Diabetes has these symptoms, suggesting that complications have occurred. Doing this well can help reduce complications

For friends with diabetes, high blood sugar itself is actually nothing, but the complications of diabetes caused by long-term uncontrolled high blood sugar is the real point of harm to the body. What are the complications of diabetes, and what are the complications of diabetes? Today I will give you a brief introduction. Acute Complications of Diabetes Complications of diabetes do not necessarily appear gradually in the course of the development of long-term diabetes. There are also some complications of diabetes. The risk of acute attacks due to severe disturbance of glucose metabolism. Such complications The risks also deserve our attention. Common acute complications of diabetes include ketoacidosis and osmotic coma caused by severely elevated blood sugar. It usually occurs when the blood glucose level is severely exceeded, which is caused by the body’s blood glucose metabolism and severe metabolic disturbances such as fat, protein, and electrolyte metabolism. Ketoacidosis is an acute complication of diabetes caused by the abnormal secretion of various hormones in the body, which disrupts the balance of hormone levels in the body, resulting in an imbalance in the metabolism of various substances in the body. It is usually characterized by high blood sugar, high blood ketones, and metabolic acidosis. Mild acidosis may cause polyuria, increased symptoms of polydipsia, and dehydration of the body, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, low appetite, etc. In severe cases, there will be mental depression, drowsiness, and coma Symptoms such as severe ketoacidosis can cause problems such as hypotension, cerebral edema, shock, kidney failure, and even life-threatening events. Hyperosmolar coma is another acute complication of diabetic patients. This situation is the same as ketoacidosis, and there are problems such as dehydration and electrolyte loss. The symptoms are similar, but the symptoms of dehydration, neurological disorders, and coma are more typical symptoms. In addition to the above two kinds of acute complications, people with diabetes should also pay attention to the risk of acute complications such as lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia coma. To reduce the risk of acute complications, it is necessary to actively strengthen the regulation and control of blood sugar. Reduce the possibility of a sharp rise in blood sugar and sharp fluctuations, control the blood sugar to reach the standard, and the risk of acute complications of diabetes will be greatly reduced. Compared with acute complications, chronic complications of diabetes tend to develop slowly, but the health risks to the body are not small. There are many types of chronic complications of diabetes, which are mainly divided into two categories: macrovascular complications and microvascular complications. The major vascular complications of diabetes mainly refer to the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases caused by high blood sugar causing atherosclerosis. Hyperglycemia cannot be effectively controlled. Long-term hypertension can cause an inflammatory reaction of the endothelial cells of the blood vessel wall, leading to accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, most people with diabetes are at high risk of cardiovascular disease. . Therefore, for diabetics, actively controlling blood sugar is an important aspect of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. While actively controlling blood sugar, we must also pay attention to the active regulation of high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia, as well as some bad habits in life The impact should also be removed and improved as much as possible. Only in this way can the risk of cardiovascular complications of diabetes be better reduced. The types of microvascular complications of diabetes are more diverse, mainly including diabetic nephropathy complications of diabetic kidney function changes, diabetic complications of neuropathy, ocular complications of ocular fundus lesions caused by diabetes, and changes in the feet and legs caused by diabetes Many diabetic foot complications and so on, these complications gradually occur, but if you do not pay attention to control, it will gradually increase, which may lead to kidney failure, blindness, amputation and other risks, is also a very serious problem. If you have chest tightness and chest pain during diabetes control, you may wish to quickly check the cardiovascular health problems to see if there is a cardiovascular complication of diabetes; if you have a trace of physical examination during diabetes control The problem of proteinuria, even the problem of elevated creatinine, may be that diabetes has gradually affected your kidney health (diabetic nephropathy); if during the period of diabetes control, there are neurological symptoms such as limb numbness, pain, and abnormal sensation, Complications of diabetic neuropathy may have begun to occur. During the period of diabetes control, blurred vision, eye fatigue, blurred vision, bleeding of the fundus, etc. may occur

Suffering from severe pharyngitis, how to adjust the body in daily life? Doctor’s 2 point analysis to help

Pharyngitis is a common upper respiratory tract disease, which is divided into acute and chronic. When pharyngitis is acute, there is often throat pain, foreign body sensation, and burning sensation. In severe cases, it can cause hoarseness and difficulty swallowing. Even chronic pharyngitis can cause long-term pharyngitis Discomfort, dryness and itching, and sometimes slight pain. In life, many people suffer from repeated acute attacks of pharyngitis and chronic pharyngitis, which sometimes seriously affects work, study and life, and can also lead to irritability. How should people with severe pharyngitis be relieved? Since there is no specific explanation for acute or chronic pharyngitis, then let’s talk about acute and chronic aspects. 1. Acute pharyngitis The main causes of acute attacks of pharyngitis are bacterial and viral infections. Viral infections are usually self-limiting and will resolve on their own within 3-5 days, and bacterial infections require the use of antibacterial drugs. Generally, the bacteria that cause acute pharyngitis are chain-linked Cocci are relatively common, so the antibacterial drugs that can be selected are macrolides such as penicillin, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, or roxithromycin. If there is obvious pain in the throat or burning sensation of foreign bodies during the period, symptomatic treatment of analgesic drugs such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen can be used appropriately, but the analgesic drugs should not be used continuously for more than 5 days. Chinese patent medicine for clearing throat and reducing throat. 2. Chronic pharyngitis The causes of chronic pharyngitis are more complex and diverse, such as long-term bacterial or mycoplasma infection, post-nasal drip syndrome, sleep apnea syndrome, gastroesophageal throat reflux, occupational exposure such as teachers, salespersons, etc. Smoking, drinking and eating spicy, grilled or fried foods can all cause chronic pharyngitis. Although the symptoms of chronic pharyngitis are relatively lighter than those of acute pharyngitis, they also have chronic symptoms such as dry throat, itching, and irritating cough. If you want a complete relief, you must first find out the cause. For example, if it is caused by post-nasal drip syndrome caused by nasal diseases such as chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps, adenoid hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis, etc., you can use sinus opening surgery, nasal Polypectomy, allergic rhinitis desensitization treatment, adenoidectomy and other methods; if it is caused by gastroesophageal reflux, you need to use drugs to protect the stomach and promote gastrointestinal motility; if due to diet and bad habits As a result, it is necessary to quit smoking and alcohol, avoid eating spicy, barbecue and fried food; if it is bacterial or mycoplasma infection, it is necessary to thoroughly antibacterial treatment. When there are discomforts such as dry throat and itching, you can use anti-allergic drugs or inhalation of topical glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation, or use Chinese patent medicines that have the effect of clearing heat and detoxifying and clearing the throat and throat. Effect. How to regulate the body in daily life? 1. Diet adjustment In addition to avoiding spicy, grilled and fried foods, eat more foods rich in vitamins and other nutrients, such as fruits and vegetables, usually drink plenty of water to prevent dry throat. 2. Strengthen exercise and enhance physical fitness Strengthen exercise and enhance physical fitness to prevent viral and bacterial infections and prevent chronic pharyngitis due to long-term bacterial infections. 3. Improve the living and working environment, such as staying away from oily smoke and dusty environment, or wearing a mask. When there is occupational exposure, we should pay attention to avoid excessive voice, and let the pharynx rest properly. In short, the throat is the gateway for our voice to communicate with the outside world, and it is also an organ that is easily injured. Prevention is better than cure. In our daily life, we should pay attention to protecting the throat and avoid the occurrence of pharyngitis. References: Meng Huiju, Liang Yi, He Yuejie, et al. Research progress in the treatment and prevention of chronic pharyngitis [J]. Chinese Journal of New Clinical Medicine, 2013, 6(12): 1221-1225 Owned by the original author, thanks to the author of the picture. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)

When the body appears these performances, it means that it is even bad! Need to check

Renal failure is a syndrome of decreased kidney function, metabolic disorders, and multiple system symptoms caused by various causes. Divided into acute renal failure and chronic renal failure. Acute kidney failure 1. The cause of acute kidney failure. Renal causes can lead to kidney failure. Renal ischemia, nephrotoxic substances, infections, allergies, nephritis, renal necrosis, lupus erythematosus, etc. can cause kidney damage. Contrast agents, heavy metals, snake venom It can also cause kidney damage. Other non-renal features include: surgery, trauma, shock, major bleeding, heart failure, sepsis, insufficient blood volume, etc. can cause kidney damage. Urinary tract obstruction caused by stones, tumors, blood clots, and enlarged prostate can also cause kidney damage. 2. Symptoms of acute renal failure 1. Initial period: there can be no symptoms, or hypotension or dizziness, nausea and embolism. 2. Maintenance period: oliguria or anuria, edema, nausea, loss of appetite, dyspnea, arrhythmia, anemia, etc. 3. Recovery period: polyuria, gradually returning to normal. Chronic Renal Failure 1. Common causes are nephritis, diabetes, and high blood pressure, such as glomerular disease, hypertensive renal arteriosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy are the three major causes of chronic renal failure. Second, the signs of chronic kidney failure When kidney failure will affect many systems, such as digestion, breathing, cardiovascular, nerves, and bones will suffer damage. Appetite, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, fatigue, headache, depression, anemia, bone disease. Treatment and prognosis must first find the cause of renal failure, remove the cause, and correct electrolyte disorders, such as hyperkalemia, so as not to cause sudden cardiac death; low-salt, low-protein, and low-phosphorus diets are recommended; late kidney dialysis treatment, the theory is kidney transplantation It is a good choice, but due to limited donors, it cannot meet the needs of most patients. Acute renal failure, if found early and treated early, remove the cause, most of the recovery is good; if combined with organ failure, the mortality rate is relatively high; chronic renal failure does not heal, it is difficult to improve, treatment time is long, often seriously affects the quality of life of patients , And finally combined with cardiovascular disease leading to death. Everyday emphasis is on prevention: controlling blood pressure, blood sugar, low-salt diet, quitting smoking and alcohol, controlling body weight, avoiding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc. are all conducive to preventing further deterioration of renal function.

Heart mitral regurgitation, severe? How should it be treated? Cardiologist clearly

When many people go to the hospital to check the heart, they will be prompted after cardiac ultrasound: mitral valve insufficiency, or tricuspid valve insufficiency; or mitral valve stenosis, tricuspid valve stenosis, etc. results. So what do these mitral and tricuspid valves mean? 1. The mitral valve is a simple part of the heart. Our heart has two atria: the left atrium and the right atrium; the two ventricles: the left heart failure and the right ventricle; a door is needed between the left atrium and the left ventricle. The atrium is separated from the left ventricle, and this door is called the mitral valve. Between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the tricuspid valve. 2. What is the role of the mitral valve? The mitral valve is a “one-way valve” to ensure blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle unidirectionally. When the heart contracts, the blood in the left ventricle must be transported to the whole body. Let the blood of the left ventricle flow back to the left atrium. At this time, the mitral valve will be closed, blocking the passage of the left atrium and the left ventricle. When the heart contraction ends, that is, once the blood is delivered to the whole body, the left ventricle is empty. At this time, the heart relaxes, and the blood needs to be sent from the left atrium through the mitral valve into the left ventricle again. Open, successfully complete the left ventricular congestion, ready for the next heart contraction. This mitral valve is to prevent the blood from the left ventricle from flowing back to the left atrium. 3. Mitral valve insufficiency The normal function of mitral valve closure depends on the complete structure and normal function of the five parts of the valve leaflet, annulus, chordae, papillary muscle, and left ventricle. Any one of these five parts occurs Abnormal structure and function can cause mitral regurgitation. That is, when the mitral valve needs to be closed, the door cannot be completely closed, then the result is that when the heart is contracting, when the left ventricle supplies blood, part of the blood will return to the left atrium. Very mild mitral valve insufficiency, without any discomfort, can only be found when doing heart color Doppler ultrasound; Moderate mitral valve insufficiency, there may be some chest tightness, breathlessness, difficulty in breathing, etc.; poisoning mitral Valve insufficiency, especially acute mitral valve insufficiency, can be life-threatening. 4. The causes of mitral insufficiency There are many reasons for mitral insufficiency, which are roughly divided into chronic and acute onset. Chronic mitral valve insufficiency: 1. Rheumatic heart disease: after rheumatic fever, it can cause rheumatic heart disease, the mitral valve can not be closed gradually, the mitral valve insufficiency caused by rheumatic heart accounts for all mitral One third of patients with insufficiency of flaps are more common in men. 2. Congenital heart disease: dysplasia of heart during fetal period, abnormal mitral valve development, congenital malformation, and mitral valve insufficiency at birth. It is most commonly seen in endocardial cushion defects or corrected heart transposition; endocardial elastin fibrosis; parachute mitral valve deformity. 3. Degeneration in the elderly: As the age increases, the mitral valve will gradually age, and patients with severe aging will not normally close due to calcification, which is more common in elderly women. 4. Enlargement of the left ventricle When the left ventricle is enlarged, that is, the house is enlarged, the door is not changed, and naturally the door is not fully closed. 5. Other diseases There are also some diseases such as connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.; hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy; ankylosing spondylitis and other diseases may cause incomplete mitral regurgitation. For patients with chronic mitral insufficiency, mild asymptomatic, can continue to observe, without medical treatment, medical treatment can not change mitral insufficiency. For those who have already developed symptoms or combined with heart failure, they need to be treated according to heart failure, heart failure, etc. to prevent the increase of heart failure. Acute mitral valve insufficiency Acute myocardial infarction often has some complications, such as rupture of tendon cord, necrosis of papillary muscle, etc., which will lead to acute mitral valve insufficiency, then it will lead to acute cardiac insufficiency, leading to acute left heart Fading, life-threatening. At this time, comprehensive rescue treatment is needed. For the mitral valve insufficiency that continues to worsen, surgical treatment is required to fundamentally resolve the mitral valve insufficiency. In short, when we finish the color Doppler ultrasound and find mitral regurgitation, we must first find the cause; and decide the next treatment plan, or observation, or medicine, or surgery according to the degree of mitral regurgitation. However, for the slow progress, mitral valve insufficiency that does not cause complications, and no need to be over-stressed, it is enough to regularly review the color Doppler ultrasound.

Discussion on Treatment of Acute Leukemia with Chinese Medicine

Leukemia is a malignant disease originating from hematopoietic stem cells. The clinical manifestations include fever, anemia, bleeding, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, and bone and joint pain. The study of acute leukemia in Chinese medicine has been carried out for decades, and its understanding is also quite controversial. Nonetheless, clinical and experimental research on the treatment of acute leukemia with traditional Chinese medicine has achieved gratifying results, and integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine has its unique advantages in the treatment of acute leukemia.   At present, clinical and experimental researches on acute leukemia have a curative effect on traditional Chinese medicine. They are divided into three categories from traditional medicines, namely poisons, heat-clearing drugs and tonic medicines. In clinical manifestations, the main cause of acute leukemia is Xie Sheng, and by the end, righteousness gradually declines and exhausts. Modern research also believes that tumor cells proliferate faster in the early stages of the disease. In the later stages, due to the prolonged cell proliferation cycle, the number of cells in the proliferating state decreases, and the number of dead cells increases with the increase in tumor load, as well as the lack of blood supply and deep evil. Chinese medicine called evil poison. Detoxification, that is, heat-clearing and detoxification drugs; attacking detoxification, that is, poisons such as arsenic. Generally speaking, the heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs taste bitter and cold, non-toxic or slightly toxic, and can be used for those with warmer evil poison. Arsenic and other poisons are the products of Daxin and Dahe. They are highly toxic or highly toxic. Tonic drugs mainly control the development of diseases by improving righteousness, that is, improving the immune function of the body. The above three types of drugs can act on tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and take effect. In the specific medication process, multiple methods can also be used in combination.  From the perspective of modern medicine, there is no symptom or sign in the motherland medicine that is comprehensive and can reflect the essence and overall picture of acute leukemia. According to the characteristics of the loss of the common organs, which causes the patient’s systemic failure to death, the syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of “labor”; for those with prominent bleeding symptoms, the syndrome can be differentiated as the “blood syndrome”; the liver and splenomegaly can be differentiated as the syndrome. “Accumulation”; those with superficial lymphadenopathy are called “plague”, “sputum nucleus”, “scrofula”; typical symptoms are fever, anemia, bleeding, etc. The heat phenomenon is significant, and the incidence is sharp, the disease is serious, and the development is rapid , In line with the characteristics of TCM Yangre syndrome, often attributed to “emergency labor” and “hot labor”. Acute leukemia has a dangerous condition and many changes that require long-term treatment, especially simple chemotherapy is often difficult to kill potential leukemia cells and cannot achieve the overall treatment effect. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine on acute leukemia is objective. If disease identification and syndrome differentiation are combined, the treatment of symptoms and the root cause are combined, and the relationship between righteousness and evilness is emphasized, a better effect can be expected.   At present, the experimental research of traditional Chinese medicine on acute leukemia is mostly limited to the in vitro study of acute leukemia cell lines, and there is still a lack of systematic and comprehensive analysis. The treatment of acute leukemia by traditional Chinese medicine does not rely on a single role, but from multiple targets, multiple organs play a comprehensive role. Experts believe that the anti-tumor of traditional Chinese medicine must be guided by the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, based on the basic views of traditional Chinese medicine and the basic principles of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of diseases, combined with the extensiveness and integrity of traditional Chinese medicine treatment, and discuss the mechanism of action at multiple levels. In recent years, Chinese medicine has made great progress in the treatment of acute leukemia. On the basis of syndrome differentiation, some prescriptions with anti-cancer effects are selected. The prescription can greatly improve the remission rate of acute leukemia without side effects such as gastrointestinal reactions and bone marrow suppression. , Has great application prospects.  Although many achievements have been made in the treatment of acute leukemia with traditional Chinese medicine, the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine alone is not good, and combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment can greatly improve the survival rate and reduce the recurrence rate. Chinese medicine can reduce the toxic and side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and play a role in reducing toxicity and increasing efficacy. The combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine is the only way to treat acute leukemia, and the organic combination of the two is also an urgent research topic.

Talking about the pre-chemotherapy of acute leukemia

Leukemia is also called blood cancer. For a long time in the past, leukemia was regarded as a terminal illness. However, with the deepening of people’s understanding of leukemia and the continuous development of medical technology, the treatment of leukemia has improved much more than in the past. Chemotherapy is a main method for treating leukemia. Today we introduce the treatment of acute white blood chemotherapeutics in the early stage.  First introduce acute leukemia, acute leukemia is a common malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue. The disease originates from gene mutation of hematopoietic stem cells and is clonal hyperplasia. Leukemia cells have the ability to proliferate, but maturation of differentiation is blocked, causing leukemia cells to accumulate in the bone marrow and inhibit the proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells.   Pre-chemotherapy for acute leukemia: The pre-chemotherapy is mainly for the treatment of anemia, fever, bleeding and bone marrow infiltration.   1. Fever: It is the most common symptom of acute leukemia. Clinically, there are three syndromes of Yin deficiency internal heat, exogenous wind heat, and evil poison outside. The treatments are modified with Qinghao Biejia Decoction, Yin Qiao San and Yin Huang Lian Jie Du Tang.   2. Bleeding: It is a common symptom of acute leukemia, and it is often one of the factors that cause death. Hemorrhage can be divided into three syndromes of qi-free blood intake, blood-heat delirium, and blood stasis bleeding. Treatments include Guipi Decoction, Xijiao Dihuang Decoction and Taohong Siwu Decoction.   3. Extramedullary infiltration: due to malignant hyperplasia of leukemia cells, it manifests extramedullary infiltration, often with enlarged liver and splenic lymph nodes and bone pain. Clinically, it should be treated according to syndrome differentiation according to different infiltration sites and manifestations. It can be divided into two syndromes: blood stasis internal resistance and phlegm and blood stasis mutual resistance, and the treatments respectively use Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction and Taohong Siwu Decoction and Ditan Decoction. 4. Anemia: Anemia is the main clinical manifestation of acute leukemia. According to the type and course of acute leukemia, there are three syndromes of qi and blood deficiency, qi and yin deficiency, and yin and yang deficiency. Bazhen pills are added and subtracted, and Sijunzi decoction is used for treatment. Liuwei Dihuang Decoction and Zuogui Pill or Yougui Pill.  

My father demanded compensation for cutting clothes during rescue. How dangerous is the acute pulmonary embolism?

The accidental claim has such news that the patient got a pulmonary embolism and cut the patient’s clothes for emergency care. In the event that the patient’s father wanted compensation afterwards, this event was screened by the circle of friends. The old man estimated that he was dissatisfied with the huge medical expenses for his son, but he did not know how dangerous his son’s disease called pulmonary embolism. So what is pulmonary embolism? Acute pulmonary embolism is a common cardiopulmonary vascular disease in my country. It is also one of the three most common fatal cardiovascular diseases in the United States and other Western countries. The mortality and the degree of risk are not lower than those of myocardial infarction. Acute pulmonary embolism is caused by endogenous or exogenous emboli blocking the pulmonary artery. The embolus may be an embolism of the pulmonary blood vessel itself, it may also be a fat drop, it may be amniotic fluid of a pregnant woman, it may be air or a tumor embolism. Wait. It refers to diseases caused by thrombus obstruction of the pulmonary artery or its branches from the venous system or the right heart, with pulmonary circulation and respiratory dysfunction as the main clinical manifestations and pathophysiological characteristics, accounting for the vast majority of acute pulmonary embolism. How dangerous is pulmonary embolism? Pulmonary embolism can be asymptomatic and sometimes diagnosed by accident. Even the first manifestation of some patients with pulmonary embolism is sudden death, making it difficult to obtain accurate epidemiological data on pulmonary embolism. 1. In 2004, the six EU countries with a total population of more than 450 million had deaths related to pulmonary embolism exceeding 31.7 nights. Among them, sudden fatal acute pulmonary embolism accounted for 34%, of which 59% were not diagnosed before death, and only 7% of early deaths were diagnosed before death. 2. The risk of pulmonary embolism is related to increasing age. For people over 40 years of age, acute pulmonary embolism increases about twice every 10 years of age. 3. The Pulmonary Embolism Prevention and Treatment Project in my country conducted a registration study on PE patients in more than 60 top three hospitals nationwide from 1997 to 2008. A total of 18,206 out of 16,792,182 inpatients were diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism, with an incidence rate of 0.1%. 4. Pulmonary embolism mostly occurs 3-7 days after deep vein thrombosis; 10% of patients die within 1 hour after the onset of symptoms of pulmonary embolism. Ninety percent of deaths are untreated, only 10% of deaths are treated, and 0.5 to 5% of treated acute pulmonary embolism patients develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Who is prone to cause pulmonary embolism? The susceptibility factors of pulmonary embolism include the patient’s own factors and environmental factors, including the following aspects: 1, 6 weeks to 3 months, surgery, trauma, immobilization, pregnancy, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy can induce venous thrombosis , But in the absence of any known risk factors, pulmonary embolism can also occur. 2. Major trauma, surgery, lower limb fracture, joint replacement, and spinal cord injury are strong inducers of venous thrombosis. Tumors, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and central venous catheterization are also known to be easy for deep vein thrombosis. Factors. 3. As part of cardiovascular disease, venous thrombosis shares common risk factors with arterial disease, especially atherosclerosis, such as smoking, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes; myocardial infarction or heart disease occurred within 3 months Patients hospitalized with failure, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter have a significantly increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. 4. In vitro fertilization further increases the risk of pregnancy-related deep vein thrombosis, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. 5. Infection is a common inducer of deep vein thrombosis during hospitalization. Blood transfusion and erythropoietin also increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis. What is the performance of pulmonary embolism? Pulmonary embolism lacks specific clinical symptoms and signs, which makes diagnosis difficult and easy to be missed, but some symptoms can still provide some clues. 1. The symptoms of pulmonary embolism lack specificity. Symptoms depend on the size and number of emboli, the location of the embolism, and whether the patient has underlying diseases such as heart and lungs. (1) Most patients are suspected of acute pulmonary embolism due to dyspnea, threatened syncope, syncope, and/or hemoptysis. (2) Chest pain is a common symptom of acute pulmonary embolism, mostly caused by pleural irritation caused by distal acute pulmonary embolism. (3) Central acute pulmonary embolism chest pain can be characterized by typical angina pectoris, mostly due to right ventricular ischemia, and it must be distinguished from acute coronary syndrome or aortic dissection. (4) Dyspnea is acute and severe in central pulmonary embolism, while in small peripheral acute pulmonary embolism is usually mild and transient. Patients with previous heart failure or lung disease have difficulty breathing

How is acute leukemia classified?

Acute leukemia can be divided into two major categories: acute lymphocytic leukemia (emergency, ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (emergency, non-lymphatic, ANLL). According to the FAB classification standard revised in 1985, ANLL is divided into 7 types such as M1-M7, which are: M1: undifferentiated myelocytic leukemia. M2: partially differentiated myelocytic leukemia. M3: acute promyelocytic Cell leukemia. M4: acute myelocytic and monocyte leukemia. M5: acute monocyte leukemia. M6: acute red blood disease or erythroleukemia. M7: acute megakaryocytic leukemia. According to FAB morphological characteristics, ALL is divided into three types: L1, L2, and L3. Type L1: primitive lymphocytes have uniform round nuclei and less cytoplasm. Type L2: primitive lymphocytes vary greatly, the nucleus may be irregular, and the cytoplasm is more than L1. Type L3: primitive lymphocytes have smaller nuclear staining The cytoplasm is blue to dark blue with vacuoles formed. In addition, according to immunological characteristics, AI can be divided into two categories of T cells and B cells, and then divided into multiple subtypes. Except that the L1 type emergency shower is necessarily a B-cell type acute shower, there is no obvious correlation between the morphological classification of acute shower and immunological classification.

Adjuvant therapy for acute leukemia

At present, the main treatment methods for leukemia are chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, and traditional Chinese medicine. The three methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemotherapy has quick effects and large side effects; bone marrow transplantation is costly and risky; traditional Chinese medicine has relatively slow results, but it can be fully adjusted and has fewer side effects, less pain, and less cost. Through a lot of practical observations in the medical community, it is considered that the method of integrated Chinese and Western medicine (chemotherapy + Chinese medicine) is ideal, with the advantages of good curative effect and few side effects. While treating leukemia patients with integrated Chinese and Western medicine, through dialectics based on their specific conditions and symptoms, they can cooperate with the following patent medicines to assist treatment. 1. Anti-Baidan: suitable for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia with phlegm and blood stasis. 2. Compound Qingdai tablets: suitable for heat-toxic acute promyelocytic leukemia. 3. Liushen Pills: It is suitable for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia with stasis and internal node type. 4. Zhenqi Fuzheng agent: It is suitable for bone marrow transplantation after chemotherapy for acute leukemia, and it is manifested as both qi and yin deficiency. Fifth, Jianpi Yishen Granules: suitable for bone marrow transplantation after chemotherapy for acute leukemia, manifested as spleen and kidney deficiency. six. Xijiao Dihuang Pills: It is suitable for those with acute leukemia, fever, toxic heat and bleeding. Seven, Qingkailing oral liquid: suitable for acute leukemia, heat, toxic, fiery and prosperous. 8. Shenqi Shabai Powder: It is suitable for the early stage of various types of leukemia and the consolidation treatment of those with heat, poison, qi and qi deficiency. Nine, Shenmai Erchen granules: suitable for vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Ten, Zhenxiang capsules, compound cantharidin capsules, Ankangxin capsules: suitable for acute leukemia.

Things to know about medication for acute leukemia

There are many types of leukemia, the most common of which are acute leukemia and chronic leukemia. The impact of various types of leukemia on patients is very serious, so how to scientifically treat leukemia is particularly critical. Today we will introduce to you the medicines you need to know about acute leukemia. Let me first introduce acute leukemia. Acute leukemia is a malignant clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cells. Abnormal primitive cells and naive cells in the bone marrow proliferate and inhibit normal hematopoiesis. They extensively infiltrate the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and other organs. Manifested as signs of anemia, bleeding, infection and infiltration. Internationally, AL is often divided into two categories: ALL and AML. In the daily life of leukemia patients, antipyretic and analgesic drugs are often required for two situations: ① colds or upper respiratory tract infections cause fever, headache, runny and other uncomfortable symptoms; ② joint or muscle mountain blood causes local swelling and pain. When choosing a drug, care should be taken to avoid two side effects of this type of drug that lead to increased bleeding tendency: ① inhibition of platelet and other coagulation functions; ② greater gastrointestinal irritation and increased chance of gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with hemophilia and family members especially need to bear in mind the types of drugs and compound preparations that should be avoided in this class of drugs. Fortunately, many antipyretic and analgesic drugs that have emerged in recent years are mostly applicable.  

Thyroid emergencies

Someone asked if the thyroid gland is more critical. Then everyone should know about thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm. Thyroid crisis is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by clinical manifestations of severe or extremely severe thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid crisis can occur in patients with hyperthyroidism (Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, solitary toxic thyroid adenoma) who have not been treated for a long time, but are also often induced by acute events, such as thyroid or non-thyroid surgery, Trauma, infection, acute iodine load, or childbirth. A common first symptom of thyroid danger is fever. Specifics may include: tachycardia, high fever, central nervous system dysfunction (excitement, delirium, psychotic symptoms, numbness, or coma) and gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain), etc. Although thyroid crisis is rare, it is very critical. If patients with hyperthyroidism have the above symptoms, they should be treated as soon as possible.

Infiltrating manifestations in patients with acute leukemia

Symptoms of infiltration of acute leukemia are commonly seen in medicine, such as fever, bleeding, and anemia. Many leukemia patients lacked relevant knowledge and did not go to the hospital in time after discovery, thus missing the best time for treatment. Now I will not talk to you about the infiltration performance of acute leukemia patients. The symptoms of acute leukemia are mainly in the following aspects: 1. Lymph nodes and hepatosplenomegaly: rush is more common than rush and non-lymph, and the degree of swelling is also significant. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy is mostly seen in T-cell leaching, which is a very important point in the symptoms of acute leukemia. 2. Bone and joint pain: The symptoms of acute leukemia often have tenderness at the lower end of the sternum. 3. Skin and mucosal lesions: acute single and acute myelomonocytic leukemia are more common. Specific skin damage manifested as diffuse maculopapular rash, purple-blue skin nodules or lumps are all very important symptoms of acute leukemia. 4. Central nervous system leukemia With the improvement of leukemia remission rate and prolonged survival, central nervous system leukemia has become a more prominent problem. The symptoms of acute leukemia are more common than acute and non-leaching, and acute promyelocytic leukemia is also more common. The vast majority of patients have fever, which is manifested as low or high fever, and most of them are repeated irregular fever. Although most leukemia patients have a large number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, most of these cells do not have the anti-infective effect of normal white blood cells. At the same time, medical experts also pointed out that due to the different physical conditions of patients, the infiltration performance of acute leukemia patients is also different. Therefore, it cannot be generalized. As a patient with acute leukemia, you should still go to the hospital for a comprehensive examination to better understand your condition.

Timetables for acute leukemia

Leukemia can be divided into acute leukemia and chronic leukemia according to the degree of cell differentiation. Acute leukemia has a rapid onset and will cause hematopoietic stem cell canceration in the short term, which can cause extremely bad effects to patients. Today we will take a detailed look at acute leukemia, such as the remission of the disease and the recovery schedule. Let’s first understand what is acute leukemia. Acute leukemia is a malignant clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cells. Abnormal primitive cells and naive cells in the bone marrow proliferate and inhibit normal hematopoiesis. They extensively infiltrate the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and other organs. Manifested as signs of anemia, bleeding, infection and infiltration. 1. Continuous complete remission (CCR): refers to the period from the date of complete remission after treatment, during which no leukemia relapses for 3 to 5 years. 2. Long-term survival: from the date of diagnosis of leukemia, the survival time (including disease-free or disease-free survival) reaches more than 5 years. 3. Clinical cure: refers to those who have stopped chemotherapy for 5 years or survived disease-free for 10 years. 4. Remission criteria Complete remission (CR) ① Bone marrow elephant: myeloblast I type Ⅱ (original single + naive monocytes or protolymph + naive lymphocytes) <5%; red blood cells and megakaryocytes are normal. M2b type-original granule I ten II type <5%; neutrophil granulocyte ratio is in the normal range. M3 type-original grain ten early and young grain &lt.; 5%. M4 type-original granule type I, type Ⅱ + original single and naive monocytes < 5%. M6 type-original granule I, type II < 5%, the proportion of primary red + young red and erythroid cells is basically normal. M7 type-the ratio of granulocytes to red is normal, and the original giant + naive megakaryocytes basically disappeared. ②Blood picture: Hb>100g/L (male) or 90g/L (female and child) neutrophil absolute value>1.5×109/L, platelet>100×109/L, peripheral blood classification No leukemia cells. Clinically, there are no symptoms and signs caused by leukemia infiltration, and life is normal or close to normal. 5. Leukemia relapses, one of the following three is called relapse. (1) Bone marrow myeloid cells type I+II (original single ten or single or primary + lymph)> 5% and <20%, after a course of effective anti-leukemia treatment still failed to reach the standard of complete remission of bone marrow By. (2) Bone marrow granulocytes type I ten II (original single + young single or original shower + young shower)> 20%. (3) Those with leukemia cell infiltration in bone marrow. In summary, everyone now knows something about acute leukemia. As can be seen from the above timetables, although acute leukemia has serious effects on patients, it is still possible to treat, but it must be adhered to to avoid the deterioration and relapse of the disease.

Is acute appendicitis acute acute appendicitis?

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute abdomen in surgery, which is commonly known as acute appendicitis. Of course, this expression is not very accurate, and it is still quite different in the profession. The appendix is ​​a tubular organ, the distal end is blind, and the proximal end is open to the cecum. Acute appendicitis is caused by a variety of factors that can cause acute inflammation of the appendix, such as blocked appendic lumen and bacterial invasion. The appendix is ​​equivalent to a decapitated path from the main road of the cecum. Inflammation of the appendix does not mean that the cecum is also inflamed. Most mild appendicitis will not affect the cecum, and severe appendicitis will often spread. Scattered into the cecum, making the operation more difficult. The typical abdominal pain of appendicitis begins at the umbilical or upper abdomen, and occasionally is paroxysmal. After a few hours to more than ten hours, the abdominal pain transfers to the location of the right lower abdominal appendix. About 70% to 80% of patients have typical metastases Right lower quadrant pain, and some patients will have right lower quadrant pain when the disease begins. In the diagnosis of appendicitis, the typical clinical manifestations are mainly through the physical examination of the abdomen, that is, the right lower abdomen Myers point fixed tenderness. Examination of elevated white blood cells, and B-ultrasound examination found a “finger” low echo in the right lower abdomen to confirm the diagnosis. However, some appendixes are deep, or the patient is obese, and B-ultrasound cannot be displayed. In particular, some people have atypical symptoms, which need to be confirmed by CT examination. In treatment, acute appendicitis is preferred to remove the appendix as soon as possible to avoid progression to appendicitis, gangrene, or perforation. Of course, in some patients, the symptoms are mild, the signs are not serious, and the increase in white blood cells is not obvious, then anti-infection rehydration therapy may be considered. Medical treatment can resolve acute inflammation, but about 40% of patients will relapse and eventually need surgical resection. At present, appendicitis surgery is dominated by laparoscopy, which can show great advantages. For example, it can be used for extensive exploration in the abdominal cavity, such as greatly reducing the chance of wound infection. It is worth prioritizing.

Farewell: over 60 years of age need to be alert to this human “time bomb” of myelodysplastic syndrome

Xiebeilu studio WeChat add369456 Myeloproliferative patients have a slow onset, but acute myeloproliferative anemia may also occur, but acute myeloproliferative anemia is relatively rare. Myeloproliferative anemia may be transformed into leukemia, and the transformation process takes about a year, so myeloproliferation may threaten life safety, and once it is transformed into leukemia, it is difficult to cure. Therefore, it is a time bomb, because both leukemia and MDS are morbid hematopoietic, with symptoms such as anemia and epistaxis. It can occur at any age, both men and women. About 80% of patients are older than 60 years old. Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome may have symptoms of infection, anemia, and bleeding to varying degrees. If the blast cells in the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome are greater than 20%, it indicates that they have been transformed into acute leukemia. Because myelodysplastic syndrome, its main feature is high-risk transformation like acute leukemia, so the treatment principle after it is transformed into acute leukemia should be treated in accordance with the treatment of acute leukemia. However, there are no special symptoms in the early stage of MDS, and it is often easy to be overlooked, delaying the best time for treatment. Some patients have milder conditions, while others have more severe conditions. The specific situation varies from person to person, depending on the type of disease and other influencing factors. In the early stages of myelodysplastic syndrome, patients may not be aware of any abnormalities. Eventually, as the condition progresses, the patient may feel very tired and have difficulty breathing. For example, in the early symptoms of MDS, patients will appear pale, fatigued, palpitations after activity, and shortness of breath. The elderly will have chronic, cardiopulmonary diseases caused by anemia. Severe patients can also cause platelet reduction, skin petechiae, nose bleeding, and gum bleeding. Corresponding to the high incidence of MDS, the early diagnosis rate is low, and most patients are found in the middle and late stages. A large part of the reason is that there is no early screening, early diagnosis, and when the symptoms appear and then go to the doctor, the condition has often developed to the middle and late stages. Therefore, it is recommended that asymptomatic people over 40 years old take a physical examination once a year, which is the best way to avoid life threatening MDS. The doctor will formulate the corresponding treatment plan according to the specific type and severity of the patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. In the early stage of the disease, a strategy of observation and waiting can be adopted. If the patient’s symptoms are mild and the body’s blood cell counts are maintained at a good level, the doctor will think that the patient does not need to take treatment measures and only needs to go to the hospital for regular follow-up visits and closely monitor the condition.

These two diseases are called “undead cancer”! Cancer is not incurable

In fact, even if you have cancer, it is not necessarily an incurable disease; with the development of medicine, as long as you can find and treat early, 1/3 of the cancer can be cured. Furthermore, it is not cancer that is the most terrible disease. Many diseases have a much higher mortality rate and risk than cancer. Finally, there are many diseases that require lifelong medicine; there are many diseases that not only can be cured for life, but also can not be cured, and it is painful. This may be what everyone calls “undead cancer”. 1. Many cancers are discovered early and treated early, which can cure 1. Prostate cancer, early localized prostate cancer, 5-10 year survival rate is more than 90-95%. 2. Thyroid cancer, common thyroid papillary carcinoma and thyroid follicular carcinoma are biologically mild and have a good prognosis. 3. The majority of testicular cancer has a good prognosis. The cure rate of early testicular cancer is as high as 95%. 4. Melanoma, the general 5-year survival rate of melanoma is 98%, and most of them can be cured. 5. Breast cancer, the 5-year survival rate of breast cancer is 90%; if breast cancer is carcinoma in situ, the 5-year survival rate is 98.8%; the vast majority of early breast cancer can be cured. 6. Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Most Hodgkin’s lymphomas have a good prognosis. About 80% of the early stages can be cured. 7. Cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a typical early detection, early treatment and early cure. The 5-year survival rate of IA1 stage is 97.5%. Waiting for cancer can be effectively controlled as long as it can be detected in time and treated regularly. Therefore, cancer is not as everyone thinks. If you have cancer, you will be sentenced to death. Second, these diseases are more terrible than cancer. People think that cancer is an incurable disease, so talk about cancer discoloration. In fact, even if you have cancer, there is a process of treatment, recovery, improvement or deterioration. At least cancer will not cause sudden death. However, many diseases are coming rapidly, and sometimes it is too late to treat, and soon people disappear, leading to sudden death. Sudden death is not a disease, but a result of many potential diseases. Simply speaking, there is a certain disease in itself, which is usually not clear or unexpected, and it will die within 24 hours. Most of the diseases that cause sudden death are sudden cardiac death, such as acute myocardial infarction, acute left heart failure, malignant arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation and other diseases will instantly die. For example, acute cerebral infarction, acute cerebral hemorrhage, acute pulmonary embolism, acute gastrointestinal bleeding, acute pancreatitis, aortic dissection and other diseases can cause sudden death. 3. There are many chronic diseases that cannot be cured and require lifelong medication. We are currently unable to cure, and all require long-term medication control. However, most of the drugs can effectively prevent the disease from further aggravating after being controlled, prevent the disease from worsening, improve the quality of life, and coexist with the disease for a long time. Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, partial cerebral infarction, rheumatic disease, chronic lung disease, AIDS, chronic kidney disease, etc. that we are most familiar with cannot be cured, and all require long-term treatment. These diseases will progress if they are not actively and formally controlled. For example, the early stages of the Third High School will look okay, but if they are not controlled, they will develop into cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and kidney and other diseases. Sometimes it becomes an emergency leading to sudden death, and sometimes it develops into more difficult chronic diseases, such as heart failure, kidney failure, respiratory failure and so on. 4. What are the “undead cancers”? Many diseases are not only incurable, but also cause a lot of pain. These diseases may be called “undead cancers”. 1. Rheumatic immune diseases mainly include rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Rheumatic immune diseases can affect multiple organs and systems, and the blood system is also often involved. These diseases can cause a lot of pain, such as pain, various rashes, mucosal rashes, swollen rashes, frostbite-like rashes, oral ulcers, ulcers of the upper jaw, cheeks, tongue, or nose, uremia, epilepsy, psychosis, multiple manifests Neuritis, myelitis, peripheral neuropathy, or cranial neuropathy. Wait, treatment is limited, and the pain is getting worse. 2. Chronic renal failure-as long as uremic renal failure can be dialyzed on time, it will not be fatal in the short term, but since then no urine, you need to go to the hospital for dialysis treatment twice a week, and damage to various parts of the body will gradually occur. Disorders of metabolism of water, electrolytes, acids and bases; disorders of metabolism of proteins, sugars, fats, and vitamins; cause heart damage, heart failure, arrhythmia and myocardial damage, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, etc.; cause respiratory failure, difficulty breathing ; Cause gastrointestinal diseases, anorexia, nausea, vomiting

Young people don’t ignore the sudden death signal

&nbsp. High blood pressure, coronary heart disease, heart failure, which are often considered to be old age diseases, are not far from the young people. The accelerated pace of life, increased work pressure, and increased environmental pollution have caused sudden cardiac death-induced sudden deaths among young and middle-aged people. Common causes are acute myocardial infarction, acute explosive myocarditis, or malignant arrhythmia. Not long ago, our hospital included a 30-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred upon admission. Fortunately, he was cured and discharged after active rescue. But not everyone is so lucky. Two months ago, a traffic policeman suddenly fell to the ground and died suddenly at work, suspected to be caused by an episode of malignant arrhythmia after acute myocarditis. The disease is dangerous, and there are traces before the attack. Understanding the causes of these diseases and the accompanying special symptoms, early enough attention and timely treatment can greatly reduce the occurrence of tragedies. For example, acute myocardial infarction, the youngest patient treated in our hospital is 21 years old. This disease is caused by the rupture of coronary atherosclerotic plaque, the formation of local thrombosis, or the shedding thrombus acutely blocks the coronary artery, resulting in local myocardial necrosis, resulting in chest tightness, chest pain, sweating, palpitation, and difficulty breathing. Most patients have paroxysmal chest tightness or chest pain a few days before the onset of acute myocardial infarction. Individual patients may experience darkening in front of their eyes, falling to the ground due to tachycardia or bradycardia, and some with tight or left throat Arm soreness. After taking the quick-acting Jiuxin pills or nitroglycerin, the symptoms of chest tightness or chest pain can be significantly alleviated. Once these early symptoms are found, it is necessary to seek medical treatment in a timely manner. Another disease that causes a high risk of sudden death in young people is acute explosive myocarditis. It is due to direct or indirect damage to the heart muscle after being infected by bacteria or viruses, resulting in acute heart failure, malignant arrhythmia, or combined liver and kidney dysfunction. Therefore, 3 to 5 days before the onset, patients often have respiratory or digestive tract infections, manifested by fever, sore throat, cough, sputum, runny nose or abdominal pain, diarrhea. If left untreated, it will rapidly progress to heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or arrhythmia after 3 to 5 days. After the symptoms of infection, if the patient fails to take adequate rest, work or stay up late, exercise as usual, it will accelerate the progress of the disease and increase the chance of sudden death. There is also a less common type of malignant arrhythmia, that is, the ventricular beats are extremely fast and dangerous. The patient may initially only sweat, panic, chest tightness, heartbeat is not too fast, timely treatment can avoid excessive harm to the body. However, if this opportunity is missed, the patient often loses consciousness and twitches when the ventricular rate is too fast or even ventricular fibrillation occurs. At this time, only with continuous chest compressions and electrical defibrillation as soon as possible, the patient may return to normal heart rhythm and blood pressure. The disease is more common in people with a family history. These people must regularly go to the hospital for electrocardiogram and heart color Doppler ultrasound to rule out the possibility of heart disease.

Will kidney death cause death?

When the doctor informs the patient’s family that the patient has kidney failure. The family of the patient always asks involuntarily whether the patient is still saved, how long he can live, or the family member’s emotional breakdown on the spot. In the eyes of many people, kidney failure is a relatively serious disease. If the patient has reached the point of kidney failure, it is not far from death. So how long can patients live if they have kidney failure? The editor will explain this issue. Renal failure in medicine is a disease in which various chronic diseases of the kidney accumulate, and multiple diseases erupt together to cause partial or even complete loss of kidney function. According to the degree of renal failure, renal failure can be divided into two types, namely chronic renal failure and acute renal failure. The incidence of chronic renal failure is relatively slow, the condition is easily relieved, and the mortality rate is not high. It is mainly due to the fact that various chronic kidney diseases are not treated in time and the condition is accumulating. The condition of acute kidney failure is developing rapidly, and it is difficult for doctors to stabilize the patient’s condition in the first time, and the mortality rate is relatively high. The causes of acute renal failure and chronic renal failure are also quite different. Acute renal failure is mainly due to sudden severe trauma or poisoning caused by the patient. Renal failure patients can continue to be sick as long as they receive timely treatment. The most common treatment for kidney failure is kidney transplantation. This treatment is the most effective, but the price is relatively expensive.

Parents’ concern: childhood leukemia

 Leukemia is a malignant proliferative disease of the hematopoietic system and one of the diseases that seriously threatens the life and health of children. Most leukemias in childhood are acute leukemia. Leukemia is the most common malignant tumor in children. It ranks first in children’s malignant tumors and severely threatens children’s lives. Up to now, the exact cause of leukemia is still unclear, so complete prevention can not be achieved, only from the prevention of some related factors.  The incidence of leukemia ranks first among pediatric malignant tumors, with about 20,000 new children every year, with an annual incidence of about 3-4 per 100,000 population. More than 90% of childhood leukemia is acute leukemia, of which 70% to 85% is acute lymphocytic leukemia. This leukemia is very sensitive to common chemotherapy drugs, and the combination of multiple drugs is the best way to treat this disease. With regular treatment, more than 90% of children can get complete remission. After 2 to 3 years of consolidation treatment, 80% of the children will be cured.  Clinically divides acute lymphoblastic leukemia into three types: standard risk, medium risk and high risk. In treatment, it is mainly divided into three methods: radiotherapy, chemotherapy and transplantation. The complete cure rate of standard-risk acute leaching chemotherapy has reached more than 80%. The complete remission rate of pediatric acute leaching can be more than 95%, and the continuous complete remission rate of more than 5 years can reach 70% to 80%.  Chemotherapy is the main treatment for children with acute leukemia. Only children with high-risk acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, recurrent episodes, or irreversible symptoms need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There are two main forms of stem cell transplantation: allogeneic transplantation and autologous transplantation. During allogeneic transplantation, allogeneic stem cells can be separated from circulating blood of donors with matching or partial matching. Autologous stem cell transplantation, the main method is to separate the patient’s own stem cells from his bone marrow or blood, and then refrigerate. Then, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are given to the children to destroy the leukemia cells remaining in their bone marrow as much as possible, and then the thawed stem cells are returned to the children. However, this method has high recurrence and discipline.  Children should pay attention to the prevention of infection during chemotherapy.  Children with leukemia should pay attention to the following points during chemotherapy:   Pay attention to personal hygiene, wash hands before meals and after going to the toilet to prevent the disease from entering the mouth when the resistance is extremely low.   Keep your bowel movements unobstructed, and take a bath as much as possible afterwards to keep it clean. For those with hemorrhoids or constipation, drugs for treating hemorrhoids or laxatives can be used routinely.   Reduce contact with the outside world. Reduce unnecessary visits. If you encounter a crowded environment or have a cold patient around, you should wear a mask to reduce the chance of cross infection.  It is not advisable to place too many flowers in the patient’s room or ward, especially to avoid placing flower pots, so as to reduce the infection caused by mold spores and bacteria in flowers or soil.   Try not to dig ears or pick teeth with hard objects to prevent local damage and infection.  Psychological care is indispensable  Psychological care is essential to help children leukemia patients to “stand up” through the chemotherapy stage. Due to the seriousness of leukemia, rapid development, and chemotherapy can often cause complications such as hair loss, numbness, fatigue, fever, etc. At this time, children are prone to pessimistic depression, and some even lose confidence in the treatment. Parents encouraging and comforting their children to bravely “go through” at this stage are very important to alleviate their psychological pain and help their recovery. Some hospitals do not allow the children’s family members to accompany them, which is very detrimental to the maintenance of the children’s mental health. Even if they successfully passed the chemotherapy period, it will take a long time to repair the psychological trauma in the future. Diet during treatment During the course of chemotherapy, the digestive system of children with leukemia often has many reactions, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. At this time, you can take a small number of meals, or add some volume in addition to three meals. Small, high-calorie, nutritious food. In the intermittent period of chemotherapy, children are encouraged to eat some iron-rich foods with blood-enriching and blood-generating effects, such as jujube. Eat more vitamin-rich vegetables and fruits.  Pay attention after treatment  A few years after treatment, it is important to carry out subsequent routine examinations. The doctor continues to observe the condition and the short-term and long-term side effects of treatment. Complications with a long incubation period include heart damage, decreased reproductive capacity or infertility, decreased academic performance, and cause a second type of cancer. Chemotherapy may also cause other complications, doctors and patients must carefully consider before starting treatment

Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease How to judge whether you have pelvic inflammatory disease?

 Pelvic inflammatory disease is a kind of gynecological disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease is also called pelvic inflammation. If the female pelvic inflammatory disease spreads quickly to the surrounding tissues, it not only causes various complications, but also causes the surrounding tissues to be infected. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a very serious gynecological disease, which is very harmful to physical health, so what are the symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease? What are the symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease? Patients with pelvic inflammatory disease are susceptible to fatigue. Scar adhesions and pelvic congestion caused by chronic inflammation can cause lower abdominal distension, pain and soreness of the lumbosacral region, often worsening before and after fatigue, sexual intercourse and menstruation. Clinically, pelvic inflammatory disease is divided into two types: acute and chronic. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease often comes from the treatment of the acute phase is not completely delayed. 1. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease has a history of acute infection, hidden pain in the lower abdomen, muscle tension, tenderness and rebound pain, accompanied by fast heart rate, fever, and a large amount of purulent discharge in the vagina. 2. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. The systemic symptoms of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease are sometimes low fever and susceptibility to fatigue. Some patients have symptoms of neurasthenia due to the long course of the disease, such as insomnia, lack of energy, and general malaise.  How to judge whether you have pelvic inflammatory disease?   1. See if the leucorrhea is abnormal? If everything is normal, female friends have a small amount of leucorrhea, and the color is transparent or milky white. If the leucorrhea is not white or transparent as mentioned above, but the color is yellow or smelly, then you need to pay special attention. Need to check whether there is a vision of gynecological diseases.   2. Is menstruation abnormal? Perhaps many people do not understand the concept of amenorrhea at all. Let’s first understand that the woman’s adulthood is still in the future or the normal menstruation is normal, and the menstruation suddenly stops. What is irregular menstruation? When the menstrual cycle is shorter than 20 days, another phenomenon of irregular menstruation is that the menstrual cycle exceeds 40 days. If the menstrual volume is too large or too small, it is also a typical menstrual disorder. One or more types of irregular menstruation should be checked in a hospital in time.   3. Sexual life pain or sexual life difficulties   Congenital vaginal atresia may cause this kind of sexual life difficulty or pain, is it due to other hymen abnormalities, vaginal endometritis and other conditions. If these diseases are excluded, the possibility of pelvic inflammatory disease must be considered.