There is a close relationship between diabetes and exercise. A friend asked: Can exercise treat diabetes? Such questions may not be accurate enough, but what is certain is that when physical conditions permit, reasonable adherence to exercise is an important aspect of diabetic patients to do good blood sugar regulation and reduce the risk of complications. With the problem of diabetes, blood sugar rises, as the course of the disease develops, there may also be complications of one kind or another. Therefore, for chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes, do a good job of regulating blood sugar to minimize various concurrency The risk of disease is the top priority for long-term diabetes control. To do well in the treatment and control of diabetes, it is not only as simple as taking medicine for medical treatment. Diet and exercise are as important as reasonable medication, but also have two basic diabetes prevention and control means. For diabetics, good diet, exercise and other life interventions are the basis for regulating good blood sugar and reducing the risk of complications, which is worth our lifelong persistence. Today we don’t talk about diet, just to talk to you about diabetes and exercise. The benefits of exercise for diabetics are reasonable, and the benefits for diabetics are many. Exercise can strengthen the body’s energy consumption and strengthen the body’s blood sugar utilization. One of the important causes of diabetes is the body’s long-term excess energy intake, and if it can be found that blood sugar rises, it can actively regulate life, control intake through diet, and then strengthen the body’s consumption through exercise. Can better correct the body’s excess energy and elevated blood sugar. Exercise can improve the insulin sensitivity of muscle cells in the body. It is very important to adjust the blood sugar level of diabetic people, improve the utilization of insulin in the body, and improve the problem of insulin resistance. Therefore, because exercise can enhance muscle utilization of glucose and improve insulin resistance of muscle cells, this is also exercise. It can strengthen the important benefit of human blood sugar regulation. Exercise helps to regulate and control obesity. Obese people are a high-risk group of diabetes, and many diabetics also have the problem of obesity. It is also very important to control the weight, waist and obesity to strengthen blood sugar regulation and improve the body’s insulin resistance. Exercise can lose weight and reduce fat, not only can reduce the body’s subcutaneous fat, but also help to improve the problem of visceral fat accumulation, especially some friends with mild to moderate fatty liver problems, there are insulin resistance problems of liver cells, through reasonable Exercise can not only help improve obesity and weight loss, but also help improve the liver’s insulin resistance, strengthen the use of blood sugar, and thus achieve the effect of lowering blood sugar. Exercise helps reduce the risk of complications in diabetic patients. The benefits in this regard come from two aspects. One is that exercise can strengthen the regulation of blood sugar. Once the blood sugar is controlled, the risk of diabetes complications is naturally reduced. On the other hand, the benefit is that exercise can enhance cardiopulmonary function. , Improve the body’s blood circulation ability, help regulate blood pressure and blood lipids, help strengthen the body’s immunity, these health benefits can also benefit diabetics, reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications and microvascular complications . It is important for people with diabetes to exercise reasonably. We emphasize that people with diabetes should pay attention to exercise to regulate diabetes. The importance of exercise for diabetes has been discussed earlier, but to achieve a good blood sugar regulation effect, reasonable exercise is still very important. The so-called reasonable exercise is first of all the choice of exercise amount and exercise method, which varies from person to person. If you are young and have good physical conditions for new-onset diabetic patients, you may wish to exercise moderate exercise intensity on a step-by-step basis. Of physical exercise, especially for friends with obesity problems, if you want to do a good job of weight control, you should pay more attention to increase the amount of exercise and strengthen the body’s consumption. Only when the amount of exercise is reached, can you achieve a better weight loss effect. And if it is an older middle-aged and elderly friend, combined with their blood sugar status and diabetes severity, choose the exercise method that is suitable for them and can play the role of exercise, without having to excessively pursue excessive exercise intensity It is generally recommended that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise is the most suitable. If the amount of exercise is too small, the exercise effect will not be achieved, and it will not help to regulate blood sugar. If the amount of exercise is too large, it may cause exercise risks or health hazards.
As we all know, diabetes is a very common chronic disease in clinic. Diabetes can cause many complications, including macrovascular complications, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower extremity vascular disease, and microvascular complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy. Among them, diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common and difficult complications of diabetes. According to statistics, diabetes is currently the number one cause of chronic kidney disease in my country. Therefore, how to avoid the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy has become the top priority of diabetic patients. Here are four suggestions: 1. Strict control of blood sugar. Hyperglycemia is an important factor that causes kidney damage. Therefore, blood sugar must be controlled at an ideal level for a long time. Fasting blood glucose <6.1 mmol/L, two hours postprandial blood glucose <8.0 mmol/L, glycated hemoglobin <6%. By strictly controlling blood sugar, the chance of kidney disease can be greatly reduced, and at the same time, most early diabetic nephropathy (microalbuminuria) can be reversed or delayed. In the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, hypoglycemic drugs excreted mainly through the biliary tract, such as Nuohelong, Tangshipingping; insulin therapy should be given when renal insufficiency occurs. 2. Strict control of blood pressure and abnormal hemodynamics can lead to glomerular sclerosis. Compared with high blood sugar, hypertension has more damage to the kidneys of diabetic patients. Strict control of blood pressure can significantly reduce protein filtration in patients with diabetic nephropathy and delay the process of renal impairment. 3. Lowering blood lipids and blood viscosity Abnormal blood lipids are also one of the risk factors for kidney damage. Therefore, blood lipids (especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) should be controlled within the normal range. 4. Properly restrict protein intake. A high-protein diet can increase the glomerular perfusion pressure and filtration rate, and increase urinary protein excretion. Therefore, to reduce the burden on the kidneys, protein intake should be limited in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. The intake, protein intake in the diet should be 0.8g/kg body weight per day. Mainly choose high-quality animal protein (such as chicken, fish, lean meat, eggs, milk) to supply more essential amino acids. Vegetable protein (such as tofu, soy milk, etc.) will increase the burden on the kidneys, and at the same time can not be fully utilized by the body, it should be properly restricted. If you have edema, you should also limit salt intake (less than 5g per day). Early diabetic nephropathy (namely the first three stages) after active treatment, especially the combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine, has obvious effects and can be completely reversed. However, since the onset of diabetic nephropathy is hidden, there are almost no symptoms in the early stage of the disease, so it is easy to be ignored by patients; and once the face and lower extremities are swollen and a lot of proteinuria, kidney disease has often developed to an irreversible stage, and the best treatment is lost opportunity. Therefore, once diagnosed with diabetes, whether or not there is edema, it is recommended to regularly check urine microalbumin and renal function to facilitate early detection and timely treatment of diabetic nephropathy. If you have any related problems such as kidney disease, you can directly [private letter] Professor Yang Yanfang
Find out that there is a problem with type 2 diabetes and feel that the sky is about to collapse? In fact, you don’t have to be so scared. You are scared because you don’t know enough about this disease. Isn’t type 2 diabetes better? It is true that diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease, and most diagnosed type 2 diabetics need to actively control blood sugar and prevent and intervene in the risk of complications during their lifetime, but if they can control blood sugar as soon as possible, Maintain healthy and good living habits, rationally choose medications for hypoglycemic drugs. Diabetes can control blood sugar well. There are also many diabetic patients who strictly manage blood sugar, and no serious diabetes complications have occurred throughout their lives. From this From a perspective, diabetes is actually not terrible. Correct understanding of diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease based on abnormal blood glucose metabolism and elevated blood glucose, which is usually not completely cured. Diabetic people’s elevated blood sugar will produce a variety of discomfort symptoms and complications. With the development of the disease course, the risk of severe fluctuations in blood sugar will further increase, whether it is high or low blood sugar, or severe fluctuations in blood sugar , Are important aspects of endangering the health of the body, therefore, for the diabetic friends, the ability to control blood sugar smoothly is to protect the health of the body and reduce the top priority of reducing the health hazards of diabetes. But if we look at it from another perspective, a chronic metabolic disease problem usually has a slower and relatively controllable effect on the body. It is found that type 2 diabetes is a disease and is also given by our body One of our health warnings is that blood glucose metabolism has started to go wrong. We should pay more attention to our own health problems, try our best to regulate and control blood sugar, and pay attention to monitoring blood pressure, blood lipids, etc. Related indicators to actively regulate good health. “Why don’t people get sick when they eat whole grains?” This is a common saying that we often say, but the truth is obvious. Although chronic diseases such as diabetes can be harmful to health, if they are linked to those sudden Isn’t it better for diseases with a high mortality rate, such as myocardial infarction and cerebral hemorrhage? The problem of diabetes is preventable and controllable. If diabetes is preventable, it means that there is a middle ground between our normal blood sugar level and the diagnosis of diabetes. For example, fasting blood glucose exceeds 6.1, and fasting has not exceeded 7.0. In the case of impaired blood glucose, the blood glucose level exceeds 7.8 within 2 hours after a meal, but the glucose tolerance abnormality has not exceeded 11.1. These glucose metabolism abnormalities are pre-diabetic conditions. If it can be detected early, early intervention and control will be developed. The chance of true diabetes will be greatly reduced. Even if it eventually develops into diabetes, friends who strengthen blood sugar control as soon as possible will have diabetes much later. It is said that diabetes is controllable because even if the type 2 diabetes problem is diagnosed, if active conditioning and control can be carried out, the blood sugar of most diabetic patients can be controlled under the premise of reasonable diet, exercise, and reasonable use of hypoglycemic drugs To a stable range, and if you can actively regulate the blood sugar level and control the blood sugar in a reasonable and stable range for a long time, the risk of diabetes complications will be greatly reduced, and the health impact and health hazards will also be greatly reduced . And because of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, you will also benefit from other aspects of the health of the body. Therefore, sometimes, if you look at the problem from another angle, if you can actively pay attention to diabetes, strict self-discipline in life, and change the life that affects health Bad habits, long-term adherence to a reduced lifestyle, but it is also a kind of “blessing by disaster” for health. Diabetes is preventable and controllable. If we can actively control blood sugar levels as early as possible, the impact of diabetes on health will become smaller, and it will not affect people’s life expectancy. It may even be caused by the long-term maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. Cardiovascular health and other aspects of the further benefit, therefore, found the problem of type 2 diabetes, not to be panic, excessive tension and anxious mood will affect the control of blood sugar and blood pressure and other indicators, but should be positive for this disease, Be active and do your blood sugar conditioning as soon as possible. This is the attitude towards diabetes. Written at the end: Diabetes itself is not terrible, terrible is me
For friends with diabetes, high blood sugar itself is actually nothing, but the complications of diabetes caused by long-term uncontrolled high blood sugar is the real point of harm to the body. What are the complications of diabetes, and what are the complications of diabetes? Today I will give you a brief introduction. Acute Complications of Diabetes Complications of diabetes do not necessarily appear gradually in the course of the development of long-term diabetes. There are also some complications of diabetes. The risk of acute attacks due to severe disturbance of glucose metabolism. Such complications The risks also deserve our attention. Common acute complications of diabetes include ketoacidosis and osmotic coma caused by severely elevated blood sugar. It usually occurs when the blood glucose level is severely exceeded, which is caused by the body’s blood glucose metabolism and severe metabolic disturbances such as fat, protein, and electrolyte metabolism. Ketoacidosis is an acute complication of diabetes caused by the abnormal secretion of various hormones in the body, which disrupts the balance of hormone levels in the body, resulting in an imbalance in the metabolism of various substances in the body. It is usually characterized by high blood sugar, high blood ketones, and metabolic acidosis. Mild acidosis may cause polyuria, increased symptoms of polydipsia, and dehydration of the body, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, low appetite, etc. In severe cases, there will be mental depression, drowsiness, and coma Symptoms such as severe ketoacidosis can cause problems such as hypotension, cerebral edema, shock, kidney failure, and even life-threatening events. Hyperosmolar coma is another acute complication of diabetic patients. This situation is the same as ketoacidosis, and there are problems such as dehydration and electrolyte loss. The symptoms are similar, but the symptoms of dehydration, neurological disorders, and coma are more typical symptoms. In addition to the above two kinds of acute complications, people with diabetes should also pay attention to the risk of acute complications such as lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia coma. To reduce the risk of acute complications, it is necessary to actively strengthen the regulation and control of blood sugar. Reduce the possibility of a sharp rise in blood sugar and sharp fluctuations, control the blood sugar to reach the standard, and the risk of acute complications of diabetes will be greatly reduced. Compared with acute complications, chronic complications of diabetes tend to develop slowly, but the health risks to the body are not small. There are many types of chronic complications of diabetes, which are mainly divided into two categories: macrovascular complications and microvascular complications. The major vascular complications of diabetes mainly refer to the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases caused by high blood sugar causing atherosclerosis. Hyperglycemia cannot be effectively controlled. Long-term hypertension can cause an inflammatory reaction of the endothelial cells of the blood vessel wall, leading to accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, most people with diabetes are at high risk of cardiovascular disease. . Therefore, for diabetics, actively controlling blood sugar is an important aspect of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. While actively controlling blood sugar, we must also pay attention to the active regulation of high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia, as well as some bad habits in life The impact should also be removed and improved as much as possible. Only in this way can the risk of cardiovascular complications of diabetes be better reduced. The types of microvascular complications of diabetes are more diverse, mainly including diabetic nephropathy complications of diabetic kidney function changes, diabetic complications of neuropathy, ocular complications of ocular fundus lesions caused by diabetes, and changes in the feet and legs caused by diabetes Many diabetic foot complications and so on, these complications gradually occur, but if you do not pay attention to control, it will gradually increase, which may lead to kidney failure, blindness, amputation and other risks, is also a very serious problem. If you have chest tightness and chest pain during diabetes control, you may wish to quickly check the cardiovascular health problems to see if there is a cardiovascular complication of diabetes; if you have a trace of physical examination during diabetes control The problem of proteinuria, even the problem of elevated creatinine, may be that diabetes has gradually affected your kidney health (diabetic nephropathy); if during the period of diabetes control, there are neurological symptoms such as limb numbness, pain, and abnormal sensation, Complications of diabetic neuropathy may have begun to occur. During the period of diabetes control, blurred vision, eye fatigue, blurred vision, bleeding of the fundus, etc. may occur
Diabetic kidney complications are one of the most common complications in the long-term course of diabetes. Whether it is type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, if there is no active blood sugar control, the chance of diabetic kidney complications is very high. What are the symptoms of diabetes affecting kidney function? How to prevent the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy? Today we will briefly introduce this knowledge. First of all, it is important to emphasize that for diabetics, it must be recognized that the harm of high blood sugar to kidney health is huge, and it is also slow and gradual. Once you understand this, you should actively control blood sugar and regularly It is not scientific to check the kidney function without waiting for the symptoms to suspect that high blood sugar hurts the kidney or even when the kidney function is abnormal. Although it is not too late to make up for it, it is better if we can plan ahead. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is diversified and more complicated, which is related to genetic factors of personal constitution and hemodynamic changes of high blood glucose on the formation of small arterial arteries of the kidneys, resulting in the sclerosis of small arteries of the kidneys. At the same time, abnormal glucose metabolism , It also causes abnormal metabolism of various substances in the kidney area, which also affects the health of the kidney. In addition, diabetes combined with high blood pressure is also an important risk factor for kidney disease. Under the function of these factors, our kidneys Health is gradually affected until renal function is impaired, and eventually it will eventually develop into renal failure. Diabetes-related clinical manifestations of kidney damage. Diabetic hyperglycemia can damage kidney health and cause gradual changes in kidney function. The most common sign of diabetes affecting kidney health is the appearance of trace proteinuria. However, it should be understood that the occurrence of trace proteinuria is not the initial stage of diabetes damage to the kidneys, but that diabetes has a clear sign of damage to the kidneys. From the occurrence of diabetes, it is pointed out that high blood sugar has begun to affect kidney health The health of the ball is affected, and it is not that the symptoms of proteinuria will occur at once, and under the long-term influence of high blood sugar, when trace proteinuria occurs, usually from the stage, diabetic nephropathy has reached the level of stage 3. Another manifestation of diabetic kidney damage is the emergence of high blood pressure. Almost all the complications of diabetic nephropathy will eventually cause high blood pressure. High blood pressure itself is also a chronic disease that damages kidney health. If the diabetic person’s blood pressure is not high, but the blood pressure gradually begins to rise or even diagnosed as high blood pressure, it is necessary to actively investigate the changes in kidney function. Usually, high blood pressure in type 1 diabetic patients is often accompanied by trace proteinuria There are many types of diabetes in people with type 2 diabetes, and many high blood pressures appear before the abnormal kidney function. However, no matter whether it is the increase in blood pressure caused by diabetic nephropathy or primary hypertension combined with diabetes affecting kidney health, it is worth noting that it should be As early as possible, actively regulate the problem of hypertension. If there are problems such as trace proteinuria and elevated blood pressure, you still do not pay attention to actively control blood sugar and protect kidney function. The kidney damage caused by diabetes will increase further. At this time, it will show continuous proteinuria and glomerular filtration The rate also began to decline, kidney function began to decline, and most patients will show symptoms of edema, and about 20% of patients will have problems with nephrotic syndrome. The most serious complication of diabetic nephropathy is renal failure, manifested by the loss of function of most nephrons, uremia symptoms, glomerular filtration rate of less than 10, and accompanied by increased blood creatinine, such a situation belongs to Diabetes end-stage renal disease, kidney failure, is generally maintained by dialysis or organ transplantation. How to reduce the risk of diabetic kidney complications If you want to reduce the health hazards of diabetes to the kidneys and reduce the risk of kidney complications caused by diabetes, the first thing to do is, of course, to be active and control your blood sugar levels as early as possible. Again, it is too late to control blood sugar when there are symptoms of kidney damage or a decline in kidney indicators. You should be aware of the rise in blood sugar and actively control blood sugar when new diabetes develops. If you can control the blood sugar as early as possible, you can greatly reduce the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy complications
Is diabetes scary? Diabetes is terrible and terrible, not terrible or terrible! Why do you say this? Because diabetes is terrible depends on how much you value diabetes and your health. Diabetes is really terrible. Diabetes is a basic metabolic chronic disease characterized by abnormal blood glucose metabolism. Generally speaking, no matter whether it is type 1 or type 2 diabetes, diabetes problems cannot be completely cured, but through a variety of Comprehensive conditioning of the method also actively controls blood sugar. The scary part of diabetes is not just that the disease is usually incurable, but that if diabetes is not controlled for a long time, it may cause serious complications. Some people with diabetes have long-term uncontrolled blood sugar, and high blood sugar affects arterial and vascular health for a long time, causing and accelerating the hardening and stenosis of the coronary arteries of the heart. Under the influence of high blood sugar, the arteries continue to unstable plaque, plaque rupture, and finally lead to Coronary artery occlusion, acute myocardial infarction, myocardial infarction if not rescued in time, damage myocardium, cause damage to heart function, serious life-threatening, causing death, you say terrible is not terrible? Some diabetic people, because they do not control blood sugar for a long time, high blood sugar affects the health of the cerebral arteries for a long time, causing the degeneration of the cerebral arteries and becoming inelastic. At the same time, under the influence of hypertension, the cerebral arteries rupture and hemorrhagic stroke problems occur. The mortality rate of acute cerebral hemorrhage is as high as 35% or more. Are you terrible? In some diabetic patients, due to long-term uncontrolled blood sugar, high blood sugar affects the renal arteries and kidney health for a long time, leading to a gradual decline in kidney function, from trace proteinuria to creatinine, glomerular filtration rate gradually decreases until the kidney Functional failure requires regular hemodialysis, and various complications and infection risks also follow. Are you terrible? Some diabetics do not control blood sugar for a long time, and high blood sugar affects the health of the arteries of the fundus for a long time, which eventually leads to retinal lesions. The initial stage may be vision loss and blurred vision. However, if you still do not pay attention in the later stage, you may Causes vision loss until it is completely blind. Diabetes complications are the primary cause of blindness in adults. Are you terrible? Some diabetic patients, because they do not control blood sugar for a long time, high blood sugar affects the arteries of lower extremity arteries and veins for a long time, causing pain and ulcers in the feet, and diabetic foot problems. It will continue to develop, and the problem of gangrene of the feet will require amputation to solve it. You say it is terrible or not. The points mentioned above are due to the serious complications that eventually develop in the long-term course of diabetes due to the lack of blood glucose control and attention to disease control and conditioning. These problems can either cause disability or lead to death if In this way, is diabetes really terrible? Diabetes is not terrible. The scary part of the diabetes problem is that in the long-term development of diabetes, the blood sugar is not actively controlled, and the complication problems that occur gradually, become more and more serious, and have higher and higher risks. Actively control the blood sugar and actively control the blood sugar. The risk of diabetes complications will be greatly reduced, and the risk of serious complications will be lower. From this perspective, diabetes is not so terrible. To control the blood sugar as soon as possible, when should it be early? Generally speaking, when our blood sugar is beyond the normal range and has not been diagnosed with diabetes, we should actively attract attention, strengthen life conditioning and exercise to strengthen blood sugar control. The study found that if the fasting blood glucose exceeds 6.1 and the postprandial blood glucose exceeds 7.8, such as impaired fasting blood glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, it will actively strengthen life conditioning interventions and actively regulate the problem of hyperglycemia, not only can reduce the development of The probability of diagnosis of diabetes has a clear benefit for the subsequent control of the course of diabetes and the reduced risk of complications. For friends who have been diagnosed with diabetes, don’t worry too much, strengthen blood sugar control, and actively control blood sugar levels. We should not compare with others, and more with ourselves. I didn’t know that I had diabetes, or I had diabetes but didn’t feel it. There is no active blood sugar control, but the sooner you realize the risks, the sooner you can strengthen your blood sugar conditioning control, the sooner the body will benefit. If you start today, it is also the earliest in your life course
Hello everyone, I am a nephrologist. As everyone knows, the incidence of diabetes in my country has been increasing in recent years. This has a lot to do with economic development, Westernization of lifestyle, aging population, and obesity rate. Relevant data show that the number of adult diabetes patients in my country reached 109.6 million in 2015, ranking first in the world. An epidemiological investigation and analysis pointed out that about 60% of the diabetic patients in my country are not diagnosed. Although many people have heard of the term “diabetes”, the science about diabetes and other chronic diseases is far behind. Therefore, the National Health and Health Commission has also been advocating the theme of “Healthy China Trip”, which aims to enable diabetes patients to receive disease treatment better, earlier and more regularly. Today I’m going to chat with you about diabetes medication. Dispelling rumors ● Although the author is engaged in nephrology, but I tell you that the nephrologist is half an endocrinologist, don’t believe it, because diabetes has a major complication of diabetic nephropathy, so many kidney functions appear due to diabetes After the problem will be followed up and treated in our department. After contacting these patients with diabetes, I found that some patients and their families are still affected by some rumors of diabetes. ●Two days ago, our department admitted an old lady with diabetic nephropathy. She had had creatinine and proteinuria for 2 years. The reason for coming to hospital this time is that creatinine is more than 100 higher than last year’s review, and blood sugar control is also very poor. I wonder if the old lady and his wife didn’t take it seriously. They often disappeared after checking the room, and the blood sugar could not be measured for several days. According to her specific disease and blood sugar level, she decided to use home insulin therapy. This said, the old lady and her wife were very excited, saying: Insulin is harmful and can not be beaten. Once beaten in this life, it will not be able to escape, and the body will become worse after being beaten. This is useless. My neighbor is…………, so it is better to take medicine. A brief introduction to diabetes ●In fact, diabetes is not unique to these decades. In ancient times, our traditional medicine classified it as the category of “diabetes”. This has been discussed in the Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic in the second century BC. In the view of modern medicine, it is considered to be a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia caused by multiple causes, rooted in defects in insulin secretion and/or utilization. Diabetes can be divided into type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, of which type 1 diabetes is relatively rare in Asia. Therefore, most of the diabetic patients in my country are mainly “type 2 diabetes”, which can account for 95% or more. ●Combined with the case I talked about above, if you are in pre-diabetes (impaired fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose tolerance), you can adjust it by diet and exercise therapy. If the blood sugar is still not well controlled, it is necessary to add suitable hypoglycemic drugs according to insulin secretion, utilization and blood sugar level. However, please note that although oral medicine is the preferred choice for diabetes, the disease after diabetes has been still progressing, and it will have various complications, so the treatment methods and treatment drugs must follow the disease course and complications The situation is dynamically adjusted. What are the characteristics of insulin secretion in diabetic patients? ●Insulin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes is actually a complete lack or severe deficiency. Their pancreatic islet function is very poor, so the insulin secreted is very little or no. Type 2 diabetes is slightly different. It is a progressive disease. It can be manifested as delayed β-cell response to glucose in the early stage, and it is prone to increased blood glucose after meals and hypoglycemia before the next meal. ●As the disease progresses, the function of β cells will further deteriorate, and the number of functional β cells in diabetic patients will also decrease. It can be manifested as a serious lack of insulin secretion, fasting and postprandial blood sugar are increased, and we are eating three meals a day, it is certainly not possible to control blood sugar without insulin, so at this time the patient needs to resort to exogenous Insulin supplement or replacement therapy. When do people with diabetes need to start insulin therapy? ● Here I tell you that if it is type 1 diabetes, then insulin should be used at the beginning of the disease (decided by its disease characteristics, if you don’t understand, you can look at my introduction to the principle of type 1 diabetes above), and need to Lifelong insulin replacement
Many friends know that diabetes will have more than three symptoms, and true diabetics will also often lose weight. Some friends asked why my blood sugar is well controlled, and my weight has not increased, and I am still losing weight. What? Regarding this issue, let’s analyze it concretely. Why does diabetes cause weight loss? The reason why the blood sugar is increased and diagnosed as diabetes is because our body has abnormal metabolism of blood sugar. The sugar in the body cannot be fully metabolized and is accumulated in the blood, which makes the glucose in the blood The concentration is further increased, although the blood sugar is increased, blood sugar is the main component that supplies energy to the body. When the blood sugar is not fully utilized, the function of the body will also be insufficient. Therefore, many friends because of the insufficient energy supply of the body, also Symptoms of hunger are more likely to occur, and we often eat and drink more, and our own body, in order to ensure the energy supply of the body, will further decompose fat and protein in the body under the premise that the blood sugar is not fully utilized. Waiting for the body to supply energy, therefore, body fat, etc. are consumed, so some people with diabetes will also have the typical characteristics of body weight loss. After the blood sugar is controlled, why does the body continue to lose weight? We said that if we want to control the problem of diabetic weight loss, the main thing is to control the blood sugar. If the blood sugar is controlled well, the blood sugar remains within a stable and reasonable range. If the body’s use of blood sugar returns to normal, the possibility of weight loss in diabetes patients continues Generally not large, but due to various factors, it may happen that the blood sugar has been controlled, but the weight continues to lose weight. There are many reasons for this situation, in simple terms, several common. First, dietary control is too strict. Many friends know that controlling blood sugar is not only about taking medicine, but also paying attention to diet to control exercise and exercise. This is a very good way to regulate blood sugar. However, if diet control is too strict, the body’s nutrition is insufficient due to too little intake. In this case, the blood sugar is controlled in time, and the body may continue to lose weight because of too little nutritional intake. The problem. Second, drug-induced weight loss. Most diabetics need to use drugs to enhance blood sugar control in addition to diet and exercise. There are many kinds of drugs to lower blood sugar. Some drugs have a certain weight loss effect on body weight, such as metformin, such as dapagliflozin, etc. Drugs, while lowering blood sugar, also have a certain weight loss effect. At the same time, sometimes taking other drugs while taking hypoglycemic drugs, especially some drugs that enhance body metabolism, such as thyroxine, also have the effect of causing body weight loss. Therefore, if the blood sugar is well controlled and the body continues to lose weight, the cause of the medication should also be evaluated. Third, the impact of other diseases. Obviously the blood sugar control is quite good, but the body still has further weight loss problems. Don’t just consider the cause from diabetes blood sugar control. Many diseases may lead to weight loss, such as gastrointestinal absorption problems. For example, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, such as adrenal insufficiency, may cause body weight loss. While checking blood sugar control, it is also very important to actively investigate other causes. How to deal with the continuous weight loss of the body? For the problem of diabetes and blood sugar control, the body is still further thinning, we must first assess the actual situation, whether this thinning is beneficial to health or harmful. If you are a diabetic and your weight is severely overweight, if you can strictly control your intake, actively control the post-blood glucose level, and maintain a good and healthy lifestyle, your body will continue to lose weight, which is completely normal, but also It is beneficial to body weight loss. If you can control your weight to a healthy and reasonable range, you don’t have to worry too much about this weight loss. This is a normal process after the body metabolism is corrected and the body shape returns to normal. Why not be afraid Worried? And if it is a friend who was originally within the healthy range, weight loss occurred during the course of diabetes, and after the blood sugar is controlled, the weight still continues to decline, even lower than the normal healthy level. Pay attention to it. On the one hand, we should pay attention to the comprehensive supplementation of nutrition. Without excessively increasing the sugar intake, the product
According to the statistics of China Aging Science Research Center, there are 212 million people over 60 years old in China. Among them, more than 80% of the elderly are suffering from various kinds of torture caused by missing teeth. What is more troublesome is the common chronic diseases of some elderly people, so many elderly people with missing teeth will ask, can periodontal disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, osteoporosis can implant teeth? osteoporosis patients who take it to prevent osteoporosis Those who use drugs such as bisphosphonates (such as Fushanmei) are not allowed to perform dental implant surgery. Bisphosphonates accelerate the death of erosion cells, but they will hinder the normal bone metabolism process. Patients who are using bisphosphonates should have regular oral examinations and oral care such as removing calculus to maintain good oral hygiene and reduce tooth decay and periodontal disease. Emphasis: Stop taking oral bisphosphonates as much as possible from 3 months before and 3 months after invasive dental treatment such as implant implants and tooth extraction to reduce the incidence of jaw bone necrosis. Glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients * For patients whose blood sugar control is not up to standard (glycated hemoglobin HbA1c>.8%), it is recommended to go to the endocrinology department to adjust the blood sugar first. It can also carry out relatively complicated implant and bone graft surgery. *What is glycated hemoglobin? Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can display the average blood glucose control level for the past 2-3 months, which is one of the main indicators reflecting the long-term blood glucose control level. For most patients with type 2 diabetes, a reasonable blood glucose control goal is glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <.7%. Glycosylated hemoglobin index Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6-8%, well-controlled glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8-10%, control of general glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >. 10%, poor control Summary: Diabetes is not an absolute contraindication to dental implants, If the blood glucose is well controlled, there is no significant difference in the success rate of dental implants from the normal population. For patients with severe periodontal disease, periodontal disease treatment should be performed before dental implant surgery. Early symptoms of periodontal disease, such as bad breath, shaking teeth, red gums, bleeding from brushing, tooth position deviation, gum retraction, and tooth lengthening. The main causes of periodontal disease are plaque and calculus that are not cleaned. .
Many friends want to know, how will it feel at the beginning of diabetes? However, for the early stage of diabetes, due to different individuals, some friends may have typical symptoms of diabetes, and some friends may also have some atypical symptoms, and some friends may not have special symptoms. . What are the typical symptoms of early diabetes? Let me talk about the “three more and one less” symptoms that many friends know. This is indeed a typical symptom of diabetes. Three more refers to drinking more food and more urine, and less refers to weight loss. Why these symptoms occur is of course closely related to the disorder of blood glucose metabolism. The reason why we have increased blood sugar and even diagnosed as diabetes. The reason why the glucose in the blood will rise is because our body has problems with the use of blood sugar. Insufficient use of blood sugar will make the blood sugar rise. High, and insufficient utilization of blood sugar will also lead to inadequate function of the body. The body’s function is insufficient, and people will feel hungry. At this time, there will be symptoms of overeating, and high blood sugar will also affect the filtration and reabsorption function of the kidney. Causes osmotic diuresis, therefore, it will appear as an increase in urine output, which is the symptom of polyuria, and polyuria will cause the body to lose water, and will naturally produce symptoms of polydipsia. As for weight loss, it is also because the body’s blood glucose is not fully utilized, and the body does not get sufficient energy supply. In such cases, the body will further break down fat, protein and other nutrients to provide energy for the body. In this case, fat, protein The consumption will cause body weight loss and weight loss. Through the above introduction, you can see that three more and one less are closely related to high blood sugar, and if the symptoms of three more and one less appear, it is usually the case that the body’s glucose metabolism disorder is more serious. Symptoms, although typical, but when there are more than three and one less, the body’s high blood sugar state has often continued to develop for some time. In addition to the symptoms of three more and one less, other symptoms may appear in the early stage of diabetes, such as insufficient energy supply to the body, frequent fatigue, weakness and other symptoms, such as high blood sugar may affect the health of the retina and optic nerve, causing vision Symptoms such as blurry vision and decreased vision, and high blood sugar can also affect the health of the skin. Patients with diabetes may also have symptoms such as itching, dryness, and susceptibility to infection. If the nervous system is affected by high blood sugar, it may also occur. Abnormal skin sensation, limb numbness, pain and other symptoms. These symptoms may appear during the course of diabetes, or they may appear in the early stage of diabetes. Compared with the symptoms of three more and one less, these Symptoms may not be so typical, but they also deserve attention and attention. If there are other obvious causes of the above symptoms, you should also check the blood sugar level in time. It is more important to point out and point out: for most of the friends with diabetes in the early stage, because the blood sugar rise is not obvious, there may not be too obvious related symptoms in the body, there will be no more than three symptoms, and there will be no symptoms. Skin symptoms, unclear vision and other symptoms, but check blood sugar, blood sugar has risen, and even some friends can already combine fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose values to judge diabetes. For such cases, thousands Don’t think that diabetes has no harm to the body because there are no obvious symptoms or feelings. At the beginning of the discovery of high blood sugar, it is the best diabetes control strategy to control the blood sugar level as soon as possible. In the early stages of diabetes, why do you have no symptoms and feelings and actively control blood sugar? High blood sugar is often slow and gradual to the health of the body. If the blood sugar is not controlled at this time, the problem of glucose metabolism disorder cannot be controlled and corrected, and the blood sugar level will gradually increase, which will gradually damage our major Healthy blood vessels and microvessels, leading to complications such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, such as impaired kidney function, such as complications of the peripheral nervous system, etc., if waiting for obvious symptoms, or concurrent When the disease is in progress, control blood sugar again, often the blood sugar has already risen more seriously, and it is more difficult to control. And if it can be found in the early stage of elevated blood sugar, even when there is abnormal glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose, then open
If you only eat dumplings on the Dragon Boat Festival day, even if the dumplings are very sweet and very oily, for those who lose weight, they don’t have to worry about it. But many friends’ homes are often in the scenery of the Dragon Boat Festival. They pack a lot of dumplings and eat them for a week or more. Then you have to learn a lot about how to make dumplings and how to eat them. Homemade dumplings are 3 low and 1 high sweet dumplings are basically sugary, meat dumplings are basically oily and salty. Therefore, pay attention to low sugar, low oil, and low salt when making dumplings. If you can still achieve high fiber, the dumplings will be healthy immediately. How to do it? 1. Low-oil fried rice without lard or other oils, less peanuts, almonds and other nuts for filling, can use dried beans to replace salted egg yolk, lean meat instead of pork belly. 2. Don’t put white granulated sugar in low sugar, you can use chestnuts, red dates, wolfberry, raisins, etc. to provide natural sweetness. Jujube does not need candied dates, because candied dates are candied fruits and sugar will be added during processing. In addition, sugar substitutes such as xylitol, erythritol, stevioside, mogroside, etc. can also be used. 3. For low-salt fillings, put less salt, soy sauce, monosodium glutamate. 4. Use high-fiber buckwheat, brown rice, oats, barley, etc. to replace some glutinous rice. Add some yam, red beans, lotus seeds, sweet potatoes, chickpeas, dried shiitake mushrooms, shredded carrots, pleurotus eryngii, dried bamboo shoots, dried radishes, and konjac. This can increase B vitamins and dietary fiber, a strong sense of fullness, and control blood sugar without gaining weight. Pay attention to the nutrient composition table when buying dumplings. If you are buying pre-packaged dumplings, pay attention to the nutrient composition table and choose the one with low energy. Because of the different formulas, the energy of rice dumplings varies greatly, generally between 100 kcal/100 g to 300 kcal/100 g. If you buy dumplings in bulk, ask about the stuffing, add sugar, the rice is fried in oil, and the meat is char siu, the energy must be higher. In addition, when buying zongzi, pay attention to the zongzi leaves. If it is abnormally green, it may be the green zongzi leaves soaked in copper sulfate. Choose carefully. To control blood sugar and not gain weight, eat rice dumplings to do these three points. 1. The main ingredient for eating rice dumplings instead of staple food is glutinous rice. Compared with rice, its sugar-up speed is indeed faster. If the filling is high-fat, high-salt, High-sugar pork belly, salted egg yolk, candied dates, etc., are not conducive to blood sugar control. Therefore, friends with high blood sugar should eat less. If you eat rice dumplings, you should reduce the amount of staple food. Medium dumplings are about 100 grams each, just eat one. 2. With vegetables and clear soup, eat rice dumplings for a meal with less dipping. If you are full, no matter what dumplings you eat, the energy will not be low, and your blood sugar will definitely rise. Pairing with 1-2 fist vegetables, especially leafy vegetables and melon and vegetable with low energy, low carbon water, and rich dietary fiber, can delay the rise of blood sugar and reduce energy intake. Vegetables are preferred to choose cold or steamed dishes. The dishes that come out of this way are fragrant and refreshing, such as cold spinach fungus or steamed carrot shreds with celery leaves, which can alleviate the greasiness of dumplings. For friends with excessive stomach acid, matching vegetables can also reduce gastric acid secretion and avoid the heartburn of eating dumplings alone. Drinking a bowl of clear soup or water (300-500 ml) before eating dumplings can also control the amount of food you eat. In addition, in order to control sugar and salt, try not to dip the dumplings with sugar, honey, soy sauce and other ingredients. 3. The meals must be well prepared during the festivals, so apart from the dumplings, other meals should also be easier to eat. Then take advantage of the holiday to tidy up the house, this can also help control blood sugar, not grow meat. Don’t underestimate the energy consumed in housework. The BBC “The Truth About Calories” film invites three families to ingest 600 kcal for breakfast. The first family was arranged to exercise vigorously in the health room after breakfast. The second family needed to do housework after breakfast. The third family only sat after breakfast and did nothing. The energy consumed by the second group was 800. The kcal is the highest in the three groups. There are so many nagging ways about the healthy eating of dumplings. Finally, how to eat dumplings safely, I would like to give you three suggestions. 1. Wash your hands before eating dumplings! 2. Put the dumplings in a container with a lid and refrigerate them, and heat them thoroughly before eating to ensure that the center of the dumplings is also hot. 3. Too much needs to be frozen and stored. From a safety point of view, there is no problem for half a year. However, during the freezing process, reactions such as fat oxidation will occur, and the color and flavor will deteriorate. Finished.
The normal fasting blood glucose value of healthy people should be between 3.9 and 6.1, and if the fasting blood glucose reaches such a level of 13, it has exceeded the standard by more than 2 times, can it be said that it is not serious? First of all, fasting blood sugar has reached the level of 13, generally it is definitely a problem of diabetes. If the blood sugar value reaches such a high level, the blood sugar after the meal should be higher, and this value has exceeded the kidney sugar threshold, and urine sugar has begun to appear. Although, from various test indicators, this blood glucose index is already very high, but if it is said to be diabetic, it may not necessarily have a clear feeling, but for such a blood glucose value, because of the abnormal utilization of blood glucose metabolism , It is more prone to hunger, eat more and drink more. Due to high blood sugar leading to osmotic diuresis, the general urine output will also increase, but other aspects may not have obvious symptoms, but whether or not there is Other symptoms, such a blood sugar level, need to be actively paid attention to and regulated as soon as possible. If it is a newly discovered diabetic patient, blood sugar reaches this level as soon as it is discovered. At this time, it is not enough to emphasize that diet and exercise to strengthen blood sugar control. If it is confirmed that fasting blood sugar has reached the level of 13.0, for Such new-onset diabetic patients have already reached the standard of using insulin to control blood sugar. Many friends worry that once insulin is used, it will become dependent and cannot be stopped. In fact, this is a misunderstanding of insulin application. Exogenous supplementation of insulin is used to strengthen blood sugar control. There are usually two applications: the first is to quickly strengthen blood sugar control and reduce blood sugar as soon as possible for the situation where blood sugar rises more seriously. The next short-term medication; the other is to use insulin for a long time to strengthen blood sugar control when the oral administration of 2 or more hypoglycemic drugs is still not enough. We are talking about new-onset diabetic patients. The fasting blood glucose exceeds 13.0, and the glycated hemoglobin level is usually not lower than 9.0%. Under such circumstances, using insulin to control the excessively high blood sugar as soon as possible is a better way. After the blood sugar drops, should insulin still be used? It is necessary to combine with the actual situation. If the blood sugar is controlled, through reasonable diet, strengthening and insisting on exercise, and through reasonable oral hypoglycemic drugs, the blood sugar can be controlled to a reasonable range, of course, insulin is not necessarily necessary. You must insist on using it, but if you have strictly implemented life interventions and combined use of oral hypoglycemic drugs, your blood sugar still cannot be effectively controlled. If you cannot control the target range, you may still have to continue to use insulin to strengthen blood sugar control. It should be pointed out that different situations have different goals for blood sugar control. Therefore, in terms of blood sugar control goals, we must combine our own actual situation and formulate suitable blood sugar control goals. For example, for patients with new-onset diabetes, if the age is not more than 65 years old and there are no complications of diabetes and other serious concomitant diseases, it is generally recommended to control the level of glycated hemoglobin to at least 6.5%, and for some young people, the physical condition is relatively Yes, it is better if it can be strictly controlled to below 6.0%. Only by establishing your own goals for blood sugar control can you develop a reasonable blood sugar control plan in conjunction with your goals. In real life, this kind of control goal is difficult to achieve for many diabetic friends. Either they are too lazy to control their diet and exercise too much in life, or they cannot strictly follow the doctor’s instructions and cannot reasonably adhere to the medication. For diabetes, if we can control the blood sugar level reasonably as early as possible, and control the blood sugar smoothly to meet the standard, we can better protect the body from the harm of high blood sugar, and can better reduce the risk of diabetes complications. And the probability of occurrence, therefore, whether you find that the fasting blood sugar value is high or low when the blood sugar rises, it is very necessary to control blood sugar as soon as possible and strictly control blood sugar. If you are a friend who has diabetes problems, this blood sugar level also deserves active attention. If you are a friend who already knows that you have diabetes, let your blood sugar develop to this value, then it is very possible, and such complications have begun to occur gradually. At this time, whether it is serious or not is not serious. The value of this fasting blood glucose level depends on the comprehensive evaluation of the occurrence and development of related complications.
On June 22nd, Cangzhou Chishumin Anorectal Hospital hurriedly came to a patient with perianal swelling and pain, and restlessness.  . The patient is 72 years old and has had perianal swelling and pain for 3 days at the time of treatment. The clinic at home has been treated with antibiotics for three days but the symptoms have not gradually eased. The symptoms of perianal swelling are obvious, which seriously affects sleep. This increasing pain made Li no longer able to bear it, so he had to come to the hospital for consultation. After careful examination, the doctor found that there was a 3cm × 4cm mass in the anus of the patient. It was considered to be “perianal abscess” and surgical treatment was recommended. Although the patient complained of no previous history of diabetes, hypertension, etc., the anorectal clinic doctor in our hospital still measured the blood glucose of the patient urgently under his clinical experience. Unexpectedly, the test results of the blood glucose meter shocked the medical staff. “HI” is displayed on the blood glucose meter, indicating that the patient’s blood glucose value has exceeded the blood glucose meter’s detection range. Why is diabetes related to perianal abscess? The protein synthesis function of diabetic patients is weakened. In the past, malnutrition and low anti-infective ability have been increased. In addition, the patient’s blood sugar has increased, and the skin tissue glycogen content has also increased. Abscesses, boils, etc. The perianal abscess can increase the blood sugar stress to a certain extent, which slows down the healing speed of the perianal abscess. In addition, diabetic patients recover more slowly than healthy people after surgery. Diabetic patients must complete standard hypoglycemic treatment after perianal abscess surgery to control blood sugar and provide protection for wounds. If the blood sugar is not well controlled, it is easy to cause inflammation to spread. In addition, protein should be properly supplemented, such as eggs and lean meat. As the wound continues to heal and blood glucose levels change, the hypoglycemic regimen can be adjusted gradually. How do diabetic patients prevent perianal abscess? First, diabetic patients should usually standardize treatment and control blood sugar, which is the top priority. Second, maintain good hygiene habits, change underwear frequently, clean the anus after defecation, and keep the anus clean, which has a positive effect on preventing infection. Third, control the diet, avoid eating the fat and rich taste (meat, animal liver, etc.) that are likely to cause the disease, hair (beef, lamb, shrimp, crab, scaleless fish and other meat foods, and vegetables Leek, parsley, fennel, green onion, ginger and other spicy spicy things), spicy spicy food. Fourth, prevent diarrhea and constipation, maintain normal bowel movements, and reduce disease factors. Fifth, timely diagnosis and treatment of anal diseases to prevent the spread of inflammation. Sixth, actively exercise the body, enhance physical fitness, strengthen local disease resistance, and prevent infection.
Atorvastatin and other statin lipid-lowering drugs have good lipid-lowering effect and can stabilize plaque to prevent vascular blockage. A large number of studies have shown that statin lipid-lowering drugs can significantly reduce diabetes patients and diabetes with coronary heart disease The risk of patients’ cardiovascular events, so these drugs are widely used in clinical practice, in addition to cardiovascular, neurology, endocrinology will often prescribe such drugs. However, some people say that eating atorvastatin may cause diabetes. is this real? What is the basis? Why may long-term atorvastatin cause new diabetes? Several studies have shown that statin and other statins such as atorvastatin can increase the risk of diabetes. The possible mechanisms are as follows: (1) Statins can affect insulin sensitivity and the process of cellular uptake of blood glucose: studies have shown that statins Lipid-lowering drugs can reduce insulin sensitivity, thereby affecting blood sugar control, leading to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Statin lipid-lowering drugs, in addition to affecting insulin sensitivity, can also directly affect the cellular uptake of blood glucose. (2) Statin lipid-lowering drugs affect insulin secretion through β-cells: statin lipid-lowering drugs can not only inhibit the direct action of HMG-COA (hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) reductase, but also reduce the body Cholesterol reduces insulin secretion, which leads to new diabetes. (3) The role of genetic mutations to promote blood sugar increase: A medical team has deeply studied the mechanism of statin to increase blood sugar, and evaluated whether it is related to the direct inhibition of HMG-COA reductase by statins. The results of the study showed that when the mutation of the gene encoding HMG-COA caused the structure or function of HMG-CoA reductase to be inhibited, the blood glucose in the patient’s body increased. As a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, the statin tuned bamboo drug, which inhibits the function of HMG-CoA reductase, is likely to be one of the mechanisms leading to new-onset diabetes. Statin lipid-lowering drugs can cause abnormal blood sugar, should we stop statin lipid-lowering drugs? In most cases, it is not necessary. The reason is simple: weigh the pros and cons. The use of statins can avoid acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Compared with abnormal blood glucose or diabetes, the advantages are obviously greater than the disadvantages. In one study, after observing 225 patients taking statin lipid-lowering drugs for four years, it was found that for every 5.4 deaths or myocardial infarctions prevented and reduced by statin lipid-lowering drugs, only 1 case had new-onset diabetes. If the effect of statin lipid-lowering drugs on the prevention of stroke and coronary revascularization is considered, the benefit of statin lipid-lowering drugs in preventing cardiovascular events is significantly higher than the risk of statins leading to new diabetes. Therefore, it is still necessary to continue to use statin lipid-lowering drugs in people who are suitable for statin treatment. Especially for people with moderate to high cardiovascular risk and those with definite atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, compared with cardiovascular benefit, statin lipid-lowering drugs cause little risk of new diabetes. Therefore, even if there is a clear blood sugar abnormality caused by a statin lipid-lowering drug, the statin lipid-lowering drug should still be used consistently. In conclusion, statins such as atorvastatin can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. Although it may indeed increase blood sugar or cause new diabetes, this adverse effect is far lower than that of statins. Clinical benefit. But it also reminds us that it is best to monitor blood sugar levels before and during statin administration. At the same time, pay attention to the dosage when taking the medicine. Do not increase the dosage of the medicine by yourself in order to quickly reach the blood lipid standard. References Su Xin, Zhao Shuan. Research progress on the risk of statin-induced new-onset diabetes[J]. Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2016, 44(5): 456-457. , Thank you for the picture author, if you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me, I will delete it.)
I have written a lot of science about the diet of gestational diabetes, but “sugar moms” still have many questions: fruits are so sweet, can I really eat them? Can sweet corn be eaten? Sweet potatoes are also very sweet, can they really be eaten? Therefore, it is necessary to specifically popularize this question: whether food is sweet or not is not a criterion for judging whether a diabetic person can eat it. Have diabetes, quit all sweet food? With diabetes, many people consciously quit sweet foods, such as cakes, snacks, drinks, fruits, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, do not put sugar in cooking, and even dare not take sugary medicines. Of course, we encourage this kind of behavior, indicating that patients are beginning to attach importance to diabetes. But in fact, in addition to cakes, snacks and other foods made of artificially added sugar, natural sweet foods such as fruits, corn, and sweet potatoes do not need to be quit. First: Sweetness does not mean that the effect on blood sugar is greater. Many diabetics will think that sweet food will have a greater impact on blood sugar, so they will not eat any sweet food. But in fact, the effect of food on blood sugar is not measured by sweetness or not. Sweetness does not necessarily have a big effect on blood sugar, and unsweetened food may not have a small effect on blood sugar. For example, rice is not sweet, but its effect on blood sugar is greater than that of fruit. To measure the effect of food on blood sugar, it is medically described by the glycemic index (abbreviated as glycemic index). The larger the value, the greater the effect on blood glucose. Usually, the glycemic index of glucose is set to 100, the glycemic index >. 70 is a high glycemic index food, and the glycemic index <. 55 is a low glycemic index food. A word I often say to people with diabetes is: You dare to eat rice, why not dare to eat fruit? The essence behind this is: the glycemic index of fruits is much lower than rice. Although the fruit is sweet, the glycemic index of most common fresh fruits is not high, such as 22 for cherries, 36 for apples, and 43 for grapes. The glycemic index of watermelon, cantaloupe, and pineapple is relatively high, above 55, but also lower than the staple food made of rice or flour (see table below). Sweet corn is also very sweet, but the glycemic index is 55, which is also significantly lower than the staple food made of rice noodles; and the glycemic index of boiled sweet potatoes is 77, although it is also high but lower than rice and buns. If you eat it cool, then blood sugar The index will be lower. Comparison of the glycemic index of fruits and common staple foods. In addition, fruits, potatoes and grains are important components of the diet. There are nearly 50 kinds of essential nutrients in the human body, which are indispensable. No natural food can meet all the nutrients required by the human body. Therefore, the diet must be composed of multiple foods. In the case of fruits, fruits contain minerals essential for the body but not self-synthesized, vitamins that have strong antioxidant effects to prevent cell aging, and soluble fiber pectin that can significantly reduce the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. Potatoes and cereals including corn are even more important. This is the basis of our diet, mainly providing carbohydrates, protein and B vitamins. In summary, if you have diabetes, sweet fruits, corn and potatoes can still be eaten: fruits are not too much at a time (about 150g), and corn and potatoes are used as staple foods. You can enjoy delicious food and increase nutrient intake without raising blood sugar. There are no bad foods, only bad collocations~ Welcome to leave a message in the comment area, I will also check back in time! Author| . Ding Bingjie Weibo丨Ding Ding Nutrition Class
There are many people with type 2 diabetes, not only high blood sugar, but also often exceed the standard weight. In the process of comprehensive regulation and control of high blood sugar, friends who have diabetes problems and obesity problems should emphasize the need to strengthen weight control. Some friends do not understand why do people with diabetes control obesity? Today I will give you a brief introduction to the inextricable link between diabetes and obesity. Obese people are high-risk people with diabetes who have diabetes and are overweight, often with this type of body: obesity, especially a large belly, and excessive waist circumference. Such “abdominal obesity” is a high risk of diabetes. The population is also a high-risk group of cardiovascular disease. Why are obese people more prone to abnormal blood glucose metabolism and diabetes? This is closely related to obesity itself. Obesity of the body often means excess energy of the body, and excess energy is the main reason for the increased burden of glucose metabolism and the rise of blood glucose. In terms of physiological metabolism, obese people, especially friends with abdominal obesity, not only have a high body fat rate, but also often have a high visceral fat content. Many obese people have more or less fatty liver problems. An increase in the proportion of cellular lipids will trigger insulin resistance in the liver, leading to dysregulation of the liver’s glucose synthesis function. Due to changes in glucose synthesis function, in order to regulate liver function, the body will secrete more insulin to strengthen the liver’s glucose synthesis However, insulin also promotes liver fat synthesis, which further leads to liver fat accumulation. In this way, a double-cycle vicious circle is formed-the increase of liver lipids, causing insulin resistance, in order to promote the use of glucose synthesis, The body secretes more insulin, and more insulin further promotes the liver to synthesize more fat, which leads to further accumulation of fat and exacerbates the liver’s insulin resistance. In this way, blood sugar gradually increases over a long period of time, and even develops into the problem of new diabetes. It’s not surprising. Therefore, although the problem of developing diabetes is related to many factors, obesity is also an important risk factor. Obese people with diabetes have a greater health risk. If you have a friend with diabetes and have an obesity problem with excess weight and waist circumference, then whether it is for blood sugar control or the risk control of diabetes complications, it is an important risk factor that should be noted. Diabetes’s blood sugar control is first and foremost to control the body’s excess energy. For obese people, the body itself has serious energy excess problems. Therefore, in the process of controlling blood sugar for obese people, it is necessary to control intake and strengthen exercise. The requirements are higher, and the difficulty of controlling sugar is often greater. If blood sugar cannot be effectively controlled, the risk of natural high blood sugar causing diseases will increase greatly. Therefore, if you want to control blood sugar stably, diabetic people actively do weight management, and controlling obesity is an important aspect of life conditioning intervention. Don’t ignore it. In addition, in addition to being prone to abnormal glucose metabolism, obese people are also at high risk of chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and high uric acid. Therefore, many obese people will not only rise in blood sugar as they age. High blood pressure, elevated blood lipids, and the formation of comprehensive problems of chronic metabolic syndrome, and these comprehensive chronic diseases are also important factors that damage arterial health and lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risks. Therefore, if Obesity leads to a further increase in blood pressure and blood lipids, so the risk of cardiovascular complications, impaired kidney function and other complications in obese diabetic patients will also increase greatly. Therefore, to minimize the risk of diabetes complications, active weight control is also very important. Diabetes how to actively control weight, reasonable weight loss Diabetes people lose weight is a very contradictory thing. Diabetes itself is the typical characteristic of underutilizing the sugar in the body, which has the typical characteristics of drinking more and eating more. In order to lose weight and control weight, obese diabetics must stricter diet control and try to maintain the body’s nutritional balance. Next, try to reduce your intake as much as possible. This may make obese diabetics always feel undernourished and not enough when controlling their diet. However, in order to control the blood sugar level and also control the weight, obese diabetes is indeed recommended Patients, be sure to eat less, only
The problem of hyperglycemia and diabetes is not necessarily related to age. Old people can also maintain normal blood sugar, and young people can also develop diabetes if they do not pay attention. Therefore, if the blood sugar of healthy people is old, There is no difference between people and young people. Generally speaking, fasting blood glucose is not higher than 6.1mmol/L, not lower than 3.9mmol/L, and the blood glucose is lower than 7.8mmol/L 2 hours after a meal, which is the normal healthy blood glucose value. The distinction between no matter whether it is young or old, if there is no problem with abnormal blood glucose metabolism, the blood glucose value will generally remain within this range. If the fasting blood glucose is lower than 3.9, it is a problem of hypoglycemia, and if the blood glucose exceeds the standard, It belongs to the problem of high blood sugar or even diabetes. Whether it is low blood sugar or high blood sugar, it has certain adverse effects on physical health, and it should be actively taken seriously. It is still important to talk about the problem of blood sugar control in elderly patients with diabetes. For elderly diabetic patients, there is no way to say how much blood sugar is normal, but how much blood sugar should be discussed to meet the standard. Uncontrolled high blood sugar in diabetic patients is the main risk for many complications such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic foot. Therefore, no matter how old you are, if you have diabetes, you should pay attention to it, and Actively control high blood sugar, so for elderly diabetic patients, how much blood sugar control is appropriate? Even for elderly diabetic patients, the goal of diabetes blood sugar control cannot be generalized. Only a comprehensive understanding of different individuals, different severity of complications, different self-management capabilities, different life expectancy, different levels of hypoglycemia risk, Comprehensive evaluation of multiple factors can set a reasonable glycemic control goal for elderly diabetic patients. Compared with the diabetes control goals of young and middle-aged people, due to the aging of the body, the elderly have more chronic diseases, and the tolerance to drugs is relatively poor. Factors such as blood glucose control goals need to be considered There are more factors, but the overall principle is to set the blood sugar control goals reasonably, actively regulate and control the blood sugar to meet the standard, on the premise of controlling the blood sugar to obtain the maximum benefit of the body, ensure the safety of blood sugar control, and minimize Excessive medical treatment leads to the risk of hypoglycemia, the risk of adverse drug reactions, and the risk of severe fluctuations in blood sugar. If you can choose a reasonable target value for blood glucose control to maximize the ratio of health benefits to risks, it is the most reasonable blood sugar control. Compliance value. It’s still too abstract to say this. Let’s talk about the stratified management of glycemic control goals in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes combined with different specific situations-in the first case, it is recommended to control the glycated hemoglobin below 7.0%. This goal is still relatively A strict goal of blood glucose control, in order to achieve glycated hemoglobin control below 7.0%, usually fasting blood glucose needs to be controlled below 7.0, and blood glucose should be controlled below 10 after 2 hours of a meal. This kind of blood glucose control goal is mainly for elderly patients with diabetes with a duration of diabetes less than 10 years, islet β-cell function, low risk of hypoglycemia or can effectively avoid the risk of hypoglycemia, good self-management ability and strict life conditioning Strict control of blood sugar levels can better control the course of diabetes and reduce the chance of complications. In the second case, it is recommended to control glycated hemoglobin to be between 7.0 and 8.0%. This value corresponds to a fasting blood glucose level below 7.5, and a blood glucose level below 11.1 two hours after a meal. Such blood sugar control goals are generally aimed at elderly diabetic patients who already have moderate complications or are accompanied by other chronic diseases, poor self-management capabilities, and high risk of hypoglycemia, and need to use insulin to enhance blood sugar control. Under the circumstances, moderately relaxing blood sugar control standards, reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and the risk of severe fluctuations in blood sugar, the health benefits obtained are relatively greater. In the third case, it is recommended that the level of glycated hemoglobin be controlled below 8.5%. This value corresponds to a fasting blood glucose level below 8.5 and a postprandial blood glucose level below 13.9. This blood sugar control goal is mainly for elderly diabetic patients who have difficulty in controlling blood sugar or for some reasons, cannot strictly control blood sugar
Can diabetes be inherited? Recently, several people have consulted me online. Can diabetes give birth? Is diabetes inherited? It can be said that diabetes is hereditary to a certain extent, why is it said to a certain extent? The genetic probability of diabetes has obvious genetic heterogeneity in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes has a family tendency, and 1/4 to 1/2 of patients have a family history of diabetes. 1. The overall prevalence of type 1 diabetes is low, and the genetic probability is also low. Generally, one parent has type 1 diabetes, and the chance of children having diabetes is about 5%. If the parents have type 1 diabetes, the chance of children having diabetes is more than 20%. . 2. The genetic probability of type 2 diabetes is: when one parent has diabetes, the child’s morbidity is about 40%; when both parents have diabetes, the child’s morbidity is about 60% ; When identical twins, if one of them has diabetes, the incidence of the other child is as high as 90%. How do diabetics want to become pregnant? Diabetic women can have children when diabetes is well controlled. 1. As long as the diabetic women are satisfied with diabetes control after marriage, those who have no heart, brain, kidney, eyes and other serious complications must plan well before they become pregnant and develop healthy lifestyle habits. , And it is best to rest during pregnancy. 2. The pregnancy of women with diabetes is much more dangerous than that of normal people. It is very important to choose the best pregnancy time. Before pregnancy, the blood sugar should be controlled to the normal level as possible to prevent the high blood sugar during pregnancy from affecting the normal development of the embryo. If the blood glucose level is not well controlled during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy, it will seriously affect the fetus. 3. These tests should be done before pregnancy: ① fasting and postprandial blood glucose need to be checked to determine the severity of the patient’s diabetes. ② Check the level of glycated hemoglobin to understand the quality of blood sugar control in the recent period. ③ If it is a type 1 diabetes patient, thyroid function should also be evaluated. ④If you have diabetes for more than 10 years, or have some symptoms of heart disease, it is recommended to do an electrocardiogram. ⑤ Understand whether there is neuropathy. Neuropathy will affect the ability of the heart and blood pressure to respond to the physiological needs of pregnancy. ⑥Check kidney function, if there is a history of kidney disease, or poor blood sugar control, kidney function will deteriorate during pregnancy, which can lead to edema and hypertension. ⑦ Eye examination, untreated diabetic retinopathy will also worsen during pregnancy. 4. If severe cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, or retinopathy, or neuropathy, pregnancy will make these conditions worse, and even endanger the lives of mothers and infants, it is not suitable for pregnancy. 5. Because certain oral hypoglycemic drugs may harm the health of infants, for example, sulfonylurea hypoglycemic drugs can pass through the placenta, causing fetal hypoglycemia, and there is a risk of teratogenesis and fetal death in the uterus. Therefore, diabetic women before pregnancy During pregnancy, the oral hypoglycemic agents must be stopped and switched to insulin therapy. 6. Generally speaking, pregnancy problems of diabetics should be decided by obstetricians and endocrinologists after consultation. Because pregnancy will make the condition of diabetes worse, it is easy to cause pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, and severe fetal death will also occur in the uterus. 7. Pregnant women with diabetes often have large fetuses, which are prone to dystocia and stillbirth. Even if it is delivered smoothly, it is prone to neonatal hypoglycemia and dyspnea. If pregnancy is allowed, frequent visits to obstetrics and endocrinology should be made. What to pay attention to after diabetic pregnancy 1. During pregnancy, due to the change of hormones in the body of diabetic patients, no matter what kind of blood glucose control is started, insulin must be used to control blood glucose. 2. Diet management is one of the important measures for the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, not only to ensure the energy of the pregnant women themselves, but also to provide fetal nutrition. Excessive control of diet will affect fetal growth and development and birth of low-birth-weight children. Therefore, dietary treatment during pregnancy is similar to non-pregnancy, but there are differences. The food intake is wider than that during non-pregnancy period. The daily calories are calculated based on 30-36 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight, of which rice and noodle staple food account for 50-60%, protein accounts for about 20%, and milk, poultry and eggs , Fish and blood mainly, less meat, less than 30% fat. Vegetable oil for cooking, eat more green leafy vegetables, it is best to divide the total daily food into multiple meals. Fruits can eat low-sugar strawberries, kiwis, do not eat high-sugar sugar cane, bananas, longans, banned desserts
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disease. Amenorrhea, hairiness, obesity, and infertility are the main symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. For polycystic treatment, weight loss and weight loss are key. Apart from exercise, diet is also very important, and as long as you eat right, you can also be thin~! Foods that can be eaten in moderation ● Leafy vegetables ◆ Leafy vegetables are rich in iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and other trace elements, vitamins K, C, E and vitamin B. Vitamin B has a certain positive role in controlling PCOS symptoms, which is reflected in the metabolism of sugar and fat, thyroid function and hormone balance. ●Fruits ◆Fruits are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals and nutrients. Many patients worry that fruits will raise blood sugar levels and increase insulin levels. It is recommended to try some low-glycemic index fruits or nuts, such as cherries, plums, grapefruits, apples, pears, dried apricots, grapes, coconut, coconut milk, kiwi, orange juice, dried plums, etc., to help control Increase in blood sugar caused by eating fruits. ●Colored and white vegetables ◆Very colorful vegetables are rich in antioxidants. Women with PCOS are usually accompanied by a high proportion of oxidative stress. When the amount of free radicals in the body is at a high level, the body will be subject to corresponding physiological stress. We need antioxidants to deal with oxidative stress. ● Organic, forage-fed meat ◆ Herbivore meat is leaner and contains fewer hormones than omnivorous meat. ●Healthy fat ◆Healthy fat plays a very important role in the diet of PCOS patients. The essential fatty acids play a very important role in maintaining the cell wall, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and blocking toxins from outside the cell. This plays an important role in hormone balance, weight control and fertility. These beneficial fats are usually found in nuts, fish oil, avocado, olive oil, etc. Try not to eat food ● pay attention to avoid stimulating diet. In addition to spicy food, it also includes the stimulation of alcohol and tobacco. Eat less sweets and high-fat foods. Both sweets and high-fat foods contain high calories. Excess calories are the root cause of obesity. Eat less foods containing saturated fatty acids and hydrogenated fatty acids, such as pork and beef ground meat, fatty meat, various poultry and livestock skins, cream, artificial cream, whole milk, fried food, Chinese and Western pastries, etc. Fish, protein, beans, and nuts are good sources of protein. The principle of choosing the main food of polycystic food ● Eat less fine food ◆ staple foods such as rice, noodles, buns, etc. During the processing process, rich dietary fiber, B vitamins and other nutrients will be lost in large quantities, reducing the nutritional value and satiety However, the glycemic index has become higher. Usually eat rice and steamed bread, because the carbohydrates in it will be quickly digested and absorbed, so that blood sugar rises quickly. In order to stabilize blood sugar, the body will secrete a lot of insulin, which will make people feel hungry again, and in insulin Under the effect of, fat will accelerate the accumulation. ●The nutritional value is the key ◆The key to the selection of raw materials for staple foods is: coarse grains are better than fine grains, beans and potatoes are better than ordinary coarse grains. Because they have a strong sense of fullness compared to fine grains, and it is easy to control the amount of food. When you lose weight because the amount you eat is less than usual, so if you only eat refined white rice noodles, it will lead to nutritional deficiencies. In addition, the content of dietary fiber in coarse grains is quite rich. It will prolong the residence time of food in the digestive tract. The rate of food digestion is slow, and it will not be so hungry. ●Choose foods with low glycemic index ◆The glycemic index (GI) refers to how much blood sugar the human body will cause after eating certain foods. It usually reflects the ability of a food to increase the body’s blood sugar, that is, how much blood sugar rises after eating food. Generally speaking, staple foods with a low “glycemic index” are easier to be full. Such foods not only help prevent diabetes, but also help control weight. After eating such foods, the digestion speed is relatively slow, and the blood sugar will not rise a lot after eating. Foods that help to lose weight ● Barley ◆ As a kind of grain, barley can increase hormone levels related to satiety. Studies have found that eating cooked barley kernels can change the body’s intestinal flora, thereby speeding up metabolism. ● Oats ◆ The complex carbohydrates in oats are good for the human body, it will not only increase satiety, but also avoid overeating lunch. However, it should be noted that buying oats with sweeteners and spices should be avoided. ● Quinoa ◆ Quinoa
Is fasting blood glucose accurate or postprandial blood glucose accurate? Which one is more important? Many friends with diabetes have this problem! In fact, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose are important, but more accurate and more important is glycated hemoglobin. 1. The meaning of glycated hemoglobin Glycated hemoglobin is the product of the combination of hemoglobin in red blood cells and sugar in the serum. It is formed by a slow, continuous and irreversible saccharification reaction, and its content depends on the blood glucose concentration and the contact time of blood glucose and hemoglobin, and has nothing to do with the blood draw time, whether the patient is fasting, whether to use insulin and other factors. Therefore, glycated hemoglobin can effectively reflect the blood glucose control of diabetics in the past 1 to 2 months. Both fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose can only represent the blood glucose in this short period of time, and glycated hemoglobin can represent the blood glucose level of the last 1-2 months. 2. Fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose reference values Before fasting blood glucose test, ensure that no food is taken for 8 to 10 hours. Reference value of fasting blood glucose in normal people: oxidase method: 3.9~6.1mmol/L; o-toluidine method: 3.9~6.4mmol/L fasting blood glucose: 7.0mmol/L, consider diabetes. Postprandial blood glucose is divided into half an hour postprandial blood glucose, 1 hour postprandial blood glucose, and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose. Most of us check the blood glucose 2 hours after a meal, the normal person’s blood glucose value 4.6 to 7.8mmol/L 2 hours after a meal. Oral glucose tolerance test: 30 minutes to 1 hour, normal value: 7.8 to 9.0 mmol/L, no more than 7.8 mmol/L after 2 hours, and fasting blood glucose level should be restored after 3 hours. Another indicator is random blood glucose. When random blood glucose is 11.1mmol/L, diabetes can be diagnosed. Sometimes we have normal fasting blood sugar, but blood glucose rises after a meal, so we have to consider diabetes. Therefore, patients with suspicion of diabetes must not only check fasting blood glucose, but also check blood glucose after meals to avoid missed diagnosis. 3. Importance of glycated hemoglobin Glycated hemoglobin is an important method for diagnosing and managing diabetes. The reference value for the determination of glycated hemoglobin in normal people is: 4% to 6%. Glycated hemoglobin >. 9% indicates that the patient’s long-term blood glucose control is not good, and complications such as diabetic nephropathy, arteriosclerosis, and cataract will occur, and it is also a high-risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke death. According to the latest research, glycated hemoglobin is directly related to the degree of stenosis of heart blood vessels. Elevated glycated hemoglobin often causes severe stenosis in the three major blood vessels of the heart blood vessels. Research by Academician Ge Junbo’s team showed that with every 1% increase in glycated hemoglobin levels, the risk of tachycardia and multi-vessel stenosis increased by 11%. Among patients with glycated hemoglobin levels >gt.7%, the risk of multiple vessel stenosis increased by 49%. In short, for friends with diabetes, not only to monitor fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose, but also monitor glycated hemoglobin, this indicator is more important!