For all hospitalized patients, blood tests must be performed. The blood test items will definitely include renal function. The most important indicator of renal function is blood creatinine. For those suspected of having kidney problems, or those who are taking medication for a long time and worrying about kidney damage, creatinine must also be checked to confirm the diagnosis. Strictly speaking, creatinine includes blood creatinine and urine creatinine, but blood creatinine is more meaningful for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of disease, so we generally say that creatinine is blood creatinine. Some people say that if creatinine is high, it must mean that there is a problem with the kidneys, which is not necessarily! 1. What is creatinine? Creatinine is a product of muscle metabolism in the human body, which is mainly excreted by the glomerular filtration. In general, the amount of creatinine produced is constant, and the level of blood creatinine mainly depends on how much creatinine is excreted by the kidneys. The compensatory function of the kidney is very powerful. If both kidneys are normal, as long as one kidney functions, blood creatinine can be maintained at normal levels. That is to say, kidney function must be reduced to half the normal level before it will cause an increase in blood creatinine. Therefore, blood creatinine does not fully reflect the causes of early and mild renal decline. Blood creatinine comes from exogenous and endogenous sources. Exogenous creatinine is the product of meat food after metabolism in the body; endogenous creatinine is the product of muscle tissue metabolism in the body. 2. Normal levels of creatinine Serum creatinine in normal people Male 54-106μmol/L Female 44-97μmol/L Pediatric 24.9-69.7μmol/L When the blood creatinine exceeds 106μmol/L means the kidney may be damaged and renal insufficiency has occurred 1. Renal failure. 3. Causes of increased creatinine 1. Kidney disease. The blood creatinine value is higher than the normal value. In most cases, the kidney is damaged. Because the human body has two kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate drops to 1/3 of the normal person. The blood creatinine Only then rose significantly. So even if the creatinine is normal, it does not mean that there is no problem with the kidneys. The human kidney has strong metabolic capacity. When the kidney damage is relatively light, the general person does not feel uncomfortable, so many people have real symptoms of renal insufficiency, such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. At that time, in fact, the kidney has been seriously damaged, and at this time, blood creatinine also began to rise significantly. In people with renal insufficiency, creatinine will increase in a short period of time when infected; patients with hypertension will have high creatinine; patients with kidney disease will have increased creatinine due to relapse. When acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, etc., reduce glomerular filtration function, blood creatinine may increase. 2. Other causes are not nephropathy and renal insufficiency. They are the only cause of increased creatinine. In some cases in life, they also cause transient creatinine elevation. For example, people who have long-term strength training and have excessive muscle volume may have serum creatinine. The value will also be high; dehydration in the body, such as fever, sweating, reduced drinking water, polyuria leads to blood concentration, decreased renal blood flow, increased creatinine; fatigue, poor rest, can also cause creatinine rise high. j People with poor basic kidney function who take drugs that damage the kidneys, or use contrast agents for angiography, may have elevated creatinine, or even irreversible. Fourth, the possible symptoms of creatinine increase creatinine and symptoms must occur, especially mild chronic creatinine increase, no symptoms at the initial stage. Edema is one of the most common symptoms of high creatinine, but particularly heavy edema is not necessarily high creatinine, especially light edema is not necessarily high creatinine. Edema often starts with the eyelids, and it can spread to the whole body and even pleural effusion and ascites. In addition to edema, elevated creatinine may also present with high blood pressure, frequent urination, low back pain, polyuria, oliguria or anuria, excessive urine foam, and positive urine protein. As creatinine rises further, renal function deteriorates further, and there may be depression, itching of the skin, muscle twitching, heart failure, mental abnormalities, and life-threatening. Fifth, how to treat after creatinine rises and pay attention to life after creatinine rises, first find the reason to know how to treat, if it is irreversible creatinine rise, with the advent of anuria, eventually only dialysis treatment. When creatinine rises, you need to pay attention to the diet, low-salt diet, control protein intake, choose high-quality high-quality protein diet. Eat more foods rich in vitamins. In short, creatinine is one of the most important indicators of kidney function. Generally speaking, when creatinine is increased, in most cases, the kidney has already suffered damage.
The scorching sun is hot, and the scorching heat is hard to stop. Summer feels like this. Don’t say that you are sick. It is not easy for normal people to comfortably spend the summer. For patients suffering from nephrotic syndrome (renal syndrome), we should pay more attention to all aspects of life. Patients with kidney syndrome in the hot summer have such illness in the “kidney”, and sleep is better. The main symptoms of most patients with kidney syndrome are puffiness and fatigue, so adequate sleep and rest are necessary. Patients should adapt to the changing laws of the weather and develop good living habits. It is best to have a 30 to 40-minute nap every day. A lunch break is very beneficial for physical recovery. If conditions permit, walk in the evening. Rest early in the evening to reduce physical exertion. Nowadays, air conditioners have entered thousands of households, making summer seem to be much better than in the past, but because of the disease in the “kidney”, you must be careful when using the air conditioner. The temperature should be adjusted to 5-6 degrees Celsius lower than the outdoor temperature. Pay attention to avoiding cold caused by cold and overheating, leading to aggravation or relapse. Patients with kidney syndrome in the hot summer have had watermelon in this way. There are many varieties of vegetables and fruits in summer, which attracts appetite, especially cold drinks-“no pain, not enough to be addictive.” Of course, for patients without edema, the water intake can be appropriately relaxed, but patients with obvious edema must control the water intake. For example, eating watermelon can diuretic and reduce swelling, heat and heat, but for patients with kidney syndrome who need to limit water intake, eating more watermelon will cause water retention in the body, aggravate the condition, and induce cardiovascular complications. In addition, excessive urine excretion will increase the loss of protein and other nutrients in the body. Patients with kidney syndrome can try the following diet therapy: ① Black fish winter melon soup: one black fish, eviscerated, without salt, and served with winter melon soup. ② Amomum steamed crucian carp: one crucian carp, gutted, 6 grams of amomum, 3 grams of licorice, into the belly of the fish, stitched with thread, and taken after stewing. ③ Astragalus stewed hen: one hen, 120 grams of astragalus, stewed to eat meat. In the hot summer, patients with kidney syndrome have been swimming like this, and taking as little exercise as possible can help to restore physical fitness and relieve the condition. However, it is necessary to pay attention to mastering the amount of exercise, as long as there is no feeling of fatigue. Although swimming is a good summer sport, but because swimming requires a lot of physical strength and the sanitation of the swimming site is not guaranteed, it is recommended that patients with kidney syndrome do not go swimming. Patients with serious illnesses should minimize outdoor activities, especially those with obvious puffiness, should stay in bed as much as possible. To a certain extent, bed rest not only helps diuresis, but also reduces dangerous complications such as heart failure and hypertensive encephalopathy, and prevents the deterioration of renal function. However, it should be noted that in bed in summer for a long time, there is more sweating, and patients with kidney syndrome are in a hypercoagulable state. The probability of venous thrombosis is very high. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to maintaining proper bed and bedside activities while staying in bed. In addition, due to the loss of a large number of proteins in the kidney, patients with kidney syndrome are relatively weak and vulnerable to infection. Try not to go to public places to avoid infection of respiratory diseases. Avoid sun exposure to prevent skin inflammation, especially in patients with obvious puffiness. The skin is thin and delicate due to puffiness, so you should pay more attention to it. As long as the kidney patients pay attention to the above points and take appropriate measures, it is safe to spend the summer.
The initial symptoms of kidney disease are often hidden and difficult to find. This requires us to do regular physical examinations, especially urine tests. If the following 4 signs appear, it is likely that kidney function has been damaged. Signs of impaired renal function. Early detection of 4 signals 1. When the eyelid and lower extremity edema and renal insufficiency, the metabolic capacity for sodium is reduced, which easily leads to the retention of water and sodium metabolism. Excess water accumulates in the subcutaneous tissues, and symptoms such as eyelid edema in the morning and edema of the lower limbs after fatigue can appear. Press and hold the skin of the ankle with your hand. If you press one pit and the elasticity is very poor, it is usually edema. 2. Proteinuria and hematuria When the kidney is damaged, the ability to recover protein is reduced, which makes protein easily appear in urine. People who already have kidney disease also need to regularly test urine protein levels to assess kidney function. If inflammation, stones, tumors or blood vessels rupture in the kidneys, red blood cells will be excreted in the urine to form hematuria. Some foods or medicines may also cause urine to turn red, which is pseudo-hematuria, so it cannot be judged by urine color alone, and a urine test is required. Urine test is positive, the urine contains a lot of non-dissipating foam, which is proteinuria. If the number of red blood cells in the urine exceeds the standard, it is hematuria. 3. Increased creatinine Creatinine is a product of muscle metabolism, which is mainly filtered through the glomeruli and excreted from the body. When the muscle is not consumed vigorously, the amount of creatinine produced by the human body is relatively constant. Urine creatinine is 7-18 mmol/d for men and 5.3-16 mmol/d for women; blood creatinine for men is 53-106 μmol/L for men and 44-97 μmol/L for women. Increased blood creatinine and urinary creatinine for unknown reasons may indicate impaired renal function. 4. Fatigue, weak waist and knees From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine, the kidneys contain the body’s yang and energy. Chronic kidney disease can easily make the kidneys weak, causing fatigue, weakness in the waist and legs, frequent nocturia, and cold limbs. It is also easy to affect the spleen and lungs, leading to phlegm and stasis, at the same time causing chest tightness, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, indigestion and so on.
Many people will ask, is early morning dizziness a sign of cervical spondylosis? Early morning is the beginning of a beautiful day, and also the time when various disease signals are revealed. At this time, affected by the secretion of the pituitary gland, the body’s metabolism is at a relatively low level, the blood flow is slow, the blood is concentrated, and the muscles are relatively relaxed, so many diseases are more likely to be exposed. At this time, we must pay attention to distinguish various abnormal symptoms, capture disease information from it, and promptly warn and prevent possible diseases. First, dizziness or headache in the morning After good quality sleep, you should feel clear and refreshed when you wake up in the morning. If you wake up in the morning and are not clear-headed, but rather dizzy, or have dizziness symptoms, it may indicate that you may have diseases such as cervical bone hyperplasia and increased blood lipids. It is recommended to go to the hospital as soon as possible to perform various blood indicators such as head and neck CT examination or blood lipid detection. 2. Early wake up and insomnia At three or four in the morning, when someone else is sleeping soundly, you wake up early and become depressed and hard to fall asleep again. If this happens frequently, it means that you may have severe neurasthenia and need to make adjustments in your living habits. Including systematic fitness activities, travel and convalescence, adjusting too tight and tight learning and working methods, and forming the habit of taking a nap. Some patients with depression and mental and psychological disorders will also suffer from early waking up and insomnia. It is recommended to take anti-anxiety and anti-depressive drugs in time under the guidance of a doctor to improve anxiety and depression. At the same time, it can also relax muscles and eliminate some physical discomfort. sense. 3. Early morning edema Puffiness is the local or whole body swelling caused by the accumulation of water in the extracellular fluid of the body, which is related to the lesions of many organs in the body. Normal people drink plenty of water before going to bed or eat too much salt at night, it will cause facial edema, pay attention to diet, it will usually improve. However, it is important to pay attention to edema in other parts. For example, loose parts such as eyelids and swollen parts of the body represent problems with kidney and heart function. If the edema from the face expands to the whole body, there is a high possibility of kidney disease. You should go to the hospital as soon as possible. To determine the cause. Fourth, joint stiffness The reason for morning stiffness is due to infiltration or congestion and edema of the tissues around the affected joints when sleep or activity is reduced, causing tension in the muscle tissues around the joints, which makes the joints swollen or stiff and uncomfortable. As the muscles contract, the edema fluid is absorbed by the lymphatic vessels and small veins, and the morning stiffness is relieved. Diseases that may cause morning stiffness include: ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbar muscle strain, rheumatic polymyalgia, soft tissue injury, spinal stenosis, etc. In addition, some allergic conditions, such as erythema multiforme, dermatomyositis, lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, etc., will also appear obvious morning stiffness. Therefore, after the symptoms of morning stiffness, you should go to the hospital in time to find out the cause and treat it in time. Fifth, early morning hunger Some people feel unbearable hunger, panic and discomfort after waking up at 4 to 5 in the morning, accompanied by fatigue and weakness, and the symptoms have eased after eating some food. This condition may be suffering from diabetes. Insufficient insulin secretion can cause a feeling of hunger or hypoglycemia. When more carbohydrates are eaten, the symptoms of hypoglycemia are more likely to occur before the next meal. Therefore, in order to understand the cause of hunger in the early morning, it is recommended to monitor changes in blood glucose at any time.
Many patients with nephritis often blindly forbid eating salt and make the condition worse, because they think that nephritis without salt will be better and faster. This is a misunderstanding. To make this clear, we must first understand that table salt is a necessity for our body’s physiological functions. Without table salt (mainly sodium chloride), not only will we feel that the diet is tasteless, but it will also seriously affect the entire body. For a long period of salt, hyponatremia can occur, showing signs of fatigue, lack of energy, and laziness. If you have kidney disease, it is very important to properly control the intake of salt, which is beneficial to treatment and health. The sodium ions in the human body mainly exist in the extracellular fluid, which is the main component to maintain the osmotic pressure of the extracellular liquid crystal. This is very important for the liquid balance inside and outside the cell, and inside and outside the body. Generally speaking, when the content of sodium ions in the body fluid increases, more water can be retained, and at the same time, the sodium excretion and drainage will be increased through physiological effects, thereby maintaining the balance of sodium in the body. Patients with kidney disease generally have no problems with low-salt diets or ordinary diets. When clinical edema and hypertension occur, salt should be restricted, because when the kidneys are diseased, the kidneys’ sodium regulation function is affected, and sodium excretion function is impaired. Increased blood sodium and water retention often show signs of edema and high blood pressure. Therefore, according to the specific circumstances, patients with kidney disease are divided into: (1) general diet. For example, patients with kidney disease have never had edema, hypertension, or disappeared after treatment. If you don’t repeat it, you don’t have to strictly limit the salt, but the amount of salt should not be too much, because excessive sodium intake is not in line with physiological requirements, it is an important factor leading to high blood pressure, not to mention patients with kidney disease, diet It is better to eat light and eat more vegetables and fruits. (2) Low-salt diet. It is suitable for patients with mild edema and hypertension and edema and hypertension just subsided. In the recovery period of acute nephritis, chronic nephritis and nephrotic syndrome, people with chronic renal failure without edema and high blood pressure can use low-salt diet. Low-salt diets require a daily intake of 3 to 6 grams of sodium. Patients can also consume low sodium salts. But also can’t eat pickles, curd sauce, pickles, salted duck eggs, etc. (3) No salt diet. When patients with kidney disease have obvious edema or elevated blood pressure, salt should be banned, even salty foods (salted dumplings, salty biscuits, etc.), baking soda, soy sauce, etc. are among the taboos. This situation is seen in the early stage of acute nephritis, the acute onset of chronic nephritis, primary nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure accompanied by moderate to severe hypertension and edema. Salt-free diets often affect appetite, and can be seasoned with unsalted soy sauce or sugar, vinegar, ginger, garlic, etc. to increase appetite. The length of the salt ban period should be determined according to the specific situation, mainly to see the two major symptoms of edema and hypertension, if these two symptoms are not obvious or basically disappeared, you can change to a low-salt diet, can not strictly ban salt for a long time.
Nowadays, we are getting more and more stressed in our lives. People around us, including ourselves, will have more or less physical diseases. We all know that the harm caused by disease is great and very painful, so we must cure it in time and understand prevention and understanding in front of the disease. In the budding stage of kidney failure, people will have 5 uncomfortable, don’t bear to pass it and kidney failure is also a common disease of renal dysfunction, mainly divided into acute and chronic situations. Acute kidney failure has a rapid onset, which can suddenly cause the kidneys to lose function, while chronic kidney failure is a series of diseases that result in a decline in kidney function during long-term kidney failure. Therefore, for this disease, it is best to understand its early symptoms, which is very helpful to find the disease. 1. Drowsiness and fatigue This is the earliest manifestation of kidney failure, but it is also often the most easily overlooked. Due to the continuous accumulation of waste and toxins in the body, patients will feel general discomfort, mainly manifested as drowsiness, fatigue, backache and so on. However, most people think that this phenomenon of general fatigue is only the fatigue brought about in daily life or work, and it can be better with a little rest the next day, so it is most easily overlooked. 2. Anemia due to weakened kidney function, resulting in a decrease in erythropoietin, which will cause anemia. Anemia is easy to cause weak kidneys, which makes patients often feel cold and tired, and their faces are yellow. The development of this malnutrition is also very slow, so it is not easy to be discovered by people in a short time. Renal failure has reached a certain point, and the kidney cannot secrete erythropoietin, so it is also called renal anemia. 3. Edema In general, the phenomenon of edema is relatively easy to be found in the symptoms of renal failure. The occurrence of edema is mostly due to the inability of the kidneys to remove too much water from the body, resulting in increased tissue fluid and accumulation in the interstitial spaces of the body. Therefore, it is usually edema on the eyelid or ankle, but if it is serious, it will become persistent or systemic puffiness, and the depressed area cannot be recovered immediately after pressing. 4. Increased blood pressure Patients with renal failure will have different degrees of hypertension in the early stage. This is because the stage of renal failure has severely damaged glomeruli and continues to be in a state of severe ischemia and hypoxia. Therefore, if the blood pressure of blood vessels in the body is not effectively relieved, there will be a persistent increase in blood pressure. 5. Patients with poor appetite and early renal failure often show loss of appetite. This is due to the retention of metabolic waste and metabolic acidosis in the human body, which can cause intestinal dysfunction, reduce gastrointestinal motility, and may cause nausea and vomiting. Symptoms such as decreased appetite. I often have a bad appetite, but most people still disagree and will not go to the doctor until it is serious.
Many people think that nephritis is terrible and worry that kidney failure will soon occur. But in fact, as long as nephritis is detected and treated early, the prognosis is still good. When you have nephritis, your body will have obvious symptoms. When you find that you have these symptoms, you should go to the hospital for a diagnosis in time to grasp the best time for treatment. 1. Renal insufficiency and edema generally cause the onset of nephritis relatively slowly. When the disease progresses to a certain degree, it will cause the patient’s renal function to decline, electrolyte disturbance and anemia. In addition, patients with chronic nephritis will be accompanied by proteinuria, edema and hypertension. Some patients with chronic nephritis will be accompanied by severe hypertension or nephrotic syndrome. 2, oliguria When suffering from nephritis, patients will have edema or oliguria, urine color will deepen, the daily urine volume will not reach 400 ml, and some severe patients will have hematuria visible to the naked eye. Acute kidney failure can cause nausea, general weakness, and loss of appetite. In addition, most patients have foam in their urine. The more foam, the more protein is lost. 3. Edema caused by edema nephritis of the body will generally appear on the eyelids, scrotum, and face, and then slowly develop to edema of the lower limbs. In severe cases, edema will occur throughout the body. When a streptococcal infection such as flu, sinusitis, or pharyngitis is cured for 3 weeks, go for a routine urine test, so that early symptoms of nephritis can be detected in time. 1. Anti-infection and edema treatment. Acute nephritis is treated by anti-infection when the disease is infected. If there is no focus of infection, there is no need to fight infection. Mild edema nephritis does not require treatment and can disappear after rest and salt restriction. If there is obvious edema, you need to choose diuretic treatment under the guidance of a doctor. 2. Rest in bed and do dietary conditioning. Patients with acute nephritis should rest more in bed, which can help the edema subside. After the edema or blood pressure is relieved, you can take 30 minutes a day to do gentle exercises, such as walking or playing Tai Chi, and avoid strenuous exercise. To determine the water intake based on the patient’s degree of hypertension, urine output, edema. Patients with severe hypertension and edema should take a low or no salt diet. The diet should be high in sugar and low in protein, and continued to start with diuresis. After the symptoms are relieved, the normal diet can be resumed. 3. Treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Nephritis associated with hypertension requires routine treatment of hypertension. Patients with heart failure nephritis in the early stage of high blood volume problems, in the treatment to remove water and sodium retention, this can reduce blood volume. As long as glomerular coagulation is platelet aggregation and cellulose deposition, anticoagulation therapy should be used to relieve nephritis. Warm reminder: Once nephritis is detected, go to the hospital for corresponding examination and treatment to avoid delays and to limit the intake of water and salts.
Someone asked me online today: Duration of illness: 2-3 months, Symptom description: Get up behind the right knee after squatting, hospital examination: Bone marrow edema, cartilage injury under the articular surface of the right distal femur. Right knee joint cavity And a small amount of fluid in the upper patella. This patient’s medical history is very accurate and describes the characteristics of this disease, which is the pain behind the knee knee (patella) standing upright. The film is also very clear (see the picture), so the diagnosis is relatively clear, and now the patellofemoral joint is worn. If there is no bone marrow edema, it is the pain behind the right knee that gets up after squatting. That is patellar softening, which is reversible. Now there is bone marrow edema, which means it is a bit serious. The cartilage is worn out, so the bleeding in the bone is bone marrow edema. Because of his youth, there is still a reversible opportunity. If you don’t pay attention, then continue to wear, patella arthritis, it is irreversible. This is the different stages of patellofemoral articular cartilage wear. It’s still early and mid-term. Give up exercise and reduce activity within three months of treatment. For at least one month, the knee joint should be straightened as much as possible without flexion, and knee flexion actions such as up and down stairs, squatting and standing up should not be done. Take some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Celebrex and nutritive cartilage drugs such as glucosamine capsules. Review the magnetic resonance in about a month and a half. If the bone marrow edema is absorbed, it is good. In the future, do less exercise to bend your knees. If you have similar symptoms, do it like this in time. If this does not recover, there is arthroscopic surgery for microfracture treatment, or higher-end stem cell treatment. Stem cell treatment of cartilage injury is a feature of our department. It is one of the few legal clinical experimental units in China. It has made breakthrough progress in the field of cartilage injury repair.  .
Pre-eclampsia is caused by the development of hypertension accompanied by proteinuria or edema after 20 weeks of pregnancy and within one week of delivery. Formerly known as toxemia of pregnancy, it is a more complex disease that affects 5% to 8% of pregnant women. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that due to the weakness of the pregnant woman’s visceral qi, coupled with pregnancy, resulting in insufficient essence and blood, liver yang is prosperous, and hyperactivity is affected. If the expectant mother has proteinuria, obvious concave edema of the feet and calves, and does not resolve after pregnancy, symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension and headache, dizziness, vomiting, upper abdominal discomfort, visual impairment or blood pressure systolic blood pressure of 160 mm mercury Above the column (21.3 kPa), it means that convulsions may occur at any time. At this time, you must be vigilant and enter the hospital as soon as possible to prevent eclampsia. Mild preeclampsia should consume the normal amount of salt and increase water intake. Patients should be mainly bedridden and lying on the left side to increase dietary fiber intake to increase renal output and reduce intravascular dehydration and blood concentration. The most important treatment for severe eclampsia is bed rest, controlling blood pressure and preventing cramps, and can be induced if necessary. Because the cause is unknown, the treatment before delivery is mainly to relieve symptoms, and the main drug is magnesium sulfate. Morphine is contraindicated in women in labor (because it can be excreted through the breast and distributed to the placenta, which can inhibit the breathing of newborns and infants), 5% sugar saline is available, and it is best to use a balanced solution (Lactated Ringer’s Injection). The traditional Chinese medicine treatment method is: people with kidney yin deficiency and liver vigour are common, those with dizziness, palpitation, night sleep and dreams, and increased blood pressure, liver and kidney should be nourished, liver and kidney yang, calm liver and yang, use hook rat soup (” “Guidelines for the treatment of syndromes”: Eucommia, Achyranthes bidentata, Chrysanthemum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Mulberry parasite, Paeonia lactiflora, Gastrodia, Uncaria, Cicada retreat). If yin damage and yang, spleen and kidney yang deficiency and edema occur, spleen and dampness should be used to reduce swelling Use Fuling Daoshui Decoction. If the liver is stagnation and heat, and the mouth is bitter and dry and dizzy, it is advisable to clear the heat and calm the liver and Qianyang.
There are three kinds of swollen feet in pregnant women. One is because after pregnancy, the blood volume of pregnant women will continue to increase with the increase of gestational week. The peak will be at 32 to 34 weeks of pregnancy, about 35% more than before pregnancy, and an average increase of 1500 ml. As the volume of circulating blood increases, the amount of blood expelled by the heart increases. Second, the number of capillary beds in the whole body has increased, and the diameter of the tube has also increased. As a result, more liquid will “pass through” the capillary wall and enter the tissue gap. Third, a large amount of blood flows from the uterus of the fetus to the inferior vena cava after pregnancy, resulting in an increase in inferior vena cava pressure. In addition, after 20 weeks of pregnancy, the enlarged uterus will oppress the pelvic vein and the inferior vena cava, which will hinder the return of venous blood, so the venous pressure of the lower extremities will further increase. Pregnant women have swollen feet. What is the effect of edema during pregnancy on the fetus? The edema during pregnancy will affect the fetus more or less, especially severe edema, which can easily cause the state of hypoxia in the fetus. Appearance. In the development of the fetus, if the edema is more serious, and if it cannot be improved in time, it may easily lead to fetal dysplasia, even slow growth, or even cause fetal edema. What to eat for swelling during pregnancy 1. Eat high-protein, low-salt diet should eat high-quality protein every day, such as poultry, livestock, meat, fish, seafood, shellfish, eggs, milk and dairy products, soy products (such as Soy milk, tofu, dried tofu, vegetarian chicken, bean paste, dried silk) etc. These foods are prepared with fresh ingredients, such as onions, tomatoes, garlic, fennel, celery, coriander, mushrooms, wolfberry, red dates, black dates, lemons, vinegar, bay leaves, etc., to reduce the amount of salt used. 2. Eat enough vegetables and fruits Vegetables and fruits contain various vitamins and trace elements necessary for the human body. They can improve the body’s resistance, strengthen the metabolism, and have the effects of detoxification and diuresis. Expectant mothers should not forget to eat vegetables and fruits every day. 3. Vitamin B1 is taken from food or supplemented with vitamin B. Foods rich in vitamin B1 include yeast, liver, whole grains (such as brown rice), soybeans, pods, wheat germ, and potatoes. high. But in terms of dietary intake, plant-based sources are the main way we usually take vitamin B1. Daily care for edema during pregnancy 1. Expectant mothers who have edema during pregnancy should ensure adequate rest and sleep time, avoid excessive tension and fatigue, avoid standing or walking for a long time, mild swelling is best relieved by a short daytime rest, and appropriate elevation Lower limbs. It is recommended to take the left lateral position during rest, which can effectively improve the blood supply to the placenta and reduce puffiness. You can raise the foot pad when resting, or put a low stool under your feet while sitting. Local massage can also help reduce swelling. 2. Exercise Expectant mothers still insist on doing some simple exercises, such as walking. Walking can regulate the calf muscles and change the phenomenon of vein compression. You can also do some health exercises for pregnant women. 4. Wearing wearing tight clothes will cause your blood circulation to be poor, which will cause the body to swell. Therefore, expectant mothers should avoid wearing too tight clothes during pregnancy. When choosing shoes, try to wear shoes that make your swollen feet comfortable. Do not wear socks with elastic bands that can press on your ankles and calves. 5、Massage Massage has a good effect on promoting blood circulation, and can also effectively prevent edema. The technique when doing a massage is to gradually move upwards from the feet to the calves, thereby helping the blood return to the heart. If you do it before bed, you can relieve leg aches and help sleep. Massage in the bath is also a good choice.
. I believe that the mood of a lot of friends who lose weight is determined by the weight scale in the morning.  . . . If the number is going down, the day will be spring and the sun will be bright; if the number There is an upward trend, even if it has only increased a little bit, that day is estimated to be covered with clouds, no strangers!  . . . Although it is quite normal to lose weight and increase during weight loss, what if the weight soars overnight?  . It is estimated that the weight loss partner will collapse!  . Don’t believe it, this is what will happen.  . But don’t be afraid. At this time, the growth is not necessarily real fat, or it may be just because of edema.  . . . This time, the dog will come to help those who seem to be obese, but in fact edema!  . Next you will see: 1 How to judge if you have edema 2 What types of edema 3 How to eliminate edema Press your limbs.  . If you press a pit once and it doesn’t disappear for a long time, it is edema.  . Or early in the morning with two eyes swollen into walnuts, and did not cry the night before, that is undoubtedly edema!  . On the contrary, these are not there, so don’t escape, you are really fat!  . . . Of course, in addition to those who already have edema, there are also those who have these habits in life and it is easy to cause edema. Take a look at several items you own:  . . . Pay attention to whether you are entangled in edema!  . . . . First we have to understand why there is edema!  . The human body contains about 70% water to maintain the normal functioning of the body.  . Generally speaking, the body can maintain a healthy state, all due to the tacit understanding of various tissues and organs in the body, to absorb nutrients and expel waste.  . Among them, the three brothers of blood vessels in the body are responsible for transporting nutrients and discharging waste: arteries, veins and capillaries.  . When the blood circulation is good, the water in the body will continue to flow with the blood vessels, so that the body maintains a water balance;  . When the blood circulation is not good, the body will store excess water, which is retained in the cells, The body will appear swollen.  . . . The causes of edema can be caused by disease factors and bad habits in life.  . There are two different types of edema.  . [Physiological Edema]  . Edema caused by bad living habits or physiological reasons is physiological edema.  . The common factors that cause physiological edema are the following:  .1 Long-term standing and sitting for a long time . Standing, walking, squatting or sitting for a long time will cause edema due to obstruction of blood return to the lower limbs and accumulation, and exercise for a period of time. After that, the edema can be relieved by itself until it disappears.  . . .2 Heavier dietary taste Under normal circumstances, the kidneys function well and can keep the body in a stable state of sodium concentration balance. When more sodium is consumed, more rows will be produced. row.  . And when the daily diet has a heavier taste and more sodium is taken into the body, the kidneys have no time to expel it, the body will absorb a lot of water to maintain the osmotic pressure, and eventually it will cause edema.  . . . . Especially when falling asleep, the body’s metabolism slows down.  . If you eat heavy-mouth high-sodium foods before going to sleep, such as barbecue, supper, etc., the kidneys can not expel more sodium intake in time, then the next day people will definitely “swell”!  .3 Malnutrition . Some friends feel that their diet is also light, and they exercise properly. Why do they still have edema?  . This may be related to malnutrition.  . now this
The temperature in spring often changes from warm to cold, suddenly cold and hot, and the air pressure changes greatly. Patients with coronary heart disease, high heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, and cardiomyopathy are very prone to colds, which aggravates the original heart disease and even causes heart failure. Heart failure is the end stage of various cardiovascular diseases and is called “the stumbling block of life”. Most patients will have symptoms such as palpitation, difficulty breathing, unable to lie down at night, lower extremity edema, fatigue, etc., which seriously affects the quality of life of patients, and some people cannot even take care of themselves, causing great pain to patients, so patients with heart disease In the spring, you should pay attention to the various signs of heart failure and beware of heart failure. Patients should be alert to the possibility of heart failure when one of the following conditions occurs: after a little activity or work, they will feel panic, chest tightness, and shortness of breath; the urine volume decreases, and the body weight increases significantly in a short time; there is no coughing when lying or sitting, lying Dry cough immediately after flatness; sudden awakening at night or accompanied by shortness of breath, shortness of breath, symptoms quickly disappeared after sitting up or waking up; unable to lie down completely, feel chest tightness and shortness of breath after lying down, and need to raise the pillow or take half It is comfortable to lie down; the neck blood vessels are obviously full or distended, and the lower limbs or the whole body appear edema. These are all signs of heart failure. Once found, they should go to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible. Although heart failure is the most serious stage of heart disease, don’t be too afraid after being diagnosed. With the continuous emergence of new heart failure treatments and drugs, the quality of life of heart failure patients has improved significantly and the mortality rate has also decreased significantly. . Qi Li Qiang Xin Capsule, the first modern Chinese traditional medicine to treat heart failure by Tongluo method, not only has the effect of strengthening heart, diuretic and vasodilator, but also can effectively eliminate the palpitation, dyspnea and heart failure of patients with heart failure. Symptoms such as edema and fatigue in the lower extremities, and it can also reduce the heart with increased heart failure, which is to improve the ventricular remodeling in modern medicine. At the same time, it can also inhibit the activation of the neuroendocrine system, which can calm down the excessively beating heart and prevent it. Its function is further exhausted and it is an effective drug for the treatment of heart failure.
Sister Guo called and said her father had swollen legs and asked what medicine to take? I said: There are many reasons for leg swelling, you have to find the cause of leg swelling before you know what medicine to take? Sister Guo: Normally I am in good health. I am 85 years old. Before going downstairs, I had nothing to do. Recently, I did not go out because of the epidemic. Washing his feet yesterday found his legs swollen and his feet swollen. I heard from Sister Guo that the old man didn’t know anything about the illness. I then asked: Are there red fever and swelling in the feet and legs? Sister Guo: No, just press a pit. I asked again: do you hold your breath? Can you lie down and sleep at night? Sister Guo: It’s okay to sleep and eat. I then asked: Are the eyelids and face swollen? Sister Guo: Not swollen. I then asked: Is early swelling the same as swelling at night? Sister Guo: I don’t get swollen early, but I get swollen in the afternoon, the worst at night. I said: Sister Guo, don’t think I’m verbose. It’s better to look at the doctor in person before asking questions clearly. This should be checked in detail on the phone, otherwise it will be impossible to judge accurately. According to the above dialogue, I basically ruled out leg swelling caused by heart failure, ruled out leg swelling caused by thrombosis of the lower extremities, and ruled out leg swelling caused by kidney failure. Finally, I suggest to Guo Guo: During daytime activities, raise your feet as much as possible while sitting, and don’t hang down; observe for a few days, and if it improves, it means that there is little activity and prolonged sagging of the lower limbs during the day. If you still don’t see well, you can only go to the hospital for further investigation. After 4 days, Sister Guo called and said that the old man’s legs were swollen and the feet were not swollen. He said that the old man had always praised me and asked me to eat. So can the elderly have swollen legs and swollen feet? Of course not. You must find the reason before you know what to do. 1. Swollen legs and swollen feet should first rule out the elderly with heart failure, heart function will decline, especially in the elderly who usually have a clear heart disease, swollen legs must first think of heart failure. The most common manifestation of right heart failure is edema of the lower extremities, first from the foot surface examination, gradually swollen to the lower leg, if it continues to develop, it will also swell to the pudenda, or even the abdomen. In addition to edema of the feet and legs, it is also accompanied by poor appetite, bloating and so on. But most right heart failure will also be accompanied by left heart failure. Symptoms of left heart failure include: chest tightness, suffocation, difficulty breathing, especially inactivity. Chest tightness and breathlessness will increase after the activity. In severe cases, you cannot lie flat and sleep. When you lie down, you will have trouble breathing and you will sit up passively. So I asked Mr. Guo if he lay uneven at night, or suffocated when he fell asleep, etc. is to preclude heart failure. If the above performance, go to the cardiology department of the hospital as soon as possible, a heart color Doppler ultrasound can be diagnosed; if it is caused by heart failure leg swelling and foot swelling, first use diuretics to reduce swelling through diuresis. However, the treatment of heart failure is more complicated, and it is necessary to treat the primary disease and the use of drugs such as lolli, plypril, spironolactone, etc. to prevent the increase of heart failure. Second, swollen feet and swollen legs also have to think that kidney failure kidneys produce urine. If the kidneys are insufficiency, the urine produced will decrease, and excess water will remain in the body. If there is too much water in the body, it will swell. But renal insufficiency, or renal failure, most eyelid and facial edema, severe body edema or pleural effusion, ascites. So I asked Mr. Guo from the beginning if there were puffiness of the eyelids and face, which initially ruled out kidney failure. If the lower extremities and face are swollen, the first thought of kidney failure, especially elderly people with chronic kidney disease or long-term hypertension and diabetes, should go to the nephrology department to rule out kidney disease. 3. Lower limb thrombosis is also a common cause of leg swelling. If the blood vessels in the legs or feet are blocked, it can also cause swelling. Severe, high-level deep vein thrombosis can cause high edema of the lower limbs. At the same time, arterial spasm, insufficient blood supply to the limbs, and affected limbs The skin temperature decreases. Arteriosclerosis obliterans, blocked arteries in the lower extremities, psoas and posterior tibial artery pulsation disappear in severe cases, the distal end of the lower extremities is cold, and muscle pain in the lower extremities occurs after walking for a distance. In severe cases, the skin of the lower extremities may be pale and purple , Darkening, and even ulcers and necrosis. Sometimes accompanied by swelling. If the lower extremities are cold, the skin temperature is significantly reduced, or the swelling is accompanied by pain, then go to the hospital as soon as possible to have a lower extremity blood vessel ultrasound to see if the blood vessels are blocked. 4. Some other causes of swollen legs, swollen feet, liver insufficiency, can lead to hypoproteinemia, can cause lower extremity edema, need to draw blood to test liver function, and further examination of liver ultrasound or CT to further clarify the cause. When lower extremity infections, such as erysipelas, occur, there is local edema, increased pain, blood test, and white blood cells often have abnormalities. serious
Nephrotic syndrome, also known as nephropathy, is caused by a variety of disease factors, mainly because these factors increase the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane, resulting in the loss of a large amount of plasma proteins from urine A clinical syndrome caused. The specific manifestations of nephrotic syndrome are: ① a large amount of proteinuria; ② hypoproteinemia; ③ high edema; ④ hypercholesterolemia, of which ①, ② are necessary for diagnosis, nephrotic syndrome in children The morbidity rate is very high, with boys accounting for the majority, of which the ratio of men to women is 3.7:1, and preschool children are more common. 1. Classification (1) According to the cause: According to the different causes of the disease, nephrotic syndrome can be divided into three categories: congenital, primary and secondary. (2) According to the disease performance: it can be divided into simple nephropathy and nephritis nephropathy. What are the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome? Nothing more than these three, remember two. The most basic pathological change in pathophysiology is increased glomerular permeability, resulting in a lot of proteinuria, and hypoproteinemia, edema and hyperlipidemia are proteinuria following Pathophysiological changes. (1) Large amount of proteinuria: Large amount of proteinuria refers to the excretion of protein in adult urine greater than 3.5 grams per day. When the composition of the kidney’s basement membrane changes, these large molecules of protein can also be filtered through the glomeruli. (2) Hypoproteinemia: It is a relatively important link in the pathophysiological changes. The loss of a large amount of plasma protein from urine is the main cause of hypoproteinemia. In addition, the increase in protein breakdown is also part of the The reason, at the same time, if the amount of protein loss exceeds the rate of liver protein synthesis, it will also reduce plasma protein. (3) Edema: due to the occurrence of hypoalbuminemia and the decrease of colloid osmotic pressure in human plasma, water enters the tissue gap from the vascular cavity, which is the most basic cause of edema, and the decrease in blood volume will make sympathetic The increased excitability of the nerve leads to an increase in the reabsorption of sodium by the proximal tubules. Hyperlipidemia: Hyperlipidemia is mainly due to increased lipoprotein synthesis in the liver of the human body, as well as reduced decomposition of lipoproteins in the surrounding circulation. Fourth, clinical manifestations (1) Simple nephropathy: Edema is the most common, first occurs in the eyelid, face, and then gradually spread to the limbs, if it is a boy, scrotum edema often occurs. (2) Nephrotic nephropathy: In addition to the four major characteristics of nephropathy, there are one or more of nephrogenic hematuria, repeated or persistent hypertension, renal insufficiency, and persistent hypocomplementemia. (3) Complications ① Infection: common in respiratory tract, skin, and urinary tract infections, of which the above respiratory tract infections are the most common. ② Electrolyte disturbance and blood volume decrease. ③Thrombosis and embolism: thrombosis is more common in renal veins, which is manifested by sudden lower back pain, hematuria or hematuria more severe than before, oliguria, and even renal failure.
How to judge the cause according to the nature of “edema”? 1. Cardiogenic edema: The clinical manifestation of cardiogenic edema is that edema first appears in the sagging part of the body, and then systemic edema gradually appears, accompanied by jugular vein enlargement, hepatomegaly, increased venous pressure, and pleural and ascites. Cardiogenic edema can occur in patients with right heart insufficiency due to various reasons such as pulmonary heart disease and hypertensive heart disease. 2, nephrogenic edema nephrogenic edema starts from the eyelid and face and extends to the whole body, often develops rapidly, and the edema is soft and mobile. Accompanied by other symptoms of kidney disease: such as hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, tubular urine, fundus changes, etc. Mostly caused by secondary nephropathy caused by acute glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes and other diseases. 3. Hepatic edema decompensated liver cirrhosis edema mainly manifests as ascites, ankle edema may also appear first, accompanied by liver palm, spider nevus, pain in the liver area, fatigue, dull complexion, decreased appetite, fullness after eating Symptoms of bloating, nausea, vomiting, portal hypertension. 4. Malnutrition edema edema often spreads gradually from the foot to the whole body, with paleness and fatigue, and the blood albumin content decreases when blood is checked. Seen in chronic wasting diseases, long-term nutritional deficiencies, protein loss gastrointestinal diseases, severe burns and other hypoproteinemia, or vitamin B deficiency. 5. Drug-induced edema can be seen in the course of taking prednisone, cortisone, contraceptives, insulin, luofu wooden agent, licorice preparation, and indomethacin. 6. Toxic edema in pregnancy often occurs after 24 weeks of pregnancy. More common in the first child, twins, polyhydramnios or hypertension, and elderly women. Its characteristics are: edema is more serious, and it is systemic with hypertension and proteinuria.
The five-year-old child had bleeding spots, and the child’s mother did not care about it, thinking it was a skin allergy, and bought it to treat the allergy medicine. As a result, the red rash did not subside the next day, but increased. So the child went to the hospital for examination. The result was confirmed as allergic purpura. So what is the disease of allergic purpura? Is it a skin disease? “For children with allergic purpura, many people are still not very familiar, but now the incidence of this disease is getting higher and higher.” “Allergic purpura is an autoimmune disease, due to the body’s allergic reaction to a substance It causes increased permeability and brittleness of capillaries, leading to bleeding and edema of subcutaneous tissues, mucous membranes and internal organs.” So why do children get this disease? Allergens can be caused by a variety of factors, and some incentives are clear, that is, various infections, including bacterial, viral, and mycoplasma infections; food or drug allergies, such as certain antibiotics, milk, fish, shrimp and other foreign proteins can be induced The disease; inhalation allergic factors, such as plant pollen, dust mites, etc.; in addition, vaccination can also cause the onset of allergic purpura. But these factors are not the exact cause. When purpura occurs, it is obvious from the two legs that bleeding spots and spots can be seen. Some can also be accompanied by urticaria or red papules, and needle-point bleeding points can also be seen. Some children in the acute episode may also have non-recessed edema in different parts of the scalp, face, back of the hand or foot, and very few may There are neurovascular edema and tenderness in the arm, gastrocnemius muscle, instep, around the eyes, scalp, and perineum. Most of the children will have stomach pain and vomiting, and 30%-43% of the children will start with arthralgia and may even have no skin rash for up to 14 days, so it is very easy to misdiagnose. Parents will be very scared whenever they see these conditions. In fact, these complications are not terrible, and most of them can be eliminated by regular treatment.  . Once purpura occurs, about 40% of the children’s kidneys are damaged, and gross hematuria is also common. For purpuric nephritis that has already occurred, treatment is timely, the plan is appropriate, and it can be completely cured; if the treatment is not timely or not found at all, it will evolve into chronic damage, and 1%-3% of children can cause uremia, which ultimately threatens life . “Allergic purpura in children is not as simple as the problem of superficial skin diseases. It harms children’s health and must be paid enough attention by parents.
Nephrotic syndrome is the collective name of the four symptoms of “three highs and one low”, namely high edema, large amounts of urinary protein, hyperlipidemia and hypoproteinemia. These four symptoms will bring trouble and panic to kidney friends, but which one is the most serious? Most kidney friends do not know! Let’s interpret the characteristics of the 4 symptoms! 01 A large amount of urine protein nephrotic syndrome, a large amount of urine protein, refers to the 24-hour urine protein quantity exceeds 3.5 grams. Whether it is primary nephropathy or secondary nephropathy, most of them are due to the destruction of the glomerular filtration barrier resulting in a large amount of protein leakage. The severity of a large amount of urine protein: continuous leakage of protein will further damage the filtration barrier, causing more protein to leak out, further damaging kidney function. 02 Hypoproteinemia mainly refers to the decrease of plasma albumin below 30g / L. The reason why the plasma albumin is severely decreased is due to a large amount of urine protein, that is, a large amount of urine protein is lost in urine. The severity of hypoproteinemia: Too low albumin is not only easy to cause edema (colloid osmotic pressure imbalance), but also reduce immunity, make the kidney patients with lower physical fitness, and more likely to cause new infections (such as colds). 03 The decrease of plasma albumin in hyperlipidemia will lead to a compensatory increase in lipoprotein (almost all lipoprotein components in plasma are increased, and total plasma cholesterol (Ch) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch) are obvious Elevated, triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-Ch) increased), resulting in hyperlipidemia. The so-called hyperlipidemia can be simply understood as the blood becomes thick. Severity of hyperlipidemia: It is easy to cause blood clots, especially deep vein thrombosis, which can be life-threatening in severe cases. 04Edema caused by high edema nephrotic syndrome is caused by the imbalance of colloid osmotic pressure caused by the decrease of plasma albumin. The appearance and severity of edema are positively correlated with the degree of hypoproteinemia. Edema usually refers to the retention of fluid in the skin and subcutaneous tissues (abnormal accumulation and retention of body fluids in the body) and causes edema. Increased body fluid in the body cavity is called effusion. This type of edema is usually symmetrical and refers to concave edema, often spreading from both lower limbs to the whole body. The severity of edema: high edema not only affects the appearance, but also causes acute pulmonary edema and acute heart failure, which can be life-threatening when severe. If you have any related problems such as kidney disease, you can directly [Private Message] Professor Mo Feifan
Chronic nephritis can cause patients with proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension and other symptoms. Due to the different ways of onset, the disease progresses slowly, so it will cause patients with varying degrees of renal dysfunction and eventually develop into chronic renal failure. Because the type of chronic nephritis and the period of disease are different, the clinical manifestations are also different, and the manifestations of the disease are also diverse. 1. Five signals before the onset of chronic kidney disease 1. Do not want to eat: anorexia, even nausea, vomiting, are also common symptoms of kidney disease. Some patients always think that this is a stomach problem, and feel that there is nothing wrong, so they leave it alone. I did not know that this might be a sign of nephropathy, and the result delayed the condition. 2. Polyuria and oliguria: Healthy people urinate about 4-6 times a day, and the urine volume is about 800-2000 ml. If the frequency and volume of urine are too much or too little, it may be kidney disease. 3. Dizziness: Insufficient sleep can cause dizziness, but when you find out how to rest, the dizziness can not be relieved, and when you have a headache, the examination is likely to find a high blood pressure. In fact, this is because of “renal hypertension” caused by kidney problems. 4. Eyelid edema, lower extremity edema: If sudden appearance of eyelid, lower extremity, and digital edema of the whole body, it is necessary to consider whether it is nephropathy. There is a problem with the kidneys, and if the water does not go out, there will be edema. Two places will be more prominent. One is the ankle. If the ankle is thicker than usual, there is a pit when it is pressed. It is called concave edema. The other is eyelid edema after getting up in the morning. 5. Anemia: When we have anemia, we will think of it as a blood problem. In fact, in addition to the function of excretion of waste, the kidney can also secrete hematopoietic hormones. When the kidney function is damaged, it can also cause anemia. 2. Three things to prevent chronic kidney disease First of all, patients with chronic kidney disease should have a physical examination awareness, regularly go to the hospital for urine, renal function and other physical examinations, to control the range of the disease can be controlled, and must not listen to non-professionals Of medication, to avoid overuse of medication to make the condition worse. Secondly, in order to prevent the emergence of uremia, patients with chronic kidney disease should pay attention to their eating habits, try to eat light, easily digestible food, and pay attention to nutritional balance. Finally, it is also important to maintain a good attitude. To be conscious, not all patients with chronic kidney disease will evolve into patients with uremia, and the current medical level is constantly evolving. We must believe that an optimistic attitude is an important factor in defeating the disease.
1. Severe edema, such as patients with nephrotic syndrome, a lot of proteinuria leads to heavier edema, need to drink less water. 2. Oliguria, such as uremia patients, and patients with severe renal failure, the urine volume will become less (day urine volume is less than 800ml), or even less than 100ml, need to limit drinking water. If these two types of kidney disease patients do not restrict drinking water, the water they drink cannot be discharged and accumulated in the body, which will increase the burden on the heart and severe heart failure. How much do you drink less water? Today ’s water intake = yesterday ’s urine output + 500ml. The 500ml of water is the water lost from urination such as breathing and sweating, which can maintain the body’s water balance. Note: Water intake includes not only drinking water, but also water in foods such as meals, milk, and rice porridge. If you only limit drinking water, but eat more fruits and foods with high water content, the water intake will be excessive. Finally, most patients with kidney disease can drink water normally, such as chronic kidney disease with normal renal function, no obvious edema, IgA nephritis, and patients with secondary kidney disease such as purpuric nephropathy and lupus nephropathy. Obviously, there is no need to worry about whether to drink more or less water.
One. Changes after the operation The main changes that occurred just after the operation included: 1. edema 2. congestion 3. double eyelid line widening 4. double eyelid line deepening 5. scarring, etc. Among them, the congestion will dissipate after about two weeks, and the remaining items need to go through a change process of about 3-6 months before returning to normal state. Patients with special physiques or patients who have undergone multiple surgeries may take about a year to recover. 1. As the edema subsides, problems such as double eyelid line width and swelling around the wrinkle line will also be resolved. The time required varies depending on the surgical method and the individual physique of the patient. One thing is for sure, the narrower the double eyelid folds, the faster the edema subsides. 2. The fold line was deep and obvious immediately after the deep surgery. In addition, there will be symptoms such as tight upper eyelids and more obvious eyelashes. But this symptom will gradually improve. (It takes 3-6 months) 3. The scar was not obvious immediately after the scar surgery. But then it will become more and more obvious. After about one month after the operation, the scar is the strongest, the color is the reddest, and the surface is uneven. After three months, the color will gradually lighten and become similar to the skin color. But patients with sensitive constitutions may take more than six months to recover. 2. Treatment methods and precautions after surgery Removal of the thread is usually performed 72 hours after the end of the operation, but sometimes it can be removed halfway after 48 hours. If the situation is special, it may be removed only 96 hours after the operation. 2. You can wash your face the next day after removing the thread. Since the wound is not fully healed at this time, be careful when washing your face. 3. Cold compress should be done within a day or two after the operation. Cold compress can play a role in inhibiting edema and congestion. However, it is important to remember that cold compresses must never be made after removing the thread! 4. Makeup can only be done one week after the operation. Hot compresses can only be done two weeks after the operation. Hot compress can promote blood circulation and help the edema and congestion subside. However, this effect is not obvious and can be ignored. The method of hot compress can be used after soaking the cold bag in hot water, or simply soaking the towel in hot water and applying it to the eyes. 5. Prohibited matters: Smoking, drinking, sauna steaming, and strenuous exercise are prohibited within one month after the operation. Pay attention to adjust the physical and mental health to a good state. 6. Medication: Patients who think they belong to a sensitive constitution or have undergone multiple surgeries can take Rizalpine, or apply Barker silicone ointment, Kangrui ointment. But the general patients do not have to use it. 7. If you often rub your eyes or touch the surgical site within 2-3 weeks after the stitches are removed, the scar may crack and become larger.