Speaking of cholesterol, I believe many people think of eating eggs. It is believed that eating eggs will increase cholesterol in the blood and increase the risk of heart disease, so many people eat eggs instead of yolks. But is this really the case? Does cholesterol intake in the diet really increase blood lipids, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease? Today let’s take a scientific look at cholesterol. Cholesterol is an important component of cells, and it is a synthetic raw material of many substances. Cholesterol belongs to lipids and has the basic structure of cyclopentane polyhydrophenanthrene. Cholesterol is contained in all tissues of the human body, it is an important component of cell membranes. Cholesterol is embedded in the cell membrane and gives it vitality. With the help of cholesterol, the cell membrane can change shape when needed, stretch, fold, swallow or spit out various substances at will (such as swallowing pathogenic microorganisms, aging and apoptotic cells in the body, spitting out hormones, digestive enzymes and mucus, etc.) . If there is no cholesterol, the cell membrane will be fixed, dead, and lose its vital fluidity in an instant. Cholesterol is the precursor of vitamin D and bile acid synthesis in the body. Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and bile acids can emulsify lipids and mix them with digestive enzymes, which is a necessary condition for the digestion and absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Cholesterol can also be converted into a variety of hormones in the body, including cortisol that affects the metabolism of proteins, sugars and lipids, aldosterone related to the metabolism of water and electrolytes in the body, and the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol. Sources of Cholesterol There are two main sources of cholesterol in the human body: one is endogenous, mainly synthesized by the liver using acetic acid and its precursors, the daily synthesis of cholesterol in the human body is about 1-1.2g, which is the main cholesterol in the human body Source; the second is exogenous, that is, the body ingests cholesterol through food. Cholesterol ingested by diet only accounts for 1/7~1/3 of the synthesized cholesterol in the body. Did you see it? Because cholesterol is so important to the human body, our body, which has evolved for millions of years, will not allow cholesterol to be ingested only through food, but 80% is synthesized by itself. The cholesterol concentration in the blood is carefully maintained at a relatively stable and reasonable level. If the cholesterol level in the blood rises, or if we ingest enough cholesterol from our food, then the rate at which our liver synthesizes cholesterol will decrease rapidly, so as not to cause too much cholesterol to flow into the blood vessels. Cholesterol is so important to the human body, why are we so afraid of eating eggs? In the 1960s, a physiologist at the University of Minnesota conducted such a study, collecting 15,000 blood samples worldwide and analyzing cholesterol levels. Their research found that the cholesterol content in the blood showed a clear linear relationship with the incidence of heart disease. In other words: the higher the cholesterol level in the blood, the higher the risk of heart disease. After that, in the two decades since the 1980s, many clinical studies have confirmed that the use of lipid-lowering drugs to lower cholesterol levels can greatly reduce the risk of heart disease. So, we came to: excessive cholesterol in the blood threatens health. Since then, nutritionists have advised people to strictly limit the intake of cholesterol in their diets, not exceeding 300 mg per day. For people at risk of heart disease, it is further limited to 200 mg (the cholesterol content of an egg is almost 200 mg). This caused everyone to talk about egg discoloration, thinking that they could only eat one egg a day. Do I need to limit my cholesterol intake in my diet? Excessive cholesterol in the blood threatens health, but with the deepening of cholesterol research, the researchers found that dietary cholesterol intake is not related to blood cholesterol levels (not dietary cholesterol intake is higher than blood cholesterol), and the study did not find diet Cholesterol intake is related to the risk of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. As a result, in 2015, the US Dietary Guidelines removed the dietary cholesterol intake limit. my country’s 2013 version of “Reference Intake of Dietary Nutrients of Chinese Residents” also did not require everyone to limit cholesterol, and the 2016 version of “Chinese Resident’s Dietary Guidelines” reminded people to eat eggs without discarding yolks. The reason here is easy to understand: because the source of cholesterol is mainly self-synthesis, our blood lipid status is determined more by our own cholesterol metabolism, not just more or less cholesterol intake. Therefore, there is no need to worry too much about cholesterol intake in the diet, whether to eat eggs or eat a few eggs, for healthy people depends on you. However, for already existing high
In the last article, we learned that lipids are divided into fats and lipids. Fats are composed of one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids, so they are also called triglycerides, also called neutral fats. The fatty acids can be divided into many types according to different principles. The same amino acids are divided into essential and non-essential. Fatty acids are also divided into essential and non-essential. The body cannot be synthesized, but it is indispensable. Fatty acids that must be supplied through food are called essential fatty acids, including linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. Other fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, etc., are indispensable fatty acids for the human body, but can be synthesized from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Amino acid molecules can be connected to each other to make the peptide chain longer, and can be divided into dipeptide, tripeptide, oligopeptide, polypeptide, etc. according to the number of molecules. The connection between fatty acids is through the carbon-carbon connection in their molecular structure, called the carbon chain. According to the length of the carbon chain contained, it is divided into long-chain fatty acids (more than 14 carbon atoms), medium-chain fatty acids (containing 8 to 12 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (less than 6 carbons). There are mainly two forms of single-bond and double-bond carbon-carbon connections between fatty acids. If the carbon bonds of the fatty acid chain are all single-bonded, we call them saturated fatty acids. If there is a double bond, they are called monounsaturated fatty acids. Containing two or more double bonds is called polyunsaturated fatty acid. For example, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid called essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids. The most common monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid, and palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid. Different forms of fatty acids have different functions and characteristics. Fats of animal origin contain a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids and are solid at room temperature. Fats of plant origin have a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are liquid at room temperature. They are also called vegetable oils, such as peanut oil commonly used in household cooking. , Soybean oil, etc. Cocoa seed oil, coconut oil, and palm oil have a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids, but because the fatty acids they contain are mostly medium-chain fatty acids, their melting points are longer and the chain fatty acids are lower. They are also liquid at room temperature.
On the way to lose weight, all the pits are IQ taxes. 1. The digger is a merchant who collects IQ tax. In the past few years, merchants have spared no effort, racked their brains, and used all kinds of tricks to make money for dieters. They mainly rely on two points to collect the IQ tax of consumers: 1 is the weakness of human nature; 2 is the information asymmetry. 01. One of the weaknesses of human nature is the mentality of losing weight overnight (similar to getting rich overnight). Once a woman decides to lose weight, she hopes to lose weight as soon as possible, at any cost. This is over, once you decide from the bottom of your heart to pay any price for one thing, then you are destined to be the ideal victim (just like you are hopelessly falling in love with someone, destined to be deceived and ruined) . So, it seems that the overwhelming weight loss advertisements on the market all use the same template: you can lose weight in 21 days and lose 10 pounds in 7 days. “Tax evasion” points: The medically recommended healthy weekly weight loss rate, even the fastest ketogenic diet, is not recommended to be greater than 2% of the current weight. According to the general Chinese body shape, it is about 2~ 3 pounds is already the most powerful speed. 02. The second weakness of human nature is the mentality of lying thin (similar to lying earning). Although women want to lose weight, how much do they really have the will to lose weight? I do not exercise, I do not stay away from food, I do not change my nightlife…I just want to be thin. This is not the same reason as we want to make money without getting paid. This is the beginning of human inertia. So, you see another template used by the weight loss agency’s advertisement: easy to lose 20 pounds, no diet and no exercise to lose weight SOEASY. The main point of “tax evasion”: there is no good thing in the world that can be earned without work, and if there is a pie in the sky (even if there is a lottery, there is a small chance), even if the dream will be realized, this dream is best achieved by a high probability through hard work . (Achieving a probability of <.0.1% as a daydream. I<.10% if you have enough money to burn, <.50% is gambling, gambling is successful, and half of the success and failure are already gambling, >. 60% is worth trying, >.80% should work hard, >.90% are not desperate?) 03. One of the information asymmetry, merchants use the loopholes that everyone generally does not understand the scientific principles of fat and thin, use some to let consumers You can quickly experience the “thin” methods, such as dehydration, dieting, defecation, etc., let the number of weight play the role of “smoke bomb”, to confuse consumers, the business no matter whether you are thin or not, or whether it will rebound, they I only know: you will not give up, you will continue to change and continue to try, so you have become the ideal leek in their minds (see Uncle Ming’s column “Nutritionist teaches you how to use diet foods, healthy and thin”). With the popularization of the Internet and the popularization of popular science in recent years, this phenomenon has greatly improved. Merchants found that this simple routine has been seen through, and they have to find another way. “Tax evasion” points: learn professional knowledge related to weight loss, understand that we need to reduce fat, not anything else. 04. The second of information asymmetry, merchants will use products or ingredients that have not been heard by the general public, or are difficult to understand or even fabricated, to weave a large tax collection network, so-called “black technology”, “high-tech”, It is nothing more than the same as mentioned above, which captures the urgent weight loss psychology that people want to be easy, painless, and fast. But everyone can figure it out with a little finger, why are these so-called “black technologies” not reported in technology? But what about performing in a private corner such as a beauty salon? I believe that if the high-tech technology that is easy to lie down is really developed, it will be overwhelmingly reported by the media. Why do beauty salons cover up and pretend to be mysterious? The main point of “tax evasion”: don’t be blinded by any so-called “black technology” to your smart eyes. At least, you must use your smart mind to go to the academic network to check and verify with professionals. 05. The third of information asymmetry, merchants will make use of the obscure and profound characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine culture to make articles on weight loss of traditional Chinese medicine. . Do you think these businesses really understand Chinese medicine? The most important point of Chinese medicine is dialectical. Everyone has different reasons for fatness and different constitutions, and various Chinese medicines have different biases and different medicinal properties. Therefore, it is impossible for any product to be suitable for everyone. “Tax evasion” points: Whether you believe it or not, it is good to learn Chinese medicine
I have written a lot of science about the diet of gestational diabetes, but “sugar moms” still have many questions: fruits are so sweet, can I really eat them? Can sweet corn be eaten? Sweet potatoes are also very sweet, can they really be eaten? Therefore, it is necessary to specifically popularize this question: whether food is sweet or not is not a criterion for judging whether a diabetic person can eat it. Have diabetes, quit all sweet food? With diabetes, many people consciously quit sweet foods, such as cakes, snacks, drinks, fruits, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, do not put sugar in cooking, and even dare not take sugary medicines. Of course, we encourage this kind of behavior, indicating that patients are beginning to attach importance to diabetes. But in fact, in addition to cakes, snacks and other foods made of artificially added sugar, natural sweet foods such as fruits, corn, and sweet potatoes do not need to be quit. First: Sweetness does not mean that the effect on blood sugar is greater. Many diabetics will think that sweet food will have a greater impact on blood sugar, so they will not eat any sweet food. But in fact, the effect of food on blood sugar is not measured by sweetness or not. Sweetness does not necessarily have a big effect on blood sugar, and unsweetened food may not have a small effect on blood sugar. For example, rice is not sweet, but its effect on blood sugar is greater than that of fruit. To measure the effect of food on blood sugar, it is medically described by the glycemic index (abbreviated as glycemic index). The larger the value, the greater the effect on blood glucose. Usually, the glycemic index of glucose is set to 100, the glycemic index >. 70 is a high glycemic index food, and the glycemic index <. 55 is a low glycemic index food. A word I often say to people with diabetes is: You dare to eat rice, why not dare to eat fruit? The essence behind this is: the glycemic index of fruits is much lower than rice. Although the fruit is sweet, the glycemic index of most common fresh fruits is not high, such as 22 for cherries, 36 for apples, and 43 for grapes. The glycemic index of watermelon, cantaloupe, and pineapple is relatively high, above 55, but also lower than the staple food made of rice or flour (see table below). Sweet corn is also very sweet, but the glycemic index is 55, which is also significantly lower than the staple food made of rice noodles; and the glycemic index of boiled sweet potatoes is 77, although it is also high but lower than rice and buns. If you eat it cool, then blood sugar The index will be lower. Comparison of the glycemic index of fruits and common staple foods. In addition, fruits, potatoes and grains are important components of the diet. There are nearly 50 kinds of essential nutrients in the human body, which are indispensable. No natural food can meet all the nutrients required by the human body. Therefore, the diet must be composed of multiple foods. In the case of fruits, fruits contain minerals essential for the body but not self-synthesized, vitamins that have strong antioxidant effects to prevent cell aging, and soluble fiber pectin that can significantly reduce the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. Potatoes and cereals including corn are even more important. This is the basis of our diet, mainly providing carbohydrates, protein and B vitamins. In summary, if you have diabetes, sweet fruits, corn and potatoes can still be eaten: fruits are not too much at a time (about 150g), and corn and potatoes are used as staple foods. You can enjoy delicious food and increase nutrient intake without raising blood sugar. There are no bad foods, only bad collocations~ Welcome to leave a message in the comment area, I will also check back in time! Author| . Ding Bingjie Weibo丨Ding Ding Nutrition Class
Nutritionally, soy milk and milk are very important drinks, which usually appear in the diet of nutritionists. Although both belong to high-quality protein sources, the two cannot replace each other. The protein content of milk is about 3%, which is composed of 80% casein and 20% whey protein, and the biological value is 85%, which is easy to be absorbed by the human body; the soybean protein content is more than 30%, only 2% after processing into soy milk, contains All the amino acids required by the human body are high-quality proteins, but the lysine content is high and the methionine content is low, which affects the absorption rate. The fat in milk is mainly saturated fatty acids, while the soy milk is mainly unsaturated fatty acids, more suitable for patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis, such patients want to drink milk, it is recommended to drink skim milk. The carbohydrates in milk are mainly lactose, with a content of 4.6%-4.7%, which can regulate stomach acid, promote gastrointestinal motility and digestive gland secretion, but some people will suffer from lactose intolerance symptoms such as bloating and diarrhea due to lactase deficiency. It is more suitable for people who drink yoghurt containing lactic acid bacteria; while the carbohydrate in soy milk is only 1%, the composition is complex, mostly cellulose and soluble sugar, which is more difficult to digest in the body, which can be caused by excessive gas under the action of intestinal bacteria. Flatulence.
After eating food containing protein, the protein is decomposed into peptides by digestive enzymes such as pepsin in the stomach, and after entering the small intestine, it is further decomposed into amino acids with smaller molecular weight and part of 2 peptides and 3 under the action of digestive enzymes such as trypsin. The peptide is absorbed by the cells of the small intestinal mucosa and eventually decomposed into amino acid monomers, and enters the liver through the hepatic portal vein. A part of the amino acids in the liver is rearranged and combined to synthesize its own protein, and the other part enters other tissues and organs with the blood circulation to synthesize other functional proteins. We have introduced in the previous article that there are 20 kinds of amino acids that make up the human body, and different combinations are used to synthesize various proteins of the human body. The protein we take in from food is divided into plant protein and animal protein, no matter what kind of protein enters the human body The process of digestion and absorption is the same. But the absorption efficiency is different, so there is a difference between high-quality protein and inferior protein. The proportion of amino acids contained in the protein in food is close to the human body is high-quality protein, the absorption and utilization rate is high, the difference is much inferior protein, the utilization rate will be worse. Generally speaking, animal protein includes eggs and protein in milk is high-quality protein. No matter how high the absorption rate of exogenous protein, there are always some that cannot be completely digested and absorbed. These undecomposed or partially decomposed unabsorbed proteins are putrefied under the action of intestinal bacteria, producing toxic substances such as amines, phenols and indoles, most of which are excreted with feces, a small amount is absorbed by mucous membranes, and enters with blood circulation The liver is excreted in urine after undergoing biotoxicity.
Eggs have complete nutritional components and high nutritional value, and are an important part of daily diet. Eggs that can be eaten include eggs, duck eggs, goose eggs, quail eggs, especially eggs. There must be a lot of confusion about these various eggs: Will eating eggs cause high cholesterol? Do you not absorb two eggs a day? The nutritional value of brown and white eggs is high? Is the difference between native eggs and farmed eggs? Eat eggs, or duck eggs, goose eggs, quail eggs? Does the goose egg have any magic effect? I believe that after reading today’s science, you will know. The nutritional value of different eggs is not much different. From a nutritional point of view, eggs, duck eggs, goose eggs, quail eggs…These eggs have similar nutritional values, and no one is more nutritious than the other. The nutritional ingredients are roughly the same, and they are all sources of high-quality protein. The vitamin content is rich and the variety is complete, including all B vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, and trace amounts of vitamin C; the mineral content is phosphorus calcium iron The zinc and selenium content is high. Specifically, eggs may have lower fat content; duck eggs may have higher levels of zinc and vitamin E; goose eggs may have higher levels of cholesterol, niacin, and selenium; quail eggs may be richer in vitamin A and vitamin B2. Therefore, when choosing eggs, you don’t have to struggle with which one is more nutritious, and eat whatever you like. Comparison of the nutritional value of different eggs (per 100g edible part) The nutritional value of brown eggs, white eggs and local eggs is not much different. Some people care about the color of egg skin when buying eggs. They buy red eggs specifically and think that red Skinned eggs have higher nutritional value than white-skinned eggs. In fact, the nutritional value of different types of eggs is not much different, let alone between different eggs. Looking at the food composition table, the nutrient content of the two eggs is not much different. The color of the egg skin is mainly determined by a substance called eggshell porphyrin, which some chickens have and some chickens do not. This results in different eggs produced by different types of chickens. Therefore, it is not necessary to pay attention to the color of the egg skin when selecting eggs. There are also farm chicken eggs on the market, which refers to the eggs produced by the farm chickens that are scattered in the farm. Because the feeding method is different from the chickens fed by synthetic feed on the chicken farm, many people will think that the chicken eggs have higher nutritional value. . Native chicken eggs have a high proportion of yolk, so the cholesterol content will be high. But compared with other nutrients, the difference is not big. The nutritional composition is not much different, but personally feel the taste of the raw chicken that my mother raised is more fragrant! It may be the smell of mother. Eggs are high in cholesterol, do you want to eat egg yolks? Is it bad to eat two eggs a day? The fats, vitamins and minerals contained in eggs are mainly concentrated in egg yolks, and are rich in phospholipids and choline, which is very beneficial to health. Therefore, the dietary guidelines clearly state that eating eggs does not discard egg yolks. It is completely unnecessary to worry that eating eggs will cause increased blood cholesterol and cause cardiovascular disease. For healthy people, one egg per day is no problem at all. If there are fewer meats in the diet, it is not bad to eat two a day. A 2013 study pointed out that eating one or more eggs per day was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk compared with those who did not eat eggs. However, for those who already have dyslipidemia and hypercholesterolemia, it is necessary to limit cholesterol intake, not only eggs, but also fish caviar, crab yellow, and liver. Can goose eggs have fetal poison? Many pregnant mothers will ask me this question. For this question, the first thing I want to ask is: What is fetal poison? As a nutritionist, I don’t understand. So I consulted the literature: “Fetal Toxicology” is an important theory in pediatric etiology of traditional Chinese medicine. Nearly 80% of neonatal diseases in ancient Chinese medicine, such as measles, chickenpox, other skin sores, eczema, erysipelas, etc., used fetal poison as the cause, and led to a series of related diseases, concepts, treatments, prescriptions and drugs , Has become a major feature of Chinese medicine pediatrics. And the theory of fetotoxicity traces the causes of many diseases of babies to before birth, and emphasizes the body conditioning of the mother. Ancient medical doctors recognized the influence of parents’ constitution, diet, mood, environment, etc. on fetal growth and development early on, and systematically proposed a whole set from the adjustment of parents’ constitution before pregnancy and the choice of conception time to the maintenance of the fetus during pregnancy. Proven theoretical method: In terms of diet, pregnant women should have a light diet, and should not eat anything rich in fat, spicy, spicy or cold, so as not to help moist heat, which is harmful to the fetus. Diet
A few days ago, I answered questions about diet and talked about blood sugar in the WeChat group of pregnant mothers. After everyone vomited to control blood sugar, this can’t be eaten and the other could not be eaten. If you do this, you will be able to eat enough and eat well. Blood sugar It can also be controlled (click the link to view), and there are many restrictions on diets to prevent diabetes. A pregnant mother said sadly: At that time my inner play was like this: Dear, you finally realized this problem! (Hears of tears) After pregnancy, you can’t eat whatever you want. It seems that every pregnant mother knows: for example, they can’t eat spicy food, watermelon, barley green beans, crabs, etc. If you search online, about There is not much to eat during pregnancy. But in fact, they don’t know: what they really don’t eat is sweets (sweet processed foods such as beverages, pastries, and cakes), and don’t eat too many fruits (too much fruit affects the intake of other foods, causing an uneven diet), and Should eat liver and blood products to ensure adequate iron intake, drink more milk to ensure calcium intake, eat fish, shrimp and eggs to ensure protein intake. We have talked about the diet during pregnancy many times, but we still talk about it, just to let everyone know: The diet during pregnancy is about the health of the mother and the fetus! Eat whatever you want! Eat as much as you want! Slightly wrong eating may have undesirable consequences. First: Diet during pregnancy is about weight, and excessive weight gain will cause many problems. Many pregnant mothers will feel that they no longer need to control their weight when they are pregnant. The baby needs nutrition and should “eat one person’s meal”. If you really think so, you are wrong. Letting weight gain will bring the risk of diabetes and huge children, increase the chance of cesarean section, and also make your children have the risk of obesity and diabetes in the future. How to control weight during pregnancy? 1. To control your weight, all you need to do is not to eat or eat less foods with added sugar such as sugary drinks, cakes, snacks, sandwich biscuits, wafer chocolate biscuits, stuffed bread, etc. There is only energy, but the content of vitamins, minerals, and protein is extremely low; 2. Eat less fruit is not the more fruit eaten, the better the child’s skin, the bigger the eyes (some people think that children who eat grapes will have larger eyes). Fruit contains polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotene, dietary fiber and other nutrients, so it is really necessary to eat every day, but the dietary guidelines recommend only 200g-400g per day. Fruits contain sugar, and some fruits have high sugar content, such as lychee, mango, coconut, banana, durian. Eating too much fruit will inevitably lead to excessive energy intake. And if you eat too much fruit, you may not be able to eat normal meals, which will cause insufficient intake of protein and so on. Question yourself: Do you really think that fruits are nutritious, not fruits that are sweet? I said that Chinese cabbage is very nutritious, why don’t you see you eating it every day? 3. The increase in staple food by 1/3 to 1/2 of coarse grains and mixed beans staple food is a part that is easily overlooked by some people: some pregnant mothers think that staple foods eat less or no food without nutrition, and other pregnant mothers think that eating staple foods is easy to overweight. Both of these situations are wrong. The reason why it becomes a “staple” food reflects the status of the staple food, which is an indispensable and important part of the diet; while eating staple food is easy to gain weight, this pot is really not Should be the staple food. The staple food is right, not only does not gain weight but also controls weight. The method is to mix 1/3 to 1/2 of coarse grains and mixed beans in the staple food of three meals, and don’t eat rice, steamed bread, noodles, pancakes, dumplings, etc. made only with white rice noodles. For example, the following staple foods: Ps: eating staple foods in this way can well control blood sugar and weight. Many pregnant mothers report that they should eat like this to lose weight after birth. Second: Diet during pregnancy is related to nutrient intake. Diet is our way to obtain nutrients. Our body needs more than 40 nutrients, such as vitamin ABCDE, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein, fat and carbohydrates. During pregnancy, almost all nutritional needs have increased, especially protein, iron, folic acid, calcium and iodine. In the case of increased demand, on the contrary, the diet has not been eaten well before eating and balanced. The problem is the lack of nutrients, which may lead to anemia, abnormal fetal bone development, low protein and so on. How to eat to ensure adequate nutrients? 1. Eat a good staple food (see above); 2. 300ml-500ml of low-fat or skim milk per day to ensure calcium intake, can not be replaced with soy milk (lactose intolerance
As we all know, diet therapy is the basis of diabetes treatment, and it plays an important role in diabetes, blood sugar, blood lipids, blood pressure and body weight. Basic dietary principles such as limiting total energy, low carbon, low GI (glycemic index), and timing and quantification are familiar to everyone, but what exactly should a particular diabetic patient eat three meals a day? Many people are not clear. Here, I post the one-week diabetes recipe prepared by our dietitian for the reference of diabetics. This is a 7-week recipe given by a dietitian to guide an adult female diabetic patient. The total daily energy intake is 1700 kcal, and the energy supply ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrate is 17%, 28% and 55%, respectively. , Recommended in accordance with relevant guidelines/standards; the various vitamins and minerals provided in this recipe can meet the needs of diabetics. The specific nutritional analysis of the recipe is shown in Figure 1. [Readers who are not familiar with nutrition can ignore Figure 1 and look directly at Figures 2~7; if they are not familiar with the weight/grams of ingredients, they can directly look at Figures 8-17 Three meals atlas] Figure 1. Nutritional analysis and evaluation of diabetes recipes Diabetes recipes must go through nutritional analysis and evaluation before they can know whether they are qualified diabetes recipes. In general, diabetes recipes should meet the requirements of diabetes treatment (follow the guidelines), and can meet the nutritional needs of diabetic patients (to avoid malnutrition, which is very important), taking into account blood sugar management and weight, blood lipid, blood pressure and weight management. Figures 2-7 below are the recipes for diabetes seven days a week. The weight of the ingredients in the above recipes is raw weight, net weight, and is eaten by one person. Many people have no idea about the grams of ingredients (g), which is also a major difficulty in diabetes diet management. In order to better guide the implementation of diabetes recipes, our nutritionists cook the types and quantities of ingredients according to the above recipes into dishes and Staple food for diabetics. Figures 8 to 17 below are three meals for the first two to three days of diabetes recipes. Figure 9, breakfast on the first day of diabetes recipes Figure 10, lunch on the first day of diabetes recipes Figure 11, dinner on the first day of diabetes recipes 12, breakfast on the second day of diabetes recipes, breakfast picture 13, lunch on the second day of diabetes recipes, 14, Diabetes recipe second day & nbsp. dinner picture 15, diabetes recipe third day & nbsp. breakfast picture 16, diabetes recipe third day & nbsp. lunch picture 17, diabetes recipe third day & nbsp. dinner is limited by space, only passed here For the three meals in the first three days of the one-week diabetes diet, and the three meals a day for the remaining four days, please follow my follow-up. Through this article, I want to emphasize that the diet of diabetes should be diversified enough, the ratio of coarse grains, vegetables and protein foods should be up to the standard, and refined carbohydrates, oil, salt, sugar, etc. should be strictly limited. Nutrition is sufficient. In addition, pay attention to the order of meals. Every meal should eat vegetables or meat and eggs before eating staple foods or carbohydrates. According to our experience, the above recipes are of great help to blood sugar management. If you adhere to the above recipes, the blood sugar standard is still not ideal. You should increase physical activity, moderately low-carb (and reduce weight), and finally adjust the hypoglycemic drugs. This series of personalized and specific measures constitute comprehensive treatment of diabetes. ————Special instructions————The recipes, recipe analysis and dishes pictures used in the article are all completed by @ registered nutritionist Jiang Dan & nbsp. If you want to quote, please obtain her permission.
Recently, many postpartum mothers have sent soul problems: Dr. Ding, I have very serious hair loss after delivery. How to adjust it? In fact, I have experienced this problem before, and colleagues around me who have just given birth have also experienced it. You can say this The problem is that every mother can’t escape after delivery. Hair loss is not equivalent to hair loss on the scalp. Hair follicles are sac-like tissues that wrap the hair. There are 100,000 to 150,000 hair follicles on the human head, and the number of these hair follicles determines the amount of hair. As for whether it is 100,000 hair follicles or 150,000 hair follicles, it was already decided when we were still in my mother’s stomach. In other words, all hair follicles are born with people, and the number will not increase after birth. Therefore, our hair volume will not increase the day after tomorrow (but it is well maintained and can be healthier and thicker). Each hair follicle has its own growth cycle, namely the growth phase (3-7 years), regression phase (several weeks) and resting period (3 months), growth phase (3-7 years). When the hair follicle enters the resting period, the hair gradually falls off, and after about three months, it will re-enter the growth phase and grow new hair. We normally lose 50 to 100 hairs a day, but why we did not lose baldness is because of this cycle. Under normal circumstances, about 80% to 90% of the hair follicles on a healthy person’s scalp are in the hair growth period, while the remaining 10% to 20% are in the hair rest period. The cause of postpartum hair loss is clinically found, and 35% to 45% of women will have different degrees of hair loss after delivery, which is medically called “postpartum hair loss.” This phenomenon generally begins 2 to 3 months after delivery, and can be delayed to 7 months after delivery. This kind of hair loss is caused by the physiological changes of the mother: the estrogen and progesterone secreted by women during pregnancy increase rapidly, which prolongs the growth period of the hair follicles, and the speed of hair loss is slowed down. A large amount of hair “exceeds service”; and after delivery As the levels of estrogen and progesterone in the body return to normal, those hairs that have been “overdue” will be “retired”, and the hair follicles will enter the “rest period”, which will cause a lot of hair loss after a period of time. But as mentioned above, hair follicles will start to grow again after the resting period. Therefore, this kind of disintegration will generally stop on its own about 6 to 9 months after delivery, and the longest will not exceed 1 year. Therefore, new mothers should not be overly nervous. Although the old hair is lost, new hair fibers have also appeared, although they are still very short. In addition to the above physiological reasons, broken hair that grows hard to manage after postpartum hair loss is also closely related to postpartum hair loss. There are various reasons before and after childbirth that cause emotional instability or excessive mental stress, lead to metabolic disorders in the body, interfere with the function of hair follicles, and cause hair loss; night feeding, changing diapers, etc. lead to insufficient sleep and reduced sleep quality, causing autonomic nerve disorders to increase hair loss; Inappropriate diets during pregnancy and lactation lead to insufficient nutrient intake, such as insufficient intake of nutrients such as iron and protein, which are also potential risk factors for hair loss. How to reduce postpartum hair loss as much as possible. In addition to the hair loss caused by the above physiological reasons, we are powerless. If we want to reduce hair loss, we should start by adjusting our spirit and mood, ensuring sleep, and reasonable diet to reduce postpartum hair loss. 1. Maintain a comfortable mood and avoid mental stress. For hair loss and child rearing problems (such as long rashes, poor sleep, poor pulling, and poor eating), you must correctly understand that hair loss is only temporary, and your child will always be healthy. grow up. Excessive fear, anxiety, and depression can only lead to a vicious cycle, leading to increased hair loss. Second, pay attention to rest, ensure the quality of sleep and share the task of taking care of your baby with your family, or adjust your work and rest according to the baby’s work and rest to ensure rest and sleep. Third, a balanced diet intake of sufficient nutrition to strengthen nutrition after childbirth, do not picky eaters, partial eclipse and taboos. 1. Eat more protein foods. Protein can promote milk secretion and help hair follicles and healthy hair. It is recommended to have protein foods for breakfast, lunch and dinner: 1 egg for breakfast and 250ml of milk; various chicken, duck, fish and lean meat and bean products alternate between lunch and dinner. 2. Don’t eat sweets, replace coarse white rice noodle sweets with coarse grains, and a refined staple food diet will stimulate excessive sebum secretion, insulin resistance, androgen synthesis and other mechanisms that cause hair loss. It is recommended that no more than half a bottle of sugary beverages, no sugar for cooking and soup, instead of whole grains and mixed beans. 3. Trace elements, especially iron deficiency during iron pregnancy are very common, which is also a risk factor for hair loss. It is recommended to have anemia during pregnancy or
Avocado, scientific name avocado, is a fruit that grows in tropical evergreen trees. Although it is called an avocado, it is not very similar to the “family of pears”; it has a delicate taste, and does not taste like the rough fiber of a pear. From these characteristics, avocado does not seem to be a competent fruit. But somehow, the delicate taste and unique flavor of avocado have gradually been recognized by the majority of foodies. This small and fresh food has also changed from no one to become a celebrity in the catering industry. Regarding avocado, there are rumors on the Internet: Avocado has a very high fat content. Regular consumption of avocado is not good for our health; eating avocado is not as good as lard; eating avocado can lose weight… is the rumor true? Let’s find out! The nutritional value of avocado fruit is the main way we get vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. Avocado is no exception. Compared with other fruits, its nutritional value can be said to be a victory. It is a rare “all-rounder” among fruits. Protein, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, B vitamins and calcium, iron, zinc and other minerals are higher than common fruits. If the biggest characteristic of avocado is its fat content, avocado has the highest fat content among all fruits, probably about 15%, but the composition of fat is mainly monounsaturated fatty acids, which can account for 70% %the above. Therefore, from the nutrient composition table, avocado is indeed a fruit with high nutritional value. Avocado has high fat content, but it is mainly monounsaturated fatty acid, which is good for health. As mentioned above, the fat content of avocado is very high. 15g of 100g avocado is fat. What is the concept of this fat content? Just give a few examples. The fat content of lean beef is 2.3g; the fat content of chicken breast is only 5.0g; the fat of pork tenderloin is only 7.9g. This shows that the fat content of avocado is indeed very high, it is simply a wonderful flower in the fruit. So, do we need to worry about eating too much fat and damaging our health? This worry is completely unnecessary. Because the fat of avocado is different from animal food fat, it has less saturated fatty acids, and more than 70% are monounsaturated fatty acids (same as olive oil). Monounsaturated fatty acids have many health benefits, such as improving blood lipids, regulating blood sugar, preventing coronary heart disease, improving cognitive function, and so on. Why is it that avocado is not as good as lard? If you go online to search for avocado, you might find something like: Avocado is not as nutritious as lard? You may pay IQ tax on the money you buy for healthy food! The reason for this statement is a report from the BBC. In this report, the BBC made an elaboration and introduction based on a 2015 study on “the most nutritious food in the world”, and in this list, lard really defeated many foods. , Ranked eighth out of 100 foods considered the most nutritious, while avocado ranks only 417th out of 1,000 foods. If you only look at the rankings, avocado is really not as good as lard. In fact, this is a misinterpretation of some domestic media: that study did not directly rate food. It is not that the higher the score, the more edible value we should eat. Rather, a food with a higher score means that it will be more suitable for being placed in the diet, indicating that when it is taken with other foods, it has a higher probability of meeting our daily nutritional needs. Therefore, to say that avocado is not as good as lard means that the nutritional applicability index of avocado is not high. In other words, eating avocado can’t better guarantee the daily nutrients needed under the premise of not being sure about other ingredients. In the Chinese interpretation of the BBC, the main reason why lard ranks so high is also attributed to the high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, but lard also contains high saturated fats. Never listen to rumors and really eat lard. Can avocado lose weight? Many fitness cafes are eating, avocado salad, avocado sandwiches, avocado noodles ~ seems to eat avocado to lose weight. Therefore, many people have such questions: Can avocado lose weight? Let’s not answer this question directly. Let me talk about the truth of weight loss/weight loss: energy intake is less than energy expenditure. No matter what food you eat, as long as the energy of the food is less than the energy consumption of the body, you can lose weight. Therefore, to say that avocado can lose weight is not to say how amazing this food is.
Unconsciously, many pregnant mothers added to the original WeChat have unloaded and become novice moms. So, their question has become this: Can I eat ice cream during lactation? Can I drink coffee during lactation? Can I eat seafood during lactation? Can I eat spicy food during lactation? Can the hot pot be eaten, can’t help but eat soy products, leek and fennel? ·······In addition to those I listed, there are really too many dietary taboos during breastfeeding, not less than during pregnancy. In view of the above, I have selected some common problems to explain to you one by one. In the dietary guidelines for Chinese residents, the only taboos for breastfeeding are tobacco and alcohol (not cooking wine). Are there any foods that return milk? The key to successful breastfeeding is to have milk, so attention to return milk foods may be ranked first. Many mothers are very concerned about whether the food they eat will cause milk return, such as leek, fennel, barley, rye and so on. In fact, scientifically speaking, no kind of food will lead to a reduction in lactation, and more of these foods have a strong taste that caused our reverie. Can I drink coffee during lactation? When it comes to tea, coffee and cola, they have long been on the blacklist of nursing mothers’ diets because they all contain caffeine. Excess caffeine will indeed pass through the mother’s milk and cause some adverse effects on the baby, such as restlessness, intestinal colic, acid reflux and other symptoms. But if the daily intake of caffeine does not exceed 200 mg, there is no need to worry about affecting the baby. Nestle’s official website shows that the caffeine content of common instant coffee is 60-80mg/250ml (equivalent to 57-76mg/236ml). Most of the Starbucks hot drinks in the cup of coffee (such as latte, mocha, macchiato, cappuccino, etc.) have a caffeine content of about 75mg. Only the American concentrated and white coffee has a slightly higher caffeine content, but it will not exceed 150mg/medium cup; the caffeine content of the cold drink medium cup coffee is 150-280ml/medium cup (the highest content of cold extract coffee); the caffeine content of the medium cup non-caffeinated coffee is 20mg. Therefore, the daily coffee limit, 1-2 cups of 240 ml of instant coffee, or 2 cups of Starbucks common hot drinks, or 1 cup of Starbucks cold drink to control the intake of caffeine within a safe dose range, nursing mothers can fully enjoy this beauty Drinks. Can I drink cold drinks and eat ice cream or ice cream during lactation? The Chinese stomach and intestines are more used to warm food. If you eat too much cold food, especially mothers after childbirth, it may cause digestive disorders, causing abdominal pain and diarrhea; in addition, cold drinks, ice cream, and ice cream are not well sealed or stored during storage, transportation, and production. Poor control can easily lead to deterioration and bacterial contamination. Therefore, for many online remarks: you can’t eat cold drinks during lactation, otherwise it will cause the baby to have abdominal pain and accumulate food. What I want to say is: there is no problem with a small amount of cold drinks and ice cream; eating more will not cause baby’s abdominal pain, but mother’s abdominal pain! Can you eat chili during lactation? This question is very easy to answer. Think about the mothers in Chengdu, Chongqing, Hunan, Guizhou and other regions. There is no problem in eating chili itself. What everyone should worry about is whether they will eat too much oil and salt when eating hot pot or spicy hot pot. However, eating too spicy food may change the taste of milk. If you don’t like milk after a hot meal, you may need to order a slightly spicy taste next time. Can I eat spicy pepper, star anise, cinnamon, cumin and other spices during lactation? Spices refer to plant fruits, seeds, flowers, roots, stems, leaves, bark, whole plants and other botanical products or mixtures that can be used directly with the functions of flavoring, flavoring, and flavoring. The oldest spices are star anise, pepper, chilli, cinnamon, ginger and other traditional Chinese seasonings. The chili mentioned above is actually a kind of spice. In ancient times, humans have started to use some stimulating aromatic plants in the diet, which not only promotes appetite and improves the flavor of food, but also has antiseptic and antiseptic functions. It is now medically proven that these spices also have strong antioxidant activity. It can be said clearly that the spice itself is safe for the human body and has health benefits. Pregnant women and breastfeeding can eat it. However, during the production and circulation of spices, mold contamination and mycotoxin residues are common. Therefore, it is recommended that you buy spiced materials that are packaged and tested for food hygiene, rather than bulk, to avoid contamination of the spices
Why are there so few watermelons on a hot summer day? As the best fruit to quench the thirst and quench the thirst, watermelon is naturally loved by many people in the summer, but not everyone dare to eat it when eating watermelon. There are many sayings about eating watermelon, such as: watermelon is cold, eating watermelon will Miscarriage is easy to cause miscarriage; watermelon is high in sugar and people with diabetes cannot eat it; a watermelon is equal to 6 bowls of rice, and people who lose weight should not eat it. So, can pregnant women and diabetics eat watermelon, can a watermelon really hold 6 bowls of rice? Today, let me tell you once. Nourishment of watermelon No matter how sweet the watermelon is, as a fruit, most of it is still water, no matter what kind of water content is more than 90%. Except for more than 90% of the water, the content of other nutrients is not high, and it is not particularly outstanding compared with other fruits.  . Therefore, the energy of watermelon is not very high. The energy of 100g is only 31kcal, which is much lower than that of bananas, fresh dates, pomegranates, jackfruit, litchi, durian, mangosteen, rambutan, and slightly lower than apples and pears. , Oranges, strawberries, cherries, grapes, mulberries and other common fruits. As for someone who said that energy is not so high, why is it so sweet? This is because watermelon has high fructose content and low fruit acid content. Fructose is the sweetest natural sugar, and its sweetness can reach 1.73 times that of white sugar. A watermelon equal to 6 bowls of rice is purely eye-catching. We assume that a watermelon is ten pounds, and the edible part is 59% according to the food composition table, then it is 2950 grams of pulp. As mentioned above, the energy of 100 grams is 31kcal, so the energy of the 2950 grams of watermelon pulp is 914kcal, and the rice converted into the same energy is 5 two. We often say that a bowl of rice is about two or two, so this 10 pound watermelon is probably equivalent to two and a half bowls of rice. Picture|Homemade one watermelon equals 6 bowls of rice is totally eye-catching. The energy of watermelon is not high. Whether to eat it depends on how much you eat and how to eat it. As an extra meal, it’s no problem to eat one piece or two, as long as it’s not half a piece. Although watermelon is sweet, people with diabetes can also eat watermelon. The sugar content is not high, but because it is too sweet, many people think that high blood sugar can not be eaten. It is true that watermelon needs attention for patients with high blood sugar, but not because watermelon is too sweet, but because it has a high blood sugar index. The glycemic index is an index to measure the influence of food on blood sugar, which is generally higher than 55 and is called a high glycemic index food. The glycemic index of watermelon is as high as 72, 1.3 times that of banana, 2 times that of apple and pear, 2.5 times that of peach, and 3.2 times that of cherry. Picture | Homemade but high glycemic index does not mean that people with diabetes cannot eat watermelon, because there is a concept of glycemic load. After all, the water content of watermelon is not high, so as long as you don’t eat too much, each time controlled within 200 grams, the effect on blood sugar is no different from eating apples and grapes. Eating watermelons can cause miscarriage, and going to the hospital to eat watermelon can cause miscarriage is even more nonsense. Chinese medicine believes that watermelon is a cold food, eating too much is easy to hurt the spleen and stomach. I don’t understand Chinese medicine, but I know that eating a lot of cold food, such as watermelon just taken out of the refrigerator, will cause gastrointestinal vasoconstriction, inhibit digestive juice secretion, accelerate gastrointestinal motility or cause cramps, causing indigestion, abdominal pain, and diarrhea And other symptoms. Maybe it was the earliest pregnant woman who had a stomachache after eating iced watermelon. Can the pregnant woman have a stomachache? The fear of miscarriage comes with it, so there is a saying that eating watermelon can easily lead to miscarriage. It’s just a kind of fruit, not so magical, so scary. Pregnant mothers can eat with confidence, worrying that they will not eat iced ones if they are too cold, or take them out of the refrigerator and let them sit at room temperature for a while. The real need to pay attention to eating watermelon is that every summer, there will be news reports about gastrointestinal diseases and microbial infections caused by eating various raw foods. Why does a piece of iced watermelon cause intestinal cutting? The reason is that the watermelon sliced by the man before the onset of the disease was not packaged and was put directly into the refrigerator. At the same time, there were many raw meats and vegetables in the refrigerator. This caused the surface of the watermelon to be contaminated. Tragedy. Many people think that the refrigerator is a safe “fresh box”, bacteria will not breed in low temperature environment. In fact, low temperature only inhibits the reproduction of bacteria. However, if the storage method is not correct, various bacteria carried by food will also multiply in the refrigerator. Therefore, it is recommended that you keep fresh regardless of the package
After the science of the last two articles, I believe that pregnant mothers have a certain understanding of anemia during pregnancy. Many mothers who have not yet had anemia have taken photos of eating liver and duck blood in the group. I am very happy as your dietitian! However, there are still some people who have a certain misunderstanding about how to improve anemia. Recently, a mother asked me: Dr. Ding, heard that Chelizi also supplements iron, is it true? Nani? It turns out that anemia still needs to be continued. Today we will talk about the misunderstanding about iron supplementation. See how many of you have won? Rumor one: Chelizi iron supplementation In fact, more than one pregnant mother recently asked me privately about whether Chelizi iron supplementation. I don’t know where this rumor came from. Is it because the cherry is red? Complement by shape? In fact, as a fruit, cherries have very little iron content. Each 100g (about 10 tablets) contains only 0.4mg of iron, and our recommended iron food for duck blood is 30.5mg of iron in 100g. Therefore, don’t spend money on buying cherries for iron. Rumor two: Jujube supplementing iron The theory about jujube supplementing blood has a long history, especially in Chinese medicine, jujube is considered to be a food to supplement qi and blood. I do n’t understand Chinese medicine, so I ’m not qualified to say whether this is correct. But in nutrition, jujube is not a food supplemented with iron. Although its iron content is higher than that of cherries, the iron content per 100g of dried dates (about 10 tablets) is 2.3mg, but because the iron in it is non-heme iron, the absorption is only about 1%, so it is not recommended to supplement the date. iron. Another reason is that 60-70% of the dried dates are sugar, and they eat more jujubes when they are anaemic. As a result, iron is not made up, and their weight is very optimistic. Myth 3: Ejiao iron supplementation is a controversial “tonic”, but in the nutrition circle, we always think that Ejiao is donkey skin, which has no special effect. Of course, these e-jiao manufacturers and micro-businesses in the circle of friends certainly disagree. Still don’t talk about the use of Ejiao in traditional Chinese medicine. From the nutritional point of view, Ejiao and Ejiao products (foods made of Ejiao with a lot of sugar, red dates, walnuts, etc.) do not have much nutrition for iron deficiency anemia Value, can not be used as food for iron and blood. Rumor 4: Brown sugar supplements iron. This rumor is based on the shape and shape, maybe because of its reddish brown color, people have such misunderstandings. Brown sugar is a kind of sugar, nothing special. The main ingredient is sucrose, which also contains a small amount of fructose and glucose. Each 100g of brown sugar contains 2.2mg of iron. If iron is supplemented by brown sugar, at least 2 kg of brown sugar per day. Imagine, is this reliable? The above foods are often asked about when anemia patients see a doctor. In fact, there are far more misunderstandings about iron and blood supplementation. I hope everyone will keep their eyes open and do not be misled by wrong opinions and delay the treatment of anemia.
There are no grades 1-3 in the newly announced start date! Middle-aged mother feels convulsed, going to work, cooking, tutoring homework, punching homework, and practicing in the park every day ~ I do n’t know if I can still live in my family to start school! Watching my family’s melon son happy besides eating and sleeping, I want to become a cat! But when I think about it, the freedom of “Cherry” has not yet been achieved, and I must continue to work hard! “Freedom of cherries” has gradually become a new topic in recent years, which not only reflects the high price of cherries, but also means that the fruit is becoming more and more popular. There are many sayings about cherries on the Internet, such as: cherries are excellent fruits for protecting eyesight; extremely high iron content, blood and iron; cherries vitamin C content is extremely high, beauty and beauty! Whether these statements are correct or not, let’s do a small survey first: the reasons why you eat cherries are: 1. High nutritional value, iron supplementation, vitamin C supplementation, high carotene 2, delicious 3, reflect free cherries Is it the same thing as cherry? Cherry and Cherry are really the same thing, just different names. I went to the vegetable market today and found that it was really just a different variety. It turned out that I thought that “cherries” are usually imported cherries. Today I specifically asked the boss that the cherries on the market are all domestically produced. As for the different names, they are just different varieties. Only when the domestic production ceases after August or September each year is the cherry called “cherries” imported. It ’s just a cherry, why not a name that does n’t look like fruit? Chelizi is literally translated from Cherry’s English: cherries. Why not translate it directly into “big cherry”, but transliterate it into “cherry”? I think it may be for the sake of being tall and convenient for price increases. The fruit of cherry has been in China since ancient times. There are always many varieties of fruits. If you change to a new variety, the dessert may be bigger, but it is still cherry, and the price will not be several times different. However, if you change the name, its price does not have to be equal to that of cherries, and high-end new products should be more expensive. High prices and different names do not mean how high the nutrition is. No matter how big the difference is, what is the nutritional value really as high as it says online? Is it really much higher than the small cabbage? Let’s take a look at the data in the food composition table to see the truth. The cherry called “cherries” is a variety imported from abroad, so our country’s food composition table does not have its nutritional content, so the “cherries” ingredients come from the US Department of Agriculture data. As can be seen from the table, no matter what the name of this fruit is called, in fact, the root is cherry, so the nutritional value is not much different. It is said that the high content of iron, vitamin C and vitamin A in cherries or cherries on the Internet has been hit hard by the Chinese cabbage! After knowing the truth, can you still eat cherries happily? Many friends who have misunderstood Che Lizi, after understanding the truth, are they very worried? Especially pregnant mothers who once used iron to supplement iron, finally know why anemia can’t make up. Cherry as a fruit, if you like to eat, please continue to eat happily. It doesn’t have to be unpleasant because it has low iron content and can’t replenish blood. What’s more, this fruit still has advantages. The cherries / cherries have a glycemic index of only 22, which is the lowest among fruits. Therefore, it is suitable for people with diabetes to eat as an appropriate amount of fruit; in addition, cherries also contain anthocyanin and other polyphenolic antioxidant substances, which are still good for health. Finally, back to our small survey: We spend a lot of money to buy cherries, because it is delicious, or to reflect freedom, but definitely not because it is much higher in nutritional value than other fruits, and can be beauty and nourishing.
When it comes to weight loss and weight management, the ketogenic diet is an unavoidable topic: How about weight loss? I heard that meat can be thin if eaten casually? Are there any side effects of not eating staple food? Since many people care about the ketogenic diet, after studying it well, let me tell you once today! What is a ketogenic diet? The ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high-fat, moderate protein dietary pattern. In a common balanced diet mode, carbohydrates supply 50% to 65% of total calories, fats 20% to 30%, and proteins 10% to 15%. In the ketogenic diet model, carbohydrate energy supply accounts for only 5% to 10% of total calories, fat accounts for 75% to 80%, and protein accounts for 15%. During the ketogenic diet, because a large amount of fat is burned, the body will produce a class of substances called ketones, which is the name of this dietary pattern. The ketogenic diet originates from the therapeutic diet used to treat epilepsy. The ketogenic diet is not new. As early as the Hippocrates era in ancient Greece, there was a “ketogenic diet”-then called “hunger therapy”, used to treat epilepsy. In the 1920s, the Mayo Clinic in the United States further discovered that the “ketogenic diet” has a certain therapeutic effect on children with refractory epilepsy. The principle of the “ketogenic diet” usually requires the energy of the body to be mainly provided by glucose. This diet method is to convert the body’s main metabolic energy from the use of glucose to the use of fat, which changes the energy metabolism of the brain and changes the characteristics of cells , Reduce excitability and buffer epilepsy-like discharge, change the function of neurotransmitters and synaptic transmission, in order to achieve the effect of treating epilepsy. At present, this therapy is still used to treat children with intractable epilepsy in many countries, including ours. At the same time, some studies have found that a ketogenic diet may also be beneficial for other brain diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The ketogenic diet is not a magic weapon for weight loss. Therefore, the prevailing “ketogenic diet” is actually derived from the ketogenic diet used to treat epilepsy. The ketogenic diet is promoted by some public accounts and institutions to promote deliciousness, health and body shape! As long as you do not consume sugar, you can eat high-fat meat at will, and you can achieve good weight loss. But there is nothing special about losing weight with a ketogenic diet. The reason for losing weight is because many people feel less hungry in a high-fat ketone diet, and because the blood ketone body increases appetite, it will naturally reduce their total calories. Ingest. In the diet list published by the US News Network, the short-term weight loss effect of the ketogenic diet is indeed good. It can be ranked third among the 34 diet patterns, but the long-term weight loss effect fell to 15th, and the best diet- -Same as Mediterranean diet. The ketogenic diet has no magic effect on weight loss, and ultimately weight loss is also due to active or passive energy intake restrictions. Therefore, as the editorial of the Journal of the American Medical Association said: ketogenic diet can lose weight is more enthusiastic than evidence. Side effects of the ketogenic diet The short-term weight loss effect of the ketogenic diet is indeed good, but this does not mean that we recommend using it to lose weight (not to mention that many people are not really fat). However, if you have a BMI greater than 28, and the liver and kidney function is normal, you really want to try the ketogenic diet to lose weight, you need to be under the guidance of a specially trained physician and nutritionist, and monitor blood lipids, electrolytes, liver and kidney function, nutritional status , Body fat, body fat rate and other indicators. Because, ketogenic diet will cause a lot of adverse reactions. The study found that the most common complications of the ketogenic diet are: hyperlipidemia (50.8%), selenium deficiency (26.9%), constipation (26.2%), sleep disturbance (20.0%), kidney stones (3.0%), high Uric acid (3.0%) and liver adverse reactions (2.6%). It also causes hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal intolerance, hypoproteinemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, persistent metabolic acidosis, cardiac insufficiency, electrolyte imbalance, Various infectious diseases, symptomatic hypoglycemia, decreased bone mass, secondary carnitineemia and other multi-system adverse reactions. Netizens who have tried the ketogenic diet online said that during the transitional period of the ketogenic diet, they will show reduced thinking ability, dizziness and headache, accompanied by dry mouth and insomnia. Behind these performances is the short-circuit phenomenon in the process of the body and brain providing energy from carbohydrate to fat. If the body adapts, these discomforts will disappear; but
It can be said that almost all nutrients are involved in the composition, response and regulation of the immune system. Ingesting reasonable nutrients through the diet is a solid material basis for strong immunity. How to get the perfect nutritional intake is inseparable from our balanced and balanced diet with diverse foods. Variety of foods, reasonable mix of foods is the basic principle of a balanced diet, and only three meals a day with diverse foods and reasonable mix can be a balanced intake of various nutrients. In our diet, cereals, mixed beans, vegetables and fruits, fish, shrimp, egg, milk, nuts and soybeans are all indispensable! Eating balance, healthy weight and weight are important indicators for objectively evaluating human nutrition and health status. Obesity can cause chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and abnormal blood lipids, and these diseases can directly lead to a decline in immune function. On the contrary, wasting is a concrete manifestation of insufficient energy intake or increased energy consumption, and also affects the body’s immune function, resulting in decreased ability to resist disease. To maintain a healthy weight and enhance immunity, you need to eat reasonably and increase exercise. Adhere to daily physical activities, at least 5 days a week of moderate-intensity physical activities, accumulating more than 150 minutes; reduce sedentary, get up frequently during work. Varieties of cereals, potatoes, and beans are the main source of carbohydrates. Compared with polished rice noodles, they can provide more nutrients such as B vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other healthy phytochemicals . It is recommended to eat 50-150g of whole grains and mixed beans every day, which is equivalent to 1/4 ~ 1/3 of a day’s grains. Vegetables and fruits are essential. Vegetables and fruits are an important source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and phytochemicals, and play an important role in increasing the intake of dietary micronutrients and phytochemicals. We have to have vegetables for meals, and eat fruits every day, but the amount of fruits is less than vegetables. Fish, shrimp, poultry, meat, eggs, milk, beans are full of high-quality protein is a treasure, improve immunity is indispensable. These fish, shrimp, poultry, meat, egg and milk are the source of high-quality protein. For adults, an average of one or two meats, one egg, two fish / shrimps, two and a half soybeans, and 300 grams of milk are needed to ensure the quantity of high-quality protein required by the body. It is well known that sugar, salt, and oil should be limited. Long-term high-salt dietary intake will increase the risk of many diseases such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and long-term high-salt diet may also be a potential factor affecting immune system function. Reducing salt intake is one of the simplest and most effective ways to reduce the risk of blood pressure and related chronic diseases. It also provides the necessary support for maintaining normal immune function. Sugar is also a potential risk to the immune system and may damage immune function through direct or indirect effects. Therefore, restricting sugar intake is not only about controlling body weight and preventing dental caries, but may also enhance our immunity. Reduce sugar intake by drinking less sweet drinks, eating less sweet pastries, and actively avoiding adding sugar to home-cooked food. The alarm bell of splitting the meal to spur the epidemic situation of the new civilization has caused the “split meal system” and “public chopsticks” to be raised again. Meal sharing can reduce cross-infection, reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases and food-borne diseases; meal sharing can also restrict eating and drinking, reduce extravagance and waste, and control the amount of food eaten. It is also meaningful for environmental protection, prevention and delay of the occurrence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cancer Far-reaching. Reasonable diet, immune cornerstone. Let us work together to build a strong immune defense line!
Why do women have amenorrhea? Women generally stop menstruation when menopause, but young women normally have a menstrual cycle of about 28 days, which is once a month, but some women have irregular menstruation Come early, some will postpone, some will amenorrhea directly. Irregular menstruation is very harmful to women, so why do women have amenorrhea? What harm does amenorrhea cause to women? How should it be prevented? Let’s take a look at the circumstances under which the graph source network will have amenorrhea? & nbsp. & nbsp. 1. Ovarian amenorrhea. Such as premature ovarian failure, abnormal ovarian function, polycystic ovary syndrome and other secondary amenorrhea. & nbsp. & nbsp. 2. Pituitary amenorrhea. For example, pituitary tumors or abnormal pituitary function affects the secretion of gonadal hormones in women, which can also cause women’s endocrine disorder and cause amenorrhea. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.3. Uterine amenorrhea. If the uterus is stimulated or damaged by radiation, and after surgery such as excessive curettage and hysterectomy, the endometrium will also be seriously damaged, and finally scars will be left, which will also reduce the function of the ovaries and cause amenorrhea in women If the degree of damage is not serious, early treatment can still restore normal menstruation. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.4. Environmental factors. Bad living habits, such as bathing with cold water during menstruation, laundry and swimming, can also cause women’s irregular menstruation. If they are overworked or stressed, long-term irregular life or other factors can also cause women’s amenorrhea. & nbsp. & nbsp. & nbsp.5, chronic diseases and drug factors. Women’s long-term use of birth control pills, long-term malnutrition, diabetes, anemia, and sex chromosome abnormalities may cause female endocrine disorders, which can cause amenorrhea. & nbsp.6. Abnormal development of the lower genital tract, such as cervical atresia, vaginal septum, vaginal atresia and hymen atresia, etc. What is the harm to women? Figure source network 1. Osteoporosis and high blood pressure: Amenorrhea will speed up the arrival of menopause in women, which will easily lead to osteoporosis in women, and will also lead to women’s general fatigue, which will affect the metabolism of toxins in the body and lead to increased cholesterol in the blood. Inducing atherosclerosis can also cause hypertension and coronary heart disease. 2. Decreased libido: Amenorrhea will lead to atrophy of the uterus, and it will cause insufficient physiological function. Patients will have pain during intercourse, and symptoms such as decreased libido will affect the quality of sexual life and affect the relationship between husband and wife. & nbsp.3, Accelerating aging: It will cause female endocrine disorders, and will cause genital atrophy, amenorrhea will affect women’s fertility, and even lead to infertility, and it will also affect ovarian function, which will lead to female ovarian dysfunction. So how should abnormal amenorrhea be treated? 1. Remove the cause: if amenorrhea caused by nervous or mental stress, effective psychological counseling should be carried out; amenorrhea caused by malnutrition should adjust diet and strengthen nutrition; exercise amenorrhea should appropriately reduce the amount of exercise and training intensity; for the hypothalamus Amenorrhea caused by pituitary tumors and ovarian tumors should be surgically removed; amenorrhea caused by dysmenorrhea caused by obstruction of menstrual blood drainage should be surgically corrected to make the menstrual blood flow unimpeded. 2. Estrogen and / or progesterone treatment: such as dydrogesterone and micronized progesterone, which is conducive to the recovery of the function of the reproductive axis. 3. Induced ovulation or assisted reproductive technology, using professional treatment under the evaluation of a professional physician method.
“National Nutrition Week” is starting this week. Are you ready to reap full nutrition knowledge? This article points to the origin of the National Nutrition Week. The immunity and the nutrients related to nutrition and immunity. The origin of the “National Nutrition Week” is the third week of May every year as the “National Nutrition Week.” This year is May 17th-May 22nd. The National Nutrition Week was established by the Chinese Nutrition Society under the guidance of the State Council and the National Health and Health Commission. The purpose is to make the whole society, multi-channels, focus on the core nutrition knowledge and practice spread through the scientific community, so that the public can understand Food, improve health literacy, establish a new nutritional life, let nutrition awareness and healthy behaviors be passed from generation to generation, improve the quality of the people, and realize China’s “Nutrition Dream Healthy Dream”. Comprehensive Nutrition Week has been carried out for five years so far, and each year, through different themes, organized, scaled, and educationally carried out unified nutrition publicity and education activities. The new coronary pneumonia epidemic in 2020 has imprinted a deep mark on this year. A confrontation between humans and viruses has made us soberly aware of the important role of our own “immunity”. In front of the virus, people with weakened immunity have a higher incidence of illness and severe infections, while those with strong immunity can spend their time. And our diet, nutrition and immunity are closely related. Therefore, the theme of this year’s National Nutrition Week is: Reasonable diet, immune cornerstone. Immunity and nutritional immunity is the body’s ability to resist disease and foreign pathogenic factors, such as bacteria and viruses. The immunity is mainly composed of two parts-cellular immunity and molecular immunity. They are like rifles and daggers. One is for long-range shooting and the other is for melee combat. The two cooperate with each other to eliminate all invading enemies. A problem with immunity will cause a series of diseases; if the immunity is repaired, many problems will be cured without treatment. Let’s make another analogy: a pile of garbage is stored somewhere, and the garbage breeds a group of flies, so we invented the anti-fly medicine to eliminate the flies. Later, mosquitoes were born, and we invented anti-mosquito drugs to eliminate mosquitoes. But the rubbish is still there, and cockroaches and mice continue to breed, and we continue to find and invent weapons to destroy them … so repeated, endlessly. This pile of rubbish is like the “immunity” that we have a problem with. What we should do is to remove the rubbish and repair the immunity, instead of constantly using flies and mosquitoes to eliminate flies and mosquitoes. So how to maintain, strengthen and repair immunity? In addition to uncontrollable factors such as genetics, age, gender, etc., more controllable factors are nutrition and environment. Reasonable nutrition is an important condition for maintaining normal immune function. Malnourished people usually have poor immunity, increased risk of infection, and high mortality. 1. Immune-related nutrient protein is the first element to maintain the high efficiency of immunity. The solid content of human cells is 70% of protein. The protein ingested through food is digested into amino acids and short peptides, which are absorbed and synthesized by tissues and cells after absorption. , Repair the body’s own protein. It can be said that there is no life without protein. Good protein nutrition: for children to promote growth and development; for adults to renew and maintain the function of tissues, organs and cells; to restore health to patients; to build muscle for fitness people; and for the immune system is to establish a pathogen Resistance to microbial infections. Some time ago, Dr. Zhang Wenhong said: Children should not only drink porridge for breakfast, they must eat eggs and drink milk. In fact, it emphasizes the importance of protein for immunity. Let’s take a look: The recognized high-quality protein is dairy, meat, fish protein and soy protein. We follow the recommended dietary intake of Chinese residents. If you eat an average of one or two meats, one egg, one fish, two or two soybeans, and 300 grams of milk per day, you can ensure the amount of high-quality protein required by the body (heavier weight, adolescents and certain disease states are adjusted appropriately ). And should be cooked in a healthy way such as steaming, boiling, stewing to promote digestion and absorption and ensure food safety. 2. Vitamins—Eight immortals cross the sea. Vitamins of various manifestations exist in natural foods. The human body generally cannot synthesize them and must be supplied by food. They can be divided into fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E, K) and water-soluble (B vitamins, Vitamin C) Two categories. Vitamins are a class of organic compounds necessary for human life activities and play a vital role in all stages of the immune response. Such as vitamin A, participate
You may not know that there is a special day-“World Obesity Day”, it is said that because “1” stands for slenderness, the homophony of 5.11 is “I want 1”, so it was so happily decided, May 11 The day is “World Day Against Obesity.” Instructing obese patients to lose weight is one of the work of nutrition clinics. In the process of chatting with them, I found that many people have a misunderstanding. When I mentioned that they have malnutrition, they will show a big understanding, WHAT? I am so fat and malnourished? Doctor, are you sure you are right? Yes, I am sure and sure that they have malnutrition. Obese patients are simply overfat, but micronutrients may be inadequate. The diet structure of obese people will have common characteristics: high fat, polished rice noodles, high sugar / high salt, and vegetables, coarse grains, fruits eat less, this diet structure will inevitably lead to excessive energy, and dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Insufficient intake. Therefore, after asking about diet, I will say that they have malnutrition. Obesity but accompanied by inadequate intake of micronutrients, this situation is called “HiddenHunger”, it specifically refers to the human body due to nutritional imbalance or lack of a certain vitamin and essential minerals, while there are other The state of excessive intake of nutrients, which can cause hunger symptoms of hidden nutritional needs. If you do not eat staple food, meat or fat, people will be very hungry. If you do not eat coarse grains, vegetables and fruits, the vitamins and minerals will be insufficient. The body will also be hungry. However, this hunger is too hidden, so it is easy to be ignored. To maintain our health, we need not only carbohydrates, proteins and fats, but also dietary fiber, various minerals and vitamins provided by fruits, vegetables, nuts and coarse grains. If we only eat sweets, fats and fine staple foods, and ignore foods rich in vitamins and minerals, this will inevitably cause a lack of micronutrients. Analysis of nutrient intake status of Chinese residents from 2010 to 2012 showed that the most prone to micronutrient deficiency are vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and iron. These nutrients have a very important role, and long-term lack of them will definitely damage health. For example, vitamin A deficiency can affect the immune system and make the body’s resistance to flu, measles and other viruses worse. In addition, visual function is also affected, leading to night blindness. Vitamin B1 deficiency may cause nervous system symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, forgetfulness, insomnia, and decreased work ability; the consequences of lack of dietary fiber are more serious, which will not only increase obesity, but also lead to many chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high blood fat, etc. happened. How to ensure adequate intake of micronutrients and avoid hidden hunger? The answer is still a balanced diet (what is a balanced diet?), Which is the most beneficial weapon for maintaining adequate nutrition and maintaining good health. It is also suitable for obese patients who need to lose weight. Of course, if there are serious micronutrient deficiencies, we will also recommend using fortified foods for weight loss in the clinic, such as vitamin D-added milk, iron-fortified soy sauce, etc., or directly supplement dietary supplements. Regarding the methods of weight loss, I believe everyone can say several things, and there are countless stars who give wrong weight loss demonstrations, so that everyone believes that only starving can lose weight. But this result will completely mess up the relationship between metabolism and food. Healthy weight loss will never make you hungry, but only limit excessive energy intake, use a balanced diet combined with supplements to meet the body’s needs for most nutrients, and feed your body. , No longer hungry. Remember, scientific weight loss is not about telling you not to eat, but to teach you how to eat and what to eat. Also, the body fat rate (the proportion of body fat) is far more valuable than weight, we need to reduce It’s fat, not the numbers on the scale. Wish we can all succeed in reducing fat! References:  Young, EM (2012). Foodanddevelopment. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.p.38.ISBN9781135999414.  Guo Qiya, Zhao Liyun, He Yuna, Fang Yuehui, Fang Hongyun, Xu Xiaoli, Jia Fengmei Yu Dongmei. 2010-2012