductal tumor, MRI is more advantageous. Clinically, MRI is currently the most accurate imaging method for intraspinal tumor imaging. You should know more about lumbar disc herniation, but you don’t know much about tumors in the spinal canal because you usually hear less. So what are tumors in the spinal canal? Intraspinal tumors refer to the general term for primary tumors or metastatic tumors that occur in the spinal cord itself and in the spinal canal adjacent to nerve roots, dura mater, blood vessels, adipose tissue, congenital embryonic residual tissue, and other tissues. Intraspinal tumors are one of the common types of tumors in neurosurgery. Most of them are benign. According to statistics, the incidence rate is about 2.5 people per 100,000 people. The main harm caused by the tumor in the spinal canal is the compression of the spinal cord or nerve in the spinal canal as the tumor continues to grow. The main symptoms of patients with spinal canal tumors are nerve root pain, numbness of the limbs, dyskinesia, dysuria, and even paralysis. Editor . . When it is found out that the tumor in the spinal canal needs surgical treatment? Can the nerve function be restored after the operation? After the spinal cord and nerve are compressed, surgical intervention is required most of the time. However, many patients in clinical work have already experienced obvious compression, and the surgical indications are clear, but they are afraid of surgery, or think that drugs, physiotherapy, etc. can refuse surgery. What patients do not know is that after the spinal cord or nerve is compressed, if the spinal cord and nerve root are not decompressed in time, the compression will continue to increase, which may cause functional impairment. The damage to the spinal cord and nerves is irreversible. In other words, if the patient has limb paralysis and sensory disturbances due to nerve compression before surgery, even surgery can only ensure that nerve compression will not be further exacerbated, and whether damaged nerves can be recovered is not necessarily, limb paralysis and feeling Obstacles may not necessarily improve! Therefore, for most benign intraspinal tumors, it is generally recommended to operate as soon as possible after discovery, it is best not to procrastinate for too long.
Polycythemia vera is not common in daily life, and many patients do not know much about the disease. They think that the high red blood cell value is true red. In fact, the characteristic of true red is not only that the red blood cells are too high, and only checking the blood routine can not confirm the true red! Director Shi Shurong’s consultation on WeChat zkxk9999 consultation: physical examination blood routinely found that red blood cells and hemoglobin are high, more than 180 hemoglobin, but my body has no symptoms at all, is it true polycythemia? Medical Answer: General blood routine examination of red blood cells and hemoglobin is abnormally high, and may be suspected of polycythemia, but whether it can be diagnosed as polycythemia vera, simple blood routine examination can not be finalized, in addition to the patient’s physical manifestations, but also with Comprehensive analysis of other relevant inspection results. So, what abnormalities do people with polycythemia have? First of all, patients with signs and symptoms are more common in the middle-aged and elderly people, often found due to headaches, limb numbness and other symptoms. Routine blood tests: mainly red blood cell count, hematocrit, increased red blood cell volume and hemoglobin, hematocrit is 60% male and 55% female patients often have an absolute increase in red blood cell volume. Therefore, these patients can not do red blood cell volume check. About 50% of patients are accompanied by increased white blood cell and platelet counts. Bone marrow elephant: Early patients with red blood cells often exhibit iron-deficient morphological features, low pigment in small cells, and late bone marrow fibrosis, which can have significant large and small unevenness and teardrop-shaped red blood cells. In advanced patients, intermediate and late granulocytes can be seen, and about 23 patients can have increased basophils. Giant blood platelets are often seen in peripheral blood smears. Bone marrow examinations are often hyperproliferative in three lines and may have reticular fibrosis. The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase level is increased in about 70% of patients, the serum VitB12 concentration is increased in 40% of patients, the serum VitB12 binding protein is increased in 70% of patients, most patients have elevated uric acid and histamine levels, and arterial PO is usually more normal People are low. Whole blood viscosity often increases. Serum EPO levels are reduced or normal low values. Patients with normal PT, aPT and normal fibrinogen platelet counts of 1000X109L may have acquired VWD similar to type II VWD), with extended bleeding time, ⅧC: normal VWF, reduced activity of co-factors of ristocetin, and large VWF. The number of aggregates is reduced or missing. Some patients have deficiency of antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C and protein S. The above is about the common symptoms of polycythemia vera, and the examination of blood and bone marrow. Finally, it is emphasized that the late stage of true red disease is very harmful to the health of patients. Therefore, once the diagnosis is confirmed, it must be actively treated without delay! For more erythrocytosis disease knowledge or patient help, you can pay attention to WeChat public number: zkxy120
The human body is like a precision machine, and each organ is like a component. If a component fails, it will involve the whole, which will cause some other problems. The lungs are extremely important organs of the human body. Once lesions appear, the functions of other organs will also decline, and the body will experience some uncomfortable symptoms. Who must check the lungs regularly? 1. See if there are lung-related symptoms such as cough, sputum, hemoptysis, chest tightness, wheezing, chest pain, etc. If you have these symptoms, lung disease is likely, but heart disease or autoimmunity should also be considered Caused by disease. 2. Are there any lifestyle habits that affect lung function, such as long-term smoking, long-term smoking, second-hand smoke, kitchen fume, exposure to dust, toxic and harmful gases at work, etc. If there is such a habit or living environment, there may be a certain degree of lung health problems. 3. Regular lung health check-ups are very important for specific populations. For high-risk lung cancer patients, chest CT needs to be done every year. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to cure lung cancer. According to the “Consensus of Lung Cancer Screening Experts” of the Chinese Medical Association, high-risk groups are defined as: 1. Age 45-75 years old; 2. At least one of the following risk factors should be combined: ① Smoking ≥ 20 packs/year, or smoking index above 400 ( Smoking index = years of smoking × number of cigarettes smoked per day), including those who have smoked but quit for less than 15 years; ②Long-term passive smokers; ③Historical occupational exposure (smoke, toxic chemical gases, asbestos, beryllium, (Uranium, radon, radiation and other contacts); ④ have a history of malignant tumors or a family history of lung cancer; ⑤ have a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), silicosis, tuberculosis or diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. In this era of high incidence of lung cancer, it is necessary to carry out routine lung CT scans every year for people at high risk for lung cancer. There is also a very important examination for lung health examination, that is, lung function measurement. Many people do not have enough knowledge about this test and feel it is irrelevant. In fact, the lung function test is obvious to people who have been smoking, chronic coughing or asthma for a long time. It can determine whether there is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at an early stage, and can distinguish whether cough and asthma are COPD or asthma. People with qualitative lung disease are also useful for judging prognosis and guiding treatment. Many people who smoke for a long time do not see any problems on CT, but lung function tests have abnormalities, and lung function tests can play a role in persuading to quit smoking as soon as possible. Protecting the health of the lungs can be done by the following methods. 1. Quit smoking while staying away from secondhand smoke. 2. Try to reduce the inhalation of indoor and outdoor pollutants, such as indoor formaldehyde, radon, outdoor haze, toxic and harmful gases. 3. Take deep breaths and do breathing exercises. 4. Improve self-immunity, exercise properly, improve immunity, and reduce the chance of lung disease. 5. Regular physical examination, regular physical examination can find some very early diseases.
My heart is not good, why go to the hospital and check it out? Coronary heart disease: Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease is a heart disease caused by atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries that causes stenosis or obstruction of the vascular cavity, resulting in myocardial ischemia, hypoxia or necrosis. It is often called ” Coronary heart disease”. The World Health Organization divides coronary heart disease into five major categories: asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (occult coronary heart disease), angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart failure (ischemic heart disease), and sudden death. Causes of coronary heart disease: often induced by physical activity, emotional agitation, etc., sudden pain in the anterior heart area, or suffocation. The pain starts from the back of the sternum or the precardiac area, and radiates upward to the left shoulder, arm, and even the little finger and ring finger. Resting or taking nitroglycerin can relieve it. The location where the chest pain is released can also involve the neck, jaw, teeth, abdomen, etc. Coronary heart disease is so severe, and many young people often have sudden myocardial infarction because of this disease. However, when there are many patients in the clinic who do ECG, the ECG is normal. It is obvious that patients often have symptoms such as suffocation and chest pain. Why? Doing electrocardiogram is the most commonly used method to diagnose coronary heart disease in clinic. The electrocardiogram test we often say refers to the electrocardiogram test done by a person in a quiet state. It is also called a routine electrocardiogram test. According to statistics, about 50% to 65% of patients with coronary heart disease can be diagnosed by performing routine electrocardiogram examination, while it is difficult to diagnose some patients with coronary heart disease who have not developed angina. This is because the metabolic rate of myocardium is relatively slow in a quiet state. Even if 70% of the coronary luminal stenosis occurs, the blood oxygen supply and demand of the myocardium can still maintain a balance, so they will not find obvious changes in myocardial ischemia during electrocardiogram examination. There are also some people who suspect that they have coronary heart disease because of chest pain, but when they come to the hospital, the symptoms of chest pain have been relieved, so their ECG results are often normal. There are two main reasons for this: one is that the chest pain that these people appear is not caused by myocardial ischemia; the second is that the chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia lasts for a short time, only about 3 to 5 each time Minutes, rarely more than 30 minutes, when the patient rushes to the hospital, the blood hydrogen supply and demand of his heart muscle has already returned to balance. Therefore, people with normal ECG results may not have coronary heart disease. Attachment: ECG manifestation during myocardial infarction: 1. Abnormal Q wave and S-T segment elevation in acute phase. 2. In the subacute phase, only abnormal Q and T waves are inverted (a few days to a few weeks after the infarction). 3. There is only abnormal Q wave in the chronic or obsolete period (3 to 6 months). If the S-T segment elevation continues for more than 6 months, it may be complicated by ventricular aneurysm. If the T wave lasts forever, it is said to be old myocardial infarction with coronary ischemia.
Clinicians generally ask patients to perform blood routine tests. Blood routine is an item that checks blood and can assist doctors to diagnose disease. So by checking the blood routine, can you see whether it is a bacterial infection or a viral infection? In general, the peripheral blood leukocyte count is not high or decreased, and the lymphocyte count or percentage is increased, indicating viral infection; the WBC count and neutrophil count or percentage are increased, indicating bacterial infection. Clinically, peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) counts and neutrophil percentages in blood routines are one of the traditional screening tools to determine whether they are bacterial infections. WBC counts are also often used to assess the risk of serious illness in children with fever One of the standards. Urine routine is one of the three clinical routine tests. As a fecal examination, urine reflects the body’s metabolic status and is an important indicator for the diagnosis of many diseases. Proteinuria or urine sediment can occur early in many kidney diseases There are formed elements. Abnormal urine is often a sign of kidney or urinary tract disease. Urine routine examination content includes urine color, transparency, pH, red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, cast, protein, specific gravity and urine sugar. Therefore, two examinations, blood routine examination and urine routine examination are one of the clinical routine examination items. Routine blood tests include: white blood cell count and classification test, can make an initial diagnosis of infectious diseases, leukemia, rheumatic diseases, aplastic anemia, etc.; red blood cells, hemoglobin and average red blood cell hemoglobin concentration, average red blood cell hemoglobin content, average red blood cell volume check, Judgment can be made on anemia and its type; platelet count and platelet volume, platelet hematocrit, and large platelet ratio can be used to make a preliminary judgment on hemorrhagic diseases. Urine routine tests include: white blood cells, red blood cells, urine protein, urine specific gravity test, you can initially determine whether there is kidney disease, urinary tract infections and so on.
What are the inspection methods for osteoarthritis? This is a problem that everyone is more concerned about. Experts point out that the prerequisite for the treatment of osteoarthritis is correct diagnosis and inspection. So what are the specific inspection methods for osteoarthritis? Let’s take a closer look. Osteoarthritis examination methods: 1. Rheumatoid factor is an autoimmune antibody produced by the body against its own degenerated IgG, and these antibodies also include immunoglobulins such as IgA, IgM, and IgG. At present, the measurement methods used in clinic are all to determine IgG rheumatoid factor, and the IgG and IgA rheumatoid factor present in the serum of some rheumatoid arthritis patients cannot be detected by the current method, so about 30% of rheumatoid joints In patients with inflammation, the rheumatoid factor remains negative. 2. Streptococcal antibodies (anti-“O”) 3. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is also called erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate is due to the increase of large and asymmetric molecules such as fibrinogen and globulin in the plasma, which accelerates the sedimentation of red blood cells. The above-mentioned osteoarthritis inspection method is practically tested and the application effect is relatively good. In professional hospitals, the inspection method of osteoarthritis is relatively routine. Finally, it is recommended that everyone must go to a regular hospital to treat osteoarthritis.
Coronary heart disease is a common and frequently-occurring disease of middle-aged and elderly people. People in this age group should seek medical treatment in a timely manner if they have the following conditions in their daily lives to detect coronary heart disease as soon as possible. (1) When you are tired or stressed, there is dullness in the sternum or the anterior heart area, or contraction-like pain, and it radiates to the left shoulder and upper left arm for 3-5 minutes. (2) Those who experience chest tightness, palpitations, and shortness of breath during physical activity and relieve themselves at rest. (3) Exercise-related headache, toothache, leg pain, etc. (4) Those who have chest pain or palpitations when they are full, cold, or watching thrilling movies. (5) People who feel chest tightness and suffocation when sleep pillow is low at night, need high-pillow lying position to feel comfortable. Sudden sleep, or sudden chest pain, palpitations, difficulty breathing when lying down during the day, those who need to sit up or stand immediately can relieve. (6) . Pain, chest tightness, shortness of breath, or chest pain and discomfort during sex or forced bowel movements. (7) People who feel panic and chest tightness when they hear noise. (8) Repeated pulse irregularities, unexplained tachycardia or bradycardia. In order to detect coronary heart disease as early as possible, people over the age of 40 should regularly perform the following tests: (1) If the test results are abnormal or have other risk factors prone to coronary heart disease, blood cholesterol should be taken once or more every five years assay. (2) Check blood pressure and blood glucose once a year. (3) If you belong to a high-risk group of coronary heart disease, ask your doctor to see if you need to undergo an electrocardiogram. If further examination is required, the doctor will arrange for an exercise test to measure the electrocardiogram when stepping on a stationary bike or stepping on a sports tablet. (4) . Coronary angiography is the most certain method for diagnosing coronary heart disease.
The pathogen causing condyloma acuminatum is human papilloma virus (HPV). This virus has no symptoms at the initial stage of infection and will experience an incubation period of 2 weeks to 8 months, with an average of 3 months. There is no clinical manifestation during the incubation period. After the incubation period, local lesions began to appear. If the infected person develops typical skin lesions, that is, cauliflower-shaped, comb-shaped or papillary-shaped neoplasms, or there are obvious prototypes of genital warts, an experienced dermatologist can confirm the diagnosis with naked eyes. Generally, it will not lead to misdiagnosis. Of course, the accuracy of the naked eye diagnosis depends entirely on the doctor’s clinical experience. When the patient’s local lesions are not typical, the doctor can only confirm the diagnosis based on the naked eye, and further examination is required. Common tests include acetate white test and pathological tissue biopsy. The pathological examination has the highest accuracy and is the gold standard for the diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.
The inspection fee depends on whether you go to a regular hospital for inspection, or the inspection method is different, and the cost is also different. Patients with condyloma acuminatum should be checked and treated as soon as possible, otherwise the more procrastination, the more difficult it will be to treat once the clinical diagnosis and treatment period is missed. The typical symptoms of genital warts are cauliflower, cockscomb, columnar granulation or keloids, which can be recognized by an experienced doctor with the naked eye, but if the symptoms are not obvious or the symptoms have not yet appeared, you need to resort to some medical means Checked, now the method of checking genital warts, the following are the most common, and the accuracy rate is relatively high. 1. Acetic acid white: Wet the gauze with 3%-5% acetic acid solution and apply it to the affected area. Remove it after 5 minutes. If you have genital warts, a white papule shape will appear. If it is not, the white one will appear. Patchy (this test method is still effective for patients who do not have warts, the accuracy rate is 90%). 2. Pathological examination: remove a small piece of tissue from the wart body, but the patient did not get the examination report on the same day. It will take a week. If the result shows hollowed cells, it is condyloma acuminatum (accuracy rate 100%).
1. EEG examination: a new project for the detection of epilepsy patients EEG: In addition to medical records and nervous system examination, EEG examination is considered to be an extremely important examination method so far, and can often assist in accurate positioning and judgment. Because of the onset of epilepsy patients, doctors rarely see it with their own eyes, and their relatives or patients themselves often do not describe clearly. Most patients have the main manifestations of EEG abnormalities when doing EEG. Very few patients or non-infected patients can use experiments to cause the diagnosis rate of yang type to increase greatly. According to investigations, 80% of epilepsy patients often have abnormal EEG, but only 20% of epilepsy patients have intermittent EEG. The EEG can mainly show that everything is normal. It is an atypical epilepsy with difficult diagnosis. The necessity of electrical inspection is more prominent, and sometimes even plays a fundamental role. However, it is not possible to confirm or eliminate epilepsy based on EEG alone. 2. Imaging diagnosis examination Except for the cleared primary epilepsy and epilepsy syndrome, no neurological imaging diagnosis examination should be done. It should be emphasized that the imaging diagnostic test itself cannot confirm the diagnosis of epilepsy, the purpose is to clarify the cause of the disease. Blood night organic chemistry inspection: such as blood sugar level, blood potassium, blood magnesium, etc. The level of blood glucose, potassium and magnesium levels are the key criteria for the onset. On the one hand, the abnormality of such factors will be the key factor that causes epilepsy. On the other hand, it can provide evidence for the diagnosis of some diseases that accompany epilepsy. The key purpose of drug composition measurement depends on the specific guidance of clinical medicine. Including the selection of effective drugs and dosage. 3. The medical record materials The doctor will understand the patient’s medical record materials in detail. Since a detailed medical record is an important part of the diagnosis of epilepsy, he can grasp the patient’s age, frequency, cause of illness, whether there is a birth injury and the time of onset according to the patient’s medical record. Posture, face, voice, etc., are very important for the diagnosis of all-round tonic-clonic. Precisely locate the disease, confirm the type of epilepsy, establish the level of disease and injury, and keep the difficulty of epilepsy to prevent delaying the condition and miss the time for treatment. I wish patients to overcome the confusion of epilepsy as soon as possible.
Varicose veins are extremely harmful to men, and can cause male infertility. Therefore, male friends must pay attention to them. Once bad symptoms occur, they must be checked in the hospital in time. Then, the test of varicocele What are the items? What are the inspection items for varicocele 1. General examination: the patient first takes the standing position during the examination, and the scrotum on the affected side is sagging and sagging. In severe cases, the scrotum and the superficial veins of the inner thigh are dilated, and there are light blue blood vessels Plexus, palpable veins such as earthworm masses can be felt on palpation, and blood vessels are full when standing. The varicose sign disappears or shrinks after lying down. 2. The size and texture of the testis: an important diagnostic basis, the more obvious the varicocele, the smaller the testicle, and the softer the texture of the testis, indicating abnormal seminiferous tubules, which is an early manifestation of testicular insufficiency. 3. Ultrasound examination: Due to the development of Doppler ultrasound technology, especially the technology using Doppler ultrasound stethoscope, the phenomenon of blood reflux in the spermatic cord vein can be judged. 4. Semen examination: The semen of varicocele is characterized by reduced sperm count and decreased sperm motility, and increased immature sperm. Sperm maturation takes 2 and a half months, suggesting that the patient has entered the sperm when the sperm in the testis is not yet mature. Examination of immature sperm can determine abnormal testicular function. Many men are threatened by varicocele in their lives, which also leads to male infertility. Therefore, once this disease occurs, it needs to be treated in time, and to go to a regular hospital, do not go to some irregular Place, otherwise it is difficult to have good curative effect.
The typical condyloma acuminatum is usually diagnosed without laboratory tests. When the patient’s symptoms are not typical, and the site is not typical, especially women, the vaginal opening may have pseudocondyloma similar to condyloma acuminatum, and laboratory tests are required to confirm the diagnosis. Common laboratory tests are as follows: (1) Acetic acid white test cotton swab dipped in 3-5% medical acetic acid solution is applied to the skin lesion and the surrounding skin mucosa, if the skin lesion becomes White, and normal skin around does not turn white, it is judged as condyloma acuminatum. Due to the high sensitivity of the acetate white test, if it is condyloma acuminatum, it will definitely turn white. However, the whitening is not necessarily condyloma acuminatum. In special cases, false positives will occur. (2) Histopathological changes are mainly keratinization, hypertrophic spine, and papilloma-like hyperplasia. The cells in the upper part of the granular layer and spinous layer have obvious vacuoles. The basal cells of spinous cells have a considerable number of nuclear divisions, which seem to be cancerous, but the cells divide regularly, and the boundary between hyperplastic epithelium and dermis is clear. (3) Immunohistological examination commonly used peroxidase anti-peroxidase method (that is, PAP), showing the viral protein in genital warts, to prove the presence of viral antigens in wart damage. When HPV protein is positive, a pale red weak positive reaction may appear in the superficial epithelial cells of condyloma acuminatum. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.