1. The term cervical erosion (picture 1) is too scary. The term “erosion” is a very bad association, and it is also easily associated with cervical cancer. In fact, this is just a naming mistake in the history of medicine. This fatal disease name has been deleted from medical school textbooks more than ten years ago and changed to “ectopic cervical epithelium.” In fact, it is nothing but a cervical canal cell to the outside. It is a physiological phenomenon, not a disease, so there is no indexing, and there is no need for treatment. 2. Uterine fibroids: (Figure 2) According to statistics, about 20% of women over the age of 30 have uterine fibroids, that is, one out of every five women is successful. The word “tumor” is too reminiscent of cancer! In fact, this “tumor” is not another “tumor”, uterine fibroids are benign, malignant rate is only 0.4-0,8%. In menopause, most of them can be significantly reduced or even disappeared. However, if the fibroids are large during pregnancy, or after repeated abortions, it is best to remove them in time to face the adverse effects of pregnancy. 3. Mammary gland lobular hyperplasia: After a physical examination, 8 out of 10 women had “mammary gland lobular hyperplasia”. “Will mammary gland hyperplasia become breast cancer?”, “What medicine can you take to cure the hyperplasia?” Mammary gland hyperplasia is common in women in their 20s who have never had children and women before and after menopause. During these two periods, women’s breasts will have pain due to changes in hormones in the body, sometimes they may feel some masses, sometimes breasts will become larger, etc. These are actually normal physiological processes. The answer is: don’t worry, this disease doesn’t need treatment. Because mammary gland hyperplasia does not increase the incidence of breast cancer and does not translate into breast cancer, then you are afraid of what it does. 4. Pelvic effusion: “Pelvic effusion” is to say that there is water in the stomach. It also sounds terrible. In fact, the human pelvis, peritoneum, omentum, and intestinal surface secrete some liquid. These fluids are used to lubricate and protect the pelvic and abdominal organs. Therefore, almost every woman will have different degrees of pelvic effusion, generally women are below 3 cm. Below 3 centimeters can be regarded as an acceptable range. At the end of ovulation, menstruation, or just after menstruation, the effusion may increase slightly. If there are no other uncomfortable symptoms, such as abdominal pain, fever, white blood cell increase, etc., there is no need for treatment. &Nbsp.
After cesarean section, the most important thing for family members is the maternal diet in addition to the baby’s health, then the same is the confinement maternal diet for cesarean section and the normal maternal diet, but this article The article will come to talk to you about what are the special diets after cesarean section?
First of all, it needs to be explained: you can not eat within 6 hours after caesarean section!
After exhausting, you can eat some fluid foods, such as soup and porridge. After giving birth, the maternal body is very weak, and the spleen and stomach are also very weak, so you should eat some light and balanced food. Ingredients rich in protein and vitamins are good choices.
The nutritional status of protein has a great influence on the postpartum physical recovery, because the choice of ingredients such as fish, eggs, milk, etc. can be supplemented with enough protein to promote postpartum physical recovery. In addition, it is recommended that women give enough water after birth and drink nutritious soups, such as crucian carp soup and Tongcao pork bone soup.
Maternal women can eat more vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins. Supplementing enough vitamins is not only good for maternal health, but also beneficial for fetuses who are breastfed. In addition, it is recommended to drink plenty of water, and a large amount of water added by a caesarean section can prevent constipation, promote exhaustion, and defecation.
These foods are recommended to eat less
After cesarean delivery, the spleen and stomach function has not recovered after delivery. You should eat less sour and spicy food. Sour and spicy food will stimulate the weak gastrointestinal tract of the mother; eat less sweets, sweets will affect the maternal appetite, and may cause obesity due to excessive calorie intake.
In general, the dietary principle of postpartum women is to eat foods that are easy to digest, light taste, balanced nutrition, and eat spicy, cold and greasy foods.
When it comes to baby rations, breast milk is undoubtedly the most suitable. Organizations such as the International Breastfeeding Action Coalition (WABA) currently recommend breastfeeding to two years of age. But in actual life, most of the mothers can’t hold on for so long… As the baby grows up, the amount of milk is not enough, the milking fails, and at the same time, the mother’s maternity leave is over, and it is relatively common for work to affect breastfeeding. At this time, we do not advocate Forced, it is recommended to add formula milk in time, formula milk is a necessary choice in addition to breast milk. But from the transition from breast milk to formula milk, many babies will have a series of digestive problems: constipation, allergies, bloating, and milk transfer becomes a feeding pain point in the baby’s growth process. In addition to adhering to the intermittent milk transfer method and the mixed milk transfer method, avoid frequent milk transfer and fast milk transfer, and also pay attention to the milk transfer when the baby is in good health. Do not during the child’s illness such as cold and fever, before and after vaccination During the week, supplementary foods are added with new ingredients, or when the baby’s living environment or caretaker changes. The baby’s intestine is delicate, and the intestinal tract is relatively longer than that of an adult. It is generally 5-7 times the body or 10 times the height of sitting, but the baby’s stomach is only one fist in size, and the mesentery is soft and long, and the mucosal tissue is slack, especially the colon There is no obvious colon band and fat sag, and the ascending colon is poorly fixed to the posterior wall, prone to torsion and intussusception.  . Thin intestinal wall, high permeability, poor barrier function, intestinal endotoxins, indigestion products and allergens can enter the body through the intestinal mucosa, easily causing systemic infection and allergic diseases. It’s no wonder that mothers are extra careful when choosing milk powder. With the improvement of everyone’s economic conditions and the raising of parenting concepts, the process of infant formula milk powder is also being upgraded step by step. For example, the goat milk powder, which is relatively hot in recent years, has a good market trend and is very popular among mothers.  . Even many mothers will use goat milk powder as a milk transfer “quote” artifact”, prepared as the first ration for baby milk transfer. Is goat milk powder really that good?  . In fact, whether it is sheep, cattle or other animals, their fresh milk can not be directly consumed by human infants and young children. In the process of making infant milk powder, an adjustment of “simulated breast milk” should be made as long as the quality passes. , Whether it is milk powder or goat milk powder, can be selected for children as needed. It’s just that moms are no longer limited to “feeding their babies”. They always want to give their babies better nutrition. They can be smart and have a great body.  . Strictly speaking, goat milk does have certain special benefits in certain aspects.  . For example, goat milk contains many medium-chain fatty acids, which can be directly absorbed and utilized. The particles of fat globules are smaller and more easily absorbed by the small intestinal villi in the baby’s intestine, which reduces the digestion and decomposition time of long fat chains to a certain extent. Diarrhea caused by too long, from this point of view, goat milk is easier to digest than milk.  . In terms of protein digestion, whether it is goat milk or milk, the protein contained in it will be denatured by encountering stomach acid and then aggregate, but goat milk is relatively less aggregated than milk. The protein of goat milk will form softer clot in gastric juice. The softer the curd, the faster it can pass through the stomach, which can reduce the burden on the stomach for the baby, and indeed some children are more able to accept goat milk powder.  . But just hanging a "sheep". head, on all kinds of admiration of the gods, mothers can’t believe it, and don’t talk about money, if they cause children’s health problems, they will regret it.  . When choosing goat milk powder, not only should we look at the nutritional value of “goat milk” itself, but also to consider the influence of milk source quality, brand process, transportation safety and other factors, all of which require moms to clean their eyes and carefully screen.
Why are newborns mostly “ugly”? My mother has gone through a painful production process and she wants to see a cute and beautiful baby. But in reality, the newborn baby’s skin is wrinkled, his eyes narrowed into a line, and his hair is attached to his head. So, why are newborn babies so “quote ugly”? In fact, doctors say newborns are ugly. There are two main reasons for neonatal ugliness: during pregnancy, expectant mothers will secrete a large amount of estrogen and progesterone. These hormones may cause “false sexual development” in certain parts of the baby. After the baby is born, the female Hormone levels begin to decline, and these pseudosexual developments will slowly disappear. In addition, when the baby is born, it must be delivered from the uterus through a narrow vagina, because the baby’s bones are very soft, and they are tossed for several hours when passing through such a narrow space in the birth canal. The ears, nose, eyelids, scalp, and legs are crowded. Slightly deformed. 1. Wrinkled skin like a little old man When most babies just came out of their mother’s stomach, the skin was gray, purple mixed with red, and the baby’s skin will have a layer of white sebum. This layer of sebum is the protective layer of the baby in the mother’s stomach for 10 months and has antibacterial effect. Within a few hours after the baby is born, the skin will start to become dry and scaly. Such a situation may last for several weeks. 2. The newborn baby with a sharp or uneven head has a very soft skull, which is deformed after being extruded through a tube-like birth canal. Coupled with a certain degree of squeezing during the production process, the baby’s head looks a bit weird. Mothers don’t have to worry, although the baby’s head shape is not good at birth, after 1, 2 weeks, the baby’s skull will start to develop slowly, so the head shape will start to become normal. If you have a baby with a laparotomy, your head will look round.  .3. Puffy eyes Newborn babies have a pair of swollen or puffy eyes, which are even similar to alien babies. This is also caused by the pressure in the birth canal. If you want to see your baby’s big watery eyes, you have to wait patiently for a few days. 4. In addition to the above, the belly of the newly born baby is also full of belly. Did you drink too much amniotic fluid? In fact, the most common in the belly is subcutaneous fat, which may also carry a small amount of ascites. If there is too much water in the baby’s stomach, the belly will bulge outwards. At this time, it is better to bring the baby to the doctor. 5. No matter whether it is a baby boy or a baby girl, the hormones that stimulate the breast of the mother will affect the mammary glands of the baby, so the breasts of the baby will protrude outwards. Sometimes milk will flow out, but do not squeeze it, otherwise it will be easily infected and will return to normal after a few weeks. In the fetus, the hormones of the mother will stimulate the endometrium of the baby girl, but after birth, these hormones will not stimulate the baby, so the endometrium of the baby girl will fall off, and there will be menstrual bleeding, which is normal. These phenomena will not occur before puberty. When a newborn is born with the contraction of the uterus and the squeeze of the birth canal, it is normal for the baby to have bloodshot eyes, puffiness, flat nose, and asymmetrical cheeks. Although babies are ugly when they were born, mothers will not dislike their babies “quote”. Because this kind of ".ugly". is temporary, after 48 hours, the baby will start to look good. Therefore, in these 48 hours, parents should do a good job of nursing the baby. In addition to breastfeeding, the baby should also be cleaned.
Speaking of the baby’s umbilical cord, mothers often ask “how to care? What kind of care solution to use? How many days does the umbilical cord fall?” Umbilical cord care The umbilical cord is the life channel for the fetus to obtain nutrition from the mother. After the baby is born, the umbilical cord is cut and ligated, leaving the umbilical cord stump. If care is not in place, those with mild infections, those with severe cases may cause neonatal sepsis or even death. So newborn umbilical care is very important! How to disinfect? 01 The time for umbilical cord care is generally selected after bathing, the indoor temperature is 26-28 degrees. Before doing it, Baoma should wash her hands, trim her nails, expose the umbilical cord stump, and pull the small string (or umbilical cord clamp) of the umbilical cord ligation from the left hand to observe whether there are purulent secretions around the umbilical cord and whether there are special odors ( Foul smell). With your right hand, pick up a cotton swab dipped in 75% alcohol (sterilized iodine), turn half a circle around the root of the umbilical cord (must be the root!), and then change another alcohol swab (sterilized iodine) to sterilize the other half (must be half a circle) Change a cotton swab!) 02 Replace a cotton swab dipped in alcohol (sterilized iodine), disinfect the umbilical cord stump from left to right (sterile cotton swabs are not reusable) 03 cotton swabs draw a circle around the umbilical circumference, disinfect the umbilical circumference 2cm range (cotton swabs scroll (Formula) 04 Umbilical care should be carried out 1-2 times a day, if there is any dampness of the umbilical part, it should be treated in time. Why does the baby cry when disinfecting? The umbilical cord itself has no pain. The baby will not feel pain when disinfecting. The reason why the baby cries during disinfection is because of the cold stimulation caused by the disinfectant. Coupled with the skin exposure, the baby will cry out loud if it lacks security. Therefore, when doing umbilical cord care, give your baby more comforting language, and the operation should be gentle, but it must not be taken care of because the baby is crying! Why are there secretions in the umbilical fossa? If there is a small amount of yellow or bloody discharge in the umbilicus, there is no smell, and some will be slightly red and swollen, which is normal. As long as daily care is done, keep the umbilicus clean and dry. Change diapers frequently to avoid urinary feces polluting the umbilical area, avoid using talcum powder, skin care products, purple potions, and avoid rubbing the umbilical cord stumps. If there is purulent discharge from the umbilical area, redness or malodor around the umbilical cord, it means that there is an infection in the umbilical area, and you should seek medical treatment in time! How many days does the umbilical cord fall off? The time of umbilical cord drop is slightly different for each child, generally about 7 days, and some can be extended to about two weeks. As for the baby who has not shed the umbilical cord stump for a month, as long as the baby is in a good mental state, there is no pus secretion in the umbilical cord. In case of odor, normal disinfection can be done every day, wait for it to fall off naturally, do not force it off! After the stump of the umbilical cord comes off, it should continue to be disinfected until the umbilical fossa is completely healed. In addition, many treasure mothers are asking: Should the baby cover the umbilical cord stump with a waterproof sticker when taking a bath? The answer is no! No need to! As long as you take care of the umbilical cord after bathing, keep the umbilical fossa dry.
The umbilical cord is the lifeline of the fetus, and supplies the fetus with nutrients in the mother. Umbilical cord winding is a kind of abnormal umbilical cord, and it is most common to wrap the baby’s neck. Many expectant mothers will also have questions: did I make a mistake about the umbilical cord around the neck? Does the umbilical cord around the neck increase the risk? Is there any way to help the baby “untie”? Does the umbilical cord around the neck mean that it must not be delivered? What happened to the umbilical cord around the neck? The main reason for the umbilical cord around the neck is according to the length of the umbilical cord, specifically there are three aspects: too much amniotic fluid, the umbilical cord is too long, and the fetus is too small. Another reason is the fetal movement. This has something to do with the fetus itself. If the fetal umbilical cord is too long, it can easily cause the umbilical cord to wrap around the neck. At what time is it easy for the umbilical cord to wrap around the neck? In the second and third trimester. It occurs less frequently in the first trimester. In the second and third trimesters, as the fetus matures, the fetus will become more active, and it will be more likely to produce umbilical cord around the neck. In the third trimester of pregnancy, the relative movement space of the fetus is reduced, and the chance of recurrence of the fetal umbilical cord around the neck is reduced. Is cesarean section necessary for umbilical cord around the neck? In fact, the umbilical cord around the neck is very common in obstetric outpatient clinics. Most of the neck around the neck is 1 to 2 weeks, and it is rare for more than 3 weeks. Therefore, the symptoms of the umbilical cord around the neck are generally not over-stressed, but mainly to detect the situation by testing, and the main treatment is The prescription is performed during childbirth, because generally the umbilical cord around the neck is not considered to be an indication of caesarean section. However, for pregnant women over 28 weeks, we recommend daily monitoring of fetal movement. The other is fetal heart monitoring. If you feel abnormal fetal movement, you should go to the hospital for fetal heart monitoring immediately. If fetal heart monitoring is abnormal, you need to immediately check the umbilical blood flow. How to scientifically and reasonably monitor fetal movement? Monitor at least three times in the morning, middle and evening. Scientifically, a child’s fetal movement monitoring needs to be over 12 hours. Let me teach every expectant mother a method of counting fetal movements: one hour in the morning, middle and evening, if the child has fetal movements more than 3 times in the morning, noon more than 4 times, and more than 3 times at night, that is, more than 10 in these three hours In other words, it means that the baby has more than 40 fetal movements in 12 hours. In this case, the baby’s fetal movements are relatively safe.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is undoubtedly a disaster for women who want a baby. This disease seriously affects the endocrine function of women of childbearing age, resulting in follicular dysplasia and unable to ovulate normally. Can’t I get pregnant with PCOS? In fact, otherwise, raising eggs is very important for polycystic sisters. The following 5 egg-raising habits are shared with everyone. Adjusting diet to improve ovulation ability up to 50% to 70% of PCOS patients are overweight or obese. Obesity, insulin resistance and secondary hyperinsulinemia are interrelated. High levels of insulin can stimulate the pituitary gland, release high levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and act on follicular membrane cells to increase androgen secretion; at the same time, hyperinsulinemia will reduce the liver’s synthesis of hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) The content of free androgens is further increased. This is the culprit that causes the follicles to block and inhibit ovulation. Therefore, it is urgent to lose weight by adjusting the diet. The key is to reduce intake and increase consumption! Here are a few tips for weight loss: · Turn on a healthy diet mode (less staple food + more vegetables + constant protein), and ensure 4 to 8 kinds of ingredients for each meal; · Pay attention to the order of eating, soup-vegetables-meat-rice; · appropriate Increase whey protein and dietary fiber to help increase weight loss. · Eat less and eat more. It should be noted that excessive dieting ≠ effective weight loss! Adult women need an average of 1500 calories per day. If their daily energy intake is less than 800 calories, their basal metabolism will decrease sharply. On the contrary, dizziness, fatigue, vertigo and other symptoms will appear, which will seriously affect the weight loss effect, and it will affect the endocrine function of women. Another blow. 02. Appropriate exercise, raising high-quality eggs to exercise therapy for PCOS patients is also recognized at home and abroad. Exercise can consume fat, lower blood fat, and reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with fertility needs. In addition, exercise therapy can also improve ovulation function and insulin resistance, ensure egg quality and improve physical fitness. Clinically, we recommend that PCOS patients should exercise more than 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise every week to achieve a combination of aerobic and anaerobic to improve reproductive and cardiovascular health. · Aerobic exercise: walking, brisk walking, jogging, walking, skating, swimming, cycling, tai chi, fitness dance, ball sports, etc.; anaerobic exercise: sprint, equipment, push-ups, high jump, long jump, flat support Etc.; It is worth noting that: people with a large base weight still recommend to make dietary adjustments first, because during exercise, an overweight weighing burden can easily damage the knee. The knee says: “The concubine can’t do it!”. 03. Replenishing prebiotics and raising new eggs hope In recent years, more and more studies have shown that there are some links between intestinal flora and PCOS. Some PCOS-related genes have been found to be related to carbohydrate metabolism and steroid synthesis pathways, suggesting that there is a strong correlation between metabolic factors and PCOS pathology. The intestinal flora is an indispensable participant in a variety of metabolic activities, which shows the connection between the two. Prebiotic is a dietary ingredient. Supplementing prebiotics can stimulate the growth of intestinal beneficial bacteria, increase the number of intestinal beneficial bacteria, and promote efficient metabolism. In addition, prebiotics can also reduce appetite, improve insulin resistance, reduce body weight and testosterone levels, and improve ovarian polycystic status. Therefore, in the usual diet, adding some prebiotics will play a role in raising eggs. 04. Regulate the menstrual cycle and lay the foundation for ovulation. Patients with PCOS often have symptoms of menstrual disorders and oligomenorrhea. We know that without regular menstruation, the probability of ovulation is rare. There are two kinds of medicines commonly used in clinic to regulate the menstrual cycle: one is short-acting contraceptives, such as Daying-35 and YSM, and the other is estrogen + progesterone. Regulating the menstrual cycle is not done overnight. No matter which method is used, it requires a longer period of treatment: contraceptives can reduce the production of androgens and protect the endometrium. Generally, it lasts for 2-3 months in clinical practice. For estrogen and progesterone, taking it for 12 consecutive days can play a good role in protecting the intima. Therefore, taking drugs regularly in daily life also lays a solid foundation for ovulation. 05. Women who avoid menstrual sexual life and enhance egg vitality during menstruation lack the support of progesterone and other endocrine factors. The endometrium appears to be transformed and shed in a large area, and it is in a state of nakedness and thinness. At the same time, many small blood vessels in the uterus rupture
In the past two years, painless delivery has gradually entered everyone’s vision. As an obstetrician and gynecologist in the outpatient clinic, I often encounter expectant mothers who request painless delivery, but I found that everyone’s understanding of painless delivery is actually just literal. In terms of meaning, today I will talk about myths about painless childbirth in this article. I hope that after reading this article, expectant mothers can help you better understand painless childbirth. Is painless delivery really painless? It is not 100% painless, but the analgesic effectiveness can be more than 95%! “Painless delivery” is medically called “delivery analgesia”, which uses various methods to reduce or even eliminate the pain during delivery. Painless childbirth can prevent expectant mothers from suffering pain, reduce fear during childbirth, and make childbirth a joy. Especially in the first stage of labor with the strongest pain, with labor analgesia, expectant mothers can get adequate rest. When the palace opening is full, they have enough strength to complete the labor due to the accumulation of physical strength. With labor analgesia, the pain when closing the wound after birth also becomes negligible. There are many methods for painless delivery. The most common method is to use anesthesia in the lumbar spinal block. It is also the best method for analgesia. The effective rate of analgesia is more than 95%. In general, most women who choose to give birth painlessly can’t feel pain or the pain can be tolerated, and they can feel contractions. “Some women can take food as soon as they have changed their individual after giving birth analgesia. Chatting, even talking and laughing, of course, a small number of people feel dissatisfied with the analgesic effect.” .Is it harmful for the painless childbirth to be directed at the mother or the fetus? In fact, for expectant mothers, there is the possibility of affecting contractions and labor; for the fetus, there is currently no evidence that labor analgesia can cause intrauterine hypoxia. Although the safety of labor analgesia with intraspinal block is high and the technology is relatively mature, it is not absolutely without impact. The analgesia of labor in the spinal canal block is the same as the usual anesthesia in surgery, except that the choice of anesthetic drug and the dose of the drug are different. Any anesthesia may have an anesthetic accident, including bleeding, nerve damage, etc. , Some effects are relatively minor. Among them, painless delivery may affect the progress of contractions and labor. Because of the prevalence of labor analgesia on the labor process, for these expectant mothers who applied labor analgesia and those who did not use labor analgesia, the doctor’s intervention time was different. A primiparous woman who does not have labor analgesia is abnormal if she can’t give birth if the uterine opening is more than 3 hours, and intervention is needed; if the expectant mother has labor analgesia, only the uterine opening is more than 4 hours to be considered abnormal Intervene. “If the birth process is too long, for women with premature rupture of membranes, they may increase the risk of infection.” Would you be able to decide for yourself by painless delivery? Whether painless delivery is needed depends on the specific circumstances of the mother, and is determined by the obstetrician and anesthesiologist after comprehensive consideration. “Everyone has a different ability to bear pain during childbirth. We call this the “pain threshold.” For women who have poor pain tolerance, that is, women with low pain thresholds, high blood pressure women, and women with high tension and anxiety, It is recommended that the injection is painless, which can increase the comfort of labor and relieve tension; for young women with large dilation of the uterine opening and strong tolerance to labor pain, that is, high pain threshold, it is appropriate to consider whether to choose labor analgesia. It takes a certain period of time from the preparation of the injection medicine to the onset of analgesia. If the pregnant woman’s uterine opening is larger and the birth process progresses faster, perhaps the uterine opening will be opened just after the injection. What is needed at this time is the expectant mother’s hard breath holding for delivery. In addition, some expectant mothers will not exert force after the painless injection, and some people may not even feel contractions, so the medical staff may temporarily turn off the painless pump, and the meaning of painless delivery is not very significant.
As soon as I mention the confinement, every “coming person” has a deep understanding. Such confinements are enforced during the confinement: no bathing, no brushing, no window ventilation, no slippers, no salt, no vegetables and fruits… Which is the care of the mother, it is torture! If you don’t believe it, try it: more than 30 degrees in the room, no windows are allowed, no scrubbing, and thick clothes! If you don’t wash your hair, brush your teeth or eat fruits and vegetables for a month, the most incomprehensible thing is that you can’t put salt in the soup!  . How is “confinement” scientific? In fact, it is very simple, it is the best comfort! How does the maternal feel comfortable? As mentioned earlier: 2 weeks after childbirth is a period of maternal sweating. During this period, you should wear loose and comfortable clothes and dry your sweat at any time! 1. After bathing, you can take a shower and wash your hair after 24 hours of delivery. Pay attention to taking a shower, avoiding a lavatory bath, preventing genital tract retrograde infection, and recommend drying your hair in a timely manner; the wound heals well after a week of caesarean section. You can also rest assured to shower!  . The room temperature should be maintained at around 24~26 degrees, and windows should be opened every day for ventilation! When opening the window for ventilation in winter, you only need to avoid the cold wind blowing directly on the body. When using the air conditioner or fan in summer, you can blow the fan blades of the air conditioner and fan against the wall to increase the air flow, thereby reducing the temperature of the room.  .2, postpartum diet . To be nutritionally balanced, increase the amount of fish, meat, eggs, and milk in an appropriate amount to promote milk secretion; eat more vegetables and fruits in moderation, get out of bed as early as possible, and prevent constipation; food during confinement The taste should be light, do not eat greasy and spicy foods; especially noteworthy: fruits are eaten at room temperature and washed, without having to be cooked or eat hot, otherwise a lot of beneficial vitamins in the fruit will It is destroyed in the heat, so eating fruit is meaningless.  . In a word: I hope that every expectant mother will use a scientific method to arm her mind, happy, safe and comfortable to spend a special, beautiful, and more memorable period of time in her life!
There are three kinds of swollen feet in pregnant women. One is because after pregnancy, the blood volume of pregnant women will continue to increase with the increase of gestational week. The peak will be at 32 to 34 weeks of pregnancy, about 35% more than before pregnancy, and an average increase of 1500 ml. As the volume of circulating blood increases, the amount of blood expelled by the heart increases. Second, the number of capillary beds in the whole body has increased, and the diameter of the tube has also increased. As a result, more liquid will “pass through” the capillary wall and enter the tissue gap. Third, a large amount of blood flows from the uterus of the fetus to the inferior vena cava after pregnancy, resulting in an increase in inferior vena cava pressure. In addition, after 20 weeks of pregnancy, the enlarged uterus will oppress the pelvic vein and the inferior vena cava, which will hinder the return of venous blood, so the venous pressure of the lower extremities will further increase. Pregnant women have swollen feet. What is the effect of edema during pregnancy on the fetus? The edema during pregnancy will affect the fetus more or less, especially severe edema, which can easily cause the state of hypoxia in the fetus. Appearance. In the development of the fetus, if the edema is more serious, and if it cannot be improved in time, it may easily lead to fetal dysplasia, even slow growth, or even cause fetal edema. What to eat for swelling during pregnancy 1. Eat high-protein, low-salt diet should eat high-quality protein every day, such as poultry, livestock, meat, fish, seafood, shellfish, eggs, milk and dairy products, soy products (such as Soy milk, tofu, dried tofu, vegetarian chicken, bean paste, dried silk) etc. These foods are prepared with fresh ingredients, such as onions, tomatoes, garlic, fennel, celery, coriander, mushrooms, wolfberry, red dates, black dates, lemons, vinegar, bay leaves, etc., to reduce the amount of salt used. 2. Eat enough vegetables and fruits Vegetables and fruits contain various vitamins and trace elements necessary for the human body. They can improve the body’s resistance, strengthen the metabolism, and have the effects of detoxification and diuresis. Expectant mothers should not forget to eat vegetables and fruits every day. 3. Vitamin B1 is taken from food or supplemented with vitamin B. Foods rich in vitamin B1 include yeast, liver, whole grains (such as brown rice), soybeans, pods, wheat germ, and potatoes. high. But in terms of dietary intake, plant-based sources are the main way we usually take vitamin B1. Daily care for edema during pregnancy 1. Expectant mothers who have edema during pregnancy should ensure adequate rest and sleep time, avoid excessive tension and fatigue, avoid standing or walking for a long time, mild swelling is best relieved by a short daytime rest, and appropriate elevation Lower limbs. It is recommended to take the left lateral position during rest, which can effectively improve the blood supply to the placenta and reduce puffiness. You can raise the foot pad when resting, or put a low stool under your feet while sitting. Local massage can also help reduce swelling. 2. Exercise Expectant mothers still insist on doing some simple exercises, such as walking. Walking can regulate the calf muscles and change the phenomenon of vein compression. You can also do some health exercises for pregnant women. 4. Wearing wearing tight clothes will cause your blood circulation to be poor, which will cause the body to swell. Therefore, expectant mothers should avoid wearing too tight clothes during pregnancy. When choosing shoes, try to wear shoes that make your swollen feet comfortable. Do not wear socks with elastic bands that can press on your ankles and calves. 5、Massage Massage has a good effect on promoting blood circulation, and can also effectively prevent edema. The technique when doing a massage is to gradually move upwards from the feet to the calves, thereby helping the blood return to the heart. If you do it before bed, you can relieve leg aches and help sleep. Massage in the bath is also a good choice.
Do you have public chopsticks if you have a baby at home? An experiment tells you how amazing the result is at your dinner table. Is there such a scene? Fearing that the child would eat too much and choke on it, he would bite it into a small piece and clip it to him; when he saw what the child liked to eat, he quickly chopped chopsticks and brought the dish to his mouth;…as a Chinese, I enjoyed it most every day There is nothing more than a family sitting together for dinner and chatting. A few big dishes, you chopsticks and I chopsticks between clips, talking while talking. But is it really good to be so “intimate” when eating? The risk of bacterial growth may result from a meal like “You Chop Me, Chop Me”. Healthy adults may not have pathogenic bacteria, but some health hazards are invisible and extremely easy to spread on the table. Among numerous bacteria and viruses, H. pylori (Hp) is the best known. Our country is the country with the largest number of Helicobacter pylori infections, the infection rate is as high as 59%, nearly 700 million people are infected, and the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori in children under 10 years old will reach 40% to 60%. For children with relatively low autoimmunity, although most infections take a long time to cause harm, there are also a few cases that can cause troubles such as peptic ulcers. In recent years, news of infection of Helicobacter pylori in younger babies is also common. The cunning H. pylori may spread directly through the oral route, and the exchange of saliva on the dinner table may cause infection in children. In addition to Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, human herpes virus type 6, and cytomegalovirus are also active in our mouths at all times, and even tooth decay bacteria in adult mouths can also be spread to child. From now on, it’s not too late to change. For adults, the immune system is already in battle, and there are many bacterial viruses and antibodies in the body. For children whose immature immune system is not yet mature, spreading bacterial viruses is spreading diseases. If you can’t change to public chopsticks immediately, at least the following should be done:  . 1. Prepare special utensils for your children . Choose special utensils with your children, don’t share utensils and cups.  .2. Don’t crush and feed your child . If you are afraid that your child will not be able to digest large pieces of food, you can use a food processor or baby special food scissors to process them into small pieces.  .3. Don’t share food . Don’t share food with your child or drink a drink together, and don’t feed the food in your mouth.  .4. Wash your hands before and after meals .Be sure to pay attention to hygiene before and after meals. You must wash your hands carefully before taking care of your baby.  . In short, don’t let your child eat your saliva! Not only do you use public chopsticks when you eat outside, but you should also share your meals when you eat at home.  . Cultivating good eating and hygiene habits from an early age will not only make the child healthier, but also benefit him for life.
Female masturbation is really a good thing. Whether it is a finger or other auxiliary tools, it must be much cleaner to use on yourself than men use on you. Therefore, in all sexual behaviors, the risk of women suffering from vaginitis due to masturbation is minimal. Of course, there is no possibility of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. However, coins always have two sides. Female masturbation also has some minor drawbacks. Because you are the one who knows your feelings best, masturbation can stimulate your sensitive points most. Masturbating too often will raise the threshold of one’s own sexual excitement and orgasm. In other words, it may be difficult to get excited or orgasm when you share a room with a real male. So, if you still plan to have a sex partner, don’t masturbate too often~ Of course, as long as you are strong enough. It’s OK to pretend to have a single life/pretend to have an orgasm~
Fetal abortion means that the embryo stops developing. It is a special case of spontaneous abortion in medicine. It is called missed abortion. It refers to a person whose embryo or fetus has died and is not discharged naturally in the uterine cavity. According to survey data, the probability of fetal abortion before 20 weeks of pregnancy is 10-20%, and most of them occur before 12 weeks. The clinical manifestation is that the early pregnancy reaction disappears, there are threatened abortion symptoms such as abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, or no symptoms, and the uterus no longer enlarges but shrinks. If the mid-term pregnancy is reached, the pregnant woman’s abdomen does not increase, and fetal movement disappears. Gynecological examination did not open the cervix, the uterus was smaller than the menstrual cycle, the texture was not soft, and the fetal heart was not heard. The causes of fetal abortion include embryonic factors, maternal factors, father factors and other factors. 1. Embryonic factors Embryo or fetal chromosomal abnormalities are the primary cause of fetal abortion, accounting for about 50%-60% of early abortions, about 1/3 of abortions in mid-term pregnancy, and only 5% of fetal losses in late pregnancy. If the couple has chromosomal problems, the probability of an embryo’s chromosomal abnormality will be higher. In the case of natural pregnancy, the probability of fetal abortion will increase accordingly. Even if the couple’s chromosomes are normal, there is still a risk of abnormalities in the embryo’s chromosomes, but this risk will increase with age. The probability of fetal abortion for pregnant mothers under 30 years of age is 1-10%; the probability of 40 years old is 40%; 80% of 45-year-old women. 2. Maternal factors Maternal factors include mothers suffering from systemic diseases, severe infections, anemia; endocrine abnormalities such as corpus luteum insufficiency, hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, etc.; abnormal uterine morphological development, intrauterine adhesions, etc. will affect Embryo development; abnormal immune function, embryos will also be affected to stop or abortion; pregnant women’s blood is hypercoagulable, but the blood is too viscous, may cause microthrombosis, which affects the placenta growth and development, resulting in early pregnancy fetus Stop. 3. Researches on paternal factors have confirmed that abnormal sperm chromosomes can cause spontaneous abortion. 4. Other factors Pregnant women receive strong physical or physiological stimulation, excessive exposure to radiation in the first trimester, or taking certain drugs, smoking, alcoholism, etc. may cause the embryo to fail to mature successfully. In case of fetal abortion, the analysis of abortion can be done first. After eliminating the problem of the embryo itself, both men and women can further check to find other reasons. Mainly include male semen exfoliation cytology examination, prostate examination, chromosomal examination; female chromosome examination, endocrine hormone levels, infection, immune antibodies, thyroid function, nutritional metabolism, uterine and double attachment ultrasound examination, if it is necessary to determine whether the uterine cavity is adhered, Problems such as uterine malformation also require hysteroscopy. If the female blood type is type O, the lover is type A, type B, or has an unexplained history of miscarriage, ABO hemolysis, Rh blood group antigen system examination, etc. are required.
A few days ago, I received such a question on the consultation platform. 26 days after delivery, a woman’s lochia suddenly turned bright red, making her a little worried about whether there was a problem with her body. Today I will use this article to discuss with you Talk about lochia after childbirth. First of all we have to figure out one thing: the color of lochia after birth is not static. Its “color number” changes like this: under normal circumstances, postpartum hemorrhagic exposure is now 3 to 7 days after the end of childbirth, mainly there is a large amount of blood, a small amount of fetal membranes and decidual; afterwards it turns into serous evil exposure There should be a small amount of blood and a large amount of necrotic decidua 4 to 14 days after delivery. Cervical mucus and bacteria are white lochia after more than 14 days, including necrotic decidua, epidermal cells, white blood cells and bacteria. . Therefore, most lochia is drained in about 4 weeks after delivery, but no later than 6 weeks after delivery. If there is a sudden phenomenon of bright red lochia, first think about whether you have eaten stew containing alcohol or eat too much ginseng, velvet, It is recommended to change the diet before observing; if there is still bleeding, it is recommended to go to the hospital for B-ultrasound examination. If the ultrasound indicates that there are too many residues in the uterine cavity, uterine cleaning should be given if necessary. So maybe it is menstrual cramps? Answer: Normally not. Because normal breastfeeding women will not have menstruation during breastfeeding, even non-breastfeeding women will not have menstrual cramps within four weeks after delivery; if the ultrasound after the hospital visit shows that the uterus is recovering well, no abnormalities have been found , And the amount of bleeding is similar to menstruation, may be menstrual resurgence, pay attention to hygiene, avoid eating cold, spicy food.
Fan question: After two years of marriage, the relationship is not bad. But there is a problem that has always troubled us, that is, life is not too harmonious. I am not very passionate about life, and I am a little cold, and I have only one or two sex life on average per month. May I ask the teacher, how to cure Xing Leng? A: I still remember that before science popularization, women had one less way to generate desire than men. So overall, women’s desires are generally weaker than men’s, and the possibility of indifference (decreased desires) is also higher. Of course, there are also many men with sexual dysfunction. But male sexual dysfunction is more inclined to “can’t”, while females are more inclined to “do not want”. → However, it should be noted that not all incoordination in the frequency of life is indifferent. Because women’s desires are generally weaker than men’s, it’s normal for them to feel that their desires are stronger than their partners. Of course, conversely, it is normal for men to be less masculine than women. There are always times when superior horses meet inferior horses (the allusion “Tian Ji horse racing”). If you and your partner are not in harmony with each other in the frequency of life, then you can accommodate each other. Can’t move away? Then divorce. Who is away from whom the earth is not turned? In order to maintain marriage and abuse yourself? Not at all! →Therefore, the inconsistent frequency of life between the husband and wife does not mean that Fang Xing is indifferent. If the frequency is low, if you can still feel the happiness of enjoying life, it will not affect the state of life and interpersonal communication. Isn’t this awesome? How can you judge whether you are indifferent by the frequency of your partner? The partner is not God. Therefore, I think it is more important to treat IQ first. Don’t know if you are sold by your partner.
Abortion is divided into spontaneous abortion and artificial abortion. For spontaneous abortion, it is an abortion against the will of the woman. From a subjective point of view, she hopes to protect the fetus. Therefore, the psychology of the woman may cause great harm, sadness, sadness, and prosperity. The fear of having a miscarriage again next pregnancy, etc., so ask a specialist for consultation, do some related examinations, find out the cause of the miscarriage, and avoid another miscarriage; the second is the physical, if the abortion is an incomplete abortion, you may have to clear the palace, This is similar to the damage caused by abortion. Abortion is a remedy for women’s contraceptive failure. There is also an abnormal fetal development that requires termination of pregnancy to allow the fetus to abort. This is a voluntary abortion of women. The psychological trauma is smaller, but psychologically also worry about their own birth in the future. The impact of induced abortion on women’s bodies is mainly the damage to the endometrium and the risk of infection. If the damage is large and the recovery is not good, or even leads to infection, the formation of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, etc., can lead to easy abortion and bad pregnancy in the next pregnancy Outcomes, ectopic pregnancy, and even secondary infertility, so artificial abortion must go to a regular hospital, find an experienced doctor for minimally invasive surgery, after the operation should pay attention to avoid infection and complications, pay attention to rest.  .
1. Complete placenta previa Complete placenta previa is the most serious type of placenta previa. The placenta tends to come out before the fetus during production, and it is easy to cause the umbilical cord to break, causing fetal asphyxia and other dangers. Placenta previa is also one of the main causes of bleeding in late pregnancy, which seriously threatens the life safety of mother and child. So, let’s listen to the doctor obediently~2. Acute hypoxia fetus has acute hypoxia and can not successfully deliver in a short period of time. Don’t have obsession with delivery. It is safest to follow the doctor’s advice Approach. 3. The fetus is too large Under normal circumstances, the fetus weighs more than 4.5 kg is an absolute indication of cesarean section. If you do not reach this level, the doctor can evaluate the specific situation of the mother and the baby to give advice. Of course, you must listen to the mother’s own opinions. 4. Special circumstances For those mothers who have had a cesarean section in the previous birth but want to experience a smooth delivery this time, a professional evaluation by a doctor is also required. If you want to give birth, you must meet three conditions. 1. The pelvis should not be too narrow. One of the factors that determines the birth is the birth canal. Generally refers to the bone birth canal (pelvis). The bone birth canal is an elliptical curved tube with an irregular shape of only 8 cm to 9 cm. The size of the pelvis directly determines whether it can be delivered through the vagina. If the pelvis is narrow, it is easy to cause labor difficulties. If the baby is too big and the pelvis is too small, transvaginal trial is not recommended. If the buttocks are large and accompanied by the large pelvis, you can try to give birth. If there is only a lot of fat, then it may not necessarily be able to give birth. In addition, the size of the bone birth canal is inherent and cannot be changed through training. The judgment of the conditions of the birth canal can be left to the doctor. As long as you have regular birth tests, you don’t need to worry too much. 2. Fetal weight should not be too large “Doctor, my baby is a bit big, can I give birth?” This is the question of many pregnant women. The fetus grows too fast, which is often related to the pregnant mother’s inability to control her mouth and her legs, especially in the third trimester. Clinically, the main factor of most dystocia is not because of abnormal pelvic measurement, but because the fetus is large or too large, which makes the originally normal pelvis artificially narrow, causing dystocia. It is recommended to consult a doctor during obstetric examination to do a good job in weight management during pregnancy. At the same time, excessive control is also necessary. If the baby has abnormal fetal position or fetal malformation, it will affect the normal delivery process and cause dystocia. 3. The childbirth cannot be insufficient. Whether the baby can be delivered smoothly depends on the childbirth. Productivity includes uterine contractility, abdominal and diaphragm contractility, and levator ani contraction. The stronger the productivity, the smoother the production process. Some women who are relatively thin before pregnancy and feel pregnant with no strength see this, they can’t help but ask, is it easier to give birth more easily? How to exercise abdominal muscles, diaphragm and cardiopulmonary function? The improvement of physical function lies in the usual persistence. Women who usually pay attention to sports and fitness can still exercise regularly and moderately during pregnancy, such as walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling. Currently, walking is the most common and safest method during pregnancy. The recommended duration of walking exercise per day is 20 to 60 minutes.
There are many hazards of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight infants and premature birth. The more alcohol you drink, the greater the risk. ■ . Drinking alcohol during pregnancy causes alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Children with ARBD may develop heart, kidney, bone, or hearing impairments. The highest prevalence rate of ARBD is Australia, which can reach 10.82‰. ■ . If you drink alcohol during pregnancy, alcohol may damage fetal neurons, leading to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome. After the baby’s IQ decline, growth and development are restricted, he is not tall, he is lighter, his head circumference is smaller, he has facial deformities and he has impaired executive and cognitive abilities, language comprehension dysfunction, decreased logical reasoning ability and Abnormal behavior, etc. . According to survey data, nearly 15 out of every 10,000 babies worldwide have fetal alcohol syndrome, which shows a high incidence . Unfortunately, the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is usually after birth (some even in adulthood), when alcohol damage has become irreversible and permanent. After drinking, I found out that I was pregnant. Can the child want it? The essence of this problem is actually the “correlation between the amount of alcohol and teratogenicity”. It is said that the toxicity is just a rogue regardless of the dose. Drinking more or less alcohol will definitely affect the fetal outcome to a great extent. To know whether we drink more or less alcohol, this requires us to have a basic concept of the amount of alcohol consumed. Generally speaking, low-dose drinking has little effect on the fetus, and should not be regarded as an indication of termination of pregnancy, especially pregnant mothers who just sipped a few drinks or eat a few chocolates at the party. Don’t worry too much. Moderate to heavy drinking has been shown to increase the risk of behavioral problems in children, and fetal alcohol syndrome may occur. But it is also closely related to the frequency of drinking. For occasional large-dose drinking, the fetal teratogenicity is not as serious as that of continuous heavy drinking. And in the early stage of pregnancy, if the baby is “invincible”, it may be drained directly. If he survives sturdily, it is enough to show his strength. At the same time, pregnant mothers should strictly follow the requirements and cooperate with the obstetric examination, pay close attention to the development of the fetus, and consider terminating the pregnancy when necessary. It should be reminded that although low-dose alcohol consumption has little effect on the fetus, fetal alcohol syndrome may still occur. There is no so-called safe drinking volume during pregnancy. Drinking at any stage is unsafe. It is found that the first thing to stop drinking after pregnancy is to stop drinking.  . Seeing this, you must know what you are expecting. Although the baby’s unexpected arrival is like a surprise, he may also be accompanied by more worries and even fright. Instead of panic, it is better to feel at ease and get a pregnancy. Less accidents and more health.
Can pregnant mothers with high myopia give birth? After pregnancy, due to the action of hormones in the body, the pregnant mother’s body will undergo a series of changes, and the eyes will become very fragile. Therefore, we must pay more attention to protecting our eyes during pregnancy, so that we can see them more clearly when they are born~ Try to avoid working in front of the computer for a long time during pregnancy and avoid using electronic products such as mobile phones for a long time. When gazing for a long time, you can blink more to promote the formation and maintenance of the tear film on the surface of the eye, reducing the occurrence of dry eyes and fatigue. During pregnancy, pay attention to eye cleanliness and minimize eye makeup. The opening of the meibomian glands during pregnancy is easy to block. Regular hot application of hot towels around the eye can effectively promote the secretion of the meibomian glands, which is very helpful for reducing the occurrence of fat particles, sty, and chalazion. Try to minimize contact lens wear during pregnancy. Under the influence of hormones during pregnancy, the cornea is slightly edema, and the sensitivity to external stimuli is reduced, so reducing the wearing of contact lenses will help reduce corneal discomfort and avoid potential corneal complications. Contact lenses are also a type of contact lens, and you should avoid wearing them for as long as possible. When myopic patients reach pregnancy, the degree of myopia may increase to some extent. Don’t worry too much about this. This growth is usually reversible and can usually resume after birth. However, the prevention of myopia during pregnancy cannot be relaxed. High myopia refers to myopia above 600 degrees, usually a pathological myopia, which is easy to incorporate many eye complications. Therefore, in addition to paying attention to eye hygiene during pregnancy, patients with high myopia also need regular eye examinations. Fundus examination can monitor the fundus condition, especially for pregnant mothers with hypertension or diabetes. Therefore, eye examinations must not be underestimated. Follow your doctor’s advice and follow up regularly. As for whether it is possible to give birth, it is still related to the mother’s own conditions and the baby’s condition, and it is not directly related to whether it is highly myopic. So is it true that high birth myopia patients may cause retinal detachment after delivery? The wall of the eyeball consists of three layers. The outermost layer is the white sclera, the middle is the black choroid, and the innermost layer is the retina. After myopia, the axis of the eye becomes longer, in fact, the distance between the sclera and the retina becomes larger. As the degree of myopia deepens, the retina and vitreous liquefy to produce proliferative cords. When subjected to external forces, the retina and the vitreous body leave the choroid and sclera, and retinal detachment occurs. Pregnancy is a cause of retinal detachment, but it is only a cause, not an absolute cause. There are very few cases of retinal detachment due to spontaneous delivery. Therefore, high myopia is not an absolute indication of cesarean section. There are many pregnant mothers who have performed laser surgery to correct myopia before pregnancy. Although these pregnant mothers have removed their glasses, the changes in the eye axis will not be restored with laser surgery. Now laser surgery is very thin for corneal incision, so pregnant mothers don’t have to worry too much about it, just check the fundus regularly, as long as their own condition and baby’s condition allow it to be born. For expectant mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension, more attention should be paid to and prevention of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment during pregnancy is mostly secondary changes caused by hypertension during pregnancy. The literature reports that the incidence of retinal detachment in pregnancy-induced hypertension is about 0.6%-2%, which can occur before and after childbirth. Most of them are caused by severe hypertension, severe preeclampsia, arteriospasm, retinal edema and exudation, resulting in retina Break away. Pregnant mothers with eye complications must actively treat, terminate pregnancy in time, restore the retina, and restore vision. Pregnant mothers with high myopia can give birth by themselves after carefully checking the fundus and confirming safety. It is recommended that pregnant women with high myopia do regular eye examinations, and be at ease with the doctor’s advice.
Deep vein thrombosis refers to the coagulation of venous blood in the deep vein blood vessels of the lower extremities. Venous blood stasis, venous wall damage and blood hypercoagulability are the three major factors of venous thrombosis. Studies have reported that in the same age group, the risk of developing lower limb deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy is 5-6 times that of non-pregnant women; if the family has a history of venous thromboembolism, the risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy will increase by 3.5 -8.5 times; if pregnant women have a tendency to inherited thrombosis, the risk is increased by 34 times. 01 So why are pregnant women more prone to blood clots? Estrogen levels increase during pregnancy and induce the liver to synthesize relevant coagulation factors to form a physiologically hypercoagulable state of the blood. It does not return to normal until two weeks after delivery. The uterus of pregnancy gradually enlarges, compressing the inferior vena cava and iliac veins, reducing blood return flow, stagnating in the lower extremities and pelvis, and increasing the risk of venous thromboembolism. From the development of the uterus to the compression of the inferior vena cava and iliac veins, the delivery lasts about 4-5 months. Under normal circumstances, the left common iliac vein is located in the gap between the right common iliac artery and the lumbar spine or sacrum, which is easy to be compressed and occluded. This kind of compression is more severe during pregnancy, and it is easy to cause deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. Reduced maternal activity during pregnancy leads to slow venous blood flow and increased risk of thrombosis. Other possible causes include smoking, obesity, advanced age, and lower limb venous insufficiency. Common clinical manifestations of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities are sudden swelling of one limb, local pain, and aggravation when walking. Mild ones only feel heavy locally, and the symptoms worsen when standing. Examination showed swelling of the affected limb with tenderness, and superficial varicose veins were seen within 1-2 weeks of onset. Once a pregnant woman’s lower limb venous thrombosis, only conservative treatment can be taken. Absolutely bedridden in the acute phase, the affected limb is raised, to avoid serious complications such as thrombosis caused by excessive force or massage and kneading the affected limb, causing pulmonary embolism, resulting in sudden death. After the acute phase, regular anticoagulation therapy is required, and low molecular weight heparin is the first choice for anticoagulation drugs. Such drugs will not enter the placenta and will not affect the fetus. The course of treatment should last at least 6 weeks after delivery to avoid the formation of new thrombi. Periodic review is required during treatment, and if there is an acute exacerbation, a comprehensive assessment of whether to terminate pregnancy is required. 02 How can pregnant women prevent thrombosis? During pregnancy, you should pay attention to the following aspects: First, carry out relevant examinations at an early stage and comprehensively evaluate high-risk factors. Secondly, due to the limitations of the lesions during pregnancy, mostly ankles and calves with superficial varicose veins, a small number of pregnant mothers will involve the perineum. Pregnant mothers can often change positions, exercise properly, practice straight leg raising, and promote venous return of the lower extremities. If you have varicose veins of the lower extremities, you can improve blood circulation and relieve symptoms by increasing activity, reducing weight-bearing, avoiding sedentary, weight control, etc. Finally, the diet should be based on light dietary fiber, low salt and low fat, and add more water to keep the stool smooth. Mild edema of the lower extremities of pregnant mothers during pregnancy is a normal physiological phenomenon, but you should always pay attention to the degree of edema, whether it is painful, and changes in coagulation function. Reasonably control weight, enhance activities, and improve blood return to the lower limbs. If unilateral limb swelling, pain, and skin temperature increase occur, seek prompt medical attention to rule out deep vein thrombosis. Prevention of postpartum deep vein thrombosis: Deep vein thrombosis mostly occurs in the lower extremities, which can lead to pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome. 80% of postpartum venous thrombosis occurs in the first 3 weeks of postpartum. Senior age, smoking, long-term bed rest, and obesity are all high-risk factors. Take measures such as multiple activities, avoiding dehydration, and low molecular weight heparin prevention according to risk grading. The pillow under the calf was postoperative to avoid affecting the deep vein return of the calf. Encourage active activities of the feet and toes, do more deep breathing and coughing to prevent the formation of deep vein thrombosis. Mothers who give birth are encouraged to get out of bed early; mothers who have a cesarean section will be active in bed 6 hours after surgery, get out of bed as early as possible, and pay attention to diet.