Statin drugs, the more expensive the better? The pharmacist refuted the rumors and told you how to choose the medicine?

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has become an important cause of death worldwide. As a very important class of blood lipid regulating drugs, statins can effectively reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and can significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, making patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease first and second There are substantial benefits in prevention. At present, there are so many kinds of statins in pharmacies or pharmacies, which can be described as dazzling! Some people say that the more expensive the price, the better the safety and effectiveness. Is that true? This is actually a big misunderstanding. Medicines are different from pork and eggs. The price of medicines has cost and patent factors, and the safety and effectiveness vary from person to person, so the higher the price, the better. The key is whether this type of drug is suitable for patients, this is the most important! From the perspective of effectiveness, the pros and cons of statins can be divided into high-intensity statins (the daily dose reduces LDL ≥ 50%) and medium-intensity statins (the daily dose reduces LDL by 30%). To 50%) and low-intensity statins (the daily dose reduces LDL <30%). Among them, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are high-strength statins, and the rest are low- and medium-strength lipid-lowering drugs. The applied dose of rosuvastatin to reduce LDL by 41% is 5mg, and atorvastatin needs to use 10mg; rosuvastatin can reduce LDL by up to 63% at the maximum dose of 40mg, while the maximum dose of atorvastatin is 80mg Lower LDL is only 55%. Therefore, rosuvastatin is slightly better than atorvastatin in terms of effectiveness. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of statins from the perspective of safety, there are seven commonly used statins in clinical practice: the first generation, such as lovastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin; the second generation, such as fluvastatin; Three generations, such as atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pitavastatin. Among them, pravastatin and rosuvastatin are water-soluble statins, fluvastatin is an amphipathic statin, and the rest are fat-soluble statins. Below, the author evaluates the pros and cons of statins from the negative side of statins. (1) Central nervous system adverse reactions: Studies have found that fat-soluble statins are more likely to penetrate the blood-brain barrier than water-soluble statins to cause central nervous system adverse reactions, such as headache, dizziness, and insomnia. (2) Liver damage and rhabdomyolysis: All statins have the risk of adverse reactions that lead to elevated transaminase. Friends who take statins for a long time should pay attention to regular review of liver function. The greater the dose of the same class of statins, the greater the risk of elevated transaminase. The risk of rhabdomyolysis is also related to the lipophilicity of statins. The stronger the lipophilicity, the higher the risk of muscle safety problems. The lipophilicity of statins is as follows: simvastatin> lovastatin> pitavastatin> fluvastatin> atorvastatin> rosuvastatin> pravastatin. Therefore, it is recommended to choose low-dose statins to reduce the risk of drug-induced liver damage on the basis of controlling the strict compliance of low-density lipoprotein. (3) Affect blood sugar: Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin can affect blood sugar in normal people and patients with type 2 diabetes, while pitavastatin and pravastatin have little effect on blood sugar. Pitavastatin does not increase the risk of new diabetes and has been recognized by the European Medicines Agency, so these two are more suitable for patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Conclusion In actual clinical practice, the choice of statins should be decided after considering the characteristics of the patient’s own disease and the price of the drug. Without considering the price factor, if you only consider the high-intensity lipid-lowering effect, you can choose rosuvastatin or atorvastatin. If you need to focus on the effect of statins on blood sugar, consider pravastatin or pitavastatin. References [1] Zou Hui, Zhang Liping. Effectiveness and safety of statins[J]. Chinese Journal of Healthcare and Medicine, 2020(3):221-224. (Part of the pictures in the text are from the network, the copyright belongs to the original author, I would like to express my gratitude to the author of the picture. If you find any violation of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete it.)

Helicobacter pylori, what should we do with you? Gastroenterologist tips: remember these 4 principles

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the only bacteria that can grow in the acidic environment of the stomach. It is closely related to the onset of peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, indigestion and even gastric cancer. In many cases, it is safe to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. my country is a country with a high Hp infection rate. According to statistics, the Hp infection rate in my country is as high as 40%-60%. Once Hp infection occurs, Hp will not clear itself unless actively intervened. Therefore, eradication treatment for Hp is currently being carried out. It is the most commonly used method for Hp infection. But Helicobacter pylori is not so easy to deal with. Sometimes even if it is eradicated, it will be repeatedly infected if it is not paid attention to in daily life. It can be said that wildfires are endless and spring breeze blows again. So, how do we deal with it? To eradicate Helicobacter pylori therapy, you need to grasp the following 4 basic principles: 1. Master the indications of eradication therapy. In fact, Helicobacter pylori is not that terrible. It does not mean that you will get stomach cancer if you are infected with this bacteria, and it is not necessarily infected. To clear it. Because my country is a country with a high infection rate of Hp (Hp abbreviation is used instead of Helicobacter pylori, the same below), a large part of them are asymptomatic infections. It is not realistic to require everyone to actively screen for Hp infection, so Helicobacter pylori The guidelines for the primary diagnosis and treatment of infections also recommend eradication treatment if the conditions shown below are present. 2. Standardized combination medication Hp infection is difficult to eradicate and easy to relapse. In recent years, it has been found to show varying degrees of resistance to commonly used antibacterial drugs. Therefore, combined medication is required for eradication treatment. Currently, two types of drugs are usually used. Antibacterial drugs combined with proton pump inhibitors and a quadruple regimen of prescriptions are used for eradication therapy. The course of treatment is 10-14 days, and the Hp test should be reviewed 4-8 weeks after the end of treatment to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Many people want to purchase medicines according to their medication plan. It is recommended to go to a regular hospital to see the gastroenterology department. After all, medication safety is the first, and self-medication is too risky! 3. Avoid family cluster infection H. pylori can be transmitted through mouth-to-mouth and feces-to-mouth. If there are Hp-infected family members, it is easy to cause cross-infection of other family members, and it will also lead to the failure of eradication treatment. Families of people with Hp infection are advised to adopt a meal-sharing system and disinfect tableware regularly, and pay attention to correcting bad feeding habits for infants and young children. It is worth reminding that Hp can be transmitted through saliva, so kissing is likely to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. 4. Improve life and eating habits. Avoid eating raw, cold, spicy foods. Pay attention to diet diversification, avoid moldy foods, eat less smoked, pickled, and rich nitrate and nitrite foods, and avoid long-term heavy drinking. In addition, maintain oral health, quit smoking, and maintain a good attitude and adequate sleep. In short, Hp infection can bring serious digestive system diseases, so eradication treatment should follow the above principles to ensure the maximum effect of eradication treatment and prevent recurrence. Reference: “Guidelines for Primary Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection” (Part of the pictures in the text come from the network and the copyright belongs to the original author. Thank you to the author. If you find any infringement of your copyright, please contact me and I will delete.)

In an intimate relationship, meet a bad-tempered partner

Author: Liu Yingya [boyfriend is not good temper, often talk to people washed up, but also impatient, often the phone will be able to Nangnang with people. But he treats me well. But my dad and my mom disagree, saying that my boyfriend is like this, and I will follow him, and sooner or later, there will be an accident. Nowadays, domestic violence is not uncommon and I will never let me take this risk. How to persuade them? 】In a marriage relationship, encountering a bad-tempered partner is a situation that deserves attention. First of all, people with bad tempers have something to face and homework inside. He is or needs to spend a lot of effort and concentration to face, his mind or vitality is circled on this, at this time, some external touches may be a kind of disturbance and interference to him, and he will be impatient . These homework may be the homework of his life, or the homework of his current life. Secondly, people with bad tempers may be traumatized inside. When external relations or things, things, or people re-provoke or touch his perception of trauma, he will have a bad temper. Thirdly, a person with a bad temper is not strong enough because of his lack of vitality, a little powerless, or unable to hold his own character, so his tolerance for external things is too small. People with a bad temper may be in a bad state or have problems in their life state that need to be faced. In any case, a bad temper often means that the current vitality is insufficient. People with bad tempers need to face their inner self, which will nourish the intimacy. I am Liu Yingya, a psychological consultant. I use psychology to analyze love, marriage, family life and make intimate relationships a classroom for self-growth. For emotional and psychological problems, trust me privately.

What problems should be paid attention to when drinking beer? Why is drinking beer healthier? Nutritionist will help you

Beer is generally made from wheat malt and barley malt as the main raw materials, with hops added, liquid gelatinization and saccharification, and then liquid fermentation. Beer has low alcohol content and is rich in nutrition. Beer contains a variety of amino acids, vitamins, low-molecular-weight sugars, inorganic salts and various enzymes. These nutrients are easily absorbed by the human body, and the low-molecular sugars and amino acids in beer are easily digested and absorbed. Beer is good, but what should be paid attention to when drinking beer? Why is it healthier to drink? First, drinking beer should not be excessive. Drinking a lot of beer will not only cause chronic gastritis, but also food poisoning. Drinking beer can also affect the liver’s detox function, leading to liver cell damage, and even liver cirrhosis. Therefore, it is not advisable to drink too much beer, and healthy adults should not drink more than one bottle per day. Second, pay attention to hygiene when drinking beer. Bulk beer sold in the market is easily contaminated by bacteria floating in the air. Drinking spoiled beer will cause symptoms of food poisoning such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Third, do not drink cold beer before meals. If you drink cold beer before eating, the temperature in the gastrointestinal tract will drop suddenly, the blood vessels will contract rapidly, the blood flow will decrease, and the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, intestinal amylase and lipase will be reduced, leading to digestive disorders Etc. Fourth, do not drink beer after strenuous exercise. Drinking beer after strenuous exercise can easily lead to a sharp increase in uric acid in the blood, which can easily lead to gout. Fifth, avoid drinking beer with soda. Sixth, it is best not to drink beer and liquor together. Although beer is a low-alcohol beverage, it contains carbon dioxide and water. When mixed with white wine, it will accelerate the penetration of alcohol throughout the body, causing strong stimulation and serious harm to the liver, stomach and other organs, affecting the production of digestive enzymes. Reduce gastric acid, cause stomach cramps, acute gastroenteritis, duodenitis and cause bleeding, and cause more damage to the heart and brain blood vessels.

Multiple studies have shown that more sleep and less sleep increase the risk of obesity, cognitive ability, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

Sleeping should be our instinct, presumably before humans have fully evolved, just like all animals, sleep is part of life. Entering the agricultural society, we plow at sunrise and rest at sunset, which is also considered to be natural, without insomnia and staying up late. But since the advent of the industrial age, especially in recent years, nightlife has become more and more abundant, and more and more people can’t sleep because of active or passive actions. Some people have to go to night shifts to stay awake at work; some people stay up until midnight to eat and drink; some people sing and dance, often all night; some people, stress, anxiety, etc. can cause insomnia. But everyone knows that lack of sleep and insomnia are definitely not good for health. Long-term insomnia and lack of sleep can cause many diseases. Only by ensuring adequate sleep can we ensure our normal life and study. If we sleep too little, we are not energetic the next day, just like the battery is not fully charged and the engine is sluggish; but if we sleep for too long, it will also have an adverse effect on the body, so how long should we sleep every day? ? 1. Research from Peking University: Too much or too little sleep can lead to cognitive decline. A Peking University study shows that too little or too much sleep can lead to cognitive decline. A total of 20056 people were selected for the study, including 9254 participants from the United Kingdom and 10,811 participants from my country. The study found that adults sleep less than 4 hours per night and sleep more than 10 hours per night have a faster decline in cognitive scores. So, don’t think that sleeping enough every day is good for your body. The fact is that sleeping too much or too little will increase cognitive decline. 2. The latest South Korean study shows that too much sleep and too little sleep lead to obesity. A recent South Korean study found that adults sleep 7-8 hours a day. If they sleep less than 5 hours a day, compared to people who sleep 7-8 hours, The likelihood of obesity increases by 50%; if you sleep for more than 9 hours, such as people who sleep 7-8 hours a day, the likelihood of obesity increases by 12%. After obesity, there are three high risks, various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and joint diseases will increase. Therefore, do not sleep too much, nor too little. 3. Research by Huazhong University of Science and Technology: Too much sleep and too little sleep lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. According to a study conducted by Huazhong University of Science and Technology, people who sleep too much or too little have an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared with people who sleep 7 hours a day, for every hour of sleep reduction, the risk of coronary heart disease increases by 7%, the risk of cerebral stroke increases by 5%, and the risk of all-cause death increases by 6%; compared with people who sleep 7 hours a day , For every additional hour of sleep, the risk of coronary heart disease increases by 5%, the risk of stroke increases by 18%, and the risk of death increases by 13%. The conclusion is that people who sleep about 7 hours a day have the lowest risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. 4. The European Journal of Cardiology, Sleeping too much or too little, increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The European Journal of Cardiology involves 21 countries and enrolled 116,632 people. They were followed up for an average of 7.8 years to observe sleep time and cardiovascular disease. The circumstances of death. Studies have found that compared with people who sleep 6-8 hours a day, people who sleep less than 6 hours have a 9% increase in the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; if you sleep too much, sleep 8-9 hours a day, the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases increases by 5% , Sleep> 10 hours a day, increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases by 41%. Therefore, too much sleep and too little sleep will not only increase the risk of obesity, increase the risk of cognitive decline, but also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and even death. Insufficient sleep may lead to a decrease in the secretion of endocrine hormones such as insulin and leptin, thereby accelerating the production of obesity or diabetes, leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and an increased risk of death. Sleeping too long may be an early manifestation of certain diseases, and sleeping too long may itself be a manifestation of sub-health. In short, adequate sleep is the basis to ensure our immunity and the basis for our normal life and health; but everyone needs to understand that it is not advisable to sleep less, and it is not advisable to sleep more.

What is the reason for always being unable to breathe? The doctor said these 5 reasons are the most common!

In the outpatient clinic, patients who can’t breathe are often encountered. Although they are all breathless, the causes are different and the treatment is completely different. The reasons why we can’t breathe out frequently: 1. Coronary heart disease angina pectoris The most common symptom of coronary heart disease is angina pectoris, although most of the angina pectoris manifests as painful symptoms such as precordial pain or chest pain. However, some angina are not painful, but can’t breathe. The breathlessness caused by myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris of coronary heart disease mainly occurs after activities, a few minutes each time, usually 2-15 minutes, and it is like a healthy person after relief. If episodic wheezing is not enough, especially after activities, and can be relieved after rest, then first go to the hospital for examination to rule out coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia and angina. If it is coronary heart disease and angina pectoris, a healthy life is required, regular medication is required, and even severe cardiovascular stenosis requires stent or bypass treatment. 2. Myocardial infarction The most typical symptom of myocardial infarction is sudden post-sternal squeezing pain, but 1/4 of myocardial infarction does not have chest pain, but other manifestations, for example, it may be out of breath, if it is suddenly out of breath If you are out of breath, have symptoms such as profuse sweating, or even have difficulty breathing, you should dial 120 because you suspect myocardial infarction. If it is a myocardial infarction, every second must be counted. Dial 120 and go to the hospital to cooperate with the doctor to open the blood vessel. 3. Heart failure In heart disease, in addition to myocardial ischemia, which can cause out of breath, there is another type of heart disease that is heart failure. The heart is a comprehensive result of many heart diseases. The most typical manifestations are chest tightness, breathlessness, breathlessness, and difficulty breathing; it will also increase after activities and relieve after rest. Or it may be suddenly out of breath at night, unable to lie down and sleep, or fall asleep out of breath, and have to sit up passively. Only sitting up can alleviate the heart failure. If it is heart failure, it is necessary to find the cause of the heart failure and treat the primary disease. At the same time, the principle of drug treatment for heart failure is based on Lolol, Pri/sartan, and spironolactone. 4. Lung diseases are out of breath. In addition to the above-mentioned heart diseases, the other biggest cause is lung diseases. If there is no heart problem, a chest radiograph or chest CT is needed. Common lung diseases include: inflammation of the trachea, tumors or foreign bodies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary edema, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, extensive lungs Parenchymal lesions, tumors, granulomas, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism, etc. Only when the cause is found can further treatment options be given. Chest X-ray or chest CT can not only find lung diseases, but also see problems in the chest cavity, chest wall, etc., such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax and other diseases can cause breathlessness. 5. There are still some people with autonomic dysfunction. They are normal after all kinds of tests, but they just feel out of breath, especially if they can be resolved after deep breathing, or can be relieved after panting, then this part is not organic Sexual diseases generally belong to autonomic dysfunction or menopausal problems. In short, there are many reasons for being out of breath. We only know how to treat the cause before we find the cause, but first we must rule out heart disease and lung disease!

5 times a day for angina pectoris, because of various rumors, unwilling to stent, resulting in myocardial infarction!

Mr. Fang, 54 years old, has had repeated episodes of precordial pain in the past two weeks. It will happen after eating three meals a day, and it will happen when he walks a little faster. No way, when I arrived at the hospital, I was diagnosed with unstable angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. The doctor recommended hospitalization. After being hospitalized, after taking aspirin, statins, heart rate control, blood vessel dilation and other drugs, anticoagulant drugs were also given, but after 3 days of treatment, the patient still had about 5 angina pectoris a day. Therefore, it is recommended that the patient take an imaging to see how narrow the heart vessel is. If it is severely narrowed, it may require a stent or a bypass. The patient is determined not to put the stent! Asking the reasons: 1. After finishing the stent, the rejection medicine will be inseparable for a lifetime! 2. Making the bracket will affect the life span! 3. After finishing the bracket, you can’t do anything, can’t move, can’t go out to play! The doctor gave a detailed explanation: 1. Although the stent is a foreign body, it does not require a lifetime to take medicine to reject the stent. After finishing the stent, it is indeed necessary to take ticagrelor or clopidogrel for one year, but after one to one and a half years, there is no need to take it. The purpose of taking medicine is to prevent thrombosis in the stent and restenosis in the stent. After placing the stent, you need to take medicine for a lifetime. It is only because of coronary heart disease that you need to take medicine for a lifetime. It is not because you have to take medicine for a lifetime. 2. Making a heart stent will not affect the life span, and even to a certain extent, it can extend life span. For example, for acute myocardial infarction, a stent can save 25 more lives for every 100 myocardial infarctions. For example, a stent for angina pectoris, after regular treatment, can relieve angina pectoris, angina pectoris does not occur, and also reduces the risk of myocardial infarction. So from this point of view, making a heart stent will not affect life span, and can even extend life span. Of course, any surgery is risky. Very few patients will experience stent thrombosis or stent restenosis after stent placement, which may be fatal, but this is very rare. Some people think that the stent will affect the life expectancy. The most important thing is those patients with severe acute myocardial infarction. It is not that the stent is fatal, but the disease itself is very serious and causes death. 3. After the stent is completed, it will not affect activity or work. Even for patients with angina, they cannot work or exercise before the stent is done, because angina will occur after exercise. After the stent is completed, myocardial ischemia will be improved. , You can exercise and work. As for whether you can fly, climb mountains, or travel, it is not determined by the stand itself. We have seen that some people can’t exercise or go out to play after finishing the stent. This is mainly determined by heart function, that is, this part of patients has heart failure due to myocardial infarction, or heart failure due to other reasons. Cannot exercise, work, or go out to play. Rather than being unable to exercise, work, or go out because of the bracket. However, even with this explanation, Mr. Fang couldn’t get Mr. Fang to agree to the stent. In the next few days, Mr. Fang stayed in the ward, eating very little, and would not have angina for 3 days, so Mr. Fang strongly requested to be discharged from the hospital. . The doctor told me that the current angina pectoris is relatively stable, but angina pectoris and even myocardial infarction may occur. In the end, Mr. Fang chose to leave the hospital. On the 3rd day after discharge, the patient had sudden precordial pain again, which was heavier than usual, accompanied by profuse sweating, and continued to be unrelief. He came to the hospital again, and the ECG showed acute myocardial infarction. At this time, it is recommended to operate immediately and the blood vessels must be opened as soon as possible. But Mr. Fang hesitated and said that he had to think about it. Before he was finished, the heart stopped beating suddenly, and the ECG monitor indicated ventricular fibrillation. He was shocked and defibrillated immediately, so that the heartbeat was restored before he agreed to the radiography. The radiography showed that a large blood vessel in the heart was completely blocked. After the balloon was expanded, the blood flow was restored. After a stent was implanted, the blood flow returned to normal, and the patient’s heart rate and blood pressure gradually stabilized. When sending the patient back to the ward, Mr. Fang said by himself: I knew this before, why should I have done the stent 1 week ago if I could listen to your advice, and I wouldn’t have been shut in… Mr. Fang was lucky, but many people had myocardial infarction and had no chance to go to the hospital. Sudden death occurred outside the hospital. Therefore, for severe angina pectoris that cannot be controlled by drugs, the radiography must be done, and you can’t be deceived by rumors!

Is it subungual bleeding or onychomycosis?

Fan question: Hello, doctor. Excuse me. I want to ask the symmetrical black dots on my left and right toes. Is it subungual congestion? [Flowing tears] It’s still onychomycosis (but it didn’t infect other nails). When I cut it, I noticed that the nail became thicker&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.@微博健康医疗&nbsp. From the picture, the obvious manifestation of the black ecchymosis under the nail is subungual bleeding. Where does the bleeding come from? Most of them are caused by tight shoes or strenuous exercise, such as playing a ball, or kicking on the door, etc. Blood leaks from under the toenails. When it first happened, it was red. As time changes, the color gradually darkens, slowly growing from the back of the toenails, until it grows out. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.@爱问医生科普&nbsp.&nbsp. Onychomycosis on the feet, our scientific name is onychomycosis, which is the same bacteria as athlete’s foot, and it is caused by infections that enter under the nails through the cracks on the nail . Its reaction is very long, there is a gradual process, at first it is part of a nail, then two nails, three nails, serious people 10 hands, 10 feet are all onychomycosis. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.@爱问医生皮科&nbsp. Bleeding under the nail does not require treatment. And onychomycosis requires early treatment, not only on the hands and feet, but also on our skin, but also into the body through the digestive tract and respiratory tract. It can be fatal to cause a deep fungal infection. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Subungual bleeding can be prevented. For example, we walk slowly, wear loose shoes, and pay attention to exercise as much as possible. When we find that we have pain, we should use some antibiotic ointments as soon as possible to reduce subungual bleeding. #我的健康力量站##全民健康计划##健康中国行#

The baby’s soy sauce urine was sent to the doctor, it turned out to be to blame! The doctor said some babies can’t be touched

Yanzi herself likes to go to the vegetable market very much. She always feels that there is a strong atmosphere of life there, which can be directly seen by the human fireworks. On weekends, she would also bring her husband and children, and the family of three would stroll around and discuss the menu. It was also a small luck. On this day, she saw fresh broad beans on the vegetable vendor’s stall, her eyes shone slightly, and she said to her husband: “How about a broad bean fried meat? It seems that I haven’t done it in a long time, try?” “Eh… Nope.” Husband Yanzi fiddled with broad beans and said: “I saw a news yesterday that a child who ate broad beans went directly to the hospital!” Yanzi looked inexplicably: “If you eat broad beans, you go to the hospital? Are you allergic to fava beans?” “No, the news specifically said that it is not fava bean allergies, but fava bean disease. The child was sent directly to the intensive care unit before being rescued. Anyway, for safety reasons, don’t eat it.” As said by her husband, Yanzi She felt a little hairy in her heart. In order to clarify the truth, she deliberately checked the news that her husband said, which really happened. “Sister, I heard that the child might be critically ill after eating a few broad beans? What’s going on? I’m a little worried, is it possible for my baby to get this disease? Can the broad beans be eaten for my baby?” Yanzi asked me later Come here. 1. Fava bean disease is indeed very lethal. “Fava bean disease” is a genetic disease and a type of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In normal babies, there is a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) on the surface of red blood cells, which is like a protective cover for red blood cells to resist the attack of oxidizing substances. The baby with fava bean disease lacks this protective cover. After eating broad beans, especially fresh raw broad beans, the strong oxidizing substances in them will destroy red blood cells. If not treated in time, it will lead to: a large number of red blood cells in the body rupture, hemoglobin is excreted in the urine (the urine is soy sauce, strong tea or blood), severe anemia, hypoxia, electrolyte balance disorders, and severe coma, syncope, etc. Brain injury and organ damage are life-threatening; broken cell fragments may also block renal tubules, leading to acute renal failure; neonatal kernicterus can cause mental retardation. 2. Both husband and wife are fine, and the child may have fava bean disease! As we said earlier, fava bean disease is a genetic defect, which is usually passed on from parents to children, but don’t think that if the couple eat fava beans, the child will be safe. Fava bean disease is a recessive genetic disease of the sex chromosomes. The white point is that if adults eat fava beans, it does not mean that there is no fava bean disease gene. Some adults carry this mutated gene, but do not show symptoms, and then this gene is passed on to the baby, and the baby becomes sick. In other words, parents who are free from faba bean disease does not mean that the baby is safe! 3. Is the probability of this disease high? The incidence of broad bean disease in China is generally low. It mostly occurs in early summer when fava beans are on the market. Among them, the incidence of infants is significantly higher than that of adults, and patients under 3 years old account for 70% of the total. Since this disease is also inherited with sex (genes are on the sex chromosomes), in human terms, boys are more likely to get fava bean disease. Fourth, just in case, this examination must not forget that all experienced mothers know that new babies need heel blood. This is the newborn foot blood screening. At present, this work is carried out in most parts of the country, and it includes the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) project, so in fact, many babies can know whether they have fava bean disease at birth. Under normal circumstances, within 72 hours to 7 days after birth, if the baby is breast-feeding more than 8 times within 48 hours, the baby will be taken to collect heel blood. If the baby is premature, low birth weight, early discharge and other special circumstances, he should also go to the hospital for blood sampling within 20 days after delivery. Note: If you have not undergone a newborn’s plantar blood screening test, regardless of your baby’s age, try to eat as little as possible the first time you give him broad beans, and pay special attention to observation. Once you find that he has eaten, the following symptoms will appear: Seek to the doctor right away: 1. Yellow face, yellow eyes, pale lips 2. Soy sauce, strong tea or bloody urine 3. Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, liver enlargement, splenomegaly 4. Chill, fever, severe Sometimes there may be confusion, and even shock. Of course, if you want to rest assured, you still have to take your child to the hospital for a separate G6PD test. Five, the baby suffers from broad bean disease

What are the characteristics of the initial pictures of female genital warts

For condyloma acuminata, many people think that this is a male disease. In fact, in our lives, both men and women, the elderly and children are all patients with condyloma acuminata, and the harm of female condyloma acuminata is greater than that in clinical practice. Men are much taller, so if a female friend suffers from condyloma acuminatum, it must be treated promptly. Female condyloma acuminatum at the site of the disease is similar to that of males, and it mainly occurs around the genital organs. It usually occurs in the labia, clitoris, vagina and cervix. At least 20% of female patients have perineum and perianal skin easily spread, and occasionally occur in the axilla. The lower part, the groin, the space under the breast, and the oral cavity. Most patients have symptoms such as genital itching and increased vaginal discharge. The damage is manifested as papillary, chicken coronal or fusion into cauliflower shape, varying in size, part fusion into flakes or plaque appearance.   Once a woman suffers from condyloma acuminata disease, she can usually feel it on her own. The vulva or perianal damage can be found through self-examination, but the HPV infection that occurs in the vagina and cervix is ​​relatively hidden and difficult to detect. It is easy for patients to ignore the occurrence of diseases, and Xiao Tao is a good example. Cervical condyloma acuminatum is not easy to find even under the naked eye under the vaginal dilator, and can be found only with colposcopy. HPV is not only the causative factor of condyloma acuminatum, but also closely related to cervical tumors. A biopsy of suspicious lesions under colposcopy can not only find condyloma acuminatum, but also has important significance for the early diagnosis of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. Therefore, once women have related symptoms, or have high-risk sexual behaviors but have no symptoms, they should go to a specialist as soon as possible to avoid delays in their illness.   Female condyloma acuminata is a very characteristic and stubborn disease. If you don’t pay attention, the condition will get worse and more and more body organs will be affected. Therefore, female patients must pay attention to it, do not worry about other situations, and promptly go to the hospital to request professional treatment. Reprint please indicate: Nanjing Institute of gifted Ka medical wart virus Lixing Chun, otherwise declined to reprint.

For more than 20 years of psoriasis, the whole body rash and itching are serious, how can it be treated?

Fan question: Female, 37 years old, with psoriasis, all over the body and head, and itchy. For about 20 years, she has taken Chinese and Western medicine. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.@爱问医生科普&nbsp. Psoriasis, commonly known as psoriasis, used to be side by side with vitiligo as a refractory immune skin disease, common people jokingly called the second type of tumor. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.@爱问医生皮科&nbsp. Before psoriasis, some people have never had a better life. The medication will be relieved, and the relapse will occur after the medication is stopped. Some people may be completely better for a while and live with them for a lifetime. Now there is a breakthrough in the treatment of psoriasis in the world. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.@微博健康医疗&nbsp. Since 2019, our country has introduced biological agents to treat psoriasis. The curative effect is very good, but it costs more and requires maintenance treatment. Some parts are completely good, and the skin appearance is completely normal. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Biological preparations, also known as monoclonal antibodies, can improve the survival status of psoriasis in the treatment of psoriasis. People with psoriasis dare not wear short sleeves in summer, dare not go to public baths, dare not go swimming on the beach. After treatment with biological agents, this state of life can be changed. However, it is currently a fly in the ointment, the drug cannot be stopped, and maintenance treatment is required. #我的健康力量站##全民健康计划##健康中国行#

Which hospital is better to treat adult vitiligo?

   If unfortunately, after suffering from vitiligo, it will bring endless troubles to all aspects of the patient’s life, and bear huge psychological pressure. The majority of patients all want to return to normal as soon as possible. If you want to cure vitiligo, the first step is to choose a hospital, but there are so many hospitals that treat vitiligo, which one should we choose?    1. Choose a good reputation Although it is difficult to treat vitiligo, it is almost not a terminal disease. If you go to a vitiligo hospital with a good reputation for treatment immediately, you will have the opportunity to remove vitiligo, so patients do not need to worry too much. Naturally, when choosing a hospital, you must carefully look at the hospital’s reputation. Do not trust the advertising papers and small clinics credulously. A good reputation is a necessary condition for a good hospital for vitiligo. Such a hospital can also be effective in treating vitiligo. 2. How about choosing a vitiligo hospital with a rich experience in a medical team? From the point of view of the doctor team in the hospital, doctors are the main actors in the treatment of vitiligo, and it is immediately related to the efficacy of vitiligo. Therefore, in general, a hospital is better than It depends on the medical team. Vitiligo is a difficult disease and cannot be treated by ordinary doctors. If the doctor is not very good or does not have a team of doctors, then the patient’s leukoplakia cannot be treated with scientific research and medication. The doctors in the whole hospital are all talents who have been involved in scientific research on the skin level for many years, and can quickly treat various types of vitiligo. Carry out a diagnosis and show an improved, reasonable, and economically developed treatment plan. 3. The treatment of vitiligo disease in hospitals that choose to show heart-warming services must have good technology, but the quality of hospital services must also be highly valued. Therefore, it is generally recommended that patients choose a hospital with good service quality if they choose hospital treatment. , The hospital’s service is thoughtful. Because the hospital’s service items will also have a certain hazard to the treatment, a good hospital will ensure that it is people-oriented and show patients high-quality service items.   remind everyone that although vitiligo is a little troublesome to treat, it can be cured. We also ask patients to pay attention to it, go to the hospital for treatment earlier, and resume their previous lives earlier.

How to check for varicocele

Men find pain in the scrotum during self-examination, or can easily touch varicose veins. It may be varicocele. You must go to the hospital for examination in time. Then, what should be done to check for varicocele?    Varicocele What to do 1. Physical examination During the examination, the doctor will make the subject stand so that the scrotum is naturally vertical, and then take a deep breath and press the abdomen downward. If it is a patient with seminal curvature, thickened roundworm-like veins appear in the skin above the scrotum or testis. If it is not obvious, the doctor will directly squeeze the examination by hand to avoid misdiagnosis.  2, ultrasound examination   This is an inspection measure to check the severity of the disease after the physical examination and check whether there are other lesions. That’s why the doctor arranges this examination, the purpose is to check whether men have other causes, and if there are lesions, they can be treated in time.  3. Routine semen examination    This examination is to check whether the semen has affected the quality of semen. Because spermatozoa will affect the blood return speed of the testicles, the slow return speed will directly increase the increase in the scrotum, changing the living environment of sperm and affecting spermatogenesis.  Methods of self-diagnosis of varicocele  1, mild. For male patients with mild varicocele, they have almost no symptoms when they touch the scrotum, but when they breathe in and hold their breath while increasing abdominal pressure, they can touch the varicose veins above the scrotum.  2, moderate. When the patient is poisoned with varicose veins, male patients can easily touch the varicose veins with their hands, but the appearance of the scrotum has not changed much.   3. Severe. The scrotum of the patient with poisoned varicose veins has changed significantly, and it can be clearly touched by hands.   The above is the introduction of “What should be done to check for varicocele” from Beijing Weiren Nursing Hospital. If you have any problems with varicocele, you can contact your doctor for one-on-one help.

What is impetigo and how to deal with it?

What is impetigo? How to deal with it? Every summer, kindergarten or nursery can see children who are “rotten” on the face, nose or mouth. In fact, these children have impetigo. Impetigo, commonly known as yellow water sore, is a common acute purulent skin disease. It has the characteristics of contact infection and auto-inoculation infection. The pathogens are mainly Staphylococcus aureus or beta-hemolytic streptococcus alone or mixed infection. Human skin is infected by Staphylococcus aureus or beta-hemolytic streptococcus, causing erythema on the exposed parts of the infected skin, such as the most common face, neck and limbs. Blisters or pustules appear quickly on the erythema. There is flushing around, the blister wall is very thin and easy to break, forming a red erosion surface. After the pus dries, it forms a butterfly-shaped honey yellow thick scab. Impetigo is an acute purulent skin disease. Scratching can cause new rashes due to self-vaccination. It can also be infected by contact between people. In summer and autumn, children have thin and tender skin, limited ability to regulate their skin, sweat easily, and poor resistance. They often have rash, eczema and other itchy skin diseases first, and scratch with dirty hands. After some children’s clothes, diapers, coatings, etc. are contaminated by bacteria, parents do not pay attention to washing and disinfection. In this way, papules or blisters appear on the exposed parts of the face, mouth, around the nostrils, ears, limbs, etc. Inflammatory flushed pustules, children suffering from pustules can easily lead to impetigo in children. Severe impetigo may be accompanied by high fever, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis and even sepsis or acute glomerulonephritis. The key to preventing this disease is to pay attention to skin hygiene. Children and parents should wash and cut their nails frequently and pay attention to personal hygiene. It is also necessary to treat the itchy skin disease in time, and do not let the child scratch the affected area to avoid spreading. Children who are sick should be isolated, and contaminated clothing, toys, etc. should be disinfected. Local treatment is very important. The principles of treatment are sterilization, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and dryness. The blister fluid or crusty skin lesions can be extracted first to remove the scab, and then washed with 3% boric acid water or 1:5000~10000 potassium permanganate solution and wet compress. After washing, topical antibiotic preparations such as 2% mupirocin ointment (Bai Duobang), 2% fusidic acid cream, etc. can be used. If you have systemic symptoms, you can also treat them systematically and use sensitive antibiotics. After rubbing the medicine on the erosive and exudate parts, apply the powder to astringent and dry. Supportive treatment can be strengthened for patients with weak constitution, and symptomatic treatments such as plasma and gamma globulin can be given when necessary.

Ding Ding’s length can be inherited? Dad’s child must be young?

Baby Ding Ding is too young, must it be due to heredity? Many men regard tintin as a symbol of “dignity.” “Does it look good” and “does it work well” have always been topics that men are more concerned about. But Ding Ding’s short appearance made the men extremely embarrassed! Many men will have great psychological pressure because they are too young, and they dare not go to public restrooms, public baths, and even dare not interact with the opposite sex. (Source: Qianku.com) They are also very depressed: Why is my Tintin young? Is Tintin born for his length? Will acquired factors affect the length of Tintin? Will Tintin be hereditary? As we all know, height and appearance are affected by genetic genes. So, will the size and shape of tintin be affected and controlled by genetic genes? The answer is that a child who will inherit the genes of the father and mother, so the size of the child’s tintin will be affected by the father’s genes as well as the mother’s genes. It’s like the height of a child. The father is tall and strong, but the child is not necessarily tall, and so is the size of Tintin. (Source: Qianku.com) Normally, the child’s tintin grows slowly before puberty, and grows rapidly after puberty, but after adolescence, tintin basically no longer develops. However, the size of a tintin is not simply determined by genes. The factors that cause tintin’s shortness are both congenital and acquired. Therefore, if the child is small, one cannot blame the parents for genetic problems blindly. Congenital short penis: Both congenital testicular hypoplasia and congenital small testes can lead to short penis. For patients with congenital testicular hypoplasia, although they are tall, Ding Ding and testicles are relatively small; they can get erections after being sexually stimulated, and can ejaculate or have spermatorrhea, but because there are no sperm in semen, they have no fertility. Congenital small testicles are mostly delayed in puberty. The second feature is not very obvious. Tintin and testicles are small in size. (Source: Qianku.com) Acquired penis shortness: Tintin shortness may also be caused by acquired reasons. Nutritional status: Acquired malnutrition, especially when the nutrition cannot keep up during puberty development, may appear small and short. Testicular atrophy: Men who have been engaged in radiation, microwave, ultrasound, etc. for a long time may cause testicular atrophy, but after treatment or avoiding damage in time, testicular function can gradually recover. Obesity: There are many short and short dingdings caused by obesity in modern men, but the development of these patients is normal, but it is hidden in the fat pad of the vulva and abdomen, which can be restored by losing weight later. During the clinical process, many people will go to see a doctor because Ding Ding is too young, but in fact, some male Ding Ding is not abnormal in length, or only slightly shorter than normal people, but it does not affect normal sexual life and fertility. This is actually It doesn’t matter much. Although the length of Ding Ding is related to congenital heredity, the influence of acquired factors cannot be ruled out. Therefore, even if the father has a short penis, there is no need to worry about passing it on to his next generation!

7 money-saving “signs” issued by the tooth! You must grasp it!

Data show that less than 1% of people in my country meet dental health standards, and the adult incidence of oral diseases in China accounts for 60% to 80% of the Chinese population. Tooth is very important to people. It costs thousands of dollars to complete the filming, disinfection, and filling of a tooth once a filling is completed. However, medical insurance only reimburses part of the dental expenses. I really can’t hold it. 1. The scope of medical insurance reimbursement Stomatology (outpatient) Part of the treatment is covered by medical insurance, such as toothache, tooth extraction, fillings, etc. (excluding imported materials) can be covered by medical insurance. For example, dental implants and dental cleaning are not covered by medical insurance. 2. The medical expenses incurred in the examination and treatment of common dental treatment items in the dental clinic can be paid by the medical insurance personal account funds; if the medical condition requires it and meets the hospitalization standards, the hospital will accept the treatment, except that the denture fee cannot be paid by the medical insurance pool fund, other expenses can be Settlement according to medical insurance regulations. Common treatment items: health care items: including basic inspection, dental cleaning and polishing, pit and fissure sealing, fluorine protective paint and other treatment items. Basic treatment: includes the basic medical treatment items required for the diagnosis and treatment of common dental diseases, such as X-ray diagnosis, routine fillings, subgingival curettage, root planing (front and back teeth), etc. Complex treatment: mainly includes orthodontic treatment, deciduous tooth root filling (anterior and posterior teeth), periodontal reinforcement, restorative treatment and dental implants. The cost of MTA materials and STA anesthesia during the treatment are also included in the complex treatment. 3. Why is dental care so expensive? For example, if you just fill your teeth, it usually costs one or two hundred yuan, which is not too expensive. However, many of my friends will look at it right away if there is a problem with the tooth, and wait until it is painful or swollen. Root canal treatment may be needed at this time. Complicated treatment methods, coupled with better equipment and medicines used now, may really cost thousands of dollars. If the hospital is implemented in accordance with the standards of the price department, there will be no arbitrary charges. 4. Pay attention to the seven “signs” issued by the teeth (1) Sudden toothache-beware of tooth decay If one or more teeth suddenly ache when eating, it may be that tooth decay has occurred. The deeper the hole in the tooth, the more sensitive the tooth will eventually lead to tooth decay. If toothache happens occasionally and is not limited to a certain point, there is usually no need to worry. (2) Toothache for more than 1 week-grinding teeth while sleeping If the toothache is more than 1 week, it may be caused by bruxism (habitual grinding of teeth while sleeping or unconscious grinding when awake). Wearing anti-molar teeth guards can effectively prevent teeth grinding at night. Persistent toothache accompanied by swelling of the gums or parotid glands may be caused by a gum abscess. See a dentist. (3) Yellow teeth-drinking tea without gargle coffee, tea or other dark beverages may cause yellow teeth. It is best to rinse your mouth immediately after drinking such beverages. In addition, the use of whitening toothpaste and washing teeth can help improve the yellowing of teeth. (4) Loose teeth-incorrect brushing. Loose teeth are a typical sequelae of periodontal disease, because periodontal disease can easily lead to bone loss in teeth and jaw. Incorrect brushing can easily form dental plaque, which in turn can cause dental calculus, which can damage the gums and teeth, and cause teeth to loosen. The correct way to clean your teeth includes: brushing your teeth twice a day, flossing between your teeth, and washing your teeth twice a year. (5) Bleeding and swelling of the gums-Beware of the symptoms of bleeding and swelling of the gums of periodontitis for one or two days. The symptoms can be relieved by frequent brushing and flossing. However, periodontitis caused by hormone changes or bacterial infections can also cause bleeding and swelling of the gums. It is best to see a dentist. (6) Gum pains-toothbrush bristles are too hard. If the gums are painful when inhaling cold air, drinking hot or cold drinks, it may be due to tooth decay and receding gums. Bacterial infections, bruxism, and hard brushing with a hard-bristled toothbrush can easily lead to receding gums and exposed roots. If there are red or white spots on the painful area, which lasts more than 1 week, be sure to go to the hospital for examination. (7) Gum ulcers-eat less sour, hot, and hot foods. Eating too much sour, hot, and hot foods can easily lead to mouth ulcers. If the ulcer pain disappears within two or three days, there is no problem. If the ulcer lasts for a long time, it may be a sign of vitamin A deficiency. It is recommended to eat more vitamin A-rich spinach, carrots and other foods.

What should I do if there is a large gap between my teeth and it is easy to jam my teeth when eating?

Orthodontics丨Filling丨Implant丨Teeth washing丨Porcelain teeth丨Teeth whitening Here are all the answers to questions about oral health. Consult 133&nbsp.6842&nbsp.6824 (same number on WeChat)&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. &nbsp.&nbsp. After eating, the most embarrassing thing is that there is food stuffed between the teeth, even if the tongue is licked, the hand can’t be removed…especially after the teeth are stuffed, the back alveolar still hurts, and I pick it up again for a long time. Not coming out&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Why stuffy teeth? &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Under normal circumstances, the neatly arranged teeth are side by side, and there is no gap between each other. Without a gap, there will be little food jams. . &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. But in many dental conditions, food impaction often occurs. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.How should I deal with tooth jams? &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Once the tooth is stuffed, do not force it out with a toothpick, otherwise it will aggravate the gum damage, preferably with dental floss. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. The important thing is that “stuffed teeth” is the distress signal released by the teeth. If the phenomenon of “stuffed teeth” occurs frequently, the first thing to think about is not flossing, but See the dentist! &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.Go to a professional dental institution for treatment, find out the cause of the tooth jam, and prescribe the right medicine to solve the problem of “teeth jam” from the source. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Getting bigger? 1. Congenital factors: Congenital malformations of tooth development, and poor teeth alignment during adolescence. 2. Don’t care about missing teeth: ignore the missing teeth. If the teeth that need to be filled are not filled in time, it may cause the adjacent teeth to move and tilt, and there will be gaps in the originally neatly arranged teeth. If a certain tooth is pulled out and not repaired, it will cause the adjacent teeth to move towards the missing teeth, and the opposite teeth will gradually grow and even bite on the opposite gums. 3. Severe dental caries: tooth decay, the gap formed by bacteria eroding teeth. 4. Periodontal disease: Periodontal disease can cause alveolar bone resorption. The longer the time, the more obvious the root exposure and the larger the gap between the teeth. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp

The common cause of infertility is infertility. Is it infertility if you cannot be pregnant for one year?

The medical definition of infertility is: in the absence of contraceptive measures, women who have had a normal sex for at least one year but have not become pregnant. In this case, men are called infertility. Nowadays, more and more couples cannot conceive their babies due to the influence of environment, diet, and mental stress. Common causes of infertility Female factors 1. Abnormal ovulation Abnormal ovulation accounts for a large proportion of female infertility, about 25~35%. If women cannot provide the other half of the seed normally, they cannot complete fertilization. Common diseases that cause abnormal ovulation include: polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, and nonovulation caused by hypothalamic lesions. 2. Abnormal pelvic environment The pelvic cavity is the basic condition for completing fertilization and implantation and development of fertilized eggs. The abnormal pelvic cavity is the most important factor leading to secondary infertility in women. ①If a woman suffers from pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic endometriosis, fallopian tube disease and other diseases, it will affect the fertilization process, and it will also affect the normal peristalsis of the fertilized egg into the uterine cavity and fail to complete implantation; ②Multiple abortions or uterine cavity Diseases such as intrauterine adhesions, uterine fibroids, and congenital uterine malformations caused by infection can interfere with the implantation and development of fertilized eggs in the uterine cavity, leading to infertility. Male factor 1. The main reason for male infertility is the quantity and quality of sperm: lack, azoospermia, asthenospermia, sperm deformity. Sperm development stops, etc. 2. Male erectile dysfunction cannot complete normal sex life, abnormal ejaculation conditions (non-ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation), etc. are also conditions that lead to male infertility. There are also some infertility due to unknown reasons. It may be due to abnormal immune function, potential germ cell abnormality or genetic factors in both spouses. Due to the limitations of the current medical level, there is a lack of clear detection methods. Finally, what Brother Miao wants to say is: Regarding the long-term infertility after marriage, women must have a correct understanding of it, they should abandon old feudal ideas, ignore the black face of the mother-in-law and the pointers of outsiders, and don’t take all responsibility. I blame myself, because a large part of the reason for not being pregnant still happens to the man. Both spouses should support each other, actively seek and treat infertility, and become pregnant with love as soon as possible.

What are the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome

   Many women with polycystic ovary syndrome are worried, because polycystic ovary syndrome will cause female infertility, and the harm to female friends is great. So what is the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome? Let’s take a look at it together.  1, the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis regulation function is abnormal.    due to the increased sensitivity of the pituitary gland to gonadotropin releasing hormone, excessive LH secretion stimulates the ovarian stroma and follicular membrane cells to produce excessive androgens. High androgen in the ovary inhibits the maturation of follicles and cannot form dominant follicles, but the small follicles in the ovaries can still secrete estradiol equivalent to the level of early follicular phase, and androstenedione is converted into estrone under the action of aromatase in peripheral tissues , The formation of hyperestroneemia. The continuously secreted estrone and a certain level of estradiol act on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and present a positive feedback to LH secretion, which increases the amplitude and frequency of LH secretion, presenting a continuous high level, no periodicity, and no mid-menstrual LH peak. Ovulation occurs. Estrogen has a negative feedback on FSH secretion, so that FSH level is relatively reduced and LH/FSH ratio increases.   High levels of LH promote the secretion of androgens from the ovaries. Continuous stimulation of low levels of FSH stops the development of small follicles in the ovaries and forms non-dominant follicles, thus forming a vicious circle of excessive androgen and continuous anovulation, leading to polycystic ovarian changes.  2, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia   the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin decreases, and the biological efficacy of insulin is lower than normal, which is called insulin resistance. About 50% of patients have varying degrees of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Excessive insulin acts on the islet receptors of the pituitary, which can enhance the release of LH and promote the secretion of androgens from the ovary and adrenal glands, and increase free testosterone by inhibiting the synthesis of liver sex hormone binding globulin. 3. 50% of patients with abnormal adrenal endocrine function have elevated DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which may be related to the increase of P450c17α enzyme activity in the adrenal cortex reticular zone, and the increased sensitivity and function of adrenal cells to ACTH Hyperthyroidism is related. An increase in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate suggests that the excessive androgens are coming from the adrenal glands.  4, genetic factors    familial ovulation dysfunction and polycystic ovarian changes suggest that the disease has a genetic basis, hyperandrogenism and (or) hyperinsulinemia may be the genetic characteristics of the same disease in members of the polycystic ovary syndrome family. Through the introduction of the above content, I believe that everyone has an understanding of the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome. I hope that you can correctly understand this disease and find a suitable treatment method for yourself, so as to avoid the disease from bringing more to yourself s damage.

I got a health certificate, got a chest X-ray, and found out I was pregnant, what should I do?

Many people know that early pregnancy is an important period for the development of fetal organs. If exposed to radioactive materials at this time, it may cause fetal malformations and miscarriage. Many people also know that chest radiographs, X-rays, and CT examinations are radioactive, so some women find that they are pregnant after the above-mentioned examinations. They are very worried about the effect of radiation on the fetus, and even give up to continue the pregnancy. , Made a flow of people. Can a child get a chest radiograph during pregnancy? Of course you can! Although radioactive materials do have an impact on the development of the fetus, it is a hooligan to talk about teratogenicity by throwing open radiation doses. According to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American College of Radiology, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, studies have shown that most diagnostic radiological examinations will not cause harm to the fetus. There are also experiments that prove that during pregnancy, only more than 50 consecutive chest radiographs or more than 5 pelvic CT examinations can achieve the radiation that affects fetal development. Therefore, 1 or 2 times of ordinary chest X-ray examinations generally will not increase the incidence of fetal malformations. Pregnant mothers, please put your heart in your stomach, and regular check-ups are fine.