Sedentary and bad habits of not drinking water will not cause urethritis, but will increase the risk of urethritis and prostatitis. The premise of causing urethritis is that various bacteria infect the urethra, and then it will cause urethritis, but sedentary and drinking less water increases the chance of bacterial infection. That being said, but the result is the same, these two habits are not good habits, will increase the probability of urethritis and prostatitis. What is the root cause of urethritis? As mentioned above, infection is the root cause of urethritis, and there are two conditions for the formation of infection: the pathogenic bacteria are highly toxic. This situation is common in some bacterial infections with strong pathogenic ability, such as gonococcus and syphilis. Under normal circumstances, people will not be exposed to this type of bacteria, but during sexual intercourse will directly contact this type of bacteria, and the probability of infection is relatively high. The immunity of the human body and urethra is low. There are some normal bacteria around the human urethra, some bacteria are opportunistic pathogens, that is, when the body’s immunity is low, it will multiply and cause infection. This is more obvious in women, because the urethral opening of women is closer to the anus and vagina, and the urethra is short and straight. The bacteria around the vagina can cause urethral infection when women’s immunity is low. The normal urethra is protected by mucous membranes. If the mucous membranes are damaged, it is equivalent to the local immunity of the urethra being broken. The above two reasons are the causes of urinary tract infection, and various other factors will eventually be attributed to the above two reasons. What effect does drinking water and sedentary have on urethritis and prostatitis? Drink water. We said earlier that there will be many chances of pathogenic bacteria around the urethra. If you can have a good drinking habit, then urination will increase relatively. Urine will flush the urethra and urethral mucosa, which will reduce the infection. risk. Conversely, if you do not drink water, this risk will increase relatively. This situation is relatively obvious for women. After all, men have a long urethra and the urethra is outside. The surrounding bacteria will be much less. There is absolutely nothing wrong with encouraging women to drink more water. Sedentary. Sedentary inactivity is definitely unfriendly to human immunity, but the harm of sedentary is still mainly reflected in the male prostate. Prolonged sitting will oppress the prostate and increase the risk of prostatitis. This kind of prostatitis is not necessarily caused by infection, but the risk of prostatitis in sedentary men is indeed high. How can other factors that increase the risk of urethritis be prevented? Not drinking water is one of the risks. Other risks can be divided into systemic risks and local factor risks. 1. Systemic factors: diabetes. Diabetes increases the risk of infections needless to say, this is not only reflected in the urinary tract, other organs and tissues will also be affected. Immune deficiency related diseases. This everyone’s first reaction is AIDS. AIDS is also known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is known that AIDS does not die from AIDS in the end, but from other diseases, because it destroys the body’s immunity. In addition to AIDS, there are other diseases that cause immunodeficiency. Long-term use of immunosuppressants. Some patients with organ transplants will take immunosuppressants all year round, resulting in weakened immunity, and some people will also take these drugs for a long time. Weak body and lack of nutrition. This does not explain much. People with weak bodies and lack of influence often lack protein, vitamins and other nutrients. Protein is the main component involved in human immunity. 2. Local factors such as urethral deformity, stenosis, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. These conditions can cause urine to not be discharged smoothly, bacteria stay for a long time, and the flow rate of urine is relatively slow, so the risk of infection will be high. Men of this type are more common. There are infections around the urethra and poor personal hygiene. As mentioned earlier, women are more susceptible to this problem because there are many bacteria around the vagina and anus, and women are also affected by menstrual periods and vaginitis. Men often see patients with long foreskin and phimosis with foreskin balanitis. Inadequate cleaning of personal underwear, inability to change underwear regularly, and unqualified sanitary napkins also increase the risk of infection. Unprotected sexual activity. Most sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted in this way, such as gonococcal urethritis, syphilis and non-gonococcal urethritis. Unprotected sexual activity does not mean that you will get sick, but without protection will definitely increase the risk of infection. Regarding prevention, prevention is based on the above reasons. If the systemic immunity is low
Professor Xie Lizi explained: How is the perianal abscess caused? There are several reasons for perianal abscess: 1. Infection, it mainly comes from bacterial infection, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or anaerobic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these will enter When the patient gets to the anus, the bacteria will increase after a long time, which will cause the occurrence of perianal abscess. 2. Surgery in the anal area. Sometimes the operation is improper or the medication is used incorrectly, which causes some bacteria to cause submucosal abscesses, and even increases the negative pressure to cause abscesses in the posterior rectal space. Third, anorectal diseases, the cleanliness of the anus area is not enough, due to excessive moisture, or even eczema, may cause perianal abscess. Regardless of the cause of perianal abscesses, prompt and active treatment is required. In life, pay attention to fasting spicy, cold, greasy, irritating food, try to avoid diarrhea or constipation, and eat fresh vegetables and For fruits, eat more oatmeal and keep your stool as smooth as possible. Once symptoms appear, they should be treated promptly and targeted treatments should be taken to avoid delaying treatment.
Is hemorrhoids contagious? In the middle and late stages of internal hemorrhoids, there will be symptoms of internal hemorrhoids prolapse. What harm does internal hemorrhoids prolapse? Prolapse of internal hemorrhoids is caused by the lack of elasticity of the supporting tissue under the hemorrhoids due to injury. Generally, you can repay in the early stage of withdrawal, and you need to help repay by hand in a long time. It should be particularly emphasized that when prolapse of internal hemorrhoids, no matter what the circumstances, must be promptly received. Obstruction of local blood circulation will occur, and varicose veins or even thrombosis will occur in the protruding part, and the volume will increase. At this time, the anus is prone to contraction and contraction due to pain, which will make the prolapsed internal hemorrhoids unable to be recovered, resulting in incarnation or even necrosis, infection, suppuration, ulceration, etc. If the patient is in severe pain, unable to sit or walk, cannot defecate normally, or even cause bowel obstruction, the consequences will be very serious. Is hemorrhoids contagious? First look at the medical characteristics of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are diseases caused by viruses and bacteria and spread by air, food, and other various contacts. It can be seen that there are three necessary conditions for infectious diseases: source of infection, route of transmission, and target of transmission. The cause of infectious diseases is viruses or bacteria. The occurrence of hemorrhoids is not caused by bacterial or viral infections. Hemorrhoids are caused by venous reflux obstruction, stasis, and varicose of the mucous membrane and muscular layer of the rectum and anus caused by various reasons. They are not directly related to viral and bacterial infections. Sometimes the mucous membrane of the hemorrhoids is eroded, and even infected and purulent becomes an anal abscess, but it is not related to the cause of the hemorrhoids themselves, it is only a factor that induces hemorrhoids. In addition, hemorrhoids themselves will not produce pathogens. Therefore, hemorrhoids themselves are not contagious. If a patient with hemorrhoids suffers from intestinal infectious diseases, then it is only possible to be infected with intestinal infectious diseases, and hemorrhoids can be induced over time, and hemorrhoidosis cannot be contracted immediately. In short, hemorrhoids have a lot of harm to the human body, should arouse the attention of the majority of clinical workers, and treat every patient with hemorrhoids seriously. Hemorrhoids patients do not need to be too nervous, as long as they can be treated early and treated properly, they can avoid the occurrence of the above serious complications.
Pharyngitis is a common upper respiratory tract disease, which is divided into acute and chronic. When pharyngitis is acute, there is often throat pain, foreign body sensation, and burning sensation. In severe cases, it can cause hoarseness and difficulty swallowing. Even chronic pharyngitis can cause long-term pharyngitis Discomfort, dryness and itching, and sometimes slight pain. In life, many people suffer from repeated acute attacks of pharyngitis and chronic pharyngitis, which sometimes seriously affects work, study and life, and can also lead to irritability. How should people with severe pharyngitis be relieved? Since there is no specific explanation for acute or chronic pharyngitis, then let’s talk about acute and chronic aspects. 1. Acute pharyngitis The main causes of acute attacks of pharyngitis are bacterial and viral infections. Viral infections are usually self-limiting and will resolve on their own within 3-5 days, and bacterial infections require the use of antibacterial drugs. Generally, the bacteria that cause acute pharyngitis are chain-linked Cocci are relatively common, so the antibacterial drugs that can be selected are macrolides such as penicillin, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, or roxithromycin. If there is obvious pain in the throat or burning sensation of foreign bodies during the period, symptomatic treatment of analgesic drugs such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen can be used appropriately, but the analgesic drugs should not be used continuously for more than 5 days. Chinese patent medicine for clearing throat and reducing throat. 2. Chronic pharyngitis The causes of chronic pharyngitis are more complex and diverse, such as long-term bacterial or mycoplasma infection, post-nasal drip syndrome, sleep apnea syndrome, gastroesophageal throat reflux, occupational exposure such as teachers, salespersons, etc. Smoking, drinking and eating spicy, grilled or fried foods can all cause chronic pharyngitis. Although the symptoms of chronic pharyngitis are relatively lighter than those of acute pharyngitis, they also have chronic symptoms such as dry throat, itching, and irritating cough. If you want a complete relief, you must first find out the cause. For example, if it is caused by post-nasal drip syndrome caused by nasal diseases such as chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps, adenoid hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis, etc., you can use sinus opening surgery, nasal Polypectomy, allergic rhinitis desensitization treatment, adenoidectomy and other methods; if it is caused by gastroesophageal reflux, you need to use drugs to protect the stomach and promote gastrointestinal motility; if due to diet and bad habits As a result, it is necessary to quit smoking and alcohol, avoid eating spicy, barbecue and fried food; if it is bacterial or mycoplasma infection, it is necessary to thoroughly antibacterial treatment. When there are discomforts such as dry throat and itching, you can use anti-allergic drugs or inhalation of topical glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation, or use Chinese patent medicines that have the effect of clearing heat and detoxifying and clearing the throat and throat. Effect. How to regulate the body in daily life? 1. Diet adjustment In addition to avoiding spicy, grilled and fried foods, eat more foods rich in vitamins and other nutrients, such as fruits and vegetables, usually drink plenty of water to prevent dry throat. 2. Strengthen exercise and enhance physical fitness Strengthen exercise and enhance physical fitness to prevent viral and bacterial infections and prevent chronic pharyngitis due to long-term bacterial infections. 3. Improve the living and working environment, such as staying away from oily smoke and dusty environment, or wearing a mask. When there is occupational exposure, we should pay attention to avoid excessive voice, and let the pharynx rest properly. In short, the throat is the gateway for our voice to communicate with the outside world, and it is also an organ that is easily injured. Prevention is better than cure. In our daily life, we should pay attention to protecting the throat and avoid the occurrence of pharyngitis. References: Meng Huiju, Liang Yi, He Yuejie, et al. Research progress in the treatment and prevention of chronic pharyngitis [J]. Chinese Journal of New Clinical Medicine, 2013, 6(12): 1221-1225 Owned by the original author, thanks to the author of the picture. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)
Speaking of children’s dental health, the most worrying thing for many parents is that children like to eat sweets and drink carbonated soft drinks. On the one hand, high-sugar foods cause high incidence of dental caries (decayed teeth); on the other hand, carbohydrates such as sucrose are indispensable energy sources for children’s growth and development. How to balance this contradiction? 1. Sugary foods are the enemy of teeth. During the onset of dental caries, carbohydrates such as sucrose and bacteria are incentives, which are manifested in two ways: on the one hand, carbohydrates can be used as substrates for bacteria, that is, It is said that bacteria can metabolize carbohydrates through the action of bacterial enzymes, and then produce acidic products. These acidic substances will demineralize teeth and gradually cause defects and holes, forming caries and causing damage to teeth. On the other hand, carbohydrates can also provide nutrients for the survival of bacteria. Just like we humans cannot grow without the nutrients of carbohydrates, bacteria also need carbohydrates to provide nutrition, so that it will continue to proliferate and reproduce, resulting in greater damage. Therefore, carbohydrates such as sucrose are very detrimental to dental health. From the point of view of oral health care, it is worth reminding that everyone should eat less, especially to control children to eat caries-free foods, such as: toffee, chocolate, desserts, cakes, ice cream and sugary drinks. 2. Sugary foods are best eaten with carbohydrates such as sucrose and protein, fat, and dinner, are the main source of energy required by the body, and sugar also participates in a variety of complex physiological functions of the body, the presence of sugar is protein and The necessary conditions for fat metabolism are not enough. How to achieve the necessary nutrients without affecting the oral health, there is a certain emphasis. First of all, it is necessary to reduce the number of sugars as much as possible, and to synchronize with the dinner as much as possible, shorten the residence time of sugar in the mouth, and reduce the meeting time of sugar and bacteria. Many sugary foods, especially sugary foods with high viscosity, can adhere to the tooth surface for a long time, causing bacteria to gather, so snacks between meals should choose sugar-free foods, such as fruits and milk. Secondly, the total sugar needs to be controlled. In particular, middle-aged and elderly people should pay attention that excessive sugar will produce more calories and lead to obesity. In addition, a large amount of sugar ingested not only suppresses appetite, but also affects the absorption of other nutrients, resulting in an imbalance in human nutrition. Thirdly, some rough, fibrous foods should be properly selected so that the tooth surface can get better friction and promote the cleaning of the tooth surface, thus forming a good condition for anti-caries. Finally, brush your teeth sooner or later, rinse your mouth after meals, and clean your mouth in time after eating sweets. Moreover, brushing your teeth before going to bed is particularly important to reduce the accumulation and fermentation of food debris. 3. Carbonated beverages have double damage to teeth. The harm of sugary carbonated beverages can not be ignored. It not only contains sugar, but also can lead to the occurrence of acid etching, with double damage. Acid erosion is caused by acid of non-bacterial origin, which is manifested as loss of dissolution of hard tissues of teeth and is an irreversible disease. There are many patients coming to the hospital now. The common complaints are tooth sensitivity and severe bite discomfort, resulting in shortened bite height, temporomandibular joint disorder, and even difficulty in eating. In recent years, dietary acids, especially carbonated beverages, have gradually become the main cause of tooth erosion in modern people. The fact that the prevalence of dental erosion in children in developed countries has increased has made research on dental erosion more and more important. Statistics show that the consumption of soft drinks in the UK has increased sevenfold from 1950 to 1990, among which the intake of young people is very high. The increased prevalence of tooth etch, especially the increase in the prevalence of adolescents, may be related to this change in eating habits. The etiological mechanism of tooth erosion is: acid acts on the surface of tooth enamel to reduce the surface pH to below 5.5, and the tooth enamel begins to demineralize and soften. Under the friction of various soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity, the softened tooth and hard tissues are abraded and lost. Various influencing factors in the whole process may affect the occurrence and development of tooth erosion to a certain extent. Dental erosion is also related to the habit of drinking beverages, such as: drinking acidic beverages between meals, due to the lack of buffering and cooperation of other foods, the damage to teeth is much higher than that during meals. In addition, drinking acidic beverages before going to bed The habit of teeth increases the risk of tooth erosion. Studies have shown that as long as normal eating habits are maintained, no obvious
My name is “drug-resistant bacteria” and I have a wide reputation in major hospitals. The higher the hospital level, the higher the probability of my appearance. Especially in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), my name is almost unknown. Although I’m not a small boy, the doctors are not “cold” for each appearance, and they also nicknamed me a lot of tall, such as “super bacteria”, “drug-free pathogens”, blablabla… antibiotic resistance-my full name is “resistant and pathogenic bacteria” and belongs to an important member of the family of microorganisms. “Antibiotic resistance” refers to the fact that after multiple exposures to antibiotics, the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics decreases or even disappears, resulting in reduced or even ineffective antibiotic efficacy. Characteristics of drug resistance occurrence-Like other organisms in nature, the genes of the bacterial family will randomly mutate in evolution. The antibiotic-sensitive bacteria were killed, and the insensitive bacteria members survived after the gene mutation. After repeated “encounter battles”, the surviving bacteria members all accumulated rich “fighting experience” and became Me now. For example, family member 1-Pseudomonas aeruginosa can change the permeability of its own cell membrane to prevent the entry of penicillins; family member 2-Mycobacterium tuberculosis prevents the binding of antibiotics by changing the protein structure in the body; there is also a large class called The brothers will take the initiative to attack, through the “tool” of hydrolase to make penicillin and cephalosporin all invalid. It can be seen that our ability to compete with various antibiotics cannot be underestimated! Let me be more “satisfied” Yes, my resistance ability can be passed on to the next generation, not only that, I can also pass the resistance to other types of pathogens through direct contact, plasmid delivery, etc. Ok, my self-introduction is here, don’t you think we are super powerful Yazi! Let us listen to the evaluation of clinicians.  . Doctor’s perspective on drug-resistant bacteria-In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) released the three most important super bacteria: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE ), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter (CRE). According to statistics, tens of thousands of patients worldwide will be infected with these super-resistant bacteria every year, and the mortality rate can be as high as 30%. If the patient is accompanied by low autoimmunity, the risk of co-infection with drug-resistant bacteria is greater, and the mortality rate can reach 60% to 70%. Its main transmission routes include droplet transmission, contact transmission and air transmission. Our ICU once treated a patient with severe pneumonia. On the 7th day of hospitalization, drug-resistant bacteria were detected in the patient’s sputum. Almost all antibiotics were not sensitive to them. The expert team developed a corresponding antibiotic treatment after discussion Strategy, and later found a less commonly used antibiotic medicine, and patients were rescued because of this sensitive antibiotic.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .&bb .&bb.n thing? It is the reaction of the human immune system to fight against viruses and bacteria. First, the viral pathogen stimulates the leukocytes to secrete mediator cytokines and synthesize prostaglandin e2 under the catalysis of enzymes. Inform the body temperature control center to raise the body temperature set point to deal with the virus, so the fever begins. That is to say, when you have a fever, it means that the white blood cells in the body are confronting the bacteria, so the white blood cells will produce some substances called pyrogens. Pyrogens slow down the reproduction of viruses and bacteria, speed up the production of antibodies against these bacteria, and increase the number of white blood cells that resist these bacteria. The increase of pyrogen level raises the setting point of body temperature center, and body temperature will rise accordingly. The principle and process of fever is this: the mitochondrial production capacity in human cells increases, the body’s internal body temperature rises rapidly → blood circulation accelerates → body fluid circulation accelerates → human metabolism accelerates → (if the cold and inflammation are not serious, at this stage, the virus And the bacteria are eliminated by the immune cells brought by the fast flowing body fluid, and the remaining part will be washed away by the secreted mucus.) It can be seen that fever is one of the mechanisms in the body to fight infections. Not only can it shorten the disease time, but also enhance the effect of antibiotics, making the infection less contagious. At the same time, the body improves the immunity of immune cells through fever, prevents bacterial viruses from multiplying, accelerates metabolism, and quickly releases toxins. Therefore, there is a saying in the folk saying: “The child has a fever and grows once”. Although this sentence may not necessarily be correct, it also makes some sense. But why are infants and young children more likely to have a fever than adults? The first is that the immune system of infants and young children is not yet fully developed and is susceptible to invasion by pathogens. Once the baby is feverish, the central function of the body temperature is not perfect, and it is prone to high fever or super high fever; Adults are high, as long as a mild lack of water will affect heat dissipation, the higher the frequency of fever, the higher. However, many mothers are very worried about a question: Will the child burn his brain out of fever? In fact, the fever itself does not burn the brain. If pathogens such as bacteria and viruses invade into the brain, that is, central nervous system infection, it can cause neurological diseases such as meningitis and encephalitis. The main symptoms are high fever accompanied by headache, vomiting, stiff neck, and even coma. If you do not seek medical treatment in a timely manner and timely treatment, there may be neurological sequelae. However, these serious consequences are not caused by fever. The real culprits are intracranial infections caused by bacteria and viruses, rather than fever that makes people stupid and deaf. Therefore, the World Health Organization recommends that infants under 2 months of age are prohibited from using any antipyretic drugs. Antipyretic treatment should only be used for children with high fever, and the method and dosage must be as required by the doctor. Therefore, when your child has a cold and fever, the doctor will recommend giving the child more water and rest, reduce unnecessary activities to increase immunity. If the temperature of the fever is below 38.3°C, physical cooling can be performed reasonably, such as using a fever-reducing sticker or a cold towel to cool the child. However, there is a kind of child’s fever that immediately needs antipyretic medicine. Because of their very poor physique, the temperature rises very quickly during the fever and will quickly rise to more than 39 degrees. Tonicity and clonics are predominant during seizures, and sometimes systemic convulsions may occur. For this phenomenon, the technical term is convulsions (FC). Remember, this kind of fever really burns your brain. Because high fever convulsions will cause the central nervous system to lack blood oxygen supply, causing serious damage to brain nerve cells. The central nervous system is in an over-excited state, the sensitivity of brain cells to various stimuli in the internal and external environment is increased, the convulsion threshold is reduced, and the metabolic rate of neurons is increased, oxygen consumption is increased, glucose metabolism is increased, and brain cell dysfunction is abnormal. Discharge. When the brain nerve cells continue to be severely damaged, it will cause the nerve cells to disappear and then harden, which may lead to epilepsy in children. How to do? We still use the old saying: try to improve the child’s immunity to reduce
Many people think: “There is a black line on the back teeth? This is not easy. When brushing your teeth, brush more often there, and brush your teeth often. If you can’t, just wash your teeth.” Is it really that simple? When black lines appear on the posterior teeth, no matter whether brushing or washing the teeth, the symptoms are not permanent and have no effect. The cause of the black line is the back tooth, which we often say, the first molar and the second molar. It is the main tooth for grinding food, and it is also the hardest and largest tooth. First, we need to understand the structure of the posterior teeth fossa sulcus, namely the developmental sulcus. The surface of the posterior teeth is the occlusal surface, which generally has four raised angles, which are developed from the tooth germ. Gully point gaps are formed between the four ridges. The shape of these gullies is different, and these gullies are most likely to adhere to the accumulation of dirt bacteria to form fissure caries. The shape of fissures is ever-changing. Everyone’s appearance is different, but there will generally be obvious black lines. The shape of the fissures is closely related to the rate of progress of caries. The fissure is not easy to clean. When caries occur in the fissure, the damage starts from the side of the fissure (determined by the glaze column and density), and finally extends to the bottom of the fissure. When the fissures further develop and reach the dentin layer, The rate of caries will increase. Until the pulp is corroded, the pain begins. What does the black line indicate? Once a black line appears in the tooth groove, unfortunately, it means that you have tooth decay! Don’t simply think that it is only pigment accumulation. Early tooth decay has no cavities. Usually, you don’t pay attention to gargle after meals. It is easy to cause food residues to accumulate and provide nutrition for oral bacteria. In the saliva environment, it leads to the tooth surface (enamel) destroyed. Some people may think that after so long, the black line just becomes thicker without toothache. If you think it’s okay now, it’s dragged on for 1~2 years. You think about it. The oral bacterial corrosion cannot stop at all, many people report When a black cavity appears, the dentin is destroyed and the caries cavity will become larger. The early posterior teeth have cavities and there is no obvious caries. Most of them have black hook lines on the occlusal surface. Many patients think that it is pigmentation. When washing the teeth, they always ask to try to wash it away. I don’t know that it is actually caries. Bad. There are three main stages in its development: 1. Tooth decay is basically formed, bacteria are attached to the gully, and black lines are formed on the surface of the tooth. 2. The decayed tooth erodes into the inside of the dentin, and when eating and drinking, it will feel uncomfortable when it is hot, cold and sour, and it also develops into a larger cavity from the original black line. 3. Tooth decay continues to develop and invade the pulp. At this time, there is obvious pain, and the caries are larger. If it continues to develop, the entire tooth will rot. How to prevent 1. The method of brushing your teeth should be correctly checked online for correct brushing videos, each time you brush your teeth for at least 3 minutes, it must be thorough, and it should not give any space for bacteria to accumulate. 2. Serious tooth deformity should be corrected. The lower teeth are overcrowded, resulting in large deformities in the angle of the teeth. This will cause great difficulty in brushing teeth. Many bacteria cannot be cleaned by brushing teeth in time, and they will form bad odors over time. And, there are a lot of calculus and caries, which is a great threat to the health of teeth. 3. Closing pits and grooves is not only for children, but also for adults. This can effectively prevent the accumulation of bacteria in the pits and grooves, and thus can play a good role in preventing caries in the pits and grooves.  . How to treat 01 The corresponding treatment of the first stage of pit and fissure in most adults is basically in the first stage. In this state, if economic conditions allow, it is best to do pit and fissure closure. It is to clean the ditch and fill it with resin. 02 The corresponding treatment of fissure caries in the second stage has spread to both sides, and the cavity has been formed. In this case, there are obvious, large, irregular black holes in the ditch. It is easy to recognize by the naked eye. Before there is no pain or discomfort, go to the dentistry, remove the black caries, and fill it with filling materials to prevent the caries from developing and protect the teeth. 03The treatment of fissure caries corresponding to the third stage has reached this point, which is not good. Bacteria have eroded the pulp of the tooth, spontaneous pain, provoking pain, hot and sour pain, accompanied by systemic symptoms. In this case, take a look at the situation first. In the actual operation process, the penetrating size is judged, and if it is not transparent, it can be treated conservatively (same as the second stage method, bottom, supplement). If it is completely dark, the pulp is bare. Can only do root canal treatment, then fill, and finally put a crown after treatment. Well, today’s science is here, thank you for browsing, more knowledge about dental health, follow me @牙矫正徐巍娜医生, leave a message
Nowadays, with the continuous development of science and technology, traditional nursing methods are gradually replaced, the exploration of the oral cavity is getting deeper and deeper, and more secrets about the oral cavity are discovered one by one. Next, I will share with you some uncommon knowledge about the oral cavity. 1. Every tooth is unique Teeth are like fingerprints, everyone’s teeth are unique. Everyone’s teeth have different occlusions, arrangement, etc. Even twins do not have the same teeth, which is why dental records are sometimes used to identify the remains. 2. Teeth are very similar to icebergs. As the saying goes, “the tip of the iceberg”, it means that only a small part of the thing is exposed, and so are the teeth. About two-thirds of the teeth are buried under the gums, which is why keeping gums healthy is as important as keeping teeth healthy. Healthy gums can ensure that the teeth are strong, so that biting and chewing food with your teeth will have a lot of strength. 3. Adults have 32 teeth. Normal adults have 32 teeth in their mouths: 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars, 8 rear molars, and 4 wisdom teeth. 4. Tooth enamel is the hardest part of the body Tooth enamel is the outermost layer of the tooth, protecting the fragile part inside the tooth like a hard shell. Enamel is mainly composed of calcium and phosphate, just like your bones, it is very strong. 5. The enamel will be bad The enamel is firm and brittle. In other words, although the tooth enamel is very hard, it is brittle, and biting hard objects or external impact will cause it to crack or break. In addition, sugar and acid interact with bacteria in the mouth, constantly eroding tooth enamel, and eventually form tooth decay. 6. Yellow or black teeth are unhealthy The color of the tooth itself is white to yellow, the outer enamel is translucent, slightly reveals the yellow of the inner enamel, but the overall color is not very heavy. People who drink coffee and tea and smoke for a long time have yellow teeth stained with the accumulation of smoke stains, tea stains and calculus, and bacteria adhere to the teeth, causing dental diseases. When the teeth begin to decay, they will turn yellow and slowly evolve into black, so teeth that are too yellow or blackened may indicate the occurrence of disease. 7. Dentin is renewable. In human life, three kinds of dentin will be formed: primary dentin, secondary dentin and restorative dentin. The primary tooth is the dentin formed during tooth formation. After the apical foramen is formed, the secondary dentin continues to form. After tooth eruption due to wear, caries and other external stimuli, the restorative dentin is formed. . Dentin continues to grow and change throughout your life. 8. There are more than 400 kinds of bacteria in the mouth There are more than 400 kinds of bacteria in the human mouth, which is called the “bacteria” team. These bacteria check and balance each other to maintain the stability of the oral environment. When one of the bacteria overproliferates, it will break this calm and cause oral diseases. 9. Dental plaque is the enemy of dental health. Dental plaque is formed by the reaction of bacteria in the mouth and saliva. It will adhere to the surface of the teeth and cannot be removed by mouthwash. It can only be done by brushing, flossing and cleaning. Way. plaque will continue to form. If it is not removed in time, the plaque will harden to form calculus after 24 hours. Therefore, brush your teeth at least twice a day, use auxiliary tools such as dental floss, and regularly meet with the dentist to clean your teeth. 10. A person’s life will produce about 40,000 liters of saliva. A person’s body produces about 1.5 liters of saliva every day, and about 40,000 liters of saliva will be produced during a lifetime. Saliva plays many important roles in your health. For example, it can moisten the mouth, soften food and facilitate swallowing. Mucin in saliva can protect the gastric mucosa and increase the anti-corrosive effect of the gastric mucosa. Saliva can also remove food debris and foreign bodies in the mouth, keeping the mouth clean. In addition, saliva also contains lysozyme, which has a bactericidal effect.
Sperm is an indispensable condition for gestating a new life. The emergence of dead sperm disease will directly affect the quantity and quality of sperm, thus leading to the occurrence of male infertility. For men’s own health and the complete happiness of the family, it is necessary to treat as early as possible if death spermia is found. So what are the dangers of dead spermosis to men? Today Lanzhou Long University Hospital (www.lzldyy.cn) takes everyone to take a closer look. What are the hazards of male spermosis in Lanzhou? One: Is the sperm disease more harmful? The one sperm disease is inflammatory infection. Bacteria in the urethra often sneak into the prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, epididymis, and testes through ejaculatory ducts, causing inflammatory and reproductive infections, leading to prostatitis, seminal vesiculitis, vas deferens, and epididymitis. When bacteria reproduce in the reproductive tract, they will secrete some harmful substances and destroy sperm. Bacteria reproduction also needs to consume a lot of nutrients to reduce the nutrients for sperm survival, destroy the environment for sperm survival, and cause sperm to die. The acidic product of the male genital tract reduces the pH value of the male reproductive tract, causing acidosis in the sperm. Bacteria reproduction also consumes a lot of oxygen, causing the sperm to die due to lack of oxygen. Causes death syndrome. Two: Is the harm of dead sperm disease? The harm of dead sperm disease 2: Infertility. The main cause of dead sperm disease is inflammation of the sex glands and vas deferens. The infection consumes a lot of essential nutrients or trace element zinc that the sperm depends on, or changes in the pH of the semen, and the presence of anti-sperm antibodies and other factors, which destroys the environment in which the sperm survives and kills the sperm. Sperm death can not conceive a woman, which leads to infertility. If you have any questions, you can directly click on the online consultation or call the health hotline: 0931-4523019 for consultation and understanding. I wish you a speedy recovery! Lanzhou Longda Male Hospital Address: Industry and Trade Building, No. 1, Gaolan Road, Chengguan District, Lanzhou City. Lanzhou Longda Male Hospital Website: www.lzldyy.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .&bb. com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:www.lzldyy.cn
We all know that girls can’t “pop” when they come to Great Aunt, but why? 1. “Blood scene”: This is the most direct consequence of the aunt’s bang during the period. Are you afraid? 2. Menstrual disorders: Female pelvic congestion during sexual excitement, increased blood flow may lead to increased menstrual volume and prolonged cycle, too much blood loss! Are you afraid? 3. Female reproductive system infection: blood is the best breeding ground for bacteria, when the bacteria in the perineum area are brought into the reproductive tract, and the endometrium is falling off again, there is a break, the bacteria are swarming Enter to start building your own empire! Gynecological inflammation! Are you afraid? 4. Unexpected pregnancy: what? ! pregnancy? ! Are you mistaken? ! That’s right, some people have a short menstrual cycle, and sperm can survive for 3 days in a suitable environment. After 3 days, they continue to swim. This is reported, although rarely. Pregnant! Are you afraid? 5. Direct “hiccup”: Can you die? ! Yes! During orgasm, the uterus and vagina contract intermittently, coupled with the bleeding itself, the blood vessels are open, and the gas is squeezed into it during the slap, and it just squeezes a lot into the blood vessel-gas embolism-directly “burps”. There have been reports, although very few. “Hiccup”! Are you afraid? Conclusion: The physiological cycle needs to be cultivated, and your body needs to be protected! Follow me, you will know more health knowledge!
It is easy to cause tooth decay due to bad living habits, so how to prevent tooth decay effectively? First, develop a good brushing habit . . . . . . . . Develop a good brushing habit in order to reduce the bacteria and plaque adhering to the tooth surface, the correct way is: early, Once each night. You can rinse your mouth with water after a meal to ensure your mouth is fresh. Second, eat less sugary foods . . . . . . . Oral bacteria often use sugar fermentation to produce acid to corrode teeth, so many people in daily life especially children like tooth sweets, know how to prevent Tooth decay should eat as little sweets as possible, especially don’t have sweets or snacks before going to bed. Finally, fluoride prevents dental caries: Fluorine can enhance the structure of teeth and bones, and can also inhibit bacterial growth and acid production. Many toothpastes on the market mostly contain fluorine, and the mouthwashes that are popular nowadays also contain fluorine, so use fluoride-containing toothpaste as little as possible.
It is another summer. Every summer, the gynecological clinic is extremely busy, and there will be more patients than usual. The temperature and humidity in summer are too suitable for the breeding of bacterial pathogens, which is often the frequent season of some common minor diseases. Here I would like to share with my female friends some things that you should pay attention to to keep your private parts healthy in summer. Is the lotion really “cleaner to wash”?  . Women are usually taught to maintain hygiene when they are young and cleaned every day under the guidance of adults. However, with the growth of age and the influence of various external propaganda, many women have begun to choose lotions and Chinese medicines on the market to clean, or use fumigation and other methods to clean. But as far as the lotion is concerned, the lotion has a certain inhibitory effect on bacteria. However, the so-called “inhibition effect” means that after the drug effect passes, the bacteria will resume activity again. At the same time, the bacteria that were originally resident in the privacy will also be suppressed. When the activity is restored again, it will often recover more slowly than the dominant infected bacteria, which may increase the chance of vaginitis. For the cleaning of private parts, I have two tips: for most normal women, there is no need to take special methods such as lotion. Scrubbing the vulva with water every night can prevent the growth of bacteria and maintain a balanced vaginal environment. If you have time, you can wash again after getting up in the morning to keep your day fresh. The cleaning plan of patients with gynecological diseases will be “appropriate for the disease”, and specific questions need to follow the doctor’s guidance. How to wear, more conducive to refreshing?  . In summer, women’s private parts will produce more sweat, which provides a good environment for the growth of bacterial viruses. In order to stay fresh, I have the following suggestions when choosing to wear: Try to choose cotton for underwear to ensure breathability and sweat absorption; dress as loose as possible, although tight-fitting clothes are fashionable, but not conducive to keeping dry and avoid friction; if the environment is bad, avoid Choose a dress. In addition, when choosing sanitary napkins, in addition to the production date of the packaging, you should also pay attention to choosing products with good air permeability, soft texture, and no pigments and other additives. During non-menstrual periods, pads are not recommended. Stay regular and maintain a healthy state. Although work units are usually air-conditioned, sitting for a long time will also increase the local temperature and create an environment suitable for the breeding of bacteria. On the other hand, there may be more nightlife in summer, and lack of sleep may lead to decreased immunity and cause a series of problems. In terms of work and rest, I have the following suggestions: For long-time desk workers, it is recommended to get up and move for 3 to 5 minutes per hour; if the working environment is bad, it is recommended to bathe or wash immediately after get off work; maintain good work and rest habits; exercise properly.  . Reasonable diet to ensure balanced nutrition. Many female friends may have experience of overeating or dieting to lose weight. Many people lose weight due to overeating and excessive dieting. After eating and losing weight, there are also many overeating. These are obviously unhealthy.  . For personal observation only, vaginitis and hormone level disorders caused by weight loss are more common in recent years, so the dietary recommendations are: to ensure that basic energy substances such as sugar and protein are adequately supplemented; supplement vitamins and dietary fiber; supplement A lot of water.  . In the same room, please pay attention to the problems in the same room. I would like to mention the following points: pay attention to cleaning before and after the same room, and still scrub with fresh water; please do it after both parties have agreed and fully brewed, because most vaginal mucosal damage is the same room process Caused by the cause; pay attention to the end of the matter; remember to adopt safety measures when there is no pregnancy in the near future or when the other party’s health cannot be confirmed.  . Summer travel articles Summer vacations make people yearn for, but there are many things to pay attention to in tourism, don’t let those “worries” destroy the good mood of tourism. In addition to the above problems, there are some things to pay attention to when traveling abroad: 1. Underwear is stored separately. Try to choose underwear with good breathability and avoid putting it together with outerwear. Some women choose disposable underwear when they go out, which is not bad. In addition, it is not recommended to wash underwear during the trip. On the one hand, the cleanliness of the water source cannot be guaranteed. On the other hand, there is no way to guarantee drying and sun disinfection. This has left hidden dangers for gynecological inflammation and urinary system infection.  . .2. Bring personal bed sheets and quilts when necessary. The sanitary conditions of most chain hotels are in line with national regulations. In addition to choosing regular hotels, you can bring bed sheets and quilts according to your personal habits.
Bacteria in the gut have both advantages and disadvantages. These so-called “microorganisms” help us digest food and expel infectious germs. However, intestinal bacteria are also associated with allergies and obesity. Now, a new study adds a more likely disease, rheumatoid arthritis, to the list of diseases related to intestinal bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis is a mysterious disease that occurs at any age, but usually begins in young and middle-aged people, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints of the hands and feet. Rheumatoid arthritis can also damage bones and cartilage, which in turn can damage organs such as the lungs and kidneys. Scientists are not sure what caused rheumatoid arthritis, but knowing it is an autoimmune disease means that the body’s immune system is attacking its own tissues, and the immune system is where the intestinal bacteria intervene . The intestinal bacteria have a complex relationship with the immune system, which requires both the ability to tolerate beneficial bacteria and the need to identify and fight invading bacteria. The research team led by Dan Litman, an immunologist at New York University in the United States, learned that the intestinal bacteria of mice used for experiments have a very important role in the development of a special immune cell Th17. When a certain bacteria appears in the intestine At this time, it will stimulate the immune system to produce Th17, which in turn will release molecules that cause inflammation and damage bones in arthritis. Litman wondered whether human rheumatoid arthritis may also be caused by special intestinal bacteria. His research team tested the stool samples of 114 residents in New York City, some of them were healthy, some had rheumatoid arthritis for many years, and some had psoriatic arthritis (another unknown cause) Autoimmune diseases), the rest have only recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. In the end, the members of this group are particularly important, because although they have rheumatoid arthritis, they have not been treated. The researchers reported in the online version of the magazine “E-Life” that in the last group, a type of Przewalski called “P.copri” is present in 75% of patients’ intestines. However, in patients with long-term rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis, only 37% of patients have this kind of bacteria in the intestine, while in healthy people, 21% of people in the intestine have this kind of bacteria. bacterial. However, the results of this study are not sufficient to prove that P.copri is the manipulator behind rheumatoid arthritis, only to prove that this bacterium is often present with arthritis. Genetic factors and other environmental factors, such as smoking, are also associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, even if P.copri is the cause of the disease, it does not necessarily work alone. In order to direct the research to P.copri, Litman’s team infected mice with a laboratory-cultivated P.copri. P.copri settled easily, and the researchers found that the inflammation in mice was getting worse, especially It is inflammation in the intestine. Although these mice did not suffer from arthritis, Litman said that the increased intestinal inflammation confirms this view: intestinal bacteria are stimulating the development of immune cells, which in turn attack other parts of the body. Diane Mathis, an immunologist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, said the findings could lead to new therapies for preventing or treating rheumatoid arthritis. At present, some medicines for arthritis can cause terrible side effects-which may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, and may also cause serious infections. Litman said that perhaps, antibiotics can be used to attack P.copri, or probiotic tablets filled with beneficial bacteria can be squeezed out. Either way, one day, it may be possible to relieve joint pain by focusing on the patient’s intestines.
When it is found that obvious symptoms have grown locally, some people think that it is ordinary acne, and they scratch it directly with their hands without going to the hospital for examination, and even buckle the wart body. However, it is absolutely wrong to buckle the warts by hand, which will not only spread the virus, but also cause new warts to grow elsewhere. The result of scratching or buckling condyloma acuminatum by hand: 1, ulcer bleeding. The warts of condyloma acuminatum are usually moist and soft, with keratinized edges and easy to bleed when touched. If you directly grasp or buckle the wart body, it is easy to cause the rupture and bleeding of the diseased tissue, causing local ulcers and increasing patient pain. 2. Bacterial infection. Scientific experiments have proved that there are up to 800,000 bacteria in a pair of unwashed hands, and only 3.8 billion bacteria are hidden in a tiny gram of nail stains. If you directly buckle genital warts by hand, it is also easy to cause local bacterial infections, causing the condition to become serious. In fact, whether to grow warts depends on whether the patient still has HPV virus in the body. HPV virus is located in the spine layer and basal layer of the epidermal cells of the infection site, which is the cause of condyloma acuminatum. Laser, freezing, electrocautery, surgery, etc. just remove the diseased tissue, and can not go deep into the body to remove the latent virus. When the patient’s immunity drops, the virus will come back and grow new warts again.
What should I do if I can’t finish the meals I cook at night? Many people put them in the refrigerator for one night, and it is inevitable to eat overnight dishes. There are also many office workers who feel unhealthy and uncomfortable eating takeout, deliberately prepare more meals, and go to work the next day for lunch. Eating overnight dishes on the Internet for a long time may cause cancer, which has caused many people to drum up. Is it really unsafe to eat overnight dishes? How to distinguish whether night dishes can be eaten? After reading this article, you will know that in fact, overnight dishes in these cases can be eaten. Overnight water for one night is more important than overnight, in fact, we should consider the time of the water. Under normal circumstances, considering the time required for bacterial reproduction, it is calculated as one generation of bacteria every half hour. Before the germs multiply (before entering the peak of the logarithmic growth period), 6-8 hours of rest time do not need to worry.  . So the overnight water, the lid of the water that was burned before going to bed, you can still drink it when you wake up the next morning! Everyone, remember to wake up early with a glass of water! Overnight tea is said to be overnight tea, but there are many people who like to drink tea. A pack of tea is brewed from 9 am until it is still drinking at night. This time is longer than “overnight”! Some friends will say that overnight tea causes cancer? After the tea water has been exposed to the air for a long time to oxidize, the tea water does produce nitrosamines. This kind of substance is probably what causes people to say that it is carcinogenic. However, the amount of nitrosamines it actually produces is insignificant and is not sufficient to produce a carcinogenic effect. Furthermore, tea polyphenols, vitamin C and other substances contained in tea are natural anti-cancer substances, and their anti-cancer mechanism is exerted through the action of nitrosamines.  . . So, drinking the overnight tea once in a while has no serious consequences. But be careful not to leave the tea too long, it should be poured! Of course, if the tea is already flavored, it is absolutely impossible to drink again~ Someone asked the egg overnight, if you boiled the egg accidentally, or if you cooked the egg the night before and put it for breakfast the next day, can this be done? eat?  . If you boiled hard-boiled eggs, and stored at low temperature, sealed, generally no problem for 48 hours;  . If you boiled half-boiled soft-boiled eggs, may contain salmonella and other pathogenic bacterial. This kind of egg is stored for a long time, it is very easy to be contaminated by bacteria, it is not recommended to eat; overnight soup Some people have not finished the soup that was boiled the day before, so they leave to prepare the next day. I always feel reluctant to dump it. This taste is much better than ordinary noodle soup~ . This soup is okay to drink overnight, but please note: do not put salt seasoning during storage. After the soup is cooked, scoop it out with a clean spoon After cooling, use a glass or ceramic container to store in the refrigerator; heat and boil the next day before eating. In addition, the contents of the broth stored overnight may change, there will be more purine, people with high uric acid may have to pay attention. Overnight dishes Everyone knows that overnight dishes are not eaten well, but people who cook are always very difficult: if you cook less, you don’t eat enough, and if you cook more, it becomes leftovers! &Nbsp. The nitrite in overnight vegetables is generally converted from nitrate in vegetables, and the nitrate in vegetables mostly comes from the nitrogen in the environment, especially nitrogen fertilizer. The salt is reduced to nitrite. Therefore, nitrate and nitrite are generally found in vegetables. However, the types of vegetables, planting methods, and nitrogen fertilizer levels all affect the amount of nitrate and nitrite. Beans, cucumbers, onions and other vegetables have very low nitrite content, and spinach and other leafy vegetables have correspondingly higher nitrite content. However, compared with the national standard for pickled vegetables, the nitrite content does not exceed 20 mg/kg. Nitrite content is minimal. During the cooking process, the reductase in the vegetables has been destroyed, and some bacteria also have nitroreductase, so the nitrite content in the leftover food is mainly determined by the degree of bacterial contamination and the storage conditions of the leftover food. Bacteria take a long time. Without refrigeration, the bacteria will multiply and the nitrite produced will increase. If the meal is cooked and then set aside to refrigerate, the chance of being infected by bacteria is very small, and the content of nitrite will not be much. Therefore, if the overnight dishes are handled properly, you can eat with confidence.  . It should be noted that it must be kept in the refrigerator. The biggest safety hazard of overnight dishes is deterioration. In addition, consumers should pay attention to freshness when choosing vegetables, not fresh or even rotten
Bacteria in the intestines have both advantages and disadvantages. These so-called “microorganisms” help us digest food and expel infectious germs. However, intestinal bacteria are also associated with allergies and obesity. Now, a new study adds a more likely disease, rheumatoid arthritis, to the list of diseases related to intestinal bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis is a mysterious disease that occurs at any age, but usually begins in middle and young age, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints of the hands and feet. Rheumatoid arthritis can also damage bones and cartilage, which in turn can damage organs such as the lungs and kidneys. Scientists are not sure what caused rheumatoid arthritis, but knowing it is an autoimmune disease means that the body’s immune system is attacking its own tissues, and the immune system is where the intestinal bacteria intervene . There is a complex relationship between intestinal bacteria and the immune system. It is necessary to have the ability to tolerate beneficial bacteria, but also to identify and fight invading bacteria. The research team led by Dan Litman, an immunologist at New York University in the United States, learned that the intestinal bacteria of mice used for experiments have an important role in the development of a special immune cell Th17. When a certain bacteria appears in the intestine At this time, it will stimulate the immune system to produce Th17, which in turn will release molecules that cause inflammation and damage bones in arthritis. Litman wants to know whether human rheumatoid arthritis may also be caused by special intestinal bacteria. His research team tested the stool samples of 114 residents in New York City, some of them were healthy, some had rheumatoid arthritis for many years, and some had psoriatic arthritis (another unknown cause) Autoimmune diseases), the rest have only recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. In the end, the members of this group are particularly important, because although they have rheumatoid arthritis, they have not been treated. The researchers reported in the online version of the magazine “E-Life” that in the last group, a type of Przewalski called “P. copri” is present in 75% of patients’ intestines. However, in patients with long-term rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis, only 37% of patients have this kind of bacteria in the intestine, while in healthy people, 21% of people in the intestine have this kind of bacteria. bacterial. However, the results of this study are not sufficient to prove that P.copri is the manipulator behind rheumatoid arthritis. It can only be proved that this bacterium is often with arthritis. Genetic factors and other environmental factors, such as smoking, are also associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, even if P.copri is the cause of the disease, it does not necessarily work alone. In order to direct the research to P.copri, Litman’s team infected mice with a laboratory-cultivated P.copri. P.copri settled easily, and the researchers found that the inflammation in mice was getting worse, especially It is inflammation in the intestine. Although these mice did not suffer from arthritis, Litman said that the increased intestinal inflammation confirms this view: intestinal bacteria are stimulating the development of immune cells, which in turn attack other parts of the body. Dian Mathis, an immunologist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, said the findings could lead to new therapies for preventing or treating rheumatoid arthritis. At present, some medicines for arthritis can cause terrible side effects-which may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, and may also cause serious infections. Litman said that perhaps, antibiotics can be used to attack P.copri, or probiotic tablets filled with beneficial bacteria can be squeezed out. Either way, one day, it may be possible to relieve joint pain by focusing on the patient’s intestines.
Under normal circumstances, the treatment of female urethritis is relatively easy to repeat, which is generally related to the special physiological structure of women. (1) Adhere to the large amount of urine excreted by the kidneys, which has a flushing effect on the bladder and urethra, which is beneficial to the discharge of bacteria. Drinking plenty of water every day and urinating once every 2 to 3 hours can prevent the reproduction of bacteria in the urinary tract and can reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections. This is the most practical and effective way to prevent urinary tract infections. In the onset or remission stage of the disease, drinking plenty of water every day is also conducive to the recovery of the disease. Drinking tea water or light bamboo leaf substitute tea also has a certain preventive effect. (2) Pay attention to personal hygiene Female genitals and urethra harbor a lot of bacteria, which is a prerequisite for urinary tract infections. Therefore, you should always pay attention to the cleaning of the genitals, take a shower, and don’t use the pool or tub baths, and change your underwear frequently. You should pay special attention to weddings, menstruation, pregnancy, and puerperium. The baby girl needs to change diapers frequently. (3) Try to avoid the use of urinary tract infection equipment and intubation. Urinary tract equipment is easy to bring bacteria in the distal urethra into the bladder and upper urinary tract. After urinary tract catheterization, persistent bacteriuria is prone to occur. Therefore, it should be avoided as much as possible. When it must be used, it should be strictly sterilized. After 48 hours of urinary tract equipment use, urine culture should be performed to observe whether a urinary tract infection occurs. Before checking with a urinary tract device, patients who already have bacterial urine should first control the infection. Although some patients did not have bacterial urine at that time, they had a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or abnormal urinary tracts. It is advisable to take antibiotics to prevent infections during the urinary tract examination or 48 hours before and after. In the first three days of indwelling catheterization, the administration of antibacterial drugs can prevent or delay the occurrence of urinary tract infections, but administration after 3 days has no preventive effect. In addition, the closed drainage system connected to the urinary tract indwelling catheter can significantly reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections.
#诊间故事# . Fan question: female, 20 years old. I want to ask. Can I get band-aid now? Because it’s a bit painful and edema inside now.  . . . . . .@爱问医生科普 . The summer weather is hot and sweaty, and some skin breaks are prone to secondary bacterial infections. Under what circumstances can we use Band-Aid?  . . . . . . .@爱问医生皮肤科 . Now this situation is not suitable for using Band-Aids. Now that the skin infection is significantly purulent, then use a band-aid package inside to make it airtight, and the non-ventilated bacteria will multiply faster.  . . . . . . .@微博健康医疗 . Try to come to the hospital clinic for dressing and debridement, and then use antibiotic ointment, such as mupirocin ointment or ciprofloxacin ointment, etc. When necessary, oral antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, can be taken. Keep clean, dry, ventilated and ventilated. Don’t sweat, don’t get wet, don’t make the infection worse.  . . . . . . . Band-Aid is suitable for new wounds, no infection after trauma. We used Band-Aid, which can isolate the air and bacteria to prevent infection and promote wound healing. However, the wound is already infected, there is no debridement, and it is not suitable to use the bandage without medication. People often use Band-Aid, what do you think? Please leave a message in the message area and interact with me to share the experience. #名医服务月##妇幼健康咨询#
Bacteria in the intestines have both pros and cons. These so-called “microorganisms” help us digest food and expel infectious germs. However, intestinal bacteria are also associated with allergies and obesity. Now, a new study adds a more likely disease, rheumatoid arthritis, to the list of diseases related to intestinal bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis is a mysterious disease that occurs at any age, but usually begins in young and middle-aged people, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints of the hands and feet. Rheumatoid arthritis can also damage bones and cartilage, which in turn can damage organs such as the lungs and kidneys. Scientists are not sure what caused rheumatoid arthritis, but knowing it is an autoimmune disease means that the body’s immune system is attacking its own tissues, and the immune system is where the intestinal bacteria intervene . There is a complex relationship between intestinal bacteria and the immune system. It is necessary to have the ability to tolerate beneficial bacteria, but also to identify and fight invading bacteria. The research team led by Dan Litman, an immunologist at New York University in the United States, learned that the intestinal bacteria of mice used for experiments have an important role in the development of a special immune cell Th17. When a certain bacteria appears in the intestine At this time, it will stimulate the immune system to produce Th17, which in turn will release molecules that cause inflammation and damage bones in arthritis. Litman wants to know whether human rheumatoid arthritis may also be caused by special intestinal bacteria. His research team tested stool samples from 114 residents in New York City, some of them healthy, some with rheumatoid arthritis for many years, and some with psoriatic arthritis (another unknown cause) Autoimmune diseases), the rest have only recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. In the end, the members of this group are particularly important, because although they have rheumatoid arthritis, they have not been treated. Researchers reported in the online version of the journal “E-Life” that in the last group, a type of Przemonium called “P. copri” is present in 75% of patients’ intestines. However, in patients with long-term rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis, only 37% of patients have this bacteria in the intestine, while in healthy people, 21% of people in the intestinal tract have this kind of bacteria. bacterial. However, the results of this study are not enough to prove that P.copri is the manipulator behind rheumatoid arthritis, only to prove that this bacterium is often with arthritis. Genetic factors and other environmental factors, such as smoking, are also associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, even if P.copri is the cause of the disease, it does not necessarily work alone. In order to direct the research to P.copri, Litman’s team infected mice with a laboratory-cultivated P.copri. P.copri easily settled, and the researchers found that the inflammation in mice was getting worse, especially It is inflammation in the intestine. Although these mice did not suffer from arthritis, Litman said the increased intestinal inflammation confirms this view: intestinal bacteria are stimulating the development of immune cells, which in turn attack other parts of the body. Dian Mathis, an immunologist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, said these findings could lead to the emergence of new therapies for preventing or treating rheumatoid arthritis. At present, some medicines for arthritis can cause terrible side effects-which may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, and may also cause serious infections. Litman said that perhaps, antibiotics can be used to attack P.copri, or probiotic tablets filled with beneficial bacteria can be squeezed out. Either way, one day, it may be possible to relieve joint pain by focusing on the patient’s intestines.