1. How do you know you have gallstones? The common clinical symptoms of gallbladder stones are indigestion and other gastrointestinal diseases. Most patients suffer from uncomfortable symptoms such as discomfort and fullness in the upper abdomen or right upper abdomen after eating greasy food. They are often mistaken for “stomach disease” when full After eating and eating greasy food, stones incarcerated and gallbladder neck may also have typical symptoms of biliary colic. The pain is located in the upper abdomen and is paroxysmal. It can radiate to the shoulder and back, and is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. A small number of patients may also develop jaundice. Of course, about one-third of patients can have no symptoms for life, only found in physical examination. When you have the above symptoms, you can perform an upper abdominal ultrasound examination on an empty stomach in the morning, which usually confirms the diagnosis.  .2. What should I do if I have gallstones? For young, asymptomatic patients, you may not need immediate surgery for now, just check B-mode ultrasound regularly. For patients with repeated upper abdominal discomfort, surgical treatment should be performed. Especially older patients with more basic diseases should be operated as soon as possible to avoid the onset of acute cholecystitis. When the physical examination finds that the gallbladder may be malignant, it should be treated as soon as possible.  .3. Choose “punch” or “surgery” for surgery? In recent years, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been widely carried out and has become the gold standard for the treatment of gallstones. It is suitable for all patients with benign gallbladder disease without surgical contraindications. It has less trauma, quick postoperative recovery, and less postoperative pain. Features. However, because of the pathological changes, anatomical variation, or technical factors, the laparoscopic surgeon is not a failure of laparoscopic surgery, but an important measure to ensure patient safety, reduce surgical errors, and ensure surgical quality. The surgeon will choose the surgical treatment that suits you according to the specific situation of the patient during the operation.  .4. How to choose the timing of surgery? Surgical treatment of gallbladder inflammation in the chronic phase is more suitable. During the acute inflammation of the gallbladder, due to inflammation and edema adhesions of the gallbladder and surrounding tissues, the anatomical structure is unclear, and it is prone to side injury. However, when the acute attack of gallbladder inflammation is invalid by non-surgical treatment or when complications such as gallbladder perforation and diffuse peritonitis occur, emergency surgical treatment should be considered.  .5. What is the function of the gallbladder and how does it affect life after the gallbladder is removed? The main function of the gallbladder is to store, concentrate, and expel bile. The bile is continuously secreted by the liver, and then stored in the gallbladder. It is excreted intermittently with the food and enters the intestine to participate in the digestion of lipid food. Generally, a low-fat diet is required within 1 month after cholecystectomy. Afterwards, due to the compensatory expansion of the bile ducts, it can replace part of the function of the gallbladder. The patient can eat normally and have no impact on life. A small number of patients have symptoms such as diarrhea due to lipid intolerance after operation, which will improve significantly after a period of time. However, due to constitutional reasons, the biliary tract needs to be checked regularly after cholecystectomy, and some patients may also have biliary stones.
The patient repeatedly had symptoms of bile duct inflammation such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice, and a MRI examination revealed stones in the common bile duct, stones in the left intrahepatic bile duct, and hepatic duct dilatation. This usually requires surgical treatment to remove part of the liver that has been diseased, together with the stones inside. This kind of liver cutting used to require an open scalpel and a large scalpel. The abdomen can be completed with a nearly 30 cm incision. The recovery time after surgery is long and the recovery is slow. At present, with the development of laparoscopic minimally invasive technology, this liver cut can also be performed under minimally invasive, as long as a few holes are made in the abdomen, the entire operation can be completed. Patients can generally open their diet and get out of bed after 6 hours. Therefore, at present, most surgical operations can be performed by laparoscopy, and the efficacy is not much different from traditional laparotomy, and the recovery of patients after surgery is significantly shortened.
Hernia, commonly known as hernia, or intestinal gas. Refers to a certain organ or tissue in the human body leaving its normal anatomical position and entering another part through congenital or acquired weak points, defects or pores. The most common hernias are inguinal hernias, that is, hernias that appear in both inguinal areas; and incisional hernias, that is, after surgery, the fascia layer deep in the surgical incision is cracked or not healed, and the surface skin and The subcutaneous fat layer has healed. There are also umbilical hernias, which are caused by the weakness of the navel. And rare is the white thread hernia. Therefore, intestinal gas does not only occur in the small abdomen, it may occur at the incision or upper abdomen. In this patient, a protruding hard mass was found about 10cm above the navel of the abdomen, with slight tenderness, and it did not disappear. Examination of a CT revealed a weak area in the mid-abdomen, approximately 3 cm in size, with the omentum protruding from the abdominal wall in the abdominal cavity. There is no history of surgery at this location, and white thread hernia is considered. White line hernia is an extra-abdominal hernia that occurs in the midline of the abdominal wall (ie, white line), and most of it occurs between the umbilical and xiphoid process (more in the middle of the two), so it is also called supraabdominal hernia. In addition to the mass, white line hernia has no obvious symptoms, and it is sometimes misdiagnosed as abdominal wall lipoma. Surgery is the only effective way to cure white thread hernia.
People often talk about “cancer” discoloration because the tumor has the characteristics of infinite proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis. Most cancer patients will undergo a comeback after standardized treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, which is what we often say is relapse. Once a recurrence occurs, it means that the disease has entered the middle and late stages, and it is difficult to achieve clinical cure, which brings great problems to tumor patients. 1. You need to understand what is the recurrence of the tumor. Recurrence refers to the treatment of the tumor after surgical resection or radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After the tumor subsides, it reappears at the original site, or the cancer cells invade the lymphatic vessels and migrate to other places to grow and form the original Tumors with the same pathological type. Malignant tumors often easily invade the surrounding tissues and are not easy to completely clear and recur, but some benign tumors can also recur. For example, multi-line adenoma of salivary gland tissue can easily recur and malignant transformation can occur. Tumor recurrence is divided into local recurrence, regional recurrence and distant recurrence.  . Local recurrence means that the tumor grows again at or near the same site as the primary cancer. For example, after the tumor of the left upper lobe lung cancer subsides after chemotherapy, new nodules or massive tumors grow on the original site. In general, local recurrence does not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Regional recurrence refers to cancer cells breaking through the primary cancer area and appearing in nearby lymph nodes or tissues. Such as recurrence of lung cancer and invasion of hilar lymph nodes. Distant recurrence means that the tumor grows in other tissues and organs far from the original growth site, usually in the lung, liver, bone, brain, etc. This type of recurrence is also called metastasis.  . Second, the recurrence and progression of the tumor are very different. Recurrence emphasizes that the tumor had a process of regression, and then reappeared after a period of time. Progress means that the tumor continues to develop on the original basis. But sometimes it is difficult to tell the difference between relapse and progression. For example, if the cancer recurs after three months of regression, has the cancer really subsided? Is this a relapse or progress? At this time, the following two situations are likely to occur: 1. The surgery has not completely cleared the cancer cells. After the operation, some tiny cancer cell groups remain, which cannot be found by naked eyes and image scanning. Over time, their growth increased to the extent that image scans could detect or caused some symptoms before they were discovered. This type of cancer is often extremely aggressive. This situation is often referred to as a relapse, after all, the tumor has been surgically removed. 2. Cancer cells have become resistant to drugs. Drug resistance is divided into two major categories: primary drug resistance (existing when not exposed to drugs) and acquired drug resistance (generated after exposure to drugs). Once cancer cells become resistant, conventional drugs will not kill them, and they will survive and become the source of relapse. No matter what kind of drug resistance, as long as the tumor completely disappears after the treatment process, it can be called a relapse; otherwise, if the tumor has not completely resolved, it is progress. 3. How do patients judge whether they have relapsed? Patients must have a lot of doubts. Does the body appear abnormal during the recovery period to indicate that the tumor has relapsed? How can I determine if it is a relapse? To determine whether the tumor has recurred, we should start with the patient’s clinical manifestations and auxiliary examination. 1. Clinical Symptoms When the patient reappears the symptoms of the newly diagnosed cancer, he must be alert to relapse. Of course, it also includes some other symptoms, such as unexplained fever, unexplained weight loss, progressive fatigue, bleeding, and pain. 2. The patient’s sign cancer cells often metastasize through the lymphatic vasculature. When patients find enlarged lymph nodes and local painless masses, they should see a doctor in time, most commonly in the lower cervical triangle (neck, mandible, clavicle fossa), axilla , Groin and other parts. 3. Examination of tumor markers Mention of cancer markers. The first thing that comes to mind is tumor markers. The tumor marker is a soluble glycoprotein that is present in the blood, urine, or tissues of some cancer patients. It is usually produced by tumor cells, but in some cases it can also be produced by normal cells. Elevated tumor markers do not mean that you have cancer. Only a sustained and substantial increase has clinical significance. Currently commonly used tumor markers are carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), squamous cell carcinoma-associated antigen (SCC), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153), carbohydrate antigen 724 (CA724)
Immunotherapy is called the fourth treatment method of cancer in addition to surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. It is also called the treatment method closest to the cure of cancer. It does not directly kill cancer cells, but helps the immune system. Fight cancer. So, how does immunotherapy help the immune system fight cancer cells? What other immunotherapy has benefited mankind? Before answering these questions, let’s take a look at how the normal immune system works. Under human health, immune cells require two important steps to clear cancer cells. The first step is identification and the second step is elimination. In an intact immune system, the immune cells first need to identify some surface features of the tumor cells, just as the police use various clues to lock the criminal suspect (tumor cell), and after the interrogation and the support of various evidences, he is determined to be true criminal. Determining criminals is just a small step. The important thing is to eradicate or educate them to rehabilitate. However, in the second step of elimination in the immune system, the tumor cells have no chance of being corrected, and once found, they are eliminated immediately. Since the body’s own immune function can remove these cells that are harmful to itself, how can tumor cells survive or even evolve into cancer? Look at the fight between cancer and the immune system, and you will understand. In the struggle between the enemy and the enemy, the bad guys will not obediently wait for us to get rid of it, and so will the tumor cells. When removing tumor cells, as long as there is a problem in one of the steps of identification and elimination, they will promote their crazy growth. Obviously, they seized this opportunity. Some of the tumor cells fled when the immune system was weak during the struggle, and cunningly they would pretend to be “good people” and let the immune cells pass them by. Some more cunning tumor cells will also send various signals to immune cells, so as to confuse our “policemen”, and can not destroy them when they are recognized as bad people. In order to survive, these tumor cells that escaped to the roots like the saplings took root in the body to continuously absorb nutrients, and at the same time used different strategies to suppress the body’s immune system so that it could not normally kill the tumor cells, so that in all stages of the anti-tumor immune response Survived. Their growth process can be called “those who can’t kill me will eventually make me stronger”. In the game between tumor cells and the human immune system, the immune system temporarily prevails, which promotes the growth of tumor cells, which in turn suppresses the immune system, which is the immunosuppression of cancer. Scientists have adopted a variety of treatments or drugs in response to the characteristics of cancer immunosuppression to try to enhance autoimmunity and break cancer suppression. These methods are collectively referred to as immunotherapy. It can help the body create an effective cellular army to fight cancer and break its own cancer suppression. So what are the specific immunotherapy? 1. Tumor vaccines, like flu vaccines, therapeutic tumor vaccines can alert the immune system to monitor dangerous intruders, but it does not prepare the immune system to attack potential bad people (pathogens), but helps key immune cells recognize that Unique cancer cells that exist in the human body. After the tumor vaccine enters the human body, it activates its own immune system, uses tumor cells or tumor antigens to induce the body’s specific cellular and humoral immune responses, enhances the body’s ability to fight cancer, and prevents the growth, spread, and recurrence of the tumor to achieve clearance. Or the purpose of controlling the tumor. 2. Cellular immunotherapy. Tumor cell immunotherapy, also known as tumor biotherapy, is to import the treated autologous or allogeneic immune cells or immune molecules into the patient’s body, restore and enhance the tumor patient’s own immune monitoring and tumor killing function, and effectively kill The tumor cells remaining in the patient’s body after surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy can be eliminated to achieve the purpose of treating tumors, preventing recurrence and improving the quality of life. The processed autologous or allogeneic immune cells or immune molecules have the dual effects of breaking immune tolerance, activating and enhancing the body’s immune capacity, and taking into account both treatment and health care. The chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy proposed in 1989 has achieved stable results in the treatment of hematological tumors such as acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. 3. Immune checkpoint suppression As mentioned earlier, some of the tumor cells will release signals to the police (immune system) to confuse the police and let them go. Immune checkpoint suppression drugs are specifically aimed at this type of tumor cells to solve their deceptive effects and allow the police to work efficiently again. Immunization checkpoints currently on the market
Sudden pain in the abdomen, the belly is as hard as the door, what’s wrong? Acute gastrointestinal perforation refers to the perforation that occurs in the entire digestive tract from the esophagus to the colorectal tract, the most common being gastric perforation and duodenal perforation. Perforation is often caused by peptic ulcers. The patient mainly presented with sudden abdomen knife-like pain. Pay attention to the knife-like pain, indicating that the pain is very severe and unbearable. There are often nausea and vomiting. During the examination, the abdomen was plate-shaped, and the tummy could not be relaxed. The whole abdomen could be tender. Examination of the abdominal CT revealed free gas in the abdominal cavity. The most common cause of gastrointestinal perforation is peptic ulcer. As the ulcer deepens, it penetrates the muscular layer, serous membrane layer, and finally penetrates the stomach or duodenal wall to cause perforation. Several different consequences can occur after perforation. Before the perforation, the ulcer base has adhered to adjacent organs such as the pancreas and liver to form a penetrating ulcer. This is a chronic perforation. In a few cases, the ulcer base adheres to the transverse colon, and a gastrocolonial fistula is formed after the perforation. Most of the above two cases occur in the stomach and duodenal ulcer perforation. If the ulcer quickly perforates with the omentum or nearby organs, then the perforation can form around the perforation. This disease is an acute abdomen, and the condition is more sinister. It is easy to produce complications such as shock and acute peritonitis. In severe cases, it can be life-threatening. Once the disease is diagnosed, emergency surgery is required. The surgery is only to repair the perforated area, and for the ulcer lesions that caused the perforation, it still needs active treatment after the operation to prevent the occurrence of reperforation.
People who see the three words “evil liquid quality”, even if they don’t understand the meaning it represents, will unconsciously resist it in their hearts-evil liquid quality is not like a good word at first.
And the fact is indeed true. Cholestasis is a terrible state. People with cachexia are usually only able to eat a small amount or not, extremely thin, skinny, like a skeleton, and finally fatigued.
1. What is cachexia and how is it produced?
The definition of cachexia is:
The weight loss, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, and severe loss of appetite in non-active weight losers.
A president of the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition summarized the cachexia as a state of “the only thing you can eat is yourself”.
Why do you say that?
Because people with cachexia will have satiety, taste changes and loss of appetite; second, the body’s metabolic pathways will be abnormal, and even if they eat food and inject parenteral nutrition, they will not be able to absorb it. In this case, the patient can only consume what is already in his body to maintain life; third, abnormal metabolism can also lead to increased energy consumption in the body and accelerated body weight loss.
If the cachexia is caused by the tumor, the tumor will also take nutrients from the body’s fat and protein to develop itself until the tumor and the body are both killed.
Cachexia can occur in a variety of diseases, including tumors, AIDS, severe trauma, malabsorption, and severe sepsis. Among them, malignant tumors have the highest incidence of cachexia,
The incidence rate can reach 60%-80%,
It is called tumor cachexia alone.
2. How to judge whether the patient has cachexia?
In May 2011, “Lancet Oncology” published three specific diagnostic criteria for cachexia:
1) Weight loss> 5% in the past six months (
(Simple hungry and thin does not count), that is, 60kg patients lose more than 3kg in six months;
2) Body mass index
(BMI=weight (kg)/height (m)²)<20, accompanied by weight loss>2%;
3) Skeletal muscle mass index of extremities
Consistent with muscle wasting syndrome (this depends on the doctor to judge), and accompanied by weight loss> 2%;
Manifested as wasting, weakness, anorexia, malaise, bow back, trance, mental depression… and from the clinical examination, the appearance of cachexia is accompanied by cancer fever, inflammatory hemograms (centrocytes, lymphocytes) Low, increased white blood cells), metabolic disorders and low immunity.
In addition, cachexia is also divided into early stage, cachexia stage and refractory cachexia stage.
In the early stage of cachexia, it is very similar to malnutrition and sarcopenia, and their symptoms are overlapped with each other. These three diseases may also exist at the same time, and they are jointly used in the human body.
Malnutrition: Usually refers to nutritional deficiencies caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption or excessive loss of nutrients.
Sarcoidosis: It is also called “skeletal muscle aging” or “sarcopenia” clinically. It is caused by aging, which leads to the decline of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength.
Very common in middle-aged and elderly
. But malnourished patients can still absorb nutrients when eating, and sarcopenia does not have inflammatory blood.
3. Is the bad liquid quality really saved?
It’s only irreversible when it’s refractory to the cachexia.
Before the refractory period, various treatments can be used to reverse the effect of cachexia, and if you suspect that you have a tendency to cachexia, you can also try the following methods to prevent cachexia:
1) Nutrition intervention:
When the patient can still eat, advocate a small amount of multiple times, easy to digest, high-protein diet, such as fish, shrimp, dairy products, ice cream, etc., it is best to choose the patient’s own taste; but spicy and salty are not recommended food.
And the protein consumption of patients with cachexia increases, when supplementing protein should reach 1-1.5g/kg per day, that is, a 60kg patient should supplement 60-90g of protein per day.
At the same time, you can also consult a nutritionist for regular nutrition guidance, or use a nutritionally matched oral nutritional supplement to reverse weight loss and muscle loss to the maximum.
2) Exercise intervention:
Because exercise can increase the sensitivity of insulin and improve the efficiency of protein synthesis, it may also promote the decrease of inflammatory response and improve the immune response. Therefore, it can be treated with exercise combined with nutritional intervention.
Moreover, patients with cachexia are prone to fatigue, and patients will reduce their activities in order to save physical strength.
Many studies have shown that women who take aspirin have a lower risk of breast cancer. But how does a common anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, affect the health of breast cancer patients who have already been treated? Aspirin is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is a common medicine in many people’s homes. It is used to treat headaches, mild colds, and flu symptoms. However, studies have shown that this non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug also has other benefits, such as preventing thrombosis, thereby reducing the risk of stroke. Previous studies have shown that aspirin can reduce the risk of breast cancer by 20%, and even has a certain adjuvant treatment effect for patients who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. But studies have pointed out that the evidence on how aspirin affects breast cancer prognosis is not consistent. The researchers’ research papers published in the journal “Cancer” pointed out that the potential biological mechanism and epidemiological findings between aspirin and breast cancer prognosis and mortality are still limited and inconsistent. Although aspirin may help maintain the health of some breast cancer patients, it may be related to other not-so-good results. So who can nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs help? Why is this happening? The key may be the interaction with DNA “Chronic inflammation is a key factor in the development of many cancers, including breast cancer.” The researchers pointed out that “a lot of evidence from laboratory and population studies shows that taking aspirin may reduce breast cancer Risk.” But since taking aspirin before diagnosis, the relationship between the results after breast cancer treatment is not very clear, they decided to study a possible direction in more detail-human DNA. More specifically, they studied whether taking aspirin before the diagnosis of breast cancer would interact with the DNA methylation of 13 genes related to breast cancer, thereby affecting the outcome of cancer treatment. DNA methylation is the process of opening and closing DNA molecules through chemical reactions that rely on external factors. This alters gene activity, which can lead to various health problems, including cancer. The 13 genes the researchers focused on in this study are: APC, BRCA1, CDH1, CYCLIND2, DAPK1, ESR1, GSTP1, HIN, CDKN2A, PR, RAR-beta, RASSF1A and TWIST1. The research team analyzed data on 1,266 women with breast cancer who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study. The researchers found that women who took aspirin at least once a week for 6 weeks before receiving breast cancer diagnosis had a 67% increase in all-cause mortality after methylation of the BRCA1 gene. At the same time, women with unmethylated BRCA1 and PR genes who took aspirin before diagnosis reduced cancer-related mortality by 22-40%. The researchers believe that these findings suggest that there is a link between the methylation status of specific genes and the use of aspirin after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer prognosis. However, the research team reminded that people with a high risk of breast cancer should not start taking aspirin without permission or make any changes to the current medication plan, and they must consult a doctor.
Long-term drinking can also cause cirrhosis! Nearly 60-year-old middle-aged patients came to the hospital due to poor appetite, fatigue, abdominal distension, yellow urine, and black stools. The three lines of blood tests decreased (white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets), blood clotting function was significantly prolonged, and the jaundice index increased. CT examination showed cirrhosis and peritoneal effusion. According to the above information, consider decompensation for cirrhosis, end stage. The patient had no history of hepatitis in the past, so what caused his cirrhosis? Questioning his medical history, he found that he had been drinking 1 kg of white wine every day for a long time. So consider alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient’s condition has progressed to this point, and there is no particularly good treatment. The liver is located on the right side of the upper abdomen, most of which is covered by the rib arch. It is the largest gland in the human body. It is a huge “chemical plant” in the body, which secretes bile, stores glycogen, and regulates protein, fat, and carbon water. Compound metabolism and other functions, as well as hematopoiesis and coagulation. The liver is also the largest detoxification organ in the human body. The poisons and wastes produced in the body, the poisons eaten, the drugs that damage the liver, etc. must also rely on the liver to detoxify. Cirrhosis is a chronic progressive liver disease. It is caused by long-term damage to the liver by various factors. There are many causes of liver cirrhosis, such as hepatitis, alcoholic, drug, and autoimmunity. Long-term heavy drinking is an important cause of cirrhosis. According to statistics, the occurrence of cirrhosis is proportional to the amount of drinking and the length of time. Drinking 80 grams of alcohol per day can cause an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Most people who continue to drink heavily for several weeks to months can have fatty liver or alcoholic hepatitis. If you continue to drink heavily for more than 15 years, 70% can develop cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis will turn into liver cancer even further. Young people have long-term entertainment and alcoholism. Drinking alcohol will not only cause mistakes, but more importantly, it will cause great harm to the body. So drinking less alcohol is the key. Cirrhosis can be divided into compensatory period and decompensated period. 1. Compensation period (Child-Pugh .A grade): Early symptoms are not obvious, and there may be mild fatigue, fatigue, and physical weakness when the disease progresses; indigestion performance such as decreased appetite, abdominal distension with constipation, and obvious after fatigue; some Patients may have mild enlargement of liver and spleen, mild jaundice, liver palm, spider nevus, etc. 2. Decompensation period (Child-Pugh .B, C grade): May have obvious fatigue and fatigue, dry and rough skin, dark complexion; appetite significantly reduced, sometimes nausea and vomiting, poor nutritional status; esophageal varices may occur , Splenomegaly and ascites, if the varicose vein rupture can cause gastrointestinal bleeding; in the late stage of liver cirrhosis, epistaxis, bleeding gums, ecchymosis of the skin, hematemesis, etc.
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute abdomen in surgery, which is commonly known as acute appendicitis. Of course, this expression is not very accurate, and it is still quite different in the profession. The appendix is a tubular organ, the distal end is blind, and the proximal end is open to the cecum. Acute appendicitis is caused by a variety of factors that can cause acute inflammation of the appendix, such as blocked appendic lumen and bacterial invasion. The appendix is equivalent to a decapitated path from the main road of the cecum. Inflammation of the appendix does not mean that the cecum is also inflamed. Most mild appendicitis will not affect the cecum, and severe appendicitis will often spread. Scattered into the cecum, making the operation more difficult. The typical abdominal pain of appendicitis begins at the umbilical or upper abdomen, and occasionally is paroxysmal. After a few hours to more than ten hours, the abdominal pain transfers to the location of the right lower abdominal appendix. About 70% to 80% of patients have typical metastases Right lower quadrant pain, and some patients will have right lower quadrant pain when the disease begins. In the diagnosis of appendicitis, the typical clinical manifestations are mainly through the physical examination of the abdomen, that is, the right lower abdomen Myers point fixed tenderness. Examination of elevated white blood cells, and B-ultrasound examination found a “finger” low echo in the right lower abdomen to confirm the diagnosis. However, some appendixes are deep, or the patient is obese, and B-ultrasound cannot be displayed. In particular, some people have atypical symptoms, which need to be confirmed by CT examination. In treatment, acute appendicitis is preferred to remove the appendix as soon as possible to avoid progression to appendicitis, gangrene, or perforation. Of course, in some patients, the symptoms are mild, the signs are not serious, and the increase in white blood cells is not obvious, then anti-infection rehydration therapy may be considered. Medical treatment can resolve acute inflammation, but about 40% of patients will relapse and eventually need surgical resection. At present, appendicitis surgery is dominated by laparoscopy, which can show great advantages. For example, it can be used for extensive exploration in the abdominal cavity, such as greatly reducing the chance of wound infection. It is worth prioritizing.
A new study published in the British Journal of Cancer shows that a person’s risk of cancer is affected by a genetic mutation in a region of DNA that does not encode a protein. This mutation was previously known as “junk DNA.” This new study shows that the risk of inherited cancer is affected not only by mutations in key cancer genes, but also by DNA mutations that control the expression of these genes. Why do some people suffer from cancer while others do not? This research led by an international research team provides new ideas. Understanding how non-coding DNA affects the progression of this disease may improve genetic screening for cancer risk in the future. In the future, new prevention strategies or early screening methods may appear to help doctors diagnose the disease earlier and improve the success rate of treatment. The researchers investigated 846 genetic changes in non-coding DNA fragments, which were determined by previous studies to be related to cancer risk. These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are located at specific positions in the human genome, and the letters of the genetic code vary from person to person. Unlike rare coding DNA mutations (such as BRCA), such mutations can significantly increase the risk of cancer, while non-coding SNPs are relatively common in the population, but also slightly increase the risk of cancer.  . The research team analyzed whether there is a correlation between the presence of specific SNPs and the expression of specific genes. In total, they studied 6 million genetic variations in 13 different body tissues. They found that regional variations that regulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes can affect cancer risk. Research also shows that these cancer-causing SNPs are often located in areas that regulate specific processes in the immune system and tissues, thus highlighting the importance of these cellular processes for cancer development. Professor JohnQuackenbush, principal researcher at Harvard University, said: “Our results show that small genetic mutations work together to subtly change the activity of oncogenes. We hope that this method will one day help identify cancer and other complex diseases. Risk population.” The next step for researchers is to develop AI models to better predict cancer risk. They also hope to find a “control center” to control the expression of many genes related to cancer development, thereby becoming the target of new cancer treatments. Dr. Emily Farthing, Senior Research Information Manager, Cancer Research UK, said: “Although small genetic changes will only have a small effect on cancer risk, the variation analyzed in this study is very common among the population. This can begin to explain Certain differences in the incidence of cancer between individuals and families cannot be explained by common cancer risk genes or lifestyle factors.”
A cold may be nothing to the general public, or strange, but for patients, it may put them in crisis. Cancer patients have low immunity and weak resistance to outside viruses and bacteria. To use an analogy, compare human immunity to a house, but the house was destroyed in the early days due to unexpected accidents, and it was only repaired in the later stage, but not yet completed. At this time, another “uninvited guest” is ushered in. Once you come in, you will be confused like a lunatic. Imagine how the house will change at this time.  . The facts tell us that the cold “uninvited guest” will aggravate the collapse of the body’s immunity, and even worsen the original condition, causing a vicious circle. 1. Bad situation brought by cold 1. For lung infection to ordinary people, when the outside virus bacteria invade the human body in an illegal form, our body will automatically enter a state of security, turn on the “defense” system to help us clear the virus infection. Pharyngitis or bronchitis occurs at most, and general medical treatment can improve. For cancer patients, our immune system itself is “exhausted”, so most of the time it is intentional and weak; with a little care, the bacteria in the body may merge, form inflammation and gradually spread to the respiratory tract, bacteria Or fungal infectious pneumonia, causing fever, cough and other symptoms, further reducing immunity, causing a vicious circle. 2. Exacerbate malnutrition. Because cancer cells themselves consume a lot of nutrients, especially for patients who are just good for nutrition and absorption, they are not good for radiation and chemotherapy patients. If you come across an unexpected guest like “cold”, it will be even worse. Not to mention the appetite, patients with poor immunity will introduce new viruses at the same time because of poor nutrition and weak immunity, introduce other viruses, low fever, fever and other adverse conditions, consume more energy in the body, and further increase malnutrition. Situation, entering a vicious circle.  . 3. Delayed treatment of the disease. For patients just after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, many patients will have bone marrow suppression such as leukocytes and neutropenia after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which indirectly increases the chance of infection. Reminder: Especially for the 2 weeks after receiving chemotherapy, the number of white blood cells will drop to the lowest point, most of them will wait for about 3-4 weeks before the number of blood cells will recover, this period is the most vulnerable period of infection, So this part of the patient should pay special attention to prevent colds. In addition, some cold medicines containing non-steroids will have greater liver and kidney toxicity, and co-administration with chemotherapy drugs will only increase the burden on the kidneys. In severe cases, liver and kidney function indicators will decline.  . Therefore, patients with severe colds and low fever during this period are advised to suspend chemotherapy. For cold treatment, physical fitness first. Second, how to deal with cancer patients have a cold? No matter how big or small the disease is, no one wants to get involved. But not afraid of 10,000, just in case, if the patient unfortunately encounters a cold, how to deal with it? 1. If you have a cold during a radiotherapy and chemotherapy visit in a timely manner, you will need to conduct a blood test routine to confirm the presence of leukopenia. If you are in the period of bone marrow suppression caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a cold can easily cause infection and be life-threatening. Don’t be careless. Seek medical treatment as soon as possible. In addition to cold treatment, anti-bone marrow suppression treatments, such as whitening and conditioning of the cell microenvironment, should be performed in isolation if necessary. In addition, you can wear a mask when going to the hospital to prevent unintentional injuries to others. 2. Prescribe the right medicine for any disease, and pay attention to the right medicine, and cold is no exception. There are three types of colds: wind cold, wind-heat cold, and viral cold, which can only be treated after a clear diagnosis. 3. Drugs need to be cautious. The internal environment of cancer patients is different from that of normal people, so you should be more careful in the use of drugs, especially antibiotics. Some patients may mistakenly think that the cold may be caused by inflammation of a certain part of the body, and subconsciously want to use antibiotics to indirectly achieve the effect of eliminating inflammation and treating colds. However, it should be understood that if the antibiotics are used incorrectly, not only can not shorten the course of the disease, but also may cause the imbalance of the human flora due to the abuse of antibacterial drugs, and indirectly produce drug resistance, thereby aggravating the disease.  . In addition, it should also be noted that, whether it is in the treatment period or non-treatment period of cancer patients, please do not soak your feet temporarily during the cold, the body of the cancer patient is relatively
Granny in her 80s, has Alzheimer’s disease, usually not in good health, and lives in a nursing home. When I woke up this time, I accidentally fell and put my hips on the ground, then I couldn’t get up and could not walk. Called 120 to be sent to the hospital, and a film was made to suggest a fracture of the left femur. This situation is very tangled. Surgery, old age, poor health, high risk of surgery Do not operate, stay in bed for a long time, can’t walk, and many complications will follow, such as falling pneumonia, decubitus ulcers, and thrombosis of the lower extremities. Intertrochanteric fractures are common in the elderly. Due to the rich blood flow in the trochanter, few fractures do not heal, but hip varus is prone to occur. Older patients have more complications caused by long-term bed rest. The focus of this disease is on patient care, including pre- and post-operative care, attention to reasonable nutrition, and early functional exercise. Functional exercise is an important part of the treatment of fractures, which can quickly restore the affected limb to normal function. Functional exercise must be done step by step according to certain methods, otherwise it will cause undesirable consequences.
The emergence of targeted therapy is like a hand, pulling them out of the pain of cancer and returning to a colorful world. The side effects of targeted therapy are smaller than traditional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is precisely because of this that targeted therapy allows cancer patients to live like ordinary people. Even so, the precautions related to targeted therapy are widely concerned by patients taking targeted drugs. The dietary precautions and exercise methods during the taking of targeted drugs hope to be helpful to everyone. 1. Six dietary rules during taking targeted medicines 1. Fruits and vegetables can’t be less. During targeted treatment, patients may experience gastrointestinal discomfort, mouth ulcers, nausea and vomiting, etc. Vitamins can be added by eating fruits and vegetables To alleviate the side effects or the harm caused by the side effects. For example, when gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea and vomiting occur, the patient’s gastric mucosa may be damaged. Eating foods containing vitamin A can repair the gastric mucosa. When there is a loss of appetite, you can also choose some appetizing fresh vegetables and fruits to adjust. Appetizing fruits such as hawthorn are good choices. Reminder: Pay special attention to avoid eating grapefruit and grapefruit drinks when taking targeted drugs. Canadian researchers have found that furan coumarin, which is rich in grapefruit, can inhibit the enzyme activity of the body to break down drugs, resulting in double the amount of drugs that enter the blood. This inadvertently increased the dosage of the drug, resulting in excessive drug intake.  . 2. Easily digestible foods reduce the burden of gastrointestinal function. The gastrointestinal function of patients decreases during treatment, so the food selected should try not to increase the burden on the gastrointestinal tract. Patients can choose nutritious and digestible foods, such as milk, soy milk, rice porridge, crucian carp soup and so on. Reminder: Many patients have a misconception that “the nutrition is all in the soup, drinking soup is enough” This is actually a wrong statement. Soups such as black chicken soup or crucian carp soup are mostly soluble ingredients, such as protein, peptides, vitamin B2, etc. The main nutrients are still in the ingredients, so it is recommended that you can eat soup and ingredients together. It not only puts a heavy burden on the intestine, but also guarantees its own nutrition and restores health faster and better. 3. Spicy irritation To avoid spicy irritating foods like onions, garlic, leeks, ginger, pepper, chili, cinnamon, etc., eating too much will increase the burden of the intestine, causing gastrointestinal discomfort. Patients taking targeted drugs should pay attention to alleviating side effects and remember not to increase the risk of side effects. 4. Preserved foods should be far away in my country. Many places have the habit of preserved foods. Indeed, these foods are delicious delicacies on the New Year’s table, but for patients with lung cancer, it is not so friendly. Salted fish is one of the preserved foods. In November 2017, the State Food and Drug Administration included salted fish in the list of carcinogens. Salted fish contains three unhealthy factors: one is high salt; the other is that mold is easy to produce in the fermentation process; the third is that nitrite will appear in the fermentation process. Therefore, for patients who are taking targeted drugs, eat as much as possible and eat less. If you want to eat, remember to drink more water and eat more vegetables, because water and fruits and vegetables can dilute the salt concentration, promote intestinal peristalsis, and expel them as soon as possible. 5. Targeted drugs should be regulated when patients take the drugs. The instructions will indicate how to take the drugs, whether they are taken with meals or on an empty stomach. Of course, targeted drugs are no exception. Whether the drug needs to be used in conjunction with food may sometimes affect the efficacy of the drug. When taking certain targeted drugs, eating high-fat and high-calorie foods will increase drug absorption and reaction, and the drug efficacy is greatly reduced, so it is recommended to take it on an empty stomach . But not every targeted drug will be significantly affected by the daily diet. Therefore, patients should clarify the time and standard of taking different targeted drugs to ensure that the targeted drugs play the best effect. 6. What should cancer patients eat? The American Cancer Society has the following suggestions for the diet of cancer patients: ① Eat a large amount of fruits and vegetables every day ② Eat high-fiber foods such as whole wheat bread, cereals, etc. ③ Choose lean meats such as beef, pork tenderloin and Skinless chicken ④ Choose low-fat dairy products. Patients can formulate their own “private recipes” based on their actual conditions and the above four-point dietary recommendations. Structure in a healthy diet
Fever is a common symptom of cancer patients. The problem of fever can be large or small and cannot be easily ignored. Severe fever not only affects the physical and mental health of cancer patients, but also affects the quality of life. Then, patients need to find out what caused the fever according to their fever performance, so that they can better cope with it. 1. Find the cause of fever 1. Infectious fever: When fever occurs, the body temperature suddenly rises and falls, accompanied by symptoms of cough, sputum, frequent urination, and urgency. What’s wrong? In patients with this behavior, the cause of your fever is probably a bacterial or viral infection. The most common is respiratory infections, such as cold cough; followed by urinary system infections, such as dysuria, urgency, especially for gynecological cancer patients, urinary system infections are more likely to occur. Infectious fever may be due to the oppression and obstruction of the tumor, which makes the secretion of body tissues and organs unsmooth, resulting in infection of the site; it may also be due to the poor immune function of the tumor patient, which cannot resist the invasion of external bacteria, such as blowing cold and so on ; It may also be some treatment measures, such as local infection caused by indwelling catheters, puncturing and retaining needles. 2. Tumor fever: When fever occurs, the time exceeds 2 weeks, and the body temperature is higher than 37.5°C at least once a day, and most of them do not exceed 38.5°C. No allergies occurred. The results of various laboratory tests showed that there was no infection, and after empirical and appropriate antibiotic treatment, the fever did not disappear. However, after treatment with naproxen, the fever subsided quickly and completely. What happened? The occurrence of fever in this situation is most likely caused by the tumor itself. Necrosis and liquefaction occur in the central part of the tumor due to insufficient blood supply, which causes the body to produce a stress response, which causes fever; or, the stimulation of the tumor can also cause the body to respond to the response, which makes the temperature regulation unbalanced and also causes fever. 3. Drug fever: When fever occurs, the duration is relatively short, and it often subsides within 24 hours after treatment. What’s wrong? For those who have a fever, it may be that some drugs that treat tumors, such as cisplatin, have side effects of fever; and infusion of albumin and blood transfusions can also cause pyrogenic reactions, resulting in heat. 4. Central fever: When fever occurs, fever suddenly occurs, body temperature rises up to 40-41°C continuously and does not recede, and there is no flushing on the face, but dry skin and cold limbs will be found; treatment with antibiotics and antipyretics , But the effect is not good, what’s wrong? When this happens, it is possible that the brain metastases from the tumor cause central fever. This situation is relatively rare. 5. Other fevers: The late consumption of malignant tumors leads to electrolyte disturbance and internal disorder in the body; white blood cells decline after chemotherapy, causing body infections, etc. These are all possible causes of fever.  . 2. Fever Treatment Science 1. When the patient finds that he has fever, he needs to take some measures to deal with it. In particular, the long-term fever condition consumes the tumor patient’s body, leading to weight loss, weakness, and even disease progression, and also affects appetite and quality of life. Then, alleviating fever becomes more important. Generally speaking, for the heat below 38.5℃, you can take physical cooling methods, such as applying ice packs, wiping baths, etc. According to the causes of fever, there are the following coping methods: 1. Infectious fever: tumors with infections need to collect blood, sputum, urine and other secretions, excretions, etc., sent to culture examination and do drug sensitivity test, To identify infections and sensitive antibiotics. Before the culture results come out, broad-spectrum antibiotics such as chloramphenicol and chlortetracycline can be used under the guidance of a doctor. In the case of local infections, in addition to anti-infective treatment, attention must also be paid to local cleaning and disinfection to eliminate the risk of infection. If the weakened immunity is easy to cause infection, you need to take measures to strengthen the immunity, including exercising regularly when the physical condition permits; intake of protein-rich foods such as fish, milk, etc. in the diet, and mushrooms, Jujube, animal liver and other white foods, pay attention to a balanced diet; when necessary, use thymosin, immunoglobulin and other drug treatments under the guidance of a doctor. These can effectively enhance immunity and resist the occurrence of infection and fever. 2. Tumor fever: Non-steroidal antipyretics, such as aspirin, can be routinely used for fever caused by tumors. It is advisable to reduce fever and sweat without taking excessively. 3. Drug fever: fever caused by drugs generally does not require treatment. If you send
An 89-year-old man with a bulging belly like a ball. For a few days, he didn’t understand how to defecate. When I came to the hospital to do a CT, I found that the colon was significantly expanded, which was 5-6 times normal, and the gas accumulation in the area was obvious. The lengthy and distorted colonic colon, partial beak-like changes, and empty rectum are considered to be twisted with colonic colon obstruction. Emergency endoscopic downward torsion reduction. Torsion of the sigmoid colon is a more common type of colonic stenosis obstruction. The main reason is that the sigmoid colon is lengthy and the mesentery is relatively short, or it is caused by inflammatory adhesions. The colon loop rotates along the long axis of the mesentery with its mesentery as the fixed point, and the intestinal lumen is partially or completely occluded, which is called intestinal torsion. The twist is generally clockwise, and obstruction can occur when the twist is above 180°. Mild torsion can be less than 1 week, and the worst can be 2 to 3 weeks. After onset, on the one hand, intestinal lumen stenosis and obstruction may occur, and strangulation may occur due to compression of mesenteric vessels.
Many cancer patients know that they cannot eat grapefruit while taking targeted drugs, but the citrus family system is very large, including not only grapefruit, but also oranges and tangerines, oranges, lemons, kumquats, etc. Should these cancer patients also avoid it Far away? In order to make it easy to distinguish, we divide them into four categories: mandarin, tangerine, orange, pomelo. Is it really missed on the road against cancer? 1. Pomelo is a citrus tree of the Rutaceae family. This is a big family. The common oranges, tangerines, lemons, oranges, etc. on the market are all mutated or artificially cultivated on the basis of wild varieties of pomelo, so they are all It is the “Grapefruit Brothers”. Let’s review this knowledge first, why “Pomelo” can not be taken at the same time with drugs. Generally speaking, we mean “grapefruit that cannot be taken with medicine” refers to grapefruit’s “sibling brother” grapefruit (also known as “grapefruit”), and research shows that grapefruit interacts with various anti-cancer drugs. Tracing back to the source, it is actually furan coumarin and its compounds in grapefruit have a strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity, interfere with the metabolism of anticancer drugs, and thus affect the efficacy of the drug in the body. CYP3A is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. It is an important enzyme in the body, mainly in the liver and small intestine. CYP3A is almost involved in the metabolism of nearly half of the drugs used today. After its passivation, the drugs directly or indirectly promote the excretion of drugs from the body. Once furan coumarin and its compounds in grapefruit inhibit CYP3A, the body’s metabolism of drugs will slow down or even stop. In short, the ingested drugs are inhibited in the body and cannot enter the body’s blood through normal enzyme metabolism. It may also cause the drug concentration in the body to rise due to the inability to be metabolized by the enzyme, causing drug accumulation, which may cause toxic side effects of the drug . In addition to targeting drugs can not be taken at the same time with grapefruit, the following drugs should also avoid taking at the same time. Lipid-lowering drugs: Atorvastatin, simvastatin and other grapefruit may cause myalgia, muscle weakness, muscle swelling and other rhabdomyolysis. 30% of patients with rhabdomyolysis will have acute renal failure. Antihypertensive drugs: nifedipine, felodipine, aliskiren, verapamil, etc. combined with grapefruit are likely to cause hypotension, ranging from dizziness, palpitation, and fatigue, to angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Antiarrhythmic drugs: amiodarone, quinidine and grapefruit can cause torsion-type ventricular tachycardia and be life-threatening when taken together. Sedative hypnotics: diazepam, midazolam and other drugs can increase the incidence of dizziness and drowsiness when taken with grapefruit. Special attention should be paid to high-altitude operators and drivers during medication. Anti-anxiety drugs: Buspirone and grapefruit taken together can affect the efficacy of drugs. Immunosuppressive agents: The blood concentration of cyclosporine and tacrolimus will be increased by taking grapefruit together. During long-term drinking of grapefruit juice, the incidence of hypertension, diabetes, hyperkalemia, and neutropenia will increase significantly. Other types: antiallergic drugs terfenadine, antibacterial drugs erythromycin and moxifloxacin, antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine, antiretroviral drugs saquinavir, indinavir, etc. will also occur with grapefruit juice interaction. Not only does the fruit of grapefruit have this powerful power, but also its juices and compound drinks have the ability to inhibit CYP3A. Therefore, we recommend that patients avoid eating grapefruit, grapefruit juice, and beverages containing grapefruit ingredients while taking medication. Of course, apart from grapefruit, can’t all grapefruit be eaten with medicine?  . Shatian pomelo, like grapefruit, contains furan coumarin, but the content is relatively small, and the inhibitory function of CYP3A is not as strong as that of grapefruit, but patients are advised not to take it during medication. Hongxin pomelo and Shatian pomelo are both citrons, and it is recommended not to eat them while taking this medicine. 2. Orange Orange is the son of orange and grapefruit, and has a history of nearly 4,000 years in China. Over the years, oranges, the “prince of the citrus” family, have done one thing, that is, to open up the branches and leaves. Orange and grapefruit are equal to grapefruit, and orange and citron are equal to lemon. In recent years, the family has become more and more prosperous: rock sugar oranges, blood oranges, navel oranges, Chu oranges, etc. There are more than 400 kinds of sweet oranges alone, not to mention limes.  . . . . .Oranges are called “good fruits for healing.” It is said that eating oranges “gets angry”, but eating oranges does not “get angry”, but because of the pedigree of grapefruit, there can still be some
The word “stress” will appear more or less in everyone’s life, and for cancer patients, when the cancer is diagnosed at the moment, the pressure will be spontaneous, which will bring self and the whole family’s life. Here is the earth-shaking change. On June 28, 2016, a study published on the British “Daily Mail” website found that the physical and mental stress of cancer patients is surprisingly related to the rate of cancer spread-high pressure can cause the cancer to spread 5 times faster. In fact, it is not just stress. The appearance of various bad emotions can easily affect the stability of the disease and may even cause cancer to recur. Professor Miller of Cornell University in the United States has discovered that if cancer patients with long-term survival and stable disease suddenly relapse, it is usually because of severe emotional changes or stress reactions that occurred within 6-18 months before their relapse. Cancer cells spread faster. 1. Five unpleasant emotions that cancer patients should not have 1. Anxiety “My blood pressure has been very high recently, is it going to transfer?” Will sell myself anxiety, a little pain will rise to a serious deterioration of the condition, a small uncomfortable thing may be afraid that the family wants to give up accompanying him, or even afraid of going to the hospital, the brain has made up for countless bad news Appeared on himself. In fact, these are unexplained panic and anxiety. This sensitive and anxious mental state can easily cause the patient’s physical and mental to be double hit, resulting in insomnia, dreams, dizziness, diarrhea, internal irritability and other conditions. The mental condition is also getting worse. It is these bad factors that cause the patient Both physically and mentally exhausted and his condition progressed.  . 2. Depression can not be happy for a long time, and the mood is depressed. This may be a symptom of depression. Studies have shown that cancer patients with depression are very common, and the incidence of depression is significantly higher than that of normal people and patients with other chronic diseases. A survey of 499 patients with 14 cancers by Zabora and other foreign countries found that the incidence of depression was 35.1%, and domestic reports were 25.8 to 58.0%. Some scholars have studied the incidence of depression in 5780 cancer patients. The incidence will also increase.  . 3. Fear of the heart begins with the moment you learn that you have cancer. Cancer brings fear to many people, making people wonder if it means life is at an end. In the treatment, faced with hard-to-eliminate side effects, pain caused by the treatment, and increasing illness, the emergence of fear makes it difficult to persist in the long-term battle against cancer. Often, cancer treatment is not a one-time success, it is a protracted battle, and it is not necessary to fear and give up when treating cancer. 4. Some patients with anger may become irritable from time to time after getting sick for no reason. In fact, irritable people are people who lack self-confidence and a sense of security. Cancer patients even worse, they doubt their value after illness, but they are eager to be recognized, and they will be easily angry when they are denied. When they are angry, they most need company and comfort. Traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes “anger hurts the liver”, and the emotional ups and downs are large, which will affect the liver function and make it easier to relapse.  .5. Loneliness reduces daily work, less leisure and entertainment in the past, and less communication between friends. Cancer patients are faced with cold inspection reports, a lot of drugs and inability to understand their own. Family members and relatives slowly doubted life and felt lonely. Under such a lonely emotion for a long time, some patients even had suicidal thoughts. A study published in “Cancer” showed that socially isolated women had a 40% risk of breast cancer recurrence and a 60% risk of dying from breast cancer. 2. How to improve the bad mood of cancer patients 1. Face the cancer and build confidence to overcome the cancer. The fear of cancer will indeed exist, but patients should understand that fear is actually a normal psychological reaction, and should not be overweight because of fear. pressure. And to face the cancer calmly and maintain a strong, positive, upward and optimistic attitude to life is a powerful “weapon” that all patients should possess. When you have the courage to face all the difficulties, you will find that the things that were scared and difficult to reach in the past are not as terrible and distant as imagined. 2. Reflect on yourself and actively adjust your emotions. Cancer is not a disease that can be cured immediately. The hardships experienced in treatment
At the cellular level, next to each other is usually regarded as a disease of uncontrolled cell growth. The life and death of cells are strictly regulated by genes. If specific genes are mutated and the regulation is weakened or even disappeared, the cells may proliferate indefinitely and become cancerous.  . In the body’s immune system, T cells play a huge role in fighting the mutant cells that may develop into cancer in the body. Among them, macrophages and B cells can recognize the changes of these mutant cells, activate T cells, thus starting a comprehensive destruction program and launching attacks on cancer cells. Usually this mechanism works well, but cancer cells are very cunning, they can mutate and form a disguise, allowing them to escape from the immune system without being discovered. The research team of the University of Freiburg and the University of Leibniz Hanover published a research result in the “Science Progress” magazine, describing how key proteins are activated during this “immune escape” process. On the surface of T cells, there are some proteins called immune checkpoint receptors (including PD-1, CTLA-4, etc.) and signaling pathways triggered by these proteins. The role of these proteins is to regulate the activity of T cells. When the human body is threatened, a large number of T cells are produced to eliminate these threats. When the threat is gradually cleared, the proteins on the surface of these T cells will play a role as a brake mechanism to prevent the immune response of a healthy body.  . This regulatory mechanism can prevent inflammatory symptoms from lasting too long and getting out of control-uninhibited inflammatory symptoms include: redness, fever, etc. Cancer cells use inflammatory mechanisms to make the body helpless when cancer cells proliferate. Through cell culture and interaction studies, the researchers found that a signaling protein called THP2 in T cells that binds to PD-1 at two specific locations after being activated by cancer cell signals.  . It is this double combination with SHP2 that promotes the camouflage effect and completely blocks the immune cell response.  . The research team used biophysical, biochemical and immunological methods in their research. They modified the SHP2 molecule to study the immune response of B cells and T cells, and tested their predictions based on crystal structure and the magnetic resonance analysis of the LUH team. Their data accurately showed how and in which regions SHP2 protein binds to PD-1, thus revealing potential drug targets. In the next step, they will decode the PD-1 signal path to find out where they are combined and when the signal will take effect. Based on these findings, the researchers hope to develop drugs that target this activation mechanism. In the future, they can improve existing cancer immunotherapy (immune checkpoint inhibitors). While receiving immunotherapy, many patients suffer from severe autoimmune-related side effects. The researchers said, “A drug that inhibits the binding of SHP2 and PD-1 can be used to reduce the side effects of immunotherapy and improve or replace antibody therapy.”
The treatment is too late.  . 1. What is the frequency of chemotherapy?  . Chemotherapy is to kill the potential metastasis that could not be detected clinically before surgery, or to kill a small amount of residual cancer cells around the surgical wound, so as to prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. A single chemotherapy can only kill a certain percentage of cancer cells (this ratio varies with the cancer type, stage and type, type of chemotherapy drugs, and the body’s sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs), and after one chemotherapy, the body’s normal cells It takes time for both tissues and tissues to recover, while the remaining cancer cells are also developing. Therefore, when the body recovers to an acceptable level, it is necessary to immediately start the next cycle of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells that have been “severely injured but still developing but not yet developed” in the cradle. The number of chemotherapy is based on the patient’s condition. The specific number of postoperative chemotherapy should be based on the specific location of the tumor, the pathological type, and the clinical stage. It’s not that the doctor felt the patient looked like chemotherapy four times, so the patient was given chemotherapy four times. Generally speaking, four times of adjuvant chemotherapy is needed for early tumors after surgery, but if vascular cancer thrombus or lymph node metastasis is found during the operation, 6 or more chemotherapys need to be performed after surgery according to cancer development. . In addition, the frequency of chemotherapy is also related to the sensitivity of patients to chemotherapy drugs. If the patient is sensitive enough to chemotherapy drugs, four times of chemotherapy can achieve the effect of suppressing the number of cancer cells to a normal level for a long time, then four times of natural chemotherapy can be. If the patient is not sensitive enough to chemotherapy drugs, it often requires more times of chemotherapy to obtain a more ideal clinical treatment effect. In addition, the patient’s physical condition also plays a decisive role in the frequency of chemotherapy. Because chemotherapy has toxic and side effects, such as the most common bone marrow suppression, it may cause patients with severe anemia or the number of white blood cells and platelets drop to an unbearable level; the various organ toxicity of chemotherapy may develop into serious Affect patients’ health Despite this, chemotherapy has been the main method of cancer treatment for many years. After weighing the pros and cons, in order to prevent the side effects of chemotherapy from exceeding the health benefits it brings, patients will be temporarily or completely stopped. 2. Can TCM replace chemotherapy? “I think Chinese medicine is very effective. I feel very good after using Chinese medicine. I don’t want to use chemotherapy, just use Chinese medicine.” Some patients said. Use Chinese medicine instead of chemotherapy? impossible. Chinese medicine can reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy, can help kill tumor cells, and can adjust the body to improve tolerance, but Chinese medicine is basically helpless to the lesion itself. Therefore, adjuvant treatment with traditional Chinese medicine can be used during chemotherapy, but it is not acceptable to replace traditional Chinese medicine with chemotherapy. So far, “malignant tumors cured by traditional Chinese medicine” are all cases. It is estimated that the number of new cases of malignant tumors in the country in 2014 is 3.804 million. Among them, there are well-cured cancers, such as papillary thyroid cancer, and some are difficult to cure. Cancer, such as pancreatic cancer. 3. How many patients are cured by Chinese medicine? No one has counted, and it is impossible to confirm how many of those “cured with Chinese medicine” were really cured by the curative effect of Chinese medicine. And before being cured by traditional Chinese medicine (referring to five years without recurrence), who dares to say that he is so lucky to be a case? 4. What is the danger of insufficient chemotherapy? The direct consequence of insufficient chemotherapy is that the cancer cells in the patient’s body may not have been killed to normal levels, and what consequences may result if the cancer cells are not completely eliminated. Maybe the remaining cancer cells can be completely eliminated by the body’s “strong self-purification ability”, and the patient no longer has any worries; maybe the remaining cancer cells are dormant and quietly make a non-eruptive volcano until the patient naturally reaches the end of life ; Perhaps the remaining cancer cells are gradually growing, and one day suddenly unhappy, the volcano erupts, and the patient who exploded again has no power to withstand. But these are maybe, after all, no one can predict the future. If you are ill, put yourself in a good state of mind, and take good care of it is the best reward for your future. 5. Excessive treatment is too harmful. Excessive treatment means that the treatment given by the doctor to the patient exceeds the treatment needs of the patient’s disease, and causes unnecessary pain and economic waste to the patient. Just like postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some doctors or patients want to “kill completely” by increasing the dose of radiotherapy or chemotherapy or prolonging the time of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.