How to judge the excessive visceral fat?

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. How much visceral fat is difficult to measure accurately. Without measuring and calculating with professional equipment, it is difficult to infer how much visceral fat a person has in the body, but if you find yourself With the following characteristics, then you are likely to be a member of the visceral and obese group. Characteristics of visceral obese persons: ➤ Large waist: male waist> 90 cm, female waist> 85 cm; ➤ Uneven body shape: raised belly (this is the simplest method of judgment). Clinical experience shows that more than 90% of the “big belly” are visceral and obese. ➤ Frequent constipation: excessive accumulation of visceral fat can not leave the body naturally, seriously affecting digestive function, and constipation will follow. ➤Higher body mass index.

What is visceral fat?

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Centripetal obesity is mainly one of the manifestations of increased abdominal fat and visceral fat. It is also the basis of many metabolic diseases. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Visceral fat is a type of human fat. It is different from subcutaneous fat (usually “fat”). It surrounds human organs and mainly exists in the abdominal cavity. For our health crucial. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. A certain amount of visceral fat is necessary for the human body, which plays a role in supporting, stabilizing and protecting human viscera, but excessive visceral fat will bring various health hazards, such as metabolic disorders, Infertility, heart disease, difficulty breathing, cancer and even Alzheimer’s disease and so on. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The main causes of visceral obesity include: unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, excessive stress, and easy to be ignored, etc.

A suggestion for “fathers” from the perspective of endocrine metabolism

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. is the father, in most cases it should be middle-aged. In the middle-aged stage, the biggest groups such as work pressure and life pressure should be around 40 years old. The most common problems for men at this stage are endocrine and metabolic diseases and risk factors. The common may be the following aspects. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. First of all, weight problems, combined with obesity, more and more cases of overweight, due to less exercise, more entertainment, stay up late, hormone changes and other factors, in most cases, it is difficult to control weight, overweight and obesity are a variety of The “soil” of metabolic diseases. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The second is the problem of tobacco and alcohol, some are hobbies, some are more social, passive smoking and drinking, I think it is a job need. There are few males with diabetic patients who see them. There is currently no evidence of the benefits of long-term smoking and drinking. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The third is the problem of inactivity. Less regular exercise is the most important issue in the current urban lifestyle. Many people say “too busy to have time to exercise.” Many people drive for an hour or two to the gym for half an hour. Regardless of body weight, the benefits of regular exercise are very clear. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The fourth is to stay up late, whether it is work, entertainment or playing with a mobile phone. In short, it takes up a lot of sleep time. Some accounts can be owed, but there is not necessarily a chance to repay. The harm of lack of sleep for a long time, whether it is physical or psychological, is very clear. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. “Fathers” of this age group, if they are not overweight or obese, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood lipid, high uric acid, it is commendable, and recommend positive maintain. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. “Fathers” of this age group have coronary heart disease, overweight or obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood fat, and high uric acid. The more mergers, the greater the risk later. If there is more than one problem, then go to a standardized medical institution for evaluation and consultation. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Avoid “disordering medical treatment”, and avoid “checking online, and then buy medicines in pharmacies”. If you are not a specialist, you should never be too “confident” about yourself. The adjustment of each index is a complicated process in the minds of specialists. It is not simply to buy a blood pressure medicine or a blood sugar medicine. Just like going to a shopping mall to buy clothes, buying a piece of clothing is very simple. It is not easy to buy a piece of clothing that suits you in all aspects. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. For “fathers”, you can sit in the same number. The above problems can be corrected and treated if there is one, and persisted and maintained if not. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Happy Father’s Day, encouragement. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.

The dangers of obesity

“Weight loss” is currently one of the hottest topics. One of the reasons why you want to lose weight is to maintain your figure, but it is more important to maintain normal metabolism and reduce the harm of obesity. So, what are the hazards of obesity? (1) Mild obesity is mostly asymptomatic and has a slight effect on metabolic indicators. Only manifested by weight gain, waist circumference increase, body fat percentage increase exceeds the diagnostic criteria. Generally speaking, it is enough to improve the lifestyle actively. (2) More severely obese patients may have chest tightness, shortness of breath, hypergastric hyperactivity, constipation, abdominal distension, arthralgia, muscle aches, fatigue, fatigue, anxiety, depression, etc. (3) Obese patients often have diseases such as dyslipidemia, fatty liver, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for diabetes. (4) Obesity can also be accompanied or complicated by obstructive sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hyperuricemia and gout, osteoarthrosis, venous thrombosis, impaired fertility (female polycystic ovary synthesis Sign, males often have impotence, infertility, and amenoides) and social and psychological problems. (5) The incidence of certain cancers (female breast cancer, endometrial cancer, male prostate cancer, colon and rectal cancer, etc.) in obese patients increases, and anesthesia or surgical complications increase. (6) “Obesity is the basis of many endocrine and metabolic diseases”. High blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood fat, high uric acid, etc., are the result of obesity accompanying diseases or obesity. Therefore, the harm of obesity is obvious. Weight control is the most basic measure to reduce the hazards of obesity.

Pre-diabetes hazards and inspection methods

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Pre-diabetes is a state between diabetes and normal blood sugar metabolism. These include impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting blood glucose. How many people in our country are in pre-diabetes? The pre-diabetes prevalence rate in our country is about 15.5%, and it is estimated that there are 148 million people, which is even larger than the number of diabetic patients. It is the key to prevent diabetes in order to detect this huge population in time and carry out effective management. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. What are the hazards of pre-diabetes? Pre-diabetes marks an increased risk of developing diabetes. The damage of hyperglycemia can occur before the diagnosis of diabetes. Pre-diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, microangiopathy, tumors, dementia, depression and other diseases. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Pre-diabetes was discovered during the diabetes screening process. There are many ways to screen for diabetes. But the most standard method is: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), which is the method recommended by the whole world. In most cases, the test results can determine the blood glucose metabolism of patients. &nbsp.

The place where you grew up may not be an endocrine problem

In the morning outpatient clinic, a 26-year-old man with hypogonadism and olfactory dysfunction. The initial judgment was Kalman syndrome. “The place where I grew up didn’t grow up.” Strangely, he looked at the various test sheets he had checked from the age of ten. He has had problems for a long time. Why is there no timely treatment. He said: I have been seeing a doctor in the local urology department. Recently, I think it should be an endocrine problem. In my opinion, in addition to not looking at the right department, it also has to do with the fact that I and my parents do not attach importance to it. After all, there have been problems for more than ten years. I feel a little delayed. 26-year-old man, the place to grow up stayed in the children’s stage. How is this good? After much treatment, it seems that this is the oldest one. Kalman syndrome (KS) is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with loss of smell or loss of smell. It is a disease with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Hypogonadism is clinically manifested: most male patients have a lower volume greater than the upper volume, which is eunuch-like and has a naive external genitalia. The penis is short, the testicles are small or cryptorchidism. The pubic hair grows without sound changes),. Female patients have dysplasia of internal and external genitalia, no breast development during adolescence, no growth of armpit hair and pubic hair, and no menstrual cramps. Accompanied by loss or loss of sense of smell.

Continue to grow when it should not be long, it may be acromegaly

Yesterday, a young man visited the clinic, although wearing a mask. But the height and the characteristics of the face and face exposed clearly told me that he is a patient with acromegaly. Sure enough, the examination opened by our experts the day before has come out. Pituitary tumor. He said wearing 44 shoes, his feet are still getting bigger, and he seems to be still tall. Acromegaly (large limbs) is a chronic progressive endocrine disease with a concealed onset. The course of disease may be several years or even more than 10 years when the patient is seen. The main cause of large limbs is excessive production of growth hormone (GH) in the body. More than 95% of patients with large limbs are caused by pituitary adenoma that secretes GH. Long-term excessive secretion of GH can cause excessive proliferation of soft tissues, bones and cartilage throughout the body, causing changes in face, hypertrophy of the hands and feet, thick skin, enlarged internal organs, bone and joint disease, and sleep apnea syndrome. In addition, the incidence of malignant tumors such as pituitary tumor compression symptoms, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and colon cancer will also increase. These metabolic disorders and complications seriously affect the health and quality of life of patients, leading to Patient life is shortened. Delays in clinical diagnosis and treatment will significantly increase the incidence of these complications. Not only clinicians, everyone should pay attention to the unusual signs of growing hands and feet as adults and growing taller. Timely medical evaluation. Do early detection and early treatment.

How to intervene in nutrition for pre-diabetics

Medical nutrition intervention for pre-diabetics: (1) Objective: To achieve and maintain ideal body weight and blood sugar level through medical nutrition intervention, control cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and maintain reasonable metabolic needs of the body. The specific goals are: for those who are overweight or obese, make the BMI at or near 24kg/m2, or reduce the initial body weight by at least 5% within 3 to 6 months, and maintain a healthy level for a long time; the total daily calories in the diet should be reduced by at least 400 to 500kCal (1kCal = 4.184kJ); saturated fatty acid intake accounts for less than 30% of the total fatty acid intake; (2) formulate a diet plan: it is recommended that a reasonable balanced diet, energy intake should meet the weight management goals. Of the total daily calories required, 45% to 60% come from carbohydrates, 25% to 35% from fat, and 15% to 20% from protein. Control calorie intake according to simple and executable dietary estimation methods (Tables 3 and 4), balance nutrients, and evenly distribute daily diet. People with normal weight: According to the dietary estimate, at least three meals a day, so that the intake of staple food and non-staple food will be more evenly distributed in the three meals, and regular quantification, generally according to 1/5, 2/5, 2/5 or 1/ 3. 1/3, 1/3 distribution. Obese people: reduce the intake of staple food and non-staple food by more than 10%, and strengthen physical exercise. (3) Dietary precautions: Use vegetable oil as much as possible during cooking to ensure the intake of unsaturated fatty acids; properly eat coarse grains and other foods rich in dietary fiber, and should be included in the total daily calorie intake. Limit salt and alcohol: It is recommended that individuals with pre-diabetes control blood pressure and limit salt to 6g per day. It is not recommended to drink alcohol. At least the total calories must be taken into account when drinking alcohol. Each gram of alcohol can provide 7kCal. (4) People with financial conditions or health needs can choose various forms such as health management agencies, clubs, group management or family mutual assistance to improve the effect of lifestyle interventions.

Exercise intervention in pre-diabetics

(1) Objective: For those who are overweight or obese, make the BMI at or near 24kg/m2, or reduce the initial weight by at least 5% within 3 to 6 months, and maintain it at a healthy level for a long time; daily> 30min moderate to high intensity Sports. (2) Intervention measures: Aerobic exercise increases muscle uptake of glucose by enhancing insulin sensitivity without depending on the increase in muscle mass or changes in aerobic metabolism. The increase in muscle mass caused by resistance exercise is beneficial to muscle uptake of glucose and does not depend on changing the muscle’s inherent insulin response. This consensus recommends the combined exercise intervention of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise. The variety of exercise forms also avoids the unity of exercise intervention, which is conducive to enhancing the individual’s compliance with exercise intervention. The sports intervention measures are detailed in Table 5. (3) People with financial conditions or health needs can choose various forms such as health management agencies, clubs, group management or family mutual assistance to improve the effect of lifestyle interventions. (Recommended by the guide)&nbsp.

Diabetes patients should be concerned about getting thinner

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. As we all know, the performance of diabetic patients is “three more and one less”, one less refers to weight loss. In addition, obesity is likely to cause insulin resistance, affect blood sugar control, and cause type 2 diabetes. It is also a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In daily life, you will also find that many diabetic patients are obese and have large belly. It is undeniable that fat people are prone to diabetes, and subconsciously think that it is better to lose weight if they have diabetes. In fact, diabetic patients are not as thin as possible. Long-term low body weight may lead to health problems such as fatigue, malnutrition, and decreased immunity. For the weight management of diabetic patients, the correct approach is to make obese people lose weight, let thin people gain weight, and finally return patients to normal weight. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. However, many sugar friends suffer from weight loss during treatment, so is this appropriate? Some may be the cause of treatment, some may be other reasons, should pay attention to and pay attention to unexplained weight loss. What are the reasons for sugar friends to lose weight? How to deal with weight loss? What are the reasons for sugar friends to lose weight? 1. Diabetes caused by poor blood sugar control itself, glucose cannot be fully absorbed by the body, the body often provides energy by breaking down fat and protein, resulting in excessive consumption of fat and protein, so patients will become thinner and thinner, which is in insulin This is particularly evident in patients with type 1 diabetes who are absolutely deficient. Diagnosed diabetic patients will lose weight if their blood glucose is not well controlled. 2. When diabetes merges with other diseases, diabetes is susceptible to bacterial infections, especially the infection of tuberculosis or the recurrence of the original tuberculosis, which will cause significant weight loss. Diabetes is susceptible to thyroid disease, tumors, and digestive tract diseases. 3. Diet control is too harsh, overkill, and lifestyle too harsh, resulting in insufficient energy intake and nutritional deficiencies, leading to weight loss. 4. Excessive exercise leads to significant weight loss. 5. Effects of hypoglycemic drugs Known metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitors (dagliflozin, carpagliflozin, englitazone), GLP-1 agonists (such as liraglutide, exenatide) Etc.) all have the effect of weight loss, and individual individuals will also lose weight after use. In short, diabetic patients should maintain a reasonable weight, and a planned weight loss is needed for treatment. If there is an unexplained or unexplained weight loss, it should be followed and further evaluated. Find the cause and treat in time. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Hyperthyroidism women are pregnant, can not give up easily

Yesterday, a 35-year-old woman came to the clinic for follow-up. According to the exchange, I found out that I was pregnant forty days ago. I checked it in a hospital and found that hyperthyroidism is possible. The doctor of the hospital directly said that hyperthyroidism is certain that the children are at various risks and may be said more. She directly decided to give up. One month after the current flow. Come to our hospital for review. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Examination tips, indeed, she has hyperthyroidism, but it is not serious. I feel a little sorry. I told her that your decision was too fast, you should come over and evaluate it, maybe you can continue. She said: At that time, the doctor said very seriously. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. I am also reflecting on how to express this kind of thing when I encounter it myself. Hyperthyroidism is indeed a risk. But as long as it is regulated, most are controllable. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Hyperthyroidism found during pregnancy may be a normal reaction in the first trimester, or it may be true hyperthyroidism, but in most cases, the treatment is evaluated according to the standard inspection, and most of the results are ideal. I think, don’t give up lightly. Legacy regrets. &nbsp.

Be alert, girls over 14 years old do not have menstruation

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Although not absolute, but girls who are over 14 years old do not have menstrual cramps, they still need to be vigilant. If conditions permit, they should check and evaluate. Eliminate organic problems, and then slowly wait for the late “Auntie”. Otherwise, the disease may not be discovered in time and the time for treatment may be missed. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Those who are over 14 years old have no menstrual cramps and no secondary sexual development, or by the age of 16 although they have secondary sexual development but still have no menstrual cramps, they are called primary Sexual amenorrhea. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Among children with primary amenorrhea, if there are short stature, skin moles, low hairline, etc., you should be more vigilant. Because it may be Turner syndrome. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Turner syndrome, also known as congenital ovarian hypoplasia syndrome, is caused by the partial or complete deletion of the X chromosome or structural abnormalities. It is the only complete single human disease that can survive after birth. Through timely treatment, it can improve its life-long height as much as possible, induce secondary sexual characteristics, simulate the menstrual cycle, and improve mental state and quality of life. However, the problem of fertility is a problem. &nbsp.

Outpatient story—The girl in the flower season is short and has no menstruation

In the morning clinic, a mother took her daughter to the hospital, wearing a mask, and looked at a body size less than 1.5 meters high, thinking that it was a pediatric problem. Obtained a test report for the Jiagong in the foreign hospital. The information showed that the girl was 17 years old. Instantly look at the girl’s eyes and hairline again. Basically, I know that this child must have a problem, and it is probably Turner syndrome. The child’s mother said that we checked locally, and the doctor said it was caused by high thyroid hormones. Looking at the test sheet for subclinical hypothyroidism that he gave me, I know that the local doctor may not be able to explain it, and it is recommended to come to the superior hospital. I told her that the child must have a problem and needs further examination. They are all 17 years old, and if they do not hurry, they will be too late. Her mother said, we just want to check the thyroid hormones and give us some medicine. Our local doctor said that it can be lowered. I can’t bear to let go of this child. Calm down and tell them: I think the child must have other problems, maybe the uterus and ovaries have problems, they may not grow up, or they may not be able to have children in the future. These have a great impact on the future. Now that we have come to our hospital, we can confirm the diagnosis again. It’s best to do a check, otherwise you may lose many opportunities to make up. The child looked at his mother, and the mother reluctantly said, then check it, this is the case in major hospitals. I gave her related examinations. But I feel a little wronged, it seems that I was wasting her money. Under popular science, Turner’s syndrome is a sex chromosome inherited disease. Due to abnormal sex chromosomes, the ovary cannot grow and develop, so the ovary is in the form of cord-like fibrous tissue, without primordial follicles and no eggs. Therefore, the lack of female hormones leads to the development of secondary sexual characteristics and primary amenorrhea. It is the only single syndrome that can survive in humans. The main clinical features are: female phenotype, low posterior hairline, 50% with neck webs. Shield chest, widening nipple spacing. Often due to growth retardation, pubertal asexual development, and primary amenorrhea. &nbsp.

Who is prone to osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is an aging disease. Who is prone to osteoporosis? 1. When calcium is inadequate, the calcium in the human body will reach a peak before the age of 25-30 years, and then, as the age increases, it will continue to decline, so we have to supplement calcium in our youth to increase the “calcium store” Total. 2. People who lack exercise, muscles relax, bones lose the stimulation of movement, bone metabolism slows down, osteoblasts and osteoclasts responsible for bone building lose balance, bone formation decreases, bone breakage increases, bone strength continues to decline. Studies have shown that calcium loss is much greater than usual during bed rest for more than 1 week. 3. People who lack mineral supplements, that is, people who rarely drink milk or eat calcium tablets, it is like cooking rice, not even rice, how to make this rice. 4. People who rarely get sun exposure, because proper exposure to sunlight can promote the production of active vitamin D in the body, and vitamin D can promote the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and other minerals in the body. We all know that if the child is not exposed to the sun, rickets will occur, that is, rickets, and O-shaped legs and X-shaped legs will appear, which is also due to insufficient calcium absorption. 5. People with poor digestion and absorption function These people eat no matter how good they eat, no matter how much they eat, the absorption is limited, and the bone quality is not high. 6. People with certain chronic wasting diseases such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, chronic kidney disease or renal failure, chronic gastroenteritis, etc. These diseases will accelerate the loss of calcium. 7. People with thin bodies are like big trees with no skin, how to nourish them. 8. People who use hormones for a long time will also lead to increased calcium loss. 9. Infertile people, women with premature amenorrhea (usually women amenorrhea age is about 49 years old, premature amenorrhea or even under 40 years old, it is early amenorrhea), or factor palace, ovarian disease, women undergoing resection, the body Sex hormone metabolism disorder, the absorption of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract is weakened, resulting in osteoporosis. 10. Nicotine in tobacco for long-term smoking and alcohol abuse can stimulate osteoclast activity and inhibit osteoblast activity, which can reduce bone formation and increase bone loss. Studies have shown that smoking affects bone strength and increases the risk of fractures, especially for women, such as women who smoke a pack of cigarettes a day from youth, to menopause, bone density is 5%-8% lower than normal people of the same age . Drinking a small amount (not more than 100g per day) has the effect of activating blood circulation and reducing the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, but drinking a large amount of alcohol or even alcohol can cause liver and kidney damage, affect the activation of vitamin D, affect calcium absorption, and can cause gastrointestinal mucosa The damage affects calcium and phosphorus absorption and vitamin D absorption. 11. People who have a diet bias, such as people who are vegetarians for a long time, do not have mineral supplements in their bodies, how can they not be osteoporotic? Long-term consumption of greasy foods can also hinder calcium absorption. (Transferred from the public trumpet dance care)

Obesity and “three highs”

Obesity is the basis of many metabolic diseases. San Gao is a general term for hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Obesity and triple high are both components of the metabolic syndrome. In most cases, aggregation exists, promotes each other, and causes each other. Obesity not only triggers the “three highs”, but also induces various other metabolic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic kidney diseases. The effect of obesity on the heart increases the basal metabolic rate and increases cardiac output during obesity. This increase is not achieved by increasing the heart rate, but by increasing the pulse output. Long-term high cardiac output leads to increased heart load, Left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. In addition, the visceral fat metabolism disorder caused by central obesity will produce more inflammatory factors and vasoactive substances that can directly act on the cardiovascular system and cause damage to the cardiovascular system. Obesity and diabetes insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects are the two main pathophysiological links in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Both prospective and cross-sectional studies have confirmed that obesity is one of the most risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The survey data showed that with the increase of BMI, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes showed a significant increase trend, and multivariate analysis also showed that overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for diabetes. Obesity and chronic kidney disease In recent years, the incidence of chronic kidney disease has increased. Epidemiology shows that this is related to the improvement of people’s living standards and lifestyle changes. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in people with imbalanced energy metabolism is 20% to 80%, indicating that obesity is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, and the risk of chronic kidney disease in obese patients is significantly increased. A prospective study found that obese individuals have a 68% increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease compared to individuals with normal body mass. Obesity is the basic disease of the third highest, and it is also a contributing factor.

The relationship between the “three highs”

Three high refers to high blood pressure, high blood sugar and high blood fat. Both are components of the metabolic syndrome and are most common in people who are overweight or obese. Studies have shown that obesity is the main risk factor for insulin resistance. Obese people often have insulin resistance, which raises serum insulin levels and causes glucose metabolism disorders; the clear mechanism of weight gain leading to increased blood pressure has not been fully elucidated, but data show that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance can be increased by increasing the weight of sodium Absorption and increased sympathetic tone directly promote the occurrence of hypertension; obesity can cause disorders of lipid metabolism. Obesity is often accompanied by insulin resistance, and its dyslipidemia is characterized by: increased triacylglycerol (TG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), easy to form small and dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are reduced. There is a common “soil” between hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The “aggregation” promotes each other and causes each other. Health threats to patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to comprehensive prevention and control. Strive for comprehensive control to achieve the standard.

What is “three highs”?

Three high is the general term for high blood fat, high blood pressure, high blood sugar. The aggregation of the three clinical states is not accidental. In 1988, the famous American endocrinologist Reaven called insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance abnormalities in hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension in hyperlipidemia collectively referred to as “X syndrome”, which is the general medical community. Said metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a “collection” of many metabolic abnormalities. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome in China are as follows: (1) abdominal obesity (ie central obesity): waist circumference male ≥90cm, female ≥85cm (2) hyperglycemia: fasting blood glucose ≥6.1lmmol / L or 2h after sugar load Blood glucose ≥7.8mmol / L and / or diagnosed with diabetes and treatment (3) Hypertension: blood pressure ≥130 / 85mmHg and / or confirmed with hypertension and treatment (4) fasting TG≥1.70mmol / L (5) Fasting HDL-C <1.04mmol / L or more can be diagnosed as metabolic syndrome if there are three or more items. Metabolic syndrome has become a major health problem that threatens human health worldwide. 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes, 50% of diabetes and / or elevated fasting blood glucose, and these patients have a very high risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increase in obesity, the number of diabetic patients has increased. As a basic disease, the metabolic syndrome is not short-lived. It should receive attention and intervene.

Sugar friends have idea: good sleep helps blood sugar control!

Studies have shown that people who sleep for too long or too long are more likely to have diabetes than people who sleep normally. This shows that sleep has important significance for blood sugar control. The influence of sleep on blood sugar to develop good sleep habits is not only conducive to maintaining good health, but also keeps the body away from the risk of diabetes. And those who already have diabetes must lower their blood sugar smoothly and start by changing bad sleep habits. According to a foreign study, people who sleep between 7 and 8 hours a night have the best health. If you sleep less than 6 hours per night, the risk of diabetes will increase about 2 times; if you sleep more than 8 hours, the risk of diabetes will increase more than 3 times. This shows that maintaining a regular schedule is essential to prevent diabetes. How much to sleep is suitable for adults. The daily sleep time should be 7 to 9 hours, so as to improve health. Don’t go to bed too late at night. It is best to get up between 6 and 8 o’clock the next morning before 10 o’clock and keep your daily sleep time at about 8 hours. Occasionally, if you slept late the night before, it is best to make up the next morning. It is best to get up before 8 am and eat breakfast, and then sleep again, so as to ensure that blood sugar is not affected by sleep The impact of change. How to improve the quality of sleep 1. Emotional stability before going to bed (you can sit properly, listen to slow music, etc.), but also make the environment quiet, the light and temperature are suitable, and the bedding is suitable. 2. Try not to use sleeping pills to avoid drug dependence. 3. The elderly can exercise properly during the day, which can play a role in promoting sleep. 4. Stay away from some bad habits before going to bed, such as drinking coffee, drinking tea, making phone calls, etc. 5. If conditions permit, take a good nap, which can also keep blood sugar stable to a certain extent. People with a family history of diabetes do not stay up late and sleep poorly. It can cause upset, irritability, anxiety and other negative emotions. Of course, it will cause blood sugar fluctuations. If you find that blood sugar does rise and fluctuate, you may wish to drink with jujube kernels and soak your feet with warm water before going to bed. For healthy people with a family history of diabetes, especially in middle age, sleep problems cannot be ignored. To develop good sleep habits, try not to stay up late.

The ultimate solution for cholinergic urticaria, partners who are being tortured, you need this science

This popular science was compiled on the basis of consulting materials. The reference is from Dr. Zhang Tangde, Department of Dermatology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University. Itchy skin, can you bear it? Cholinergic urticaria (cholinergicurticaria, CholU) was first described by Duke in 1924. It is a skin disease with unique clinical features that occurs when the body temperature increases. If a diagnosis is needed, the average individual cannot be diagnosed, and you need to go to a regular hospital to find a dermatologist for diagnosis. If your diagnosis is “cholinergic urticaria”, then you can continue to read the undergraduate general, if your diagnosis is not “cholinergic urticaria”, then you may not need to read the following, because The treatment plan may be different. Medicine is a rigorous science and cannot be tried casually. Warn readers again. The typical clinical manifestations of cholinergic urticaria are papules or small wind clusters ranging from needles to mung beans, with blush around, and accompanied by significant acupuncture-like itching or pain. Angioedema, chest tightness, gas Promoting respiratory symptoms, dizziness and headache, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, and increased saliva secretion, etc., have a significant impact on the patient’s daily life and mental state. The lesions are mainly distributed on the trunk, followed by the limbs, and the palms, soles and underarms are not affected. The patient’s symptoms appear to have specific incentives, first of all any factors that cause the body temperature to rise or the skin to sweat, such as strenuous exercise, hot water bath, wearing thick clothes, and from a low temperature environment to a high temperature environment. It may prompt the patient to have symptoms. The second is emotional, nervous, eating too hot or spicy irritating food may also induce symptoms. Symptoms often last about 1h, and the symptoms can be relieved quickly in a cool environment such as an air-conditioned room. Some patients are associated with atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. The pathogenesis of cholinergic urticaria is not clear. In addition to mast cells and histamine, it may also involve acetylcholine, sweat pore blockage, cholinergic receptor M3, sweat allergy, serum factors, and poor sweating. The diagnosis of cholinergic urticaria is relatively easy. When the symptoms are not typical or need to be distinguished from other types of urticaria, a provocation test may be considered. The patient’s body is immersed in hot water at 42 ° C for 15 minutes to observe whether it will appear Typical symptoms. Clinical needs to be distinguished from the following skin diseases: food-dependent exercise-inducedanaphylaxis (FDEIA), heat urticaria (heaturticaria, HU) and solar urticaria. FDEIA will not show symptoms without food intake. If necessary, do provocation test, eat suspicious food, exercise test and aspirin intake test. Hot urticaria refers to localized wind damage that occurs after the skin contacts hot objects. Solar urticaria has nothing to do with the increase in temperature, mainly caused by skin exposure to sunlight. Then the next step is for the classification of urticaria. The classification can refer to the following standards: the classification of cholinergic urticaria. The classification of cholinergic urticaria. Figure 2. The classification of cholinergic urticaria. On the basis, the analysis of the treatment plan to be carried out is meaningful and instructive. If you cannot accurately type, once again emphasize that you should not blindly use drug treatment. Treatment plan Cholinergic urticaria treatment plan Figure 1 Cholinergic urticaria treatment plan Figure 2 Cholinergic urticaria treatment plan Figure 3 Cholinergic urticaria treatment plan Figure 4 Cholinergic urticaria treatment plan The diagnosis and treatment schemes of the above parameters in Figure 5 are based on strict classification. The pictures are also taken from Dr. Zhang Tangde’s scientific research results for everyone. If there are still some shortcomings, I hope to study the content of the article carefully. , @ 我 for background questions. The popular science is hopeful for everyone. References: [1] Zhang Tangde. The treatment of cholinergic urticaria [J]. Dermatology Bulletin, 2019 (6). [2] Severecholinergicurticaria successful treatment with scopolaminebutylbromideinadditiontoantihistamines [J]. ClinicalandEx

Precautions for measuring blood lipids

I often hear patients’ friends say “three highs”, generally speaking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar and high blood fat. It is actually not appropriate to call hyperlipidemia, because blood lipid monitoring mainly includes four items, and some indicators are not high. Blood lipid testing is generally done through blood tests. What are the precautions for blood collection to detect blood lipids? The main points are as follows: 1. Maintain general dietary habits and body weight stability for at least 2 weeks before blood lipid analysis; do not overeating and socializing outside; 2. Do not engage in vigorous physical exercise within 24 hours before the measurement; Start fasting at 0 o’clock and take venous blood from 8 to 10 the next morning; 4. If the blood lipids are abnormal, perform another or multiple measurements within 2 months, at least 1 week apart.